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OPERATIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR


NUCLEUS MODEL
2.1 SYSTEM OPERATION
2.1.1 Design & Operation
The equipment is designed as either a mounted Console or desk display with separate
processor cabinet.
Using the mouse, the trainee can operate all functions. The Radar/ARPA simulator computer
and monitor must be switched on to start the simulator, the simulation program must be started
and a simulation scenario loaded on the Instructor station.
2.2 START UP
2.2.1 Simulation Start up Sequence for Radar/ARPA
Once the Radar Application is launched, click Standby box to initialise the Radar. The Text in
the box changes to Ready. (Refer Fig-1)


Fig-1: Ready / Standby

To initialize the RADAR click on
Standby in this box until text
change to Ready.

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2.3 DISPLAY AND SCREEN CONTROLS


Fig-2: Picture of Radar displaying screen controls
2.3.1 Ready / Standby

To initialise the radar click Standby as explained in section 2.2.1 to come to Ready mode and
to pause the radar click Ready to come to Standby mode.
Keep the radar on Standby mode prior to stopping the radar system.

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2.3.2 Mode
The radar can be operated in 2 motions (Relative Motion and True Motion) and in 3 modes
(North Up, Head Up and Course Up). However in true motion only north-up mode can be used.

Fig-3: Setting the Radar mode
2.3.2.1 RELATIVE MOTION



Explanation
A Relative Motion (RM) display is one in which a stationary spot (called the origin or electronic
center) represents the position of the own vessel, while all targets move relative to the center
across the radar screen.
The relative movement of each target on the radar screen is the resultant of actual course /
speed of target and course / speed of own vessel. For example a stationary targets on radar
screen (with Relative Motion) would appear to move with a course (opposite to own vessel)
and speed of own vessel.
The origin is normally at the center of the radar screen but may be shifted to off-center
position.
Method of Operation
Relative Mode is the default mode during start up. Click on the box as shown in Fig to
change to Relative Motion from True Motion.
2.3.2.2 NORTH UP



North Up
Course Up
Select type of mode for display
Select type of motion
for display
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Explanation
North Up mode is an azimuth-stabilized presentation, with the ships heading fed from
Gyrocompass.
Here the zero of the fixed scale of the Radar Plan Position Indicator (PPI) represents the True
North and the heading marker represents the true course of own ship. All bearings of targets
are true.
As the own ship alters course the heading marker swings around to the new course on the
radar PPI but all targets remain at their true bearings.
Targets on a parallel course and at the same speed appear stationary, while fixed targets
produce trails that represent the reciprocal of own ships ground track.
When course fed from gyrocompass fails (if such fault is induced from the instructor station) the
radar mode automatically changes to head-up mode. HDG xxx is indicated.
Method of Operation
North Up mode is the default mode at start up. Click on the box as shown to switch between
North Up, Head Up and Course Up.
2.3.2.3 HEAD UP
Explanation
In Head Up mode the 12 oclock position of the Radar PPI always represents the ships course
and hence the heading marker remains at the zero of the fixed, graduated ring around the
Radar PPI. All bearings are relative.
The right side of the radar screen is the starboard side of the ship and the left side of the
radar screen is the port side of the ship. At the instant of measuring the bearing of a target,
the ships heading must be noted exactly.
The sum of the relative bearing and the true course at that instant gives the true bearing of the
target, if all are expressed in the three-figure notation. If the sum exceeds 360, then 360 must
be subtracted from the sum.
As the course is changed, the heading marker remains fixed while all the targets swing around
to their new relative bearings.
No bearings can be obtained accurately during the alteration, and should be taken when the
new picture gets painted clearly after the Radar PPI is refreshed.
Method of Operation
Click on the box as shown to change to Head Up mode.
2.3.2.4 COURSE UP

Explanation
Course Up is an azimuth-stabilized presentation, available in relative mode with the ships
heading aligned to 000 degrees on the bearing scale at the time that the mode is selected.
Subsequent alterations in course result in the Heading Line (HL) deviating from 000 degrees,
but the picture does not rotate. The ships Heading Line (HL) is course stabilized, such that, if
own ship yaws, targets maintain direction. The ships Heading Line (HL) may be updated at
any time by further selecting Course Up, whereby the picture realigns on the new heading.
Method of Operation
Click on the box as shown to change to Course Upmode.
Course Up
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2.3.2.5 TRUE MOTION
2.3.2.6 EXPLANATION
True motion is an azimuth and speed stabilized mode. It gets its compass feed from the
simulated gyrocompass and speed feed from the simulated Doppler log and GPS (Global
Positioning System).
If speed input is from log, then the mode is True motion - Sea stabilized and when the
speed input is from GPS (Global Positioning System), then the mode is True motion - Ground
stabilized.
The display is in a True Motion mode with own ship positioned off-center and moving in the
direction of the Heading Line at true speed, normally through the center of the display. All
targets move on screen with true courses, speed and target trails.

Own ship course changes do not affect targets direction, but the Heading Line reflects the
changes in own ship course. Any targets on a collision course with own ships are on a constant
bearing with a decreasing range.
Method of Operation
Click on the box as shown to change to True Motion from Relative Motion. For True
Motion North Up mode is set by default.
2.3.3 Radar / Pulse Length
2.3.3.1 X BAND & S BAND


X Band and S Band are the two bands at which radar can operate. X Band radar has a
wavelength of 3cm and S Band radar has a wavelength of 10cm.
Method of Operation
To switch betweenX Bandand S Bandclick in box as shown in the fig
2.3.3.2 PULSE LENGTH
Explanation
Pulse Length (PL): It is the time taken for a pulse to leave the scanner i.e. the interval between
the instant the leading edge of the pulse leaves the scanner and the instant the trailing edge
of the pulse does so.
Pulse Length (PL) is usually expressed in microseconds. As the speed of radio waves is 300
meters per microsecond, Pulse Length (PL) may also be expressed in meters. Pulse Length (PL) is
also referred to as Pulse Width (PW) and is controlled by the transmitter.
When an echo returns from a target, it will be the same length as the pulse. When the leading
edge of the echo enters the receiver, the tracing spot on the radar screen start painting and
becomes fat / bright and remains so until the entire echo comes in. When the trailing edge of
the echo has come in, the tracing spot reduces back to its original size.
The tracing spot becomes a blip (referred to as paint) for a time interval equal to Pulse Length
(PL). During this time interval the blip / paint would have covered a distance equal to half the
PL in meters, on its steady & radial path (its scale speed is half that of radio waves). The blip
/ paint on the PPI would hence appear to have a radial depth equal to half the PL in meters.
Selection of X
or S Band

