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Of tKe

PAPERS AND ITEMS OF LOCAL INTEREST

And

Containing Portraits of Past and Present' Officers.

^.2
NEWS PRINT, 1906.
95
ILLUSTRATIONS
1SSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.

HON. W. W. LYNCH, LL.D., J.S.C.


FOUNDER AND HON. PRESIDENT.

HON. G. B. BAKER, K.C.


SKXATOK, HON. PRESIDENT.

HON. J. C McCORKILL, K.C.


M.I'. P., PROVINCIAL TREAS., HON. PRESIDENT.

LATE C. L. COTTON, M.D.C.M.


EX-M.P.P. FIRST I'KKSIDKNT.

LATE N. A. SMITH, M.D.C.M.


FIRST SECRETARY.

J. P. NOYES, ESQ., K.C.


SECOND I'RKSIDKNT AND HON. J'RKSIDKNT.

CHAS. 0. JONES, ESQ.


THIRD PRESIDENT.

E. E. SPENCER, ESQ.
EX M. P.P., VICE-PRESIDENT.

CHAS. MOORE,
SKCRKTARY-TRKAsrRKR.

F. X. GIROUX, ESQ.

ADVOCATE, EX-COM. AND AUDITOR.

WM. MEAD PATTISON, ESQ.


DIRECTOR.

ECCLES' HILL MONUMENT


ORGANIZATION MEETING.

A meeting of gentlemen interest- and seconded by E. W. Morgan,


ed in the organization of an His- Esq., that the following gentle-
torical Society for the County of men form a committee for the

Missisquoi, was held in Bedford on purpose of organizing an Histor-


Monday evening, the 26th of Oct- ical Society in the County of

ober, 1898. Missisquoi, viz :


Judge Lynch, E.
On motion of Judge Lynch, Mr. W. Morgan, J. J. Mullin, John
John Gough was appointed Chair- Gough, Z. Cornell, F. C. Sand-
ers, E. Coslett and Dr. N. A.
man, and Dr. N. A. Smith, Secre-
the meeting. Smith. Carried.
tary, of

Hon. Judge Lynch explained the Moved by Z. Cornell, seconded

by J. J. Mullin, that the commit-


working of the Brome and Shef-
ford Counties and the tee take measures for calling a
Societies,
objects to be attained by a sim- public meeting at an early day,
for the purpose of completing
ilar organization in Missisquoi.
After a full discussion of the mat- the permanent organization of the

ter it was decided to take action Society, and the transaction of

business connected therewith.


for the purpose of carrying out
the Carried.
project.

It was moved by E. Coslett, N. A. SMITH, Secretary.


MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.

Missisquoi Historical Society.

FOR MEETING TO OR- County of Missisquoi. He was


ORGANIZE. followed by Rev. Ernst M. Tay-
lor of the Brome County Soc-
A meeting of all interested in ietywho earnestly advocated the
the formation of an Historical So- movement and gave many inter-
ciety for the County of Missisquoi esting facts regarding the early
will be held in the TOWN HALL, history of this section of the
BEDFORD, on TUESDAY, the
country.
28th day of FEBRUARY, 1899, It was then moved by Rev. Mr.
at one o'clock, p. in., for the pur- seconded by E. W. ilorgar.,
Nye,
pose of completing the organiza- Esq., "that we now proceed to
tion and transaction of any busi- an Historical
organize Society in
ness connected therewith. the County of Missisquoi." Car-
All persons having in their pos- ried.
session historical relics, are re- It was moved by F. C. Saund-
quested to bring the same, and
ers, seconded by Mr. Geo. Capsey,
any information relating to the that the name of the Society be:
early history of Missisquoi will be " The
County of Missisquoi His-
gladly received. torical Society," and that the of-
fice of the said Society be lo-
ORGANIZING COMMITTEE.
cated in the Town of Bedford,
Hon. Judge Lynch, Z. E. Cor- Province of Quebec. Carried.
It was moved by J. J. Mullin,
nell, E. W. Morgan, J. J. Mullin,
F. C. Saunders, E. Coslett, John and seconded by Mr. Thomas Hun-
Gough, N. A. Smith, M. D. ter, that immediate steps be tak-
en for incorporating the Society,
under the Statutes of the Pro-
vince of Quebec. Carried.
PRELIMINARY MEETING. it was moved by E. W. Mor-
In accordance with the notice gan, seconded by H. C.
Blinn,
that the following list constitut-
given, a meeting was held at
the Town House, Bedford, on Tues- es the officers of this Society for

day, Feb. 28th, 1899, for the pur- the coming year, viz:
Hon. Judge
pose or organization. Honorary Presidents, Hon. Geo.
Lynch was elected Chairman and B. Baker, ^Hon. J. C. McCorkill ;

Dr. N. A. Smith, Secretary. President, Dr. C. L- Cotton,. M. L.


Hon. Judge Lynch addressed the A.; Vice-presidents, W. M. Patti-
meeting, setting forth the ob- son, Mrs. Geo. Clayes, E. L. Wat-
jects of the Society, and advocat- son Secretary, Dr. N. A. Smith
;
;

ed the immediate organization of Treasurer, Mrs. Theo. Moore ;

an Historical Society in the Directors for Dunham, Geo. D.


MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.

Baker, J. P. Noyes, David West- ness at the town of Bedford in


over, M. O. Hart ;
Directors for said county.
Stanbridge, Henry Ross, Mrs. Fre- Bedford, 8th March, 1899.
ligh, Rev. H. W. Nye, E. W. Mor-
Directors for St. Armand Names. Residence.
gan ;

Thos. Hunter Venice.


East, Thos. Shepard. E. E- Spen- E. W. Morgan, Bedford.
cer,Canon Davidson, A. H. Hold- A. J. Stevens, Bedford,
en Directors for St. Armand
;
H. C. Blinn, Frelighsburg.
West, Peter Smith. Loftus Smith, Fred C. Saunders, Bedford.
Hiram Streit, Chas. Tittemore Mrs. G. Freligh, Bedford.
C. A. Rice,
;

Bedford.
Directors for Clarenceville and St.
Mrs. C. A. Rice, Bedford.
Thomas, John Hawley, A. H. Der- N. A. Smith, M.
p., Stanbridge
rick, Thos. Hunter, B. V. Naylor; Theodora Moore, Stanbridge East.
Directors for West Farnham, Dr. Henry W. Nye, Bedford.
J. B. Comeau, Dr. McCorkill, El- Geo. Capsey, Bedford.
Chas. O. Jojies, Bedford.
win Welch.
John Gough, Bedford.
It was decided that applica- John J. Mullin, Bedford.
tion be made to the I. N. Shepard, Frelijrhsburg.
County
Council at its next meeting for I, the undersigned Secretary-
permission to apply for incorpora- Treasurer of the Municipal Coun-
tion. The following declaration cil of said County of Missisauoi
was signed by a number of those hereby certify that at a regular
present : session of the said Council held
at said Town of Bedford, this
We, the undersigned residents of
the County of
Missisquoi in the
1 4th
day of June 1899, the con-
sent and authorization' of said
Province of Quebec, hereby declare
that we Council was granted to the forma-
are desirous of forming
tion of said Society. Bedford,
ourselves into an association to be
known as the Missisquoi County I3th June 1893.

Historical Society under the pro- GEO. CAPSEY.


visions of Article 5,487 and fol- Secretary Treasurer
lowing articles of the Revised
Besides those already mention-
Statutes of Quebec, the objects ed in the above requisition ihe
being to o.btain all possible infor-
following ladies and gentlemen
mation concerning the earlv and signed the roll of membership:
subsequent history of the county, Names, Residence.
to preserve such historical facts as Win. Meade Pattison, Clarenceville
mav be thus secured in some sub- Hon. W. W. I/ynch, Knowlton.
Rev. E. M. Taylor, Knowlton.
stantial and permanent form, to S. J. Montgomery, Bedford.
acquire whatever property may be Mrs. Gilman, Bedford.
necessary for the purposes of the F. Primmerman, St. Armand.
society and generally for the in- J. Primmerman, St. Armand.
struction of the members of the C. S. Moore, Stanbridge.
Nina Smith, Stanbridge.
society and others. The society to Z. E. Connell, Bedford.
have its office and place of busi- Mrs. W. A. Gibson, Bedford.
MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.

