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Footnotes

Format: Chicago Style


MOST IMPORTANT POINT: ALL INFORMATION TAKEN FROM A
SOURCE MUST BE FOOTNOTEDNOT JUST QUOTATIONS! IF YOU
FAIL TO DO SO, YOU ARE PLAGIARIZING. ITS QUITE EASY TO AVOID
JUST FOOTNOTE!
One Caveat: General knowledgesuch as Montgomery is the capital of
Alabama, or George H. W. Bush (the elder) was U.S. President from
1989-1993does not need to be footnoted.
THE BASIC FORMAT (Pay attention to punctuation):
Book
Format: Author Name, Title Italicized (Place Published: Publisher, Year
Published), Page Number.
o Note: The authors name should be first name first, last name last
Example: William H. Rehnquist, The Supreme Court: A History (New York:
Knopf, 2001), 204.
Print Article:
Format: Author Name, Article Title in Quotes, Journal Title Italicized
Journal Volume, no. Issue Number (Year Published): Page Number.
Example: Jonathan Zimmerman, "Ethnicity and the History Wars in the
1920s," Journal of American History 87, no. 1 (2000): 101.
Article from On-line Database (like EBSCOhost)
Format: Author Name, Article Title in Quotes, Journal Title Italicized
Journal Volume, no. Issue Number (Year Published): Page Number, DOI.
Example: Jonathan Zimmerman, "Ethnicity and the History Wars in the
1920s," Journal of American History 87, no. 1 (2000): 101,
doi:10.1016/j.linged.2006.01.004.
o Note: If a DOI is not available, it is possible to use other information.
See the Hacker/Chicago guides for more
Film:
Format: Film Title Italicized, directed by Directors Name (Year Made;
Publishing Location: Publisher, Year DVD Produced), DVD.
Example: Black Robe, directed by Bruce Beresford (1991; Santa Monica,
CA: Metro Goldwyn Mayer, 2001), DVD.
Website:
Format: Author Name, Website Title, last modified Date #, Year, URL.
o Note1: Often, youll have to use a corporate author with a website
o Note2: If the website doesnt indicate a last modified date, you can
use accessed instead, writing the date that you accessed the site
o Note3: Avoid the auto-formatting for urlsyou shouldnt have the
blue font and underlining
Example: Google, Google Privacy Policy, last modified March 11, 2009,
http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacypolicy.html.
o Taken from Chicago Manual of Style
For more formats, see:
http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/resdoc5e/RES5e_ch10_s1-0001.html or The
Chicago Manual of Style, 15
th
Edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
2003, chapter 16. (Copies exist in our library.)
Important Points & Common Errors:
All of the bibliographic information is on your assignment sheets. Your
footnotes should reflect the page of the original article or book itself, not the
page numbers that your teacher has written into a reader.
Once youve cited a source, a shortened version will suffice for each subsequent
citation. Hence, John Hope Franklin, From Slavery to Freedom: A History of
the Afro-American Experience (New York: Harper and Row, 1966), 45. can
be reduced to Franklin, From Slavery to Freedom, 43. You dont need to
nor should you rewrite the entire footnote, which is only wasting space. See
http://www.dianahacker.com/resdoc/p04_c10_s1.html for help.
It is possible to limit the number of footnotes by putting several footnotes
together at the end of a paragraph. This is especially advisable if you are citing
one source for a paragraph. Rather than have four footnotes, each referring to
the same source and a narrow range of pages, you can drop one in at the end of
the paragraph, like this.
1
You can also do multiple citations from different
sources at the end.
2
Note the semi-colons. For more information on this, see p.
1
Frank Thomas, No Steroids, Baby! (Oakland: Athletics Press, 2006), 25-29.
2
Thomas, No Steroids, Baby!, 51; Chavez, The Golden Glove, 23; and Miguel Tejada, Boy, Am I
Missing the Bay (Baltimore: Oriole Press, 2006), 23-34.
602 of the Chicago Manual of Style, 15
th
Edition.
You must give the exact page or pages. If you are referring to a general point
made by a book, you might cite all the pages (Rogers, Bistro Days, 110-190.),
but this will not be common in our endeavors at Catlin. And we do pay
attention to this.
The Footnote goes on the outside of the period. It usually does not go in the
middle of a sentence, but at the end, even after that most excellent quotation.
3
The footnotes themselves should be single-spaced. There should not be a line
break between footnotes.
Dont reverse name order thats for bibliographies!
Books, Journals, Magazines, Newspapers are all italicized, but an article name
is in quotes
EXAMPLES:
Both humans and baboons experience great changes during early adulthood. The
life of an adolescent male baboon is fraught with danger, potential, fear, and
excitement.
4
After witnessing the systematic killings of several chimpanzees, Dr. Goodall
concluded that chimpanzees, like humans, also possess a violent nature.
5

While it was obvious that Yankees fans had sold their souls to the almighty dollar,
it was less obvious but completely clear that Red Sox fans had done the same, as
their payroll starved teamslike the Oakland Aswho nonetheless won far more
games over the last decade.
6
HOW TO CREATE FOOTNOTES:
For a Mac: In Microsoft Word, Go to the Insert column at the top of the screen,
3
William W. Freehling, The Founding Fathers and Slavery. American Historical Review Vol.
97, No. 1 (February 1972), 81-93.
4
Robert Sapolsky, A Baboons Life: Male-on-Male Violence, Aging, and Friendship on the
Savannah Stanford Today (July/August 1996), 49.
5
Richard Wrangham and Dale Peterson, Demonic Males: Apes and the Origins of Human
Violence (New York: Mariner Books, 1997), 143.
6
Peter Shulman, Yo, Keyes, Wiser, and Andrichuk: Popping the Underdog Mythology of the
Red Sox Nation Catlinspeak 5, no. 4 (October 2006), 4.
click, and then click on Footnote. Then click OK (the default setting is the one
we want.) a
For a PC: In Microsoft Word, go to the Insert: column at the top of the screen
and click. Click on the arrows pointed down at the bottom of the menu, click on
Reference, and click on Footnote. Then click OK (the default setting is the
one we want.) Why Microsoft builds its software to take two more clicks on a PC
than on a Mac is just one of those many mysteries.
HOW TO CREATE ENDNOTES:
MAC: Take the same steps as for footnotes (see above), except that instead of
clicking OK, you must shift the marked button from Footnotes to Endnotes.
Then, hit Options, and click on Number Format and choose 1, 2, 3 and click
OK
PC: Take the same steps as for footnotes (see above), except that instead of
clicking OK, you must shift the marked button from Footnotes to Endnotes.
Then click on Number Format and choose 1,2,3 and click OK.
I LOST MY FOOTNOTES PANIC BUTTON!
Sometimes the view of a document hides the actual citations from view. If you
cant see the citations, click on View at the top of the computer and they will
come back. If not, try again. If that doesnt work, you might indeed have really
erased them, which is a major bummer.