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To ensure range accuracy, the tracing spot is synchronized with the leading edge of the pulse.
The correct range of a target is indicated by the range of the nearest edge of its paint on the
screen.
Pulse Length (PL) does not affect range accuracy and range discrimination. However short
pulses are suitable for the shorter-range scales as they give better range discrimination.
To cover longer ranges long pulses would have to be sent out, to allow for attenuation (loss of
energy) in the atmosphere. Long pulses would be unsuitable for short ranges because all
targets painted on the radar screen would appear too large in the radial direction and paint
/ blip created by echoes from sea waves and rain drops would be specially troublesome (as
there would be considerable overlapping of such paint / blip on the radar screen).
The radar has three values of Pulse Length (PL), which changes automatically when the range
scale selector switch is operated.

The Pulse Length (PL) in micro seconds that is available is given below:
POSITION OF PL SELECTOR
SWITCH
SHORT RANGE
SCALES (3 M & LESS)
MEDIUM RANGE
SCALES (6 & 12
M)
LONG RANGE
SCALES (24, 48 & 96
M)
SHORT .05 .25 .75
LONG .25 .75 1.0
2.3.4 Tuning


Explanation
The Tuning control is provided to manually change the frequency of the Local Oscillator (LO)
so as to bring the frequency of the Intermediate Frequency (IF) signals to the desired value
required by Intermediate Frequency (IF) amplifier.
Tuning is adjusted while watching the PPI. The tuning indicator shows the level of tuning,
maximum tuning lit all the eight LEDs. Correct tuning is attained when maximum & clear target
echoes or clutter echoes are seen or when the length of the performance monitor signal is
greatest. Alternately, center the magic eye box at the center of its width for optimal results.

Method of Operation
In order to increase or decrease Tuning, click right or left hand side respectively of the box
marked T as shown in Fig
- OR -
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Tuning/Gainis highlighted.
Click Tuningfrom the listed variables and click +/- (in the bottom bar) in order to increase
or decrease the tuning parameter value.
Turing
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The radar is best tuned when magic eye is lit till the indicator line.
2.3.5 Gain


Explanation
Gain controls the amplification of all received echoes. It sets the threshold value of radar
signals displayed on the screen. The gain is to be advanced until an even speckled
background is just visible on the screen.
a. Too high setting of Gain control results in poor quality radar picture masked by
excessive noise.
b. Too low setting of Gain control results in loss of weak targets and reduction in
detection range.
Note: Gain control should not be set too high as excess noise on the radar screen degrades the
picture quality.
In order to set optimum Gain control set the slider on the top left most corner to the center
position.
Method of Operation
In order to increase or decrease Gain click right hand side or left hand side respectively of
the box marked G as shown in Fig.
- OR -
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Tuning/Gain is highlighted.
Click Gainfrom the listed variables and click +/- (in the bottom bar) in order to increase or
decrease the gain parameter value.
2.3.6 Sea Clutter


Explanation
The Sea Clutter or the Sensitivity Time Control (STC) is a manual adjustment that reduces sea
clutter returns/echoes. Maximum attenuation takes place at zero range until no reduction of
signals or clutter occurs at a maximum range of 6 miles.
Advancing the sea setting progressively reduces the near range clutter. The sea level may be
set from minimum to maximum with a typical operational level at medium level. Less sea is to
be applied on short pulse and more sea is to be applied on long pulse.
The correct setting for sea under any given condition is only obtained by experience. Too high
setting of sea clutter may result in the loss of close range targets. Never set the sea control to
clear all clutter, but leave a light speckle of sea returns to indicate optimum sensitivity within
the clutter field.
If the sea clutter control is not in use it should always be set to zero.
Method of Operation
In order to increase or decrease Sea Clutter suppression, click right or left hand side
respectively of box marked S as shown in Fig.
- OR -
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Anti Clutter is highlighted.
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Click Sea Clutter Supp Power from the listed variables and click +/- (in the bottom bar) in
order to increase or decrease the sea clutter suppression parameter value.
2.3.7 Rain Clutter

Explanation
This control is also called Fast Time Constant (FTC) or anti rain clutter. Rainfall areas show up
fairly well on the PPI. However, where the rainfall is heavy, the rain echoes saturate that part
of the PPI such that the targets tend to get drowned or swamped in the rain echoes.
This function uses the received radar signals to produce a threshold reference level. The rain
control moves the threshold reference level so as to apply more or less attenuation to the
radar signal.
When using this function RACON responses are also likely to be suppressed. The rain clutter
suppression level may be set from minimum to maximum with a typical operational level at
middle level.
When not in use the RAIN control is always to be set to minimum.
The rain setting is to be adjusted to preserve small targets. It is often beneficial to reduce the
GAIN setting slightly to optimize target detection in high precipitation.
Method of Operation
In order to increase or decrease Rain Clutter suppression, click right or left hand side
respectively of box marked R as shown in Fig
- OR -
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Anti Clutter is highlighted.
Click Rain Clutter from the listed variables and click +/- (in the bottom bar) in order to
increase or decrease the rain clutter suppression parameter value.
2.3.8 Range / Rings

Fig-4: Range and Range Rings
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2.3.8.1 RANGE
Explanation
The displayed range may be changed from 0.25nm to 48nm in fixed range steps of 0.125
0.25nm, 0.5nm, 0.75nm, 1.5nm, 3nm, 6nm, 12nm , 24 nm, 48nm and 96nm

Method of Operation
In order to increase or decrease the Range right click or left click respectively on the box as
shown in Fig
- OR -
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Range is highlighted.
Click Range from the listed variables and click +/- (in the bottom bar) in order to increase
or decrease the range parameter value.
2.3.8.2 RINGS
Explanation
Range rings can be displayed for each range selected and scaled according to the range in
use.
S.NO.
RANGE
(NM)
NO. OF
RINGS
DISTANCE BETWEEN
RINGS (NM)
1 0.125 6 0.021
2 0.25 6 0.042
3 0.5 6 0.083
4 0.75 6 0.125
5 1.5 6 0.25
6 3 6 0.5
7 6 6 1.0
8 12 6 2
9 24 6 4
10 48 6 8
11 96 6 16

Method of Operation
Switching range rings on/off
In order to switch the range rings on/off, click on the box as shown in Fig.
- OR -
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Range is highlighted.
Click Rings On/Off from the listed variables and click toggle state (in the bottom bar) in
order to switch the ring on/off.
2.3.9 Target Acquisition
Explanation
This function allows the user to acquire targets and display information about the target
relative to the vessel. There are two methods of acquiring targets.