SECOND MEETING. Townships none is so rich in his-


torical associations as Missiscmoi,
Bedford, 27th, May, 1899. and if Missisquoi Historical
the
A meeting of the Society was Society, formed at Bedford last
held this day in accordance with
February should fall short of suc-
the notice given by the Secre- cess it will not be on account,
tary. Hon. J. C. McCorkill, Hon. of an insufficiency of material on
President, in the chair. The min- which to work.
utes of the last meeting were The officers of the society,
read and confirmed.
however, do not seem disposed to
The question of a Dominion allow it to die for want of
Day Picnic was then fully dis- to and have in-
something do,
cussed and on motion of Col. stituted a series of meetings to
Rowe, seconded by Mr. F. C. be held throughout the countv,
Saunders it was resolved " that
during present autumn, and
the
Hon. J. C. McCorkill, be request-
coming winter, for the purpose of
ed to communicate with the Hon.
interesting the people of the dif-
Minister of Militia and ascertain ferent localities in the work of
if the medals from the veterans the society, and of stimulating
of 1866-70 will be 'available for them to do their share of histor-
distribution on the first of July, ical investigation.
next. Carried.
The initial meeting was held
It was moved by Mr. L. Smith,
here on Wednesdayand was night,
seconded by F. C. Saunders, that
largely attended. Stanbridge East
in the event of a favorable reply
is itself not the least attractive
from the Minister of Militia, that
spot in the county from the view-
a picnic be held at Eccles' Hill
point of the local historian and
on the first of July, and that a
antiquary. Many of the old and
meeting of Society be held
the
families here are des-
prominent
at Freleighsburg for the purpose of
cended from the first settlers who
making arrangements for the
came in a little over a. century
same. Carried.
ago by way of Lake Champlain
The meeting then adjourned sine
and Missisquoi Bay, and from
die.
there spread eastward. The old
N. A. SMITH, Secretary.
homesteads of many of their fa-
milies are the depositaries of

precious old documents and com-


Missisquoi's Historians missions from which the biogra-
phy of many a man of promin-
(Star report.) ence in days gone by might be
written, and some of which
THE VALUE OF PRESERVING would also be of incalculable
RELICS OF THE OLDEN value to the student of the his-
DAYS IN CANADA. tory Canada as a whole.
of

Stanbridge East, Oct. 2oth. Of Dr. Cotton, M. L. A., for the


all the counties of the Eastern county, and president of the soc-
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.

iety, in a short speech said that made their way north. Philips-
the idea of a historical society burg in this county has stood
for the county was a happy one, one or two sieges. This place
and the time chosen for its forma- was first attacked by Ameri-
tion was happv also. It is just a can soldiers in 1812. What a
little more than a century that since thoseearly days.
change
we need to look back to the time Take for instance, the wonderful
that the first settlers came to, Mis- progress in locomotion. What
sisquoi. Those early settlers would those have
pioneers
have long since departed, but the thought of
being connected with
connecting link between them and Boston and New York, by only a
us still remains. Their children few hours travel.
are the very old people of the The president concluded by urg-
present day. Nothing could be ing the people to take an inter-
more interesting or instructive est in the society, and to do all in
than to listen to tho,se old people their power to bring out authen-
tell the stories of the early days ticated facts, connected with the
as they learned them from their early history.
parents. Written history is usually Mr. Wm. Mead Pattison, Collec-
looked upon as being more accu- tor Customs at the port
of of
rate than tradition, but the Clarenceville,, an antiquarian of
speaker believed that in such cas- provincial reputation, made a
es as he had mentioned, the tra- short address. He said that his
ditions were often more reliable knowledge of this section of the
than much of the written history. country extended over a period of
All information concerning espec- more than half a century. He
ially the first quarter of a cen- drew the attention of the audience
tury after the advent of the ear- to the fact that the names of the
liest settlers should be gathered forefathers of many of them may
by the historical society, to be be found in the Archives of Can-
made use of for future histori- ada. He spoke of the persecution
cal reference. The aim of the so- of the Loyalists and from what
ciety should be not only to ac- quarter it came. At the close of
cumulate information, but to so the Revolutionary War more
arrange it that it can readily be than thirty thousand Loyalists
referred to,otherwise it is of lit- fled to Canada. Most of them
tle real value for historical pur- went to Upper Canada. Among
poses. The history of Missisquoi those who came in by Missisquoi
is more
interesting than any Bay, and whose names appear on
other part of the Eastern Town- the list of applicants for land,
ships. A number
things have
of may be found many names, well
occurred there that other coun- known in this country. There were
ties have not had. The first set- the Cal dwells,
Bakers, Bests,
tlers came in by way of Miss- Chandlers, Cowans, Dunns, Sam-
isquoi Bay. They were the people, uel Gale, Luke Knowlton, Moores
who, after the Revolutionary War Knights, Phillips, Porters, Robbs,
8 MISSIvSQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
Robb, Ruiters, Hogles, and Fisks. that the author is a Canadian,
The chief number on the pro- and refuse to judge it upon its
gramme was an address by Hon. merits.
J. C. McCorkill, honorary presi- The address was an extremely
dent the society, on the sub-
of able and finished production, and
of " Canadian Poets and at the close
ject the speaker was
Poetry." Mr. McCorill referred treated to exceedingly heartv ap-
pleasantly to the fact that there plause.
was a controversy raging as to Rev. Mr. Harris, in a pleasing
whether those early applicants for speech moved a vote of thanks,
land whose names had been to the speakers. The motion, oi
brought to memory by Mr. Pat- course, carried unanimously, and
tison, were really loyalists or was replied to by Dr. Cotton and
mere land grabbers. One of the Mr. McCorkill.
names was that of an ancestor of The industrious secretary of the
his, and he was inclined to classify society, Dr. A. N.
Smith, an-
him as a land grabber, and a nounced that the Stanbridge mem-
very successful one, for he had se- bers of the County Society would
cured possession of an extensive meet fortnightly throughout the
tract along the Yamaska River, winter for historical research into
in the Township of Farnham. matters more particularly con-
Continuing the speaker said cerning this township. During the
that these county historical soc- evening the proceedings were pleas-
ieties specially have in view the ingly enlivened by music by the
unearthing of local facts, but in ladies, and the meeting was
time their scope must be broader brought to a close by the sing-
than this and must necessarily ing of the National Anthem.
apply whole history of
to the Mr. Pattison had on view a
Canada. He pointed out the inti- number of copies of old news-
mate connection between the papers, which made an attractive
study of Canadian literature and exhibit. Among them were " The
Canadian poetry, and
' '

especially Township Reformer, of 23rd May


the study of Canadian history. 1837, published at Stanbridge by
Mr. McCorkill then plunged into Elkanah Phelps, editor and F. G.
his address proper, and for three- McDowell, printer. The copy
quarters of an hour kept the was number 25 of the first volume.

large audience deeply interested, Among the contents was an ac-


as he passed in review one Cana- count of a meeting held on the
dian poet after another, giving 7th of the same month at St.
with the skill of a trained elocu- Ours, in the County of Richelieu,
tionist extracts from their most by the disaffected people of that
important works. He deplored the part. A long list of resolutioins

neglect that Canadian writers re- were adopted. The first was mov-
ceive at the hands of Canadian ed by Dr. W. Nelson, and second-
readers. Many people toss a ed by Mr. J. B. Anger, and read
book aside as soon as they learn as follows: Resolved, that we
HON. JUDGE LYNCH, LL.D., Knowlton.

Hon. President Missisquoi Historical Society.


MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY,.
have seen with feelings of most also " The Repetory," published
indignation the resolutions
lively at St. Albans, Vt., in 1827. A
proposed for adoption in the copy of The Washingtonian, pub-
House of Commons on the 6th lished at Washington, D. C., June
March, resolutions, the necessary 29, 1812, vol. n, No. 182, con-
effect of which will be to destroy contained the act passed by Cong-
henceforward all security for free- ress declaring a state of war to
dom and good government with- be existing between the United
in this province." Kingdom of Great Britain and
Other papers shown were " The Ireland and the dependencies
Weekly Gleaner," published at thereof and the United States of
Philipsburg, on April 4, 1848 ;
America and their territories.
" The Canadian Courant and The next general meeting of
Montreal Advertiser, November 5, the society will likely be held at
" Montreal
1825 ; Transcript and Clarenceville. Meetings will likely
Commercial Advertiser, March
' '
be as soon as it is poss-
held
"
30, 1839 ; Spooner's Vermont ible to arrange for speakers at
Journal," Windsor, Vt., January, Philipsburg,, Bedford, Farnham,
5, 1 80 1. This paper was then in Dunham, Cowansville and Fre-
its eighteenth volume. There was lighsburg.

vincing manner. It has heretofore


been generally supposed that the
United the Eastern Town-
first settlers of

ships were composed principally


Empire Loyalists. of United Empire Loyalists, and
anyone who has had the audacity
to hint anything to the contrary,
THE PART THEY TOOK IN has been unhesitatingly condemn-
ed as of ignorance and
SETTLING THE EAST- guilty
misrepresentation.
ERN TOWNSHIPS.
Mr. Noyes showed that the peo-
(Star report.) ple who came into Canada from
Bedford, Que., Dec. 22. A valu- the American colonies at the
able contribution, not only to lo- close of the war were of several
cal but to general Canadian his- classes, only one of which was le-
tory, was given by Mr. John P. gally entitled to be designated as
Noyes, of Cowansville, before the U. E. Loyalists. The Townships
Missisquoi Historical Society, at were not surveyed until several
a meeting held here a few
evenings years after the war, and then, in
ago. The subject of Mr. Noyes' response to applicants for land
paper was " The Canadian Loy- grants by companies of men who
alists," and the speaker dealt with went by the title, of Associat-
it in a very exhaustive and made up, not
con- es, and who were
10 MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
of people from the American rectors. A very cordial vote of
colonies alone or chiefly, but also thanks was passed to the lecturer.
of English and others. All hon-
our was paid to those early
and hardy settlers who introduc-
BEDFORD ANNUAL MEETING/
ed civilization into this part of
Canada. Bedford, June, 29, 1901.
was also, shown that a limit-
It A of the
meeting Missisquoi
ed number of loyalists, whose Historical Society was held this
names were given, and whose de- day as per call issued by the
cendants are to-day numerous, Secretary. In the absence of the
settled on the shores of the Mis- President, Mr. F. C. Saunders was
sisquoi Bay, upon the seigniories, called to the chair. The minutes
grants of which had been made of the last meeting were read
years before to Frenchmen. and confirmed.
At the close of the lecture, the The Secretary reported that
grandson of one Christian Wehr, the Society had been duly in-
whose name appeared upon the corporated since the last meeting
list, a Mr. Bockus, of Bedford, under the article 5487 of the Re-
was brought forward and intro- vised Statutes of the Province of
duced to the lecturer. "Bockus" Quebec.
is a corruption of the old Dutch The Society then proceeded to
name " the election of officers for the en-
Boekhaus," and Dutch
names formed the greater part of suing year with the following re-

