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1.1 General Background

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

The Cameron Highlands Hydroelectric Scheme is located in the northwest of the state of Pahang, Malaysia. It was constructed in the period between 1957 and 1964. The scheme consists of four small run-of-rivers and one storage hydro project and has five power stations. The main features of the storage project beside the 100 MW underground power stations are a 40-m high concrete buttress dam with gated spillways, four side-stream diversion schemes of Sungai Plau’ur, Sungai Kial, Sungai Kodol, and Sungai Telom, some 20 km length of tunnels, the Bertam Intake and other appurtenant structures.

The Ringlet Reservoir is a man-made lake created upstream of the concrete dam on Sungai Bertam. It impounds the waters of Sungai Bertam and its tributaries and those of Sungai Telom, Sungai Plau’ur, Sungai Kodol and Sungai Kial which have been diverted from the Telom catchment through the Telom Tunnel into the Bertam catchment. The designed gross storage of the reservoir is about 6.7 million cubic meters, of which, 4.7 million cubic meters is usable storage. Water from the Ringlet Reservoir is channeled through a tunnel to the Sultan Yussuf (Jor) Power Station and then is discharged through a tailrace tunnel into the Jor Reservoir of the Batang Padang Hydroelectric Scheme. The Ringlet Reservoir, which has an estimated dead storage of 2.0 million cubic meters, would have a useful life of approximately 80 years.

Since its operation in 1963, the Ringlet Reservoir has lost nearly 53% of its gross storage to sedimentation, which is presently estimated as reaching a volume of

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about 3.5 4.0 million cubic meters yearly. Figure 1.1.1 shows the storage capacity curve of the Ringlet Reservoir. The current estimated sediment deposition rate in the Ringlet Reservoir is in the range between 350,000 to 400,000 cubic meters per year. Figure 1.1.2 shows the decline in trap efficiency over time for the Ringlet Reservoir calculated using the Brune’s method on an annual basis, which shows the current trapping efficiency of the reservoir to be about 56 %.

trapping efficiency of the reservoir to be about 56 %. FIGURE 1.1.1 Ringlet Reservoirs – Reservoir

FIGURE 1.1.1 Ringlet Reservoirs Reservoir Capacity Curve (1963 vs. 2000) (Choy & Hamzah 2000)

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3 FIGURE 1.1.2 Ringlet Reservoirs : – Trap Efficiency vs. Operation Period (Published by Tenaga Nasional

FIGURE 1.1.2 Ringlet Reservoirs: Trap Efficiency vs. Operation Period (Published by Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) 1978)

Most of the incoming sediment is therefore unlikely to be deposited in the Ringlet Reservoir and will be carried down to the Sultan Yussuf Power Station and discharged into the Jor Reservoir. Presently, 45.2% of the 3.9 million cubic meters gross storage of Jor Reservoir is filled with sediment. A study in 1999/2000 (SNC- Lavalin, 2000) indicates that the sediment deposition in the Ringlet Reservoir has not affected the safety of the dam. However, the substantial reduction in the live storage of the reservoir would largely reduce the capability of the Sultan Yussuf Power Station to generate peaking power for the load requirement of the National Grid and would also reduce the capability of the reservoir to regulate incoming high flow. The former will make the Sultan Yussuf Power Station to be no different from other run- of-river stations and will result in financial loss; the latter will pose a risk of the dam being without flood control capacity, hence leading to frequent spillage and flooding of the downstream Bertam Valley during monsoon (Published by Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) 1978).

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Therefore, in order to maintain the storage capacity of the dam; dredging of

sediments is carried out regularly. These dredged sediments are deposited at the

landfills causing serious environmental problems. Therefore, the best solid waste

management practice is to use these sediments in producing construction and building

materials.

1.2 Problem Statement

Thousands cubic meter of sediments are dredged yearly from the Ringlet Reservoir.

These sediments are deposited into the landfills creating unfavorable environmental

situation. In addition, the cost of the landfill is quite high. Therefore, the best solid

waste management option is to use these sediments in producing construction and

building materials.

1.3 Project Objective

1. To characterize the reservoirs sediments,

2. To propose a new potential usable products using the sediments.

1.4 Significance of Research

The significant of this research would be the analysis of the characteristics of Cameron Highlands reservoirs sediments and to propose the new potential usable products using these sediments.

1.5 Organization of the Project

This study has been organized in 5 chapters. Chapter 1 is the introduction; literature

review has been expressed in Chapter 2 to review and study the technical journal,

conference proceedings for collection of information and existing knowledge in

Malaysia and others parts of the world. The Methodology of the project is covered in

Chapter 3 which is characterization of collected sediments from different points of the

reservoirs by TNBR, as identified in the Figure 1.5.3. Results and analysis has been

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described in Chapter 4 and eventually conclusions and recommendations have been presented in Chapter 5.

and recommendations have been presented in Chapter 5. Figure 1.5.3 Map for Sampling Points in Cameron

Figure 1.5.3 Map for Sampling Points in Cameron Highlands