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They are as follows: -
ACQUIRING TARGETS MANUALLY
Left click the target that needs to be acquired. A plus appears over the target symbolizing
that the acquisition is in process. Once the target acquisition process completes, the symbol on
the target changes and the target is allotted a number. Right click on the acquired target
displays the target information in a separate window, which appears on the lower right hand
side corner as shown in Fig-2 . Left click on the acquired target deselects the acquired target
manually.
ACQUIRING TARGETS AUTOMATICALLY
In order to acquire targets automatically, left click the Auto Acquire box as shown in Fig-2 . All
targets that appear on the PPI are acquired automatically and given a number. Right click on
the acquired target displays the target information in a separate window, which appears on
the upper right hand side corner. Left click the Auto Acquire box again to switch off the auto
acquire mode.

Fig-5: Auto-acquire ON/OFF
2.3.10 Auto Sea Clutter


Fig-6: Auto-clutter ON/OFF
Explanation
Auto S Clutter is used to adjust the sea clutter automatically.
Method of Operation
In order to use the Auto S Clutter facility click the box as shown in Fig to switch the auto
clutter mode ON/OFF.
- OR -
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Anti Clutter is highlighted.
Click Auto S Clutter On/Off from the listed variables and click toggle state (in the bottom
bar) in order to switch the Auto clutter mode ON/OFF. When working in auto mode a text
AUTO is displayed in the respective box in the left hand top corner
2.3.11 Alarms
Method of Operation
Alarms sound automatically based on settings for Closest Point of Approach (CPA), Time of
Closest Point of Approach (TCPA), loss of sensor input such as Log, Global Positioning System
(GPS) etc.
An alarm sounds on the speakers fitted to the ARI Radar/ARPA simulator and the ALARM box
on the PPI turns red. The cause of alarm is noted in yellow on the top part of the PPI.
In order to acknowledge the Alarm, click on the red Alarm box as shown in Fig-2
Click here to use
Auto Sea Clutter.
Click here to
acquire targets
automatically.

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The alarm message is displayed in the area marked as shown in Fig-2 .

If there are multiple alarms, clicking on the ALARM box will acknowledge one alarm with the
alarms appearing in reverse order of occurring with the latest alarm showing first.
Following is the list of alarms that are triggered in the radar.

S.NO. ALARM MESSAGE OCCURRENCE
1. Object in Guard
Zone
When any dangerous object enters guard zone
marked around the vessel
2. No Speed Source When speed sources from Doppler and GPS are not
available.
3. No ground speed
source
When ground speed input from GPS not available
4. No sea speed source When sea speed input from Doppler not available
5. No Heading input When heading information from Gyro is not
available.
6. Target Proximity When a target is within CPA / TCPA limit that is set
7. Gyro Heading input
lost.
When Heading information from Gyro is not
available
8. GPS position input
lost.
When position information from the GPS not
available
9. GPS SOG input lost When ground speed input from GPS not available
10. LOG SOG input lost When speed over ground input from Doppler not is
available.
11. LOG SOW input lost When speed over water input from Doppler not is
available.
12. No GPS ground
speed input.
When ground speed input from GPS not available
13. No GPS position
input
When position information from the GPS not
available
14. No LOG ground
speed input.
When speed over ground input from Doppler not is
available.
15. No LOG sea speed
input.
When speed over water input from Doppler not is
available.
16. No Gyro Heading
input
When Heading information from Gyro is not
available
17. Self-Diag. Done. No
error.
When self-diagnostic test is completed successfully.


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2.3.12 Own-Ship / Tracking Data

Fig-7: Own ship Tracking Data
2.3.12.1 HEADING
Explanation
Displays own ship heading. This is provided by the simulated gyrocompass. When the Instructor
enters a gyro error, a positive error fed in increases the visible gyro position by the number of
degrees entered while a negative error provides the reverse effect.
2.3.12.2 SPEED
Explanation
The normal displayed speed is ships speed taken from one of three sources; vessels Global
Positioning System (GPS), LOG or manually (MAN) input speeds.

Fig-8: Auto/ Manual
Method of Operation - Manual speed setting
In order to change the vessels Speed click on speed in box as shown in Fig.
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Set/Drift/Speed is
highlighted.
Click Auto/Manual from the listed variables and click toggle state (in the bottom bar) to
make the input Manual.
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Click Up/Down from the listed variables and then click +/- (in the bottom bar) to increase or
decrease own ships speed as desired.
- OR -
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Set/Drift/Speed is
highlighted.
Click Auto/Manual from the listed variables and click toggle state (in the bottom bar) to
make the input Manual.
Click Select from the listed variables and click toggle state (in the bottom bar) to select
speed option as shown in Fig.
Click Up/Down from the listed variables and then click +/- (in the bottom bar) to increase or
decrease own ships speed as desired.
2.3.12.3 STABILIZATION
Sea stabilization:
Sea stabilization gives the correct heading and speed through the water. No set and drift
information is used (no drift or set/rate). It provides an excellent display for Anti - Collision.
The true trails of targets give an indication of their apparent true motion.
A single axis log (or manual speed input) and gyro provide sensor data for the stabilization.
Ground stabilization
The radar receives course made good and speed made good inputs from the GPS. This takes
effect when the GPS is in ground-stabilized mode.