the list in sult:


question.
Honorary Presidents. Hon. W.
The meeting was largely at- W. Lynch, Hon. J. C. McCorkill.
tended, and was presided over by
President. C. L. Cotton, M. D.
Dr. Cotton, M. L- A., president of
Vice Presidents. Win. Meade.
the society, who made a very Thomas Hunter, S. J.
Pattison,
pleasing address, pointing out Stevens.
the value of the work of his-
N. A. Smith, M. D.
Secretary.
torical research, and the import- Treasurer. 1. W. Morgan.
ance oi each resident of the
Auditors. F. C. Saunders. J.
county making himself acquainted
J. Mullin.
with its early and later history,
and also of contributing what- DIRECTORS.
ever he was able to do to the Bedford. F. C. Saunders, Mrs.
facts that have already been col- Geo. W. Gilman, E. W. Morgan,
lected, so that some time it
J. J. Mullin, Charles 0. Jones.
might be possible to write a tru- Dunham. John P. Noyes, M. O.
ly authentic and reliable history. Hart, David Westover, Charles
Remarks were also made by Teneyck.
Dr. N. A. Smith, secretary of the Stanbridge. H. C. Blinn, Wm.
society, and by Messrs. F. C. Crothers, M. D. Mrs. T. Moore,
Saunders, and E. W. Morgan, di- M. S. Cornell.
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. ii

St. Armand East. A. H. Hold-


agreed to accept the charge of
en, S. N. Shepard, John Krans. building the monument under
St. Armand West. F. Primmer- the conditions named by the gov-
man, Peter Smith, Loftus Smith. ernment, and the following were
Clarenceville. Win. Meade Pat- named as a committee for the pur-
tison, Thomas Hunter, Col. C. S. pose of carrying out the work:
Rowe. Hon. Justice Lynch, Hon. J. C.
Farnham. D. B. Meigs, M.P., McCorkill, C. L. Cotton, M. D. N.
Dr. McCorkill. A. Smith, M. D.
By-L/aw Committee. J. J. Mul- N. A. SMITH,
lin, C. O. Jones, F. C. Saunders. Secretary.
A letter from Col. Pinault, De-
puty Minister of Militia and De- The report which follows was
fencewas read stating that the the last official act of the late
Department was authorized to con- Secretary Dr. N. A. Smith. After
tribute $400.00 towards the erec- the proceedings at Eccles' Hill
tion of a monument at Eccles' in which he took a prominent
Hill to commemorate the servic- part, he returned to Stanbridge,
es of the militia in May, 1870, was called to make profes-
provided the Missisquoi Historical sional visits which detained him
Society agreed to erect said mon- the greater part of the night,
ument according to designs and but managed to return home in
inscriptions approved by the time to write the report, get
Honorable Minister of Militia. the early train for Montreal and
On motion of F. W. Morgan, to deliver it himself at the Star
seconded by J. J. Mullin, it was office for the issue of July 2nd.

national boundary is a rocky ton-


Monument to the gue of land,
which
known as Eccles'
Hill, become of his-
has
Memory of Men Who toric from the fact that
interest,
here the Canadian volunteers and
Repulsed Fenians. Home Guards, May 25, 1870, met
and repulsed the Fenian invaders,
IT WAS UNVEILED AT EC- who, under a pretext of freeing
CLES HILL YESTERDAY, Ireland, attempted to cross the
AND WAS WITNESSED BY border and establish themselves
OVER THREE THOUSAND on British soil. This hill is locat-
PEOPLE. ed in St. Armand East, in the
county of Missisquoi, four miles
(Star report.)
from the village of Frelighsburg,
Armand, Oue., July 2, 1902
vSt. on the highway leading to Frank-
Standing out prominently to- lin, Vt. From the main road it
wards the south and the inter- rises abruptly towards the west,
12 MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
and extends along the highway to liable information, was greatly
the south reaching down within a resented by the descendants of the
few hundred yards of the iron stock who first settled
loyal old
post, which marks the dividing this county and were compelled
line between Canada and the Unit- to stand" idly by while the Fenian
ed States. It is covered with marauders pillaged their homes,
rocky ledges and huge boulders, ill-treated their families and also
scarred and time eaten, which
threatened their lives. Directly af-
afford excellent shelter for de- ter the raid of 1866, the sturdy
fence and in fact it would be farmers and leading men of Dun-
extremely difficult to find a bet- ham and Armand
St. resolved to
ter position anywhere along the take measures to protect them-
frontier for resisting the attaclc,
selves in case of another invasion,
and military men of experience
and proceeded to organize them-
have stated tha't it could be eas-
selves into a company under the
ily held against a force of ten lead of Capt. Asa Westover. This
times the number of those de-
the best breech-
company procured
fending it. A returned volunteer,
loading rifles, and an ample sup-
who served in South Africa, says
ply of ammunition. Some of the
that it resembles in many res-
very best shots in the county
pects the kopjes so numerous in
joined the ranks and rifle practice
that country, and which the Boers
was daily indulged in. At the
so successfully defended and in
first intimation of a second raid
many instances against a vastly in Westover's men
1870, Capt.
superior force. were on the alert. Scouts were
In the raid of 1866, this hill
sent across the lines to watch
was occupied and held several the movements of the Fenians,
days by the invaders, while sev- and guards were posted at var-
eral detachments marched further
ious points along the roads
inland, visiting farm houses in the in order
crossing boundary,
search of supplies and looting to guard against surprise and to
houses and stores in Frelighs- check the advance of the enemy.
burg and other villages and sub-
During the nignt preceding the en-
the inhabitants to many gagement
jecting they gathered much in
indignities and losses.
formation regarding the move-
ments of the Fenians, and in
THE HOME GUARDS.
the morning were found at Ec-
The retreat of
Captain Carter, cles' Hill, ready to meet the in-
in 1866, at that time in com- vaders. The first shot was fired by
mand of the volunteers main- them and generally believed
it is

ly belonging to this section that the first Fenian to fall was


of country, and the neglect
the the recipient of a ball from one
of the Government of the of their rifles. Had it not been

day in not protecting the inhabi- for their timely assistance, the
tants of the Missisquoi frontier, result of that memorable day
although repeatedly warned by re- might have been quite different.
ECCLE'S HILL MONUMENT.
HON. S. A. FISHER, delivering: address at Unveiling- of Monument.
(Photo by Judson Dinan, Highgate, Vt.)
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
That they performed their duty in two companies being advancein
a praise-worthy manner is cer- of the main body with fixed
tain, and although few of that bayonets, kept steadily on until
little band now remain their within a few yards of the iron
memories will ever be held dear post, when they broke into the
by the inhabitants of this sec- double and in a minute were
tion of Canada. upon Canadian soil. Along the
Canadian line for a few minutes
ENGAGEMENT OF ECCLES' previous to this there had been
utter silence, not a person moved,
not a word was spoken. All
On the morning- of May 25th, were intently watching the en-
1870, thirty-two years ago, Eccles' emy. Then from down the right of
Hill presented a lively scene. Re- the line where were posted the
ports gathered by the Canadian Home Guards, there came a sin-
scouts during the night were to gle shot, instantly followed by a
the effect that a body of Fenians, volley from the whole line. The
estimated at four hundred, were silence was broken the engage-^
,

at Hubbard's Corner, in Franklin, inent had begun, and so rapid


Vt., only a mile away, and were was the firing that one continu-
evidently preparing to advance ous volley called from Eccles'
across the line into Canada. As Hill and echoed over the sur-
a natural consequence, great ex- rounding country. At the first fire
citement prevailed, crowT ds of cit- a Fenian fell dead, and several
izens were hurrying in all dir- more were wounded. For a mo-
ections. Captain Westover's men, ment there was utter confusion in
wearing red scarfs, were posted their ranks. They halted as the
at points about the hill quietly storm of lead struck them with
watching the movements across such force. Thev returned the fire
the line, where the Fenian pickets for a few minutes, then stagger-
could be plainly seen in the dis- ed, wheeled and fled in all direc-
tance. Colonel Brown Chamber- tions for shelter behind the build-
lain had arrived with a few men ings and fences. main body
'The
of the 6oth Rifles, Imperial, less turned to the and made for
left
than thirty in all and was making a wooded hill opposite the Can-
preparations to meet the enemy. adians' position where they open-
Captain Bockus, with the volun- ed fire, but with little or no ef-
teers, occupied the left of the line, fect. For a time a fire was kept