Fig-9: Ground Stabilized Mode
Method of Operation - Log and GPS stabilization
The user can toggle between Radar stabilized to Log or GPS by clicking on column STAB
in the box as shown in Fig to select SEA / GND state. The switch will happen only if the
required equipment is switched on and connected.
2.3.12.4 OWN-SHIP POSITION
When the Global Positioning System (GPS) is switched on and connected, own ship position is
displayed as shown in Fig . If the GPS feed is not available, xxxxxx is displayed on the
location where the position is displayed.
2.3.12.5 VECTORS
The vector indicates the predicted direction and speed of the tracked targets (either True or
Relative). The vector is shown as a solid line, proportional to the speed of the target (i.e. with
15 minute vector selected, a target speed of 12kts produces a vector line length of three
miles). The vector can be shown in reverse mode i.e. True vector in Relative Motion or Relative
vector in True motion.





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2.3.12.5.1 TYPES

Method of Operation
To switch between True and Relative Vector Mode click on the box as shown in Fig.
2.3.12.5.2 TIME

Fig-10: Vectors Menu
Method of Operation
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Vectors is highlighted.
Click Vector Length from the listed variables and click +/- (in the bottom bar) in order to
increase/decrease vector time.
2.3.12.5.3 TRAILS
Explanation
The previous True track of targets is displayed as trails. The length of the trails can be
changed (three minutes is the normal default value) or it can be switched OFF. This feature can
be activated when GPS feed is available.
Method of Operation
Left click on the box as shown in Fig to switch on the Trails.
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Vectors is highlighted.
Click Trail Length from the listed variables and click +/- (in the bottom bar) in order to
increase/decrease trail length.





Relative
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2.3.12.6 CPA/TCPA
Explanation
The Closest Point of Approach (CPA) is the point where the range of the target would be the
minimum, provided both (own ship and target) maintain the courses and speeds that they had
during the plotting interval. The range at Closest Point of Approach (CPA) is also called
`Nearest approach.

Fig-11: Display of CPA / TCPA Limit
2.3.12.6.1 CPA LIMIT
This function helps by warning the operator that a target is approaching within the designated
distance and that the evasive action is to be taken. The CPA limit is selected and then adjusted
to suit the manoeuvrability of the ship and the prevailing conditions.
Method of Operation
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu CPA/TCPA is highlighted.
Click CPA Limit Up/Down from the listed variables and click +/- (in the bottom bar) in
order to increase/decrease CPA limit.
Dangerous Target Alarm: If CPA and TCPA of a target are less than CPA and TCPA limits set
by user, then dangerous target alarm sets on and a blinking triangle mark red in color is
shown near the vector.
2.3.12.6.2 TCPA LIMIT
Explanation
This function provides a warning to the operator that a target may cause possible danger if
the avoiding action is not taken within the set time.
Method of Operation
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu CPA/TCPA is highlighted.
Click TCPA Limit Up/Down from the listed variables and click +/- (in the bottom bar) in
order to increase/decrease TCPA limit.
2.3.12.7 SET / DRIFT / SPEED

Fig-12: Set / Drift / Speed
2.3.12.7.1 SET
Explanation
Set is provided to counteract the effects of current and wind. Set input is entered manually.
Method of Operation
In order to change the Set parameter, click on set in box as shown in Fig
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Set/Drift/Speed is
highlighted.
Click Auto/Manual from the listed variables and click toggle state (in the bottom bar) to
make the input Manual.

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Click Up/Down from the listed variables and then click +/- (in the bottom bar) to increase or
decrease the Set parameter as desired.
- OR -
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Set/Drift/Speed is
highlighted.
Click Auto/Manual from the listed variables and click toggle state (in the bottom bar) to
make the input Manual.
Click Select from the listed variables and click toggle state (in the bottom bar) to select set
option.
Click Up/Down from the listed variables and then click +/- (in the bottom bar) to increase or
decrease the Set parameter as desired.
2.3.12.7.2 DRIFT
Explanation
Drift is provided to counteract the effects of current and wind. Drift input is entered manually.
Method of Operation
In order to change the Drift parameter, click on drift in box as shown in Fig .
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Set/Drift/Speed is
highlighted.
Click Auto/Manual from the listed variables and click toggle state (in the bottom bar) to
make the input Manual.
Click Up/Down from the listed variables and then click +/- (in the bottom bar) to increase or
decrease the Drift parameter as desired.
- OR -
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Set/Drift/Speed is
highlighted.
Click Auto/Manual from the listed variables and click toggle state (in the bottom bar) to
make the input Manual.
Click Select from the listed variables and click toggle state (in the bottom bar) to select drift
option.
Click Up/Down from the listed variables and then click +/- (in the bottom bar) to increase or
decrease the Drift parameter as desired.
2.3.12.7.3 SPEED
Explanation
The normal displayed speed is ships speed taken from one of three sources i.e. vessels LOG
(sea stabilization), GPS (ground stabilization) or manually (MAN) input speeds. A single axis
log or manual speed input will give speed relative to sea. A Doppler log (X-Y axis) will give
speed over the seabed.
Method of Operation
In order to change the vessels Speed click on speed in box as shown in Fig .
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Set/Drift/Speed is
highlighted.
Click Auto/Manual from the listed variables and click toggle state (in the bottom bar) to
make the input Manual.
Click Up/Down from the listed variables and then click +/- (in the bottom bar) to increase or
decrease own ships speed as desired.
- OR -
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Set/Drift/Speed is
highlighted.
Click Auto/Manual from the listed variables and click toggle state (in the bottom bar) to
make the input Manual.
Click Select from the listed variables and click toggle state (in the bottom bar) to select
speed option as shown in Fig .
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Click Up/Down from the listed variables and then click +/- (in the bottom bar) to increase or
decrease own ships speed as desired.
2.3.13 Menu Controls
The radar menu control is the window that is at the lower right hand side of the radar screen.
There are three parts of the menu control window.

Fig-13: Menu Control
Top bar: The menu field bar with << and >> on either side, which is used to move to the
previous or next group of available variables by left click of the mouse.
Middle bar: Menu variables are displayed in the middle bar. The selected item from amongst
the group is highlighted in red.
Bottom bar: The lower bar is the control panel where left clicking +/-, toggle or
increase/decrease can change variable parameters.
2.3.13.1 TUNING / GAIN

Fig-14: Tuning/Gain
Menu Control
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2.3.13.1.1 TUNING
Method of Operation
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Tuning/Gain is highlighted.
Click Tuning from the listed variables and click +/- (in the bottom bar) in order to increase
or decrease the tuning parameter value.