up to the crest of the hill. The up by both sides, and finally


Home Guards were posted to the ceased, with only occasional
right,from the crest of the hill shots. A little later on the Can-
along a line of rocks extending adians, having been reinforced by
down towards the creek at the cavalry, the Victoria Rifles, and
foot of the hill.Directly the Fen- the 52nd Battalion, of Brome,
ians came into view, marching formed a skirmish line, and ad-
down the road in good order, vanced down the boundary line,
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
and drove out the Fenian invad- tastefully designed and
ers, who fled far out of reach of bearing the following emblems
the Canadian bullets. The battle and inscriptions.
was over, the day was won, and On the front under the crown:
the Canadian force returned and
camped on the hill, ready for ac- THE
tion at a moment's notice, if re-
CANADIAN VOLUNTEERS
quired.
AND
ECCLES' HILL MONUMENT. HOME GUARDS
At the time of the distribution
HERE REPULSED
of the Fenian Raid medals at THE FENIAN INVAD-
Sweetsburg, it was suggested by ERS, ON THE 2sth,
Hon. H. T. Duffy, in his address,
OF MAY, 1870.
that the Government ought to er-
ect some suitable memorial on Ec-
On the reverse, under the beav-
cles' Hill to commemorate the ac- er and maple leaf:
tion therewhich the volun-
in
teers and Home Guards took a ERECTED IN 1902, BY
part. The Missisquoi Historical
THE DOMINION GOV-
Society took the matter in hand
at once and made an application ERNMENT, UNDER THE
through the representative of the SUPERVISION OF
county, for a Government grant THE
for that purpose. At the first ses-
sion following a suflicient sum MISSISQUOI HISTORI-
was placed inthe estimates and CAL SOCIETY.
passed the House unanimously,
and the society was authorized The Missisquoi Historical Soc-
to proceed with the erection of the iety has therefore, through its
memorial. A committee was ap- efforts succeeded in raising an en-
pointed by the society to take during memorial, which will
the work in hand, consisting of stand through coming years as a
the following gentlemen: Hon. reminder of the event which cal-
Judge Lynch, Hon. J. C. McCor- led the patriotic volunteers and
kill, C. L. Gotten, M. D., and N. Home Guards to the front to re-
A. Smith, M. D. The committee, pel an invader who sought to lay
following out the instructions of violent hands on their homes and
the Department of Militia and inheritance and deprive the peo-
Defence, procured a
sufficient ple of the protection and free-
area of land containing the chief dom which they enjoyed as a part
spots of historic interest on the of that grand old Empire upon
crest of Eccles' Hill, and here er- which the sun never sets. The
ected a cairn of granite bould- monument has nothing artistic
ers, surmounted by large granite in its design, but is intended to
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
be solid and enduring. It stands the deeds of men who came nob-
upon a high plateau and can be ly to the rescue of our own na-
seen from a long distance. When tive land in the hour of danger.
the groundsare finally graded,
and planted it will be a
trees THE SPEECHES.
very attractive spot, an ornament
to the locality and an honour to Dr. C. L. Cotton, the President

the Government as well as the of the Missisquoi Historical Soc-


iety,called the assembly to or-
Missisquoi Historical Society, un-
der and in a short address he said
der whose inspiration and super-
vision it was erected. that this Dominion Day was a
day of rejoicing all over the world
THE UNVEILING. on account of the recovery of King
Edward from a serious illness. It
Lowering clouds and rain in the was also, a day of rejoicing and
early morning yesterday, soon pleasure to recur again to
gave way, and the sun
came out events that occurred thirty-two
the years ago, when the volunteers,
bright and continued through
day. From all directions count- and Home Guards rallied and re-
less teams were moving in the di- pulsed the invaders of our land.
rection of Eccles' Hill, and at He briefly referred to the organ-
the hour of two o'clock there ization of the Home Guards and
were on the hill and the fields the work they performed. When
and woods adjoining fullv three rumors of invasion by the Fen-
thousand people among whom ians firstwere heard, they were
could be seen many of the vet- on the alert, gathering what in-
eran volunteers and Home Guards, formation they could, and finally
wearing the Fenian Raid medals, taking possession of the hill, as
The scene from the hill was in- an outpost near the boundary,
spiring. The monument was cov- where they remained until the vol-
ered with a large British flag, unteers came to their assistance.
while from a flae staff on the Capt. Asa Westover was referred
crest floated the Canadian flag. to in feeling terms. He was an old
The woody hill to the west was and infirm man, but was today
covered with groups of people en- present to take part in the re-

joying the contents of their joicings. He called for three


lunch baskets. Under a group of cheers, which given with
were
spreading maples a table was great energy by the vast concourse
spread for speakers and in-
the present.
vited guests, w hile
T
the road-sides The Hon. Sidney Fisher, Minis-
and fields were covered with ter Agriculture, was the next
of
teams. Never before has there he
speaker, Leaving the platform
been such a gathering in this part climbed the cairn of stone at
of the country as was gathered the base of the monument, and
to witness the unveiling of the standing near the big stone ad-
memorial erected to commemorate dressed the big crowd grouped
i6 MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
beneath. He said that he, on be- defence of Canadian homes. The
half of the Dominion Govern- ceremony of removing the flag
ment, came to assist in unveiling which hid the monument from
the monument erected under the view was then performed by Mr.
supervision of the Missisquoi His- Fisher, amid the applause
of the
torical Society. He complimented assembled thousands. Continuing
the Society on the success attend- he said that Canadians had shown
ing" their efforts
in erecting such to the world, in South Africa,
an enduring memorial. He also ex- that they could conquer or die,
pressed his pleasure in seeing such and were now regarded through^
a large gathering of Canadian out the world as men of the
people present, as it spoke vol- right sort and had become famous
umes for patriotism. Some
their for their bravery and endurance.
people might look upon the en- He urged the young men of the
gagement which took place there day to join the rifle clubs, now
thirty-two years ago, as a small organized throughout the Domin-
but the benefit arising from
affair, ion and learn to use the rifle so
it was not to be belittled. He that, in case they should be called
expressed his great pleasure at on to defend their homes and coun-
being able to be present today, try, they would be prepared. He
and go over the ground which had concluded an able address by refer-
become of great historical interest ring to the visits of Prince Arthur
to all Canadians. He was glad to here, in 1870, and the review of the
know that Capt. Asa Westover who volunteers by Gen. I/indsay, and
gathered his friends and neigh- also read the address of Gen. I/ind-
bors togeDier and organized the say, on that occasion, compli-
Home Guard for the purpose of menting the volunteers and Home
defending their homes, was able to Guards for the part they perform-
be present to-day, as it probably ed in the raid.
brought to his recollection afresh,
the events that transpired here so MILITARY REPRESENTATIVE
long ago. He was truly sorry
that Col. Chamberlain, who com- Col. Neilson, of the Department
manded the 6oth Battalion, could of Militia and Defence, next ad-

not be here also, but he, like many dressed the people, and said that
others who took
part in the en- he washere representing the mili-

gagement, would hear no more the tary staff of the department. He


roll call on earth. He was glad had been a soldier forty years, but
that the Canadians were able to it was not public speaking that
drive back the foe and should an he was accustomed to. He was
invasion ever take place again he glad to be present on this memor-
well knew that the descendants able occasion, and to know that
of that noble band who stood on the memorial was not put up as a
Eccles' Hill, years ago, and drove reminder of blood on Canadian
back the enemy, would rally as soil, and he regretted that the
did their fathers of yore, to the ranks of the defenders were being
HON. GEO. B. BAKER, Senator, Svveetsburg:.

Hon. President Missisquoi Historical Society.


MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
thinned out. He regarded the grant for all survivors who de-
events in South Africa as a great fended our homes and so effectual-

object lesson to the men, and the ly turned back the invaders.
actions of our Canadian troops as Rev. Mr. Taylor, secretary of
worthy the country from whence the Brome County Historical Soc-
they came. iety, made a few remarks on
Hon. the necessity of united action in
Judge Lynch, in a short,
but eloquent address, compli- obtaining a land grant.
mented the Historical Society on Dr. N. A. Smith, gave a brief
the success they had achieved, and history of the building of the

complimented the secretary, Dr.


monument and of the action on
N. A. Smith, very highly for his the 25th of May, 1870, in which
efforts in having the monument he took an active part. He thank-

erected, and the great gathering


ed all those who had aided him
here to-day as a result. He in his efforts to erect the memor-
the duty of all citizens
it ial, and the ladies in particular,
thought
to join together their efforts and for furnishing refreshments for the

build up here a great nation. The invited guests.