2.3.13.1.2 GAIN
Method of Operation
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Tuning/Gain is highlighted.
Click Gain from the listed variables and click +/- (in the bottom bar) in order to increase or
decrease the gain parameter value.
2.3.13.1.3 DAY / NIGHT
Method of Operation
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Tuning/Gain is highlighted.
Click Day/Night Mode from the listed variables, click toggle state (in the bottom bar) to
switch the RADAR display between Day/Night modes.
2.3.13.1.4 PARALLEL INDEX LINES
Explanation
To enable the operator to use Parallel Index Lines (P.I) as an aid to entering hazardous areas
(e.g. estuary), the system provides four independent pairs of parallel lines
Parallel index technique is the art of manoeuvring a ship to a desired position or along a
desired track, in such a manner that the entire manoeuvre is carried out while watching the PPI
only. The chart is consulted before hand and pre-computation is done, but no fixes are plotted
on the chart during the transit period because continuous fixing is done on the PPI with the help
of the parallel index. Allowances for current and wind are made, as and when necessary,
during the manoeuvre, by inspection of the ships progress on the PPI.
Method of Operation
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Tuning/Gain is highlighted.
Click P.I. Lines On/Off from the listed variables and click toggle state (in the bottom bar) to
switch parallel Index line on/off.
By switching ON the parallel index line, two parallel lines appear. One passes through the
origin of the own ship and the other can be set at an offset distance from the first line.



















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2.3.13.1.5 PARALLEL INDEX ADJUSTMENT
Method of Operation
In order to adjust the parallel index line, click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till
the menu PI Lines is highlighted. Click P.I. Lines On/Off from the listed variables.
A single PI Line at the center of the PPI will be displayed rotate this line to the desired angle.
Click on PI line adj and drag the PI line to the required position on the radar PPI and left click
to permanently position the PI line there.
In order to reset the PI line angle we need to switch off the PI line and switch it on again.
There after follow the above procedure.
4 sets of PI line are available and their information can be toggled in the PI line information
window by left/right clicking on the PI line number symbol.

Fig-15: Parallel Index Line Adjustment
2.3.13.2 EBL / VRM
Explanation
The Electronic Bearing Line (EBL) is used to measure the bearing of a target from own ship
either in True or Relative mode. When selected, the Electronic Bearing Line (EBL) is displayed
as a line, originating from own ship to the outer edge of the Radar display. The bearing of the
target is displayed in a box, located in the lower right-hand corner of the screen as shown in
Fig-2 .
The Variable Range Marker (VRM) is used to measure the range of a target from own ship.
When selected, the Variable Range Marker (VRM) is displayed as a dashed circle, the
diameter of which is altered by use of the mouse. The range of the target is displayed in a
box, located in the lower right-hand corner of the screen as shown in Fig
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EBL/VRM ERROR: The instructor can induce faults into the radar from the navigation
equipments control panel by providing the inputs for EBL / VRM offset.


Fig-16: Parallel Index Line Adjustment
EBL / VRM 1 ADJUST / PLACE
Method of Operation
In order to adjust the EBL/VRM1 click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the
menu EBL/VRM is highlighted.
Click EBL/VRM1 Adj from the listed variables; click toggle state (in the bottom bar) to switch
on and to activate adjustment of EBL/VRM1. Move the mouse on the PPI to adjust and place
the EBL/VRM1 as desired.
2.3.13.2.1 EBL / VRM 1 OFF
Method of Operation
In order to switch off EBL/VRM1 click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the
menu EBL/VRM is highlighted.
Click EBL/VRM1 Off from the listed variables and click toggle state (in the bottom bar) to
switch off EBL/VRM1.
Alternate Method of placing and releasing EBL / VRM1:
There is another method also available to user to place EBL/VRM1.
Left click the box named EBL1/VRM1 located at the lower right hand side corner of the PPI as
shown in Fig . The text changes from OFF to values in the respective columns.
Move the mouse pointer on PPI to fix the EBL/VRM1 position to the desired spot and left click
to set EBL/VRM1 to that position.
To switch off the EBL / VRM1 left click the same box again.
2.3.13.2.2 EBL / VRM 2 PLACE / ADJUST
Mobile EBL (offset EBL)
The EBL may be offset and used to measure the bearing of a target from a point on the screen
other than own ship.
Dual Movement of the VRM / EBL
The VRM and EBL may be selected to move simultaneously to enable the combined
measurement of range and bearing of an echo from own ship. If the EBL is offset, the facility is
used to measure the distance and bearing of one target with respect to another target.
Method of Operation
In order to place EBL/VRM2 click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu
EBL/VRM is highlighted.
Click EBL/VRM2 Place from the listed variables and click toggle state (in the bottom bar) to
switch on and place EBL/VRM2. Move the mouse on the PPI and click on the selected
spot/target to place EBL/VRM2. Click again to set the EBL/VRM2.

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2.3.13.2.3 EBL / VRM 2 ADJUST
Method of Operation
In order to adjust EBL/VRM2 click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu
EBL/VRM is highlighted.
Click EBL/VRM2 Adj from the listed variables and click toggle state (in the bottom bar) to
activate adjustment of EBL/VRM2. Move the mouse on the PPI and click to set the EBL/VRM2
as desired.
2.3.13.2.4 EBL / VRM 2 OFF
Method of Operation
In order to switch off EBL/VRM2 click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the
menu EBL/VRM is highlighted.
Click EBL/VRM2 Off from the listed variables and click toggle state (in the bottom bar) to
switch off EBL/VRM2.
Alternate Method of placing and releasing EBL / VRM2:
There is another method also available to user to place EBL/VRM2.
Left click the box named EBL2/VRM2 located at the lower right hand side corner of the PPI as
shown in Fig
A message Place the Floating EBL center comes in the box above.
Move the mouse pointer on PPI and left click to fix the EBL/VRM2 center to the desired spot.
Left click again to set EBL/VRM2 to required position.
To switch off the EBL / VRM2 left click the same box again.
2.3.13.2.5 EBL 3 ADJUST / OFF
Method of Operation
In order to switch On/Off & adjust EBL3 click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till
the menu EBL/VRM is highlighted.
Click EBL3 Adj/Off from the listed variables and click toggle state (in the bottom bar) to
switch on EBL3. Move the mouse on the PPI to adjust EBL3, click to set the EBL3 as desired.
Click again on EBL3 Adj/Off toggle state (in the bottom bar) to switch off EBL3 when not
required.
2.3.13.3 MISCELLANEOUS
2.3.13.3.1 EBL / VRM BRILLIANCE
This control adjusts the brilliance of EBL / VRM.
Method of Operation
In order to adjust the EBL/VRM brilliance click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till
the menu Misc is highlighted. Click EBL/VRM Brilliance from the listed variables and click
+/- (in the bottom bar) to increase/decrease the EBL/VRM Brilliance.

Fig-17: Figure showing the miscellaneous Menu
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2.3.13.3.2 PERFORMANCE MONITOR
Explanation
Performance Monitor is available at 1.5 NM Range and it checks the overall performance of
the Transmitter/Receiver System by displaying the Radar transmission and receiver response
(SUN) at the center of the display. During installation the Radar Performance is measured to
establish a performance reference level.
The instructor can inject a fault by reducing the percentage of the Performance monitor plume.
Method of Operation
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Misc is highlighted.
Click Perf Monitor from the listed variables and click toggle state (in the bottom bar) to start
performance monitor. Click toggle state (in the bottom bar) again to stop it.
2.3.13.3.3 HEADING MARKER
Method of Operation
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Misc is highlighted.
Click Heading Marker from the listed variables and click toggle state (in the bottom bar) to
activate and switch off Heading Marker.
It remains off for a period till the user keeps toggle state pressed. Heading Marker becomes
visible the moment toggle state (in the bottom bar) is released.
2.3.13.3.4 DATA BRILLIANCE
Method of Operation
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Misc is highlighted.
Click Data Brilliance from the listed variables and click +/- (in the bottom bar) to
increase/decrease the data brilliance.
2.3.13.4 VECTORS

Fig-18: Vectors
Explanation
The vector indicates the predicted direction and speed of the tracked targets (either True or
Relative). The vector is shown as a solid line, proportional to the speed of the target (i.e. with
15 minute vector selected, a target speed of 12kts produces a vector line length of three
miles). The vector can be shown in reverse mode i.e. True Vector in Relative Motion or Relative
Vector in True Motion.



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2.3.13.4.1 VECTOR LENGTH
Method of Operation
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Vectors is highlighted.
Click Vector Length from the listed variables and click +/- (in the bottom bar) in order to
increase/decrease vector time.
2.3.13.4.2 TRAIL LENGTH
Explanation
The previous track of targets (True) is displayed as trails on the radar screen. The length of the
trails can be changed (three minutes is the normal default value) or trails can be switched off if
not required.
Method of Operation
Left click on the box as shown in Fig to switch on the Trails.
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Vectors is highlighted.
Click Trail Length from the listed variables and click +/- (in the bottom bar) in order to
increase/decrease trail length.
2.3.13.5 GUARD ZONE


Fig-19: Guard Zone and Suppression Zone
Method of operation
To activate and operate the guard zones and suppression zones, click on the box as shown
in Fig. Highlight GZ1, GZ2, SZ in order to operate the same.

Fig-20: Guard Zones
Following functions can be used only if guard zone is kept switched on.
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2.3.13.5.1 THETA
Explanation
Using the zone theta menu user can alter guard zone and suppression zone sectors. The guard
zone inner and outer radius menus are used to vary the limits of the guard zones using the +/-
controls.
Method of Operation
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Guard Zone is highlighted.
Click Zone Theta from the listed variables and click +/- (in the bottom bar) in order to
increase/decrease Zone Theta.
2.3.13.5.2 INNER RADIUS
Method of Operation
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Guard Zone is highlighted.
Click Inner Radius from the listed variables and click +/- (in the bottom bar) in order to
increase/decrease Inner Radius.
2.3.13.5.3 OUTER RADIUS
Method of Operation
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Guard Zone is highlighted.
Click Outer Radius from the listed variables and click +/- (in the bottom bar) in order to
increase/decrease Outer Radius.
2.3.13.5.4 THETA OFFSET
Method of Operation
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Guard Zone is highlighted.
Click Theta Offset from the listed variables and click +/- (in the bottom bar) in order to re-
orient the guard zone clockwise or anticlockwise.
2.3.13.6 ARPA

Fig-21: ARPA
2.3.13.6.1 CANCEL ALL ACQUISITION
This control allows cancellation of all acquired targets.
Method of Operation
In order to cancel all acquired targets click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till
the menu ARPAis highlighted.
Click Cancel All Aq from the listed variables and click toggle state (in the bottom bar) to
cancel all acquired targets.

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2.3.13.6.2 TARGET PAST POSITIONS
This control allows the radar to plot past positions of all targets at interval of every one
minute for the history time period selected.
Method of Operation
In order to switch on/off history for , click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the
menu ARPA is highlighted. Click Past Position from the listed variables and click toggle
state (in the bottom bar) to switch between Past Position On and Past Position Off.
Adjust (+/-) the total time of past positions required and increment time step using the sub
menu as per the fig above.
2.3.13.7 ANTI CLUTTER
Anti clutter is used for clutter suppression sea and rain clutters.


Fig-22: Anti Clutter
2.3.13.7.1 AUTO ON/OFF
Auto S clutter is used to suppress sea clutter automatically.
Method of Operation
In order to use the Auto Clutter Control facility, left click the box as shown in Fig to switch
between the auto clutter modes ON/OFF.
- OR -
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Anti S Clutter is highlighted.
Click Auto On/Off from the listed variables and click toggle state (in the bottom bar) in
order to switch the Auto clutter mode ON/OFF.
2.3.13.7.2 SEA CLUTTER SUPPRESSION
Method of Operation
In order to increase or decrease Sea Clutter suppression, click right or left hand side
respectively of box marked S on left hand top corner on radar screen. .
- OR -
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Anti Clutter is highlighted.
Click Sea Clutter Sup from the listed variables and click +/- (in the bottom bar) in order to
increase or decrease the sea clutter suppression parameter value.
2.3.13.7.3 RAIN CLUTTER SUPPRESSION
Method of Operation
In order to increase or decrease Rain Clutter suppression, click right or left hand side
respectively of box marked R as shown in Fig .
- OR -
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Anti Clutter is highlighted.
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Click Rain Clutter from the listed variables and click +/- (in the bottom bar) in order to
increase or decrease the rain clutter suppression parameter value.
2.3.13.8 RANGE
2.3.13.8.1 RANGE
Explanation
The displayed radar range may be changed from 0.25nm to 48nm in fixed range steps of
0.125, 0.25nm, 0.5nm, 0.75nm and then doubling up to 96nm.