Hon. Mr. The president wished all to join
Duffy, he said, suggest-
ed that some suitable memorial in singing " God Save the King,"

should be placed here on the spot after which the great gathering
where the action occurred. The began to disperse.
matter was taken up by the His- The event can be put down as a
torical Society, and as a result great success in all respects, and
we have the solid and lasting reflects great credit on the com-
structure before us. He referred to mittee who had the matter in
the efforts being made to obtain a charge.
land grant for all who took part
in the and so promptly
raids,
drove the enemy from our soil. The Late
Hon. J. C. McCorkill, M.L.A;, Dr. Cedric L. Cotton.
the next speaker was not present
here at the time o,f the Fenian
raids, but his father, who was A DESERVED TRIBUTE TO A
captain af No. 3 Co., of the 6oth NOBLE CHARACTER.
Battalion was present a fact of ,

which he felt proud. He was glad (From The News, June 24th, 1904)

to see so many present, and had The community which compris-


no fears as to the future of our es the two villages of Cowansville
country while it was defended by and Sweetsburg, within the last
such men as turned out in 1870, two years or less, has had to
and met the enemy at the very mourn the loss by death of some
first step on Canadian soil. He of its most prominent profession-
promised to do his best in the al men. Each has been a distinct

Legislature to obtain the land shock. The sense of a loss which


MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
seemed irreparable has prevailed. -who are now inconsolable over
But in no instance has it been the loss sustained.
more widely and keenly felt in Itwas Schopenhauer who said:
this vicinity than in the very sud- 1

The doctor sees all the weakness-


"
den death, under tragic circum- es of
mankind, the lawyer all
"
stances, of Dr. Cedric L. Cotton. the
wickedness, the theologian
The death of a public man is. al-
"
all the stupidity," but so con-
felt. The death of a siderate was Dr. Cotton to
ways widely the
purely professional rarely oc- man weaknesses of humanity, so sym-
casions a sense of loss beyond the pathetic with the misfortunes of
immediate sphere of his practice others, so thoughtful in alleviat-
and in his own family circle, but ing the miseries that human
when a man has attained distinc- flesh has that out of
inherited,
tion both careers his death
in them all he gained public esteem
comes as a surprise on the one and himself became a broader,
on
hand, and as a personal loss fuller man. Life with him was
the other. earnest. It was a place for do-

Dr. Cotton had acquired a repu- ing good. With Carlyle he believ-
" It
ed: is a most earnest thing
tation full of promise as a man of
in "to be alive in this world to
public character
a ;

affairs, " die is not


sport for a man.
many ways, as well as a phy- " Man's life
never was sport to
sician whose large professional " him
it was a stern reality, al-
life had endeared him to the peo- "
;

and practiced. together a serious matter to be


ple where he lived "
alive." And so he lived his life
Skilful and resourceful as a phy-
he was known to be, of usefulness, believing that the
sician, as
utility of living consists not in
he had come, as the years went
the the length of days, but in the
on, to be the beau ideal of
use of time that a man may
family medical man sympathetic,
;

have lived long in this world, and


in time of trouble and affliction,
yet lived but a little time if
resolute and even daring in em-
those days have not been conse-
ergency at all times a wise coun-
;

crated to. usefulness, and an effort


sellor when the clouds were dark.
comes to make life easier and better for
Into many homes there
others.
the feeling that his place can
never be rilled, no matter how Born at Brome Corner in 1856,
clever and skilful his successor the son of a physician and the
may be, that the strength which grandson of the first Anglican
comes from confidence for a long clergyman that officiated in the

period in a strong man can not District of Cotton


Bedford, Dr.
again be felt in the same way, or \vent to England as a lad and
to the same extent. As one who was there educated in a public
had passed the threshold of pub- school. He was a bright, diligent
lic life, he had won friends who student, winning an Oxford, A. A.
believed' in him, .and his future, 'and before he was sixteen, the young-
MISSISQU01 COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
est of a
large class of comp3ti- himself greatly in educational
tors that highly coveted dis-
for matters, became a school com-
tinction. So far as scholarship missioner and was for years chair-
was concerned it embraced as full man of the board. He was more
a course as the B. A. degree of than usually active in his efforts
the Canadian universities of that to aid the schools. The teachers
day. Returning to Canada he took came to regard him as their
the medical course at McGill, gra- special friend and as one to
duating with the degree of M. I)., whom they could turn for advice
C. M., before reaching the age cf in time of stress. He was also an
majority. Supplementing this Associate Member of the Protest-
with a course in the London ant Committee of Public Instruc-
Hospitals, he began in 1877 the tion for this province. In all the
practice of his profession at Cow- literary societies of the place he
ansville, at once gaining a large ever took a prominent part. He
practice and wide repute for his was a municipal councillor and
skill and success. He was all the Mayor of the
village for many
time a close student of the litera- years, retiring only last year ow-
ture of his profession and, as well, ing to the exacting duties of his
kept in touch with hospital work practice. In these positions he dis-
and eminent specialists of the played his usual zeal in working
profession in the Province. In all for \vhat he conceived to be the
professions, there are rivalries, best interests of the municipality.
and it is well there should be, as a He took an interest in the Missis-
stimulus to activity, but so quoi County Historical Society ;

broad and genial was Dr. Cotton, was elected its first president and
that he came to be regarded as held that office to the last.
a true friend and wise counsel-
He took an early interest in
lor by his confreres in this Dis-
politics on the Liberal side, and
trict. They knew him to be in-
in 1898, on the retirement of Mr.
capable of petty things which an- McCorkill, he was elected mem-
noy and hurt. ber of the Legislative Assembly,
Married to Miss Harriet Gibson for the county of Missisquoi after

only daughter of the late Dr. J. a sharp contest. He won instant


B. Gibson, his domestic life was success in the house. He had be-
one of great felicity and happi- come an easy and ready speaker
ness. To them were born three before he entered the parliamen-
children, one son and two daugh- tary arena, and at Quebec he in-
ters, one of the latter dying creased his reputation in that re-
young. From the outset of his spect; bearing his share in debates
career Dr. Cotton took an active as well as in legislation. He
interest in all local matters. No- seconded the address in reply to
thing was mooted in the com- the speech from the throne one
munity in which he did not share, session, and although such an inci-
and largely lead. He interested dent has come to be considered pure-
20 MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
ly conventional, he brought to it a change a good roads move-
or
freshness and an earnestness for ment a temperance society or a
;

the enactment of wise legisla- church gathering in all varieties


tion that was regarded as unus- of these things he bore a hand,
ual and for which he was highly and made the impress of his
commended in and out of the strong convictions felt. And there
House, and by the press of both was no crankiness in or about
parties. When, in 1900, it was him. He was tolerant to the
made to appear to him that the views of .others tho' rigid in his
interests of the partv at the gen- own personal beliefs. He was a
eral election would best be sub- member of the Anglican church,
served the selection of a candi-
by whilst not to others,
indifferent
date from another part of the only exacting sincerity to obliga-
county, he declined re-nomina- tions, adherence to practices that
tion and retired. His was a short he believed vital, and steadfastness
dash in parliamentary life, but it in vows voluntarily assumed. In
was long enough to show the met- his profession he was for a time
tle of the man and give a the representative of the District
glimpse of what his future
might of Bedford medicalthe men in
have been, had he lived and desir- College Physicians and Sur-
of
ed to re-enter public life. geons of the Province, an indica-
tion of the high esteem in which
In fraternal life the late Dr.
lie 'was held by his brethren of the
Cotton was a Freemason, an Odd-
profession.
fellow, a Forester and a member
of other societies in all of which The particulars of the sad in-
he was prominent.
locally He cident which led to his untimely
was a Master of Corner
Past decease have been too often told
Stone Lodge of Masons. He was elsewhere to need repetition in a
so constituted that he could not paper having another purpose. In
be indifferent to the workings of the line of special duty, taking

any society, organization or \insti- the risks imavoidably connected


tution with which he was connect- with his profession, he met his
ed. Whilst not obtrusive, nor fate like the brave soldier at his
pushing himself forward, nor ap- post. None better than he, prob-
parently ambitious, his aptitude ably,', knew his fate almost from
and genius for leadership natural- the first ;
but whatever mental
ly made him a dominant fac- agony that consciousness caused
tor in all such societies and organ- him, apart altogether from the
izations. One can scarcely name sufferings physical pain, he en-
of
one of them in his home town or dured with the utmost resigna-
locality, of which he was not an tion. He was spared the know-
active member or
supporter ledge of the anguish of friends,
whether it was a cricket club or a as from day to day, and hour to
rifle club, an athletic hour, they waited in suspense hop-
society or a
teacher's association, a dairy ex- ing against hope for a change
HON. J. J. C. McCORKILL, Cowansville.

Hon. President Missisquoi Historical Society.


MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
that might promise recovery. It to add that no man will be more
was 'not altogether the tragedy of greatly missed than he in his
the situation that stimulated in- locality. But why repine ? Death
terest, and led the people of the is a part of the order of the uni-

two villages and vicinity to watch verse, it is part of the life of the
and question for news 'of his con- world. It is the condition of crea-
dition. It was rather that he had tion. Is it not the perpetual
so lived and ministered and acted work of life, to lay the founda-
that he had won the esteem of tion of death ? Such is philos-
all, and the deep affection of ophy, at least.
those who knew him in his short J.P.N.
life. The large concourse of peo-
ple of all classes, professions and
and the remarkable at-
callings
tendance of members of different
The
fraternal societies, at his funeral,
Late Dr. N. A. Smith.
fittingly testified to the high re-
gard in which he was held among
the people where he had spent his Another proiffinent physician of
life. All that will be related else- theCounty of Missisquoi, after a
where and 'by other pens. few month's illness has gone to
Cotton, physically, was a
Dr. his long N. A. Smith,
rest. Dr.

fine specimen of vigorous man- latterly of Stanbridge Hast, but


hood. Something more than six for many years a resident of Fre-
feet in height, neither too stout lighsburg, died at his home on
nor too thin, well proportioned, Monday to the profound sorrow of
of erect and alert bearing, his the community in which he lived,
was a the as well as to the deep regret of
figure eye delighted
to rest upon. With his command- many other friends in various

ing figure and dignified presence, parts of the country.