Fig-23: Range
Method of Operation
In order to increase or decrease the Range, right click or left click respectively on the box as
shown in Fig
- OR -
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Range is highlighted.
Click Range from the listed variables and click +/- (in the bottom bar) in order to increase
or decrease the range parameter value.
2.3.13.8.2 RINGS ON/OFF
Method of Operation
In order to switch the Range rings on / off left click on the box as shown in Fig
- OR -
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Range is highlighted.
Click Rings On/Off from the listed variables and click toggle state (in the bottom bar) in
order to show / hide the range rings.
2.3.13.8.3 RING BRILLIANCE
Method of Operation
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Range is highlighted.
Click Ring Brilliance from the listed variables and click (+) in order to increase range ring
brilliance or (-) to decrease the range ring brilliance till it diminishes.







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2.3.13.9 DISPLAY CENTER
This control allows display of own ship at center of RADAR PPI (Plan Position Indicator).


Fig-24: Display Centering
2.3.13.9.1 OFF CENTRE
This function allows offset display of own ship position towards left/right/top/bottom from
center of RADAR PPI (Plan Position Indicator).
Method of Operation
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Disp Centering is
highlighted.
Click Off Centre from the listed variables and click toggle state (in the bottom bar). The
mouse pointer will be displayed as + mark on Radar PPI.
Click at the desired position to display own ship in Offset mode.
2.3.13.9.2 CENTER DISPLAY
This function allows center display of own ship position on RADAR PPI (Plan Position Indicator).
Method of Operation
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Disp Centering is
highlighted.
Click Centre Display from the listed variables and click toggle state (in the bottom bar) to
display own ship at center of radar PPI.
2.3.13.9.3 RESET AZ CIRCLE IN COURSE UP DISPLAY MODE
Method of Operation
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Disp Centering is
highlighted.
Click C Up Reset Az Circle from the listed variables and click toggle state (in the bottom
bar) to reset Az circles.
2.3.13.9.4 TM CENTER RESET
Explanation
While changing the center display, the center of PPI also gets offset. This control is used to
bring back the center display exactly at the center of radar PPI.
Method of Operation
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Disp Centering is
highlighted.
Click TM Centre Reset from the listed variables and click toggle state (in the bottom bar) to
exactly reset the center.
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2.3.13.10 SET / DRIFT / SPEED


Fig-25: Set/Drift/Speed
Explanation
This control is provided to counteract the effects of tide and wind; it is entered manually by
inputting SET & DRIFT values.
The ships speed displayed on radar PPI is taken from one of two sources, vessels LOG or
manually (MAN) input ships speed. The single axis log or manual speed input will give ships
speed relative to sea. The Doppler log (X-Y axis) will give speed over the seabed.
Method of Operation
In order to change the vessels Speed click on speed in box as shown .
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Set/Drift/Speedis
highlighted.
Click Auto/Manual from the listed variables and click toggle state (in the bottom bar) to
make the input Manual.
Click Up/Down from the listed variables and then click +/- (in the bottom bar) to increase or
decrease own ships speed as desired.
- OR -
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Set/Drift/Speedis
highlighted.
Click Auto/Manual from the listed variables and click toggle state (in the bottom bar) to
make the input Manual.
Click Select from the listed variables and click toggle state (in the bottom bar) to select
speed option as shown.
Click Up/Down from the listed variables and then click +/- (in the bottom bar) to increase or
decrease own ships speed as desired.
2.3.13.10.1 AUTO / MANUAL
This control allows the user to either select speed manually or automatically from log sensor.
2.3.13.10.2 SELECT
It is used to toggle between SET, DRIFT and SPEED.
2.3.13.10.3 UP / DOWN
It is used to change the values of the selected option by clicking on the + or the -sign.


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2.3.13.11 CPA / TCPA


Fig-26: CPA/TCPA
Explanation
The Closest Point of Approach (CPA) is that point where the range of the target from own ship
would be minimum, provided own ship and target maintain their courses and speeds during the
plotting interval. The range at CPA is also called `Nearest approach.
2.3.13.11.1 CPA LIMIT UP / DOWN
Explanation
This function warns the operator about the targets approach within the designated range limit
and that an evasive action is to be taken by own ship. The CPA limit is adjusted to suit the
manoeuvrability of the ship and the prevailing circumstances and conditions.
Method of Operation
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu CPA/TCPA is highlighted.
Click CPA Limit Up/Down from the listed variables and click +/- (in the bottom bar) in
order to increase/decrease CPA limit.
2.3.13.11.2 TCPA LIMIT UP / DOWN
Explanation
This function provides a warning to the operator that a target (within a certain time) may cause
possible danger if an avoiding action is not taken. The TCPA may be selected and then
adjusted as for the CPA.

Method of Operation
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu CPA/TCPA is highlighted.
Click TCPA Limit Up/Down from the listed variables and click +/- (in the bottom bar) in
order to increase/decrease TCPA limit.

2.3.13.11.3 TRIAL MANOEUVRE
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Fig-27: Trial Manoeuvre
Explanation
This control allows the user to assess in advance, the consequences of the intended change of
course or speed by own ship in form of graphic display. It also allows planning of avoiding
action to be taken by own ship when a potential risk of collision exists with other target.
When the trial manoeuvre feature is switched on, a red color T appears at the lower half of
the radar PPI. All visual representation of actual processing is suspended. However the actual
processing continue to take place in background and it is re-activated when trial manoeuvre
function is switched off.
Method of Operation
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Trial Manv is highlighted.
Click Trial Manv from the listed variables and click toggle state (in the bottom bar) to start
trial manoeuvring, a red color T appears at the lower half of the radar PPI indicating start
of trial manoeuvring. Computer takes the data mentioned in bar for computing during trial
manoeuvring. User can alter this data as described in later sections.
Click toggle state (in the bottom bar) again to stop trial manoeuvring.
2.3.13.11.4 TRIAL TIME STEP
Method of Operation
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Trial Manv is highlighted.
Click Trial Time Step from the listed variables and click +/- (in the bottom bar) to increase
or decrease the trial time step as shown in Fig
2.3.13.11.5 TRIAL COURSE STEP
Method of Operation
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Trial Manv is highlighted.
Click Trial Course Step from the listed variables and click +/- (in the bottom bar) to increase
or decrease the trial course step as shown in Fig .
2.3.13.11.6 TRIAL SPEED STEP
Method of Operation
Click << or >> on top bar in menu control window till the menu Trial Manv is highlighted.
Click Trial Speed Step from the listed variables and click +/- (in the bottom bar) to increase
or decrease the trial speed step as shown in Fig .
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2.3.14 Guard Zone / Suppression Zone