there was a genial countenance, The Smith was born at
late Dr.
that at once attracted favorable Abbot's Corner, Missisquoi in Feb-
regard. Nature had endowed ruary, 1833. He first graduated
him with mental gifts not less from a medical college in the
rare than his unusual physical State of New York and subse-
ones. A man of wide reading, quently, while still a young man,
ready of speech, scholarly by na- took his degree of M. D., C.-M.,
ture, with a quick mind, he was from McGill University in Mon-
an agreeable companion, and rea- treal. He was a man of consid-

dily adapted himself to every erable literary ability, and was a


phase of mind, to any class or frequent contributor to the col-
gathering of people. It is trite to umns of The News and other per-
say that he will be missed in the iodicals. Hq was the indefatigable
community. Every man is missed Secretary of the Missisquoi His-
one way or another. But it is safe torical Society in fact he was
22 MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.

practically the whole executive SPECIAL MEETING.


board of that organization. The
Stanbridge East, Aug. 15, 1904.
society would probably have died
a natural death long ago had it In accordance with the notice
not been for his persistent efforts previously given a meeting of the
to keep it alive, hoping against Missisquoi County Historical So-
that the day would come ciety was held here to-day. The
hope
when the people of Missisquoi meeting convened at 2 o'clock p.
would take an earnest interest in m., with the senior Honorary
the early history of their coun- President, Judge ,
Lynch in the
chair.
ty, and in the collection
and pre-
servation of its records and tra- Moved by the Rev. E. M. Tay-
ditions. That hope was
this nev- lor seconded by David Westover
er realized was not
the that Chas. O. Jones act as secre-
fully
fault of the lamented deceased. tar}- of the meeting.
Carried.
Dr. Smith was one of the pio-
The honorary President then ex-
neers of the railway interest in
plainedthe reasons for calling the
Stanbridge, and Frelighsburg, and in
meeting referring affecting
it was largely due to. his persist-
terms to the unusual circumst-
ent exertions that the line between
ances attending the death of the
these two villages, .which so long late President Dr. C. Iv Cotton,
,
.

laid dormant, was fmallv rebuilt and of Dr. N. A. Smith, the late
by the Central Vermont, R. R.,
Secretary, which had caused deep-
and became a part of this com-
est regret and profound sorrow.
pany's system in Canada.
The Hon. J. C. McCorkill fol-

Personally and
professionally lowed, expressing deep inter- his
Dr. Smith enjoyed the respect and est in the affairs of the Society,
confidence of the community in and concluded by moving a reso-
which he lived. He was energetic, lution of condolence to the fam-
kind hearted and generous to a ilies of the deceased officers.
fault, and his death is sincerely The above resolution was sec-
mourned by those who know him onded by 0. R. Anderson.
best. Pie leaves a widow and one Carried.
daughter to whom the utmost The election of officers was then
sympathy is extended. The latter proceeded with.
is a professional nurse and she
Moved byiHon. J. C. McCorkill
had at least the satisfaction of
seconded by E. E. Spencer, Esq.
devoting her skill and untiring en- that Jno. P. Noyes be elected Pre-
ergies to her father during his last
sident of the Society. Carried.
illness.
Moved by Hon. McCorkill J. C.
The funeral was held at the Bis- seconded by E. E. Spencer that
hop Stewart Memorial Church, Chas. 0. vTones be chosen to fill
Frelighsburg on Monday and was the position of Secretary.
largelv attended. Carried.
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
Moved by David Westover, sec- The Missisquoi County Historical
onded by Geo. Capsey, that Chas. Society.
S. Moore be chosen to fill the
position of treasurer.
Carried. Constitution.
Moved by Hon. J. C. McCorkill,
NAME.
seconded by J. H. Gough, that
the President and Secretarv con- Article This Society shall be
I.

stitiite a committee to prepare a called The


Missisquoi County
constitution and by-laws for the Historical Society and its officers
Society. and place of business shall be at
Carried. Bedford.
Moved by F. X. Giroux, sec-
onded by E. E. Spencer that a MEMBERS.
vote of thanks be tendered Judge
Article II. The membership of
Iv ynch, the President, and the
the Society shall consist of all
Rev. Ernest M. Taylor, Secretary
persons who shall have paid their
of the Brome County Historical annual membership fee.
Society, for their kindly interest
in our affairs, and the very gener- OBJECTS.
ous aid they have extended since
the organization of our Society. Article III. Its objects shall be

Carried. the preservation of such matters


as shall be of interest as local
The meeting then adjourned at
history, publication of docu-
the
the call of the President.
ments or papers concerning such
history, the improvement of its
members and the acquisition of
such property, real or personal, as
may be needed for the purposes of
ADJOURNED MEETING. the Society.

Stanbridg-e East, Sept. 24, 1904. OFFICERS.


In accordance with the call of
Article IV. Its officers shall
the President a meeting of the
consist of Honorary Presidents, a
Missisquoi County Historical Soc- a Vice President, a Sec-
President,
iety was held here to-day. The
retaty-Treasurer, an Auditor and
meeting was called to order at 2
a Corresponding Secretary for each
o'clock with the President, John
local municipality and town, save
P. Noyes, in the chair.
that the Township of Stanbridge,
The minutes of the last meet- shall be considered as originally
ingwere read and confirmed. constituted with the exception of
The committees appointed for the Town of Bedford, and four Di-
the purpose presented the fol- rectors for each municipality, of
lowing draft of a constitution: which the Corresponding Secretary
MISSISQTJOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
of the Society representing such ed by Charles S. Moore and sec-
municipality shall be one. The onded by Chas. M. Cotton.
Vice-Presidents shall be Presidents Carried.
in their respective municipalities. The Committee also presented
the following draft of By-Laws
EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. for the Society:

There shall be an Ex-


Article V.
ecutive Committee composed of BY-LAWS.
the Honorary Presidents, the Pre-
I. The annual fees of members
sident, Vice-President, the Secre-
shall not be less than twenty-five
tary-Treasurer and Auditor. cents.

ANNUAL MEETING. II. The payment of the sum of


five dollars at one time shall en-
Article VI. There shall be an title the donor to the position of
annual meeting of the Society life member.
held in the month of August each III. Donations or bequests to
year for the election of the said the Society, whether of money,
officers and transaction of busi- personal or movable or immov-
ness. able property may be made in
the legal form and accepted by
MEETINGS. the Secretary-Treasarer for the
Article VII. Special meetings Society whose receipt shall be a
may be called bv the President or sufficient discharge to whom it

at the request of anv two mem- may concern.


bers ofthe Society. The object IV. No sums exceeding five

shall be stated in the call. dollars without the


shall be paid
approval in, writing of the Audi-
1

QUORUMS. tor. The Auditor shall examine


the accounts of the Society from
Article Seven members
VIII.
time to time and shall present a
shall constitute a quorum at any
report at the annual meeting for
meeting of the Society, and three
approval. Whenever required by
shall be the quorum for the Execu-
the President or Executive Com-
tive Committee.
mittee he shall also make an audit
AMENDMENTS TO THE CON- and report.
V. Amendments to these by-
STITUTION.
laws shall be made in the same
Article IX. Amendments to the manner as provided for amend-
Constitution may be made by a ments to the Constitution of the
majority vote of Members, after Society.
notice stated in call of meeting.
After a due consideration these
After duly considering it clause by-laws were adopted on a motion
by clause its adoption as consti- made by Col. A. H. Gilmour and
tution for the Society was mov- seconded by Chas. S. Moore.
The Late Dr. C. L. COTTON, Cowansville.

Ex-President Missisquoi Historical Society.


MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
The election of officers under the Capsey, J. H. Gough, P. J. Bois-
new constitution was proceeded seau,M. D.
with and resulted as follows: Dunham. Secretary, W. S. Ba-
ker. R. P. Small,
Directors
HONORARY PRESIDENTS. David Westover, E. L. Watson, C.
Hon. Judge Lynch. S. Cotton.
Hon. G. B. Baker. Cowansville. Secretary. P. C.
Hon. J. C. McCorkill. Duboyce. Directors, John G. Gib-
son, M. 0. Hart, Rev. W. P. R.
PRESIDENT. Lewis, H. F. Williams.
John P. Noyes. Sweetsburg. Secretary, C. M.
Cotton. Directors F. X. Giroux,
VICE PRESIDENT. G. H. Baker, F. H. Pickle, M. D.
E. F. Spencer. W. F. Shufelt.
Village of Dunham.
Secretary
SECRETARY-TREASURER. Asa Rykert. Directors, Joseph
Chas. 0. Jones, Baker, Joseph Selby, Dr. Stevens
Wm. Baker.
AUDITOR.
Stanbridge, Secretary, C. H.
Chas. S. Moore. Hibbard. Directors, P. C. Moore,
C. E. Blinn, E. H. Eaton, Col.
The local
organization in the A. H. Gilmour.
differentmunicipalities was then Wm.
Clarenceville, Secretary,
proceeded with, resulting in the
Meade Pattison. Directors, John
choice of the following gentle-
A. Hawley, A. W. Strong, M. D.
men as officials in their respect-
Samuel Adams, Rev. Wm. Robin-
ive municipalities.
son.
St. Armand East. Secretary. St. Thomas. Jas.
Secretary,
John Krans. Directors, J. H. Collins, Directors, Stephen Der-
Burley, Ed. Spencer, A. Carpen- rick, B. V. Naylor, R. L- Derrick,
ter, A. J. Ingalls' H. J. Ingalls. Jas. Cochram.
St. Armand West. Secretary, Farnhanr to be chosen later.
Loftus Smith. Directors Peter The By-Laws for the Woman's
Smith, J. C. Beeman, H. N. Committee were adopted as fol-
Sigsby, C. E. Tittemore. lows:
Frelighsburg. Secretary, E. E.
Spencer. Directors, II. C. Blinn,
T. N. Shepherd. Rev. Canon Dav-
BY-LAWS WOMEN'S COM-
idson, A. J. Beedee.
MITTEE.
Philipsburg. Secretary, And-
rew Somerville. Directors, H. B. T. This Committee shall be
Strict, Rev. A. A. Ireland, E. E. known as the Woman's Commit-
Burke, Geo. S. Jones. tee of the Missisquoi County His-
Bedford. Secretary, A. J. Ste- torical Society.
vens. Directors, N. C.;Davies, G. 2. The objects of the Commit-
26 MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
tee are to aid the
Society in its meeting of the Society of which
work collecting and preserving
of each member shall have three
relics of early settlement and do- day's notice.
cuments of an historical nature ;
9- No By-Law shall conflict
to secure an increase in the mem- with article of the
Consti-
any
bership of the Society and aid in tution or by-law of the Society.
creating public sentiment in its
10. Meetings shall be called by
favor.
a notice on the authority of the
3. This committee shall be President or Secretary.
composed of women who are IT. The quorum at any meeting
members of Society and in
the of the Committee shall be live
future be selected at the annual
members, and of the Executive
meeting of
the Society, by bal- Committee shall be three mem-
lot or
otherwise, but shall con- bers.
tinue in office until their success-
ors shall have been selected at The adoption of these by-laws
such meeting. This Committee was moved by Z. E. Beeman and
shall consist of two Honorary seconded by M. H. Hibbard.
Presidents, a President, a Vice- Carried.
President, and one woman elect- The further organization of the
ed from each Municipality in the
Woman's Committee was deferred
County provided by Article IV of
until a later meeting.
the Constitution of the Society,
There being no further urgent
and a Secretary, not necessarily
business the meeting adjourned to
a member of the Committee.
meet at the call of the president.
4.The Committee shall report CHAS. 0., JONES,
to the Annual Meeting of the Soc- Secretar.
iety and more often if required
by the President or Secretary of
the Society.
5. The Committee shall endeav-
Annual Meeting.
or to interest the public in the
work of the Society by keeping
its objects before the people in a
social manner. Bedford, Aug. 26, 1905.
6.This Committee shall have
The annual meeting of the Miss-
a Sub-Committee which shall, for
isquoi County Historical Society
convenience, be composed of mem- was held in St. James Church
bers in or near Bedford.
Hall to-day.
7. The
ordinary rules of par- The meeting was attended by
liamentary procedure shall govern about sixty persons from every
the meetings of the Committee. the county,
in ex-
municipality
8. These By-Laws may be cepting Farnham, which sent no
amended or added to at any representative.
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 27

those present were Hon-


Among existence several years, and its progress
has been marked with no events likely to
orable J. C. McCorkill, Messrs.
revolutionize historical methods, or to at-
Jno. P. Noyes, E. R. Smith, tract widespread attention for work per-
Rev. Ernest M. Taylor, Secretary formed in the line for which it was or-
ganized. Last when the Society
of the Brome County Society. E. year,
was practically forgotten, its President
E. Spencer, G. H. Baker, Wilfred and Secretary died within a few days of
Dion, Rev. H. W. Nye, Rev. Wil- each other, leaving it in a state of or-

liam Robinson, J. JVMullin, David phanage and disorganization. Fortunately


Judge Lynch, whose judicial functions are
Vaughan, G. H. Kemp, Col. A. in part the care of waifs, had been the
H. Gilmour, Thos. Hunter, Asa founder of the Society, as a native born
son of Missisquoi, and had been made an
Rykert, E. L. Watson, F. X. Gi-
honorary President. On the suggestion of
roux, Moore, Wm. Meade
C. S. some members of the Society he conven-
Pattison, Rev. A. A. Ireland, Rev. ed a meeting at Stanbridge East last

R. Y. Overing, C. H. Hibbard, Z. August, at which officers were elected. It


was then discovered that no by-laws or
Cornell, Wm. Baker, and J. E. regulations had been enacted, though the
McKee, Joseph Sawyer, M. S. Society had been legally incorporated. A
Connell, Wm. Baker and J. E. committee was appointed to remedy that
default, and at a meeting also held at
Scott, and others.
Stanbridge East in Sept. last, by-laws
Mrs.W. A. Moore, Mrs. S.A. C. were adopted and thereunder the present
officers were elected. A .complete organi-
Morgan, Miss B.A. Noyes, Miss Ste- zation was not perfected seeing that the
vens, Miss Fuller, Mrs. Freleigh' meeting was thinly attended and but
Miss Ireland, Mrs. A. H. Derrick, few localities represented. A Woman's
were among the ladies present. Auxiliary Branch was partly organized at
the same time by the election of a Pre-
The meeting was opened by the sident. The full organization of that, as
well as of the Society, was left to be
President, Mr. Jno. P. Noyes with perfected later, and to a great extent
a few
introductory remarks. both have failed. At that last meeting
The minutes of the meetings of it was decided
to hold meetings through-
out the county to excite a deeper inter-
the society during the year were
est in the work, secure members, com-
read by the Secretary, Mr. Chas. plete the organization and solicit a more
0. Jones, and upon motion were active co-operation on the part of those
well disposed towards the Society. A va-
approved. The president addressed
riety of untoward circumstances retarded
the society as follows: this intention. The elections, federal and
local, the necessaryabsence of the Secre-
PRESIDENT NOYES' ADDRESS. tary and the illness of the President ex-
hausted the autumn and winter seasons,
I shall be as brief as possible in what and when spring came there was little

I have in respect to hope of doing much in opposition to ag-


,to say to-day my of-
ficial work during the past year. I
ricultural operations. As it was, four
regret to say the past records of the meetings were held at Cowansville, Fre-

Society are not voluminous or instruc- lighsburg,Dunham and Bedford the two
tive. Indeed, had it not been for the
firstunder the supervision of our zealous
timely forethought of the President of the Secretary alone, whilst at the two last
Woman's Auxiliary Branch we should have I was able to join him, assisted bv other

been without any records at all of the gentlemen. A picnic of the Society was also
past doings of the Society. held at Isle aux Noix early in July, org-
As the Secretary in his report will
anized by that zealous and efficient work-
give the business data of the past year I er, Wm. Mead Pattison, Esquire, who
shall content myself with more favored those attending with a paper up-
general
matters. Our Society has now been in on the island, later to be extended and
28 MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
published. I regret to say, that neither It is possible I take a too gloomy
at the meetings, nor at the picnic was view of the situation. But, after all,
there such an attendance as to indicate whilst I feel justified in complaining of
a strong feeling favorable to the Society, the lack of assistance and encouragement
though I have no doubt there were ex- given the Society's officers during the
tenuating circumstances for this in each year, I am inclined to think some
good
instance. has been done, which, later, may pro-
Apart from what I have just mention- duce results of some value. The seed has
ed, the most important work in the gen- been sown, not too industriously, per-
eral trend of the Society, in my opinion, haps, but it is hoped that it may fruc-
has been the publication of historical notes tify. There has been talk here and thp.ro
in a special column kindly given for our about the Society and its work and less
use in The News by its eenerous publish- questioning as to its use and value. The
ers, Messrs. E. R. Smith & Son. Mrs. note of sneering disparagement of the
Theodora Moore reluctantly consented to Society heard when formerly mentioned
be its editor and it is not her fault if has mostly disappeared, leading to the
contributions have not been what they hope that greater interest will be shown
ought to have been. I think that I owe and work of a more lasting character wi'.l
it to Mrs. Moore to
say that her reluct- be considered worthy of our people.
ance was not due to want of interest in Need I say that I share the belief of
the Society, but rather to a too modest those who claim that a people who take
estimate of her qualifications. What she no pride in their ancestry, are indifferent
has done with the material furnished in- as to what their forbears did in the brave
dicate that no mistake was made in the days of old and hape no curiosity as
selection of an editor of that column. It to how
they be re themselves in the stress
is a pity that out of the great mass of of early settlement, is a people greatly

interesting and Valuable material scatter- to be pitied. There is, in every well
ed here and there throughout the constituted mind, a strong attachment to
county,
so little has been gathered for that col- the place where one is born ond reared,
umn which later could be put in shape and a stronger attachment for those
for a long contemplated local history.
from whom cne is descended. It is to
The disinclination to help is not reassur- bring together facts and incidents to
ing. A not inconsiderable number of well show that one has reason to be proud
meaning people seem imbued with the not only of the land, but the spot there-
idea that it is the duty of some one of, in which he was born, and an equal-
else, some unnamed and unknown party, ly strong reason to reverence the mem-
to roam about the county and ferret out ory of the hardy stock from which one,

and write up incidents which no one takes his origin, that this Society has
could do so effectively as those personal- been organized. I am not alone in the
ly cognizant of those incidents or have opinion that the county of Missis>quoi af-
traditional knowledge of them. A plain fords a larger field for local bistory than
statement by plain people could later be any other county in the Eastern Town-
put in shape and would be useful and ef- ships. I can say this without beina;
fective for the purposes of local
history. charged with local vain-glory or boast-
It is not loftycomposition that is need- fulness, seeing that I am not a native of

ed so much
as facts, incidents, traditions the county, and it has no special claim
and family records. Unless more zealous upon me. It was the first of those coun-
local help can be given, or adequate fi- ties in which permanent settlement was
nancial means provided for it to be done made and continuously and prosperously
by others, it is obvious that little pro- carried on. The character and orior lo-
gress can be made towards local history cation of most of those early settlers dif-

of a permanent value. In the meantime, fered inmany important respects from


on behalf of the Society, I feel it my those who settled in the other counties.
duty my
pleasant duty to express our Its location placed it in a unique posi-
great obligation to Messrs. Smith & Son tion compared with others. It was from
for granting us space in their paper for the earliest known records the highway of
our historical notes as well as for their border warfare. It is the only county in
general interest and help, and to Mrs. the Eastern Townships in which armwt
Theodora Moore for her earnest and ex- men have faced one another in battle IT-
cellent work in editing that column. ray, in mortal combat, in some ofwbich.
The Late Dr. N. A. SMITH, of Stanbridge East.