Fig-28: Guard Zones
Explanation
The users can mark guard zones and suppression zones around their ownship such that when
targets such as other vessels, landmasses and buoys enter the zone; an alarm is raised and the
targets are highlighted. It allows navigators to maintain a safe distance from other objects.
Suppression zones can be set around ownship to de-acquire targets. This is generally set astern
of the ship, so that target behind own ship gets de-acquired providing free memory for other
targets. Targets in suppression zones cant be acquired manually or automatically.
Note: Two guard zones are available. When a target, which has not been previously acquired,
enters a guard zone, an alarm is raised and ARPA automatically acquires this target.
Targets acquired within the guard zone cannot have their acquisition cancelled, until the guard
zone is removed.
Method of operation
To activate and operate under guard zones and suppression zones, click on the box as
shown in Fig-2 .
Highlight GZ1, GZ2, and SZ in order to operate on the same.
2.3.14.1 GUARD ZONE
Operating procedures already discussed earlier in section 2.3.13.5 in detail.
2.3.14.2 SUPPRESSION ZONE
Operating procedures already discussed earlier in section 2.3.13.5 in detail.
2.3.15 EBL / VRM

Fig-29: EBL/VRM

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Explanation
EBL: The Electronic Bearing Line (EBL) is used to measure the bearing of a target from own ship
either in True or Relative mode. The EBL is displayed as a line, originating from own ship to the
outer edge of the Radar display. The bearing of the target is displayed in a box, located in
the lower right-hand corner of the screen as shown in Fig .
VRM: The Variable Range Marker (VRM) is used to measure the range of a target from own
ship. The VRM is displayed as a dashed circle, the diameter of which is altered by use of the
mouse. The range of the target is displayed in a box, located in the lower right-hand corner of
the screen as shown in Fig
2.3.15.1 EBL 2 / VRM 2
Explanation
Mobile EBL (offset EBL): The EBL can be used in offset mode to measure the bearing of a
target from a point on the screen other than own ship. The EBL in offset mode is used to
measure the bearing and distance of one target with respect to another.
2.3.16 Spurious Echoes
There are various types of spurious echoes which are listed as follows: -
2.3.16.1 MULTIPLE ECHOES
When own ship is abeam of another moving object and within range of one mile, multiple
echoes occur. These echoes are visible on the radar PPI and are plotted behind the target.
2.3.16.2 INDIRECT ECHOES
Echoes that occur by reflection of radar beam due to restricting objects are called indirect
echoes. It occurs only in the blind sector.
2.3.16.3 SIDE LOBE EFFECT
When an object is within range of one mile of own ship, echoes that occur along the side of the
target are termed as side lobe effect.
2.3.17 Racon
When radar beam intercepts a radar beacon, then a Morse code signal is painted on the PPI.
2.3.18 SART
The instructor can assign a SART (Search And Rescue Transponder) to own ships radar. It is
reflected on the radar screen in the form of 12 dots from the center of ownship towards the
direction of the distress vessel / SART signal.
2.3.19 Cursor
As shown in Fig-2, the cursor box shows the cursor position with respect to the owship on the
radar PPI.


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GLOSSARY OF THE TERMS

ABBREVIATION EXPANSION DEFINITION
ARPA Automatic Radar
Plotting Aids.
It is a computer based radar data processor,
which automatically and continuously provides
the user with target data.
CPA Closest Point of
Approach
The point nearest to the own ship through
which the target ship will cross, if it continues
on the same course.
EBL Electronic Bearing
Line
It is used to measure the bearing of a target
from own ship either in True or Relative mode.
When selected, the Electronic Bearing Line is
displayed as a line, originating from ownship
to the outer edge of the Radar display.
GPS Global Positioning
System
A satellite navigation system intended to
provide highly accurate position and velocity
information in three dimensions and precise
time and time interval on a global basis,
continuously
HL Heading Line The line of course being followed by the ship
RM Motion Mode
(Relative)
A relative motion mode (display) shows the
chart information, and radar targets, moving
relative to the vessel position fixed on the
screen.
TM Motion Mode (True) A true motion mode (display) shows own-
ships position, and other movable data such
as radar targets, moving on the earth-fixed
chart background.
OAW Triangle The triangle formed with O being the initial
position of the target ship, A the final
position and W being the own ships position
in Relative Vector Mode. This gives the CPA
and TCPA of the target ship (Course and
Speed) and is helpful in collision avoidance.
PADs Predicted Area of
Danger
It is an area demarcated around the
potential point of collision using the CPA. It
helps in the calculation of safe courses to be
used to avoid the collision
PI Parallel Index Parallel index technique is the art of
manoeuvring a ship to a desired position or
along a desired track, in such a manner that
the entire manoeuvre is carried out while
watching the PPI only
PPI Plan Position
Indicator
It is the display of the Radar/ARPA that
indicates the position and course of the
target/own ship.

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ABBREVIATION EXPANSION DEFINITION
ROR Rules of the Road A set of rules governing the safe navigation
of vessels with an aim to avoid collision. It
includes the usage of light, shape and sound
signals for communication.
SOG Speed Over Ground It is the actual speed made good at any
instant in time with respect to the ground
along the course being steered
STW Speed Through
Water
It is the apparent speed indicated by log-
type instruments or determined by use of
tachometer and speed curve or table, at a
particular point in time, along the course line.
STC Sensitivity Time
Control
Has been explained under section 2.3.6
TCPA Time to CPA The time it will take the target ship to arrive
at the Closest Point of Approach with its
present speed and direction.
VRM Variable Range
Marker
It is used to measure the range of a target
from ownship.