Ex-Secretary-Treasurer Missisquoi Historical Society.


MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 29

on different occasions, the valiant sons of it This must be done


will not be done.
the county bore no insignificant part. cheerfully and ungrudgingly and that peo-
Nor can there be any question that it ple have the means to do it, if so inclin-
was a sturdy race of people who began ed. What we need is not less than 1000

pioneer life in the county of ?4issisquoi


members and an annual membership fee
a people inured to privations and hard- of not less than $1.00 each though $2.00 ;

ships, but brave of heart and full of would be better to be continued until the
hope for the future, despite discourage- objects mentioned have been accomplished
ments the magnitude of which we. to-day, when a lower fee will meet all require-
can scarcely conceive. The traditions re- ments. With such an income suitable per-
sons could he engaged to gather up ma-
specting them ought to be of the deepest
interest to us whoenjoying the
are now terial for local history in each locality

results of their labors. The story of and competent persons employed to write
those old pioneers deserves to be rescued such history. It is useless to expect
from oblivion. It is to do that, that this spontaneous offerings or that people will
Society has been organized. It is to con-
do the work without recompense. We
sider means and take steps to carry out have no right to be so exacting .as to de-
the purposes of such organization that mand it. A building for a museum could
be purchased and the old relics and sou-
we have met to-day.
The real oojects oi iiie Society then venirs could be picked up and housed for
a ad the gratification those to come
must gather all the incidents
be, to
of after
us.
traditions respecting early settlement,
in In a rich county, with
all things connected with the pioneers the population
that settlement, and put the whole in of Missisquoi, containing so many repre-
us mav sentatives of the old families of pioneers
shape that those who come after
like us, be groping after things un- and early settlers, and in such comfort-
not,
seen. To accomplish this we must bend able circumstances as to worldly sub-
our energies to two objects. 1. Full anil stance, there is no reason the mem^ why
complete histories of the several
munici- bership and annual
should not be as
fee
and The pro- stated. I am asking
palities in the county 2. ; you to look at the
foi matter not only from the practical, busi-
curing or construction of a building
a museum to contain relics and souven- ness point of view, but as loyal, patrio-
the early settlement. tic sons and daughters of
irs of Missisquoi. For
There are 'many such local histories, and there must always be the question of
museums in the New England Sta:es sentiment to help the thing along. The
There is no reason why we should L-ot experience of the past few years in the
have them. It is merely a matter of history of the Society teaches that but
taking hold with determination in the little can be expected from voluntary ef-

right spirit. But these things cost mon- fort, no matter how well directed. We
ey. It is idle to dream of some un s-
-
l
:
must employ workers, and to do that
covered philanthropist doing this before must have money, and a good deal of it,
we have ourselves shown some earnest in- for a time. Unless these things be done I
terest in attempting to bring it about. can see no
future for the Society no
Let us face the situation bravely and be hope of anything substantial being ac-

practical men and women. To-day our complished. It is for the people of Missis-
assets are nil. The annual membership qjuoi to decide. I have conceived it to be

fee has been placed at the abnormally my duty, in the interests of the Society,
low sum of 25 cents. There are less than to state the needs and leave the matter
100 members of the Society. The sum for your consideration. I dislike to even
realized is insufficient to pay postage and think that the people of old Missisquoi
printing of the simplest kind for ordinary lack sufficient public spirit to make the
routine work. The' officers of the Society Society a success. In the hands of my
have not only worked gratuitously, but successor I shall hope for better results.
have paid from their own means consider- I feel a deep interest in the Society, in
able sums of money to carry on the which I have been a member from the
work Society. That practice can-
of the start not as a son of Missisquoi for,
not always continue and should not. The like my predecessor I am a native of an
people of the county of Missisquoi must adjoining county but because I believe
furnish the money to carry on the work the county has a history in which the
and accomplish the objects mentioned or whole Eastern Townships should share
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
and a pride. shall at all times be
I sympathy. I am as sensible as
feel any one
willing to do my
part in helping the can be that more might have been ac-
Society to accomplish the laudable ob- complished, and it has been a source of
jects I have mentioned, but I shall no deep regret to me that I have been un-'
longer fill the office to which I was un- able to do all that I felt ought to have
willingly elected last year. It is a posi- been done, or all which you probably ex-
tion which naturally belongs to a son of pected from me.
the county, and which can only be awk- I cordially and sincerely thank all those
wardly filled by one born elsewhere. Be- who have in any way helped during the

sides, other duties prevent my continu- past year, and I promise to loyally co-
ance in the office. It may not be neces- operate with and help those who may in
sary for me to mention my intention. the future direct the affairs of the So-
You may have already reached the con- ciety, in so far as I can.
clusion that a change in the office of

President will not harm the society, a


conclusion in which I could heartily con-
cur.

I conclude without expressing;


cannot
my appreciation of our
sincere zealous The Secretary, Mr. Jones then present-
Secretary, Mr. Jones, for his cordial and
ed his report as follows :

intelligent co-operation in all things tend-


ing to benefit the Society during the past
year. His knowledge of the workings of
SECRETARY'S REPORT.
such a Society, and his keen interest in HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
MISSISQUOI
its work, have greatly lightened my la-

bors and have been of great benefit to Mr. Charles 0. Jones, Secretary, then
the Society. He brought order out of read his report as follows In making:

chaos in our records and has been inde- this, my first report as Secretary of the
fatigable in promoting our special work. Missisquoi Historical Society, I shall con-
I feel he is entitled to this
recognition, fine myself as far as possible to a con-
in default of other, for his zealous and sideration of its business interests and
unselfish labors which no one better than endeavor to present as exact a measure of
myself, from the position you gave me, its progress during the year as may be.
can so well appreciate their value. The Society, as you are aware, suffered
the almost crushing misfortune last year
Personally, I have reason to feel grati-
of losing both its executive officers by
fied during my official term for many the death of Dr. C. L. Cotton, the Presi-
pleasant acquaintances which otherwise I
dent, and Dr. N. A. Smith, the Secre-
should never have made for a corres-
tary. A meeting was called by the Sen-
;

pondence which has been instructive and ior Honorary President, the Hon. Judge
agreeable, and for information upon manv
would Lynch, to be held at Stanbridge East on
matters which I scarcely think
the 15th of August, 1904. At this meet-
have come to my notice had it not been
ing, which was composed of representa-
for the position I held in the Society.
tives from every portion of the County of
Abroad, at a distance from home, it
Missisquoi, the Society was reorganized.
seems to have been thought creditable and
Among those who took part in the pro-
honorable to be President of your Soci-
ceedings at this meeting were Honor- :

ety, as I have reason to know. It


is bet-
able Judge Lynch, Hon. J. C. McCaskill,
ter to quit before, being found out. I can
Lieut.-Col. Ibbotson, Rev. E. M. Taylor,
only hope that my successor, to justify Rev. W. P. R. Lewis, Messrs. F. X. A.
our goo'd name abroad, will accomplish
Giroux, Col. A. H. Gilmour, P. C. Moore
more and be able to make the Society
C. S. Moore, John P. Noyes, Chas.
something more than a pleasant sounding O. J. H. Gough, C. H. Hib-
Jones,
name.
bard, A. J. Beedee, E. E. Spencer, E. J.
would be ungracious in me not
It to Scagel, 0. R. Anderson, David Vaughan,
I appreciated your kindness in Geo. Capsey, Mr. and Mrs. H. C. Blinn,
say that
the past. I shall always feel grateful for Mr. and Mrs. W. I. Briggs, Mr. and Mrs.
the distinguished mark of favor conferred A. E. Moore and Mrs. Theodora Moore.
in making me your President, as well as The result of this meeting, as stated be-

for many words of encouragement and of fore, was the reorganization of the So-
MISSISQU01 COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
ciety,and among other things the Presi- On February 15th a second meeting was'
dent and Secretary were appointed a com- held at Although the wea-
Frelighsburg.
mittee to draft a suitable constitution ther was extremely and the roads
cold,
and by laws. At a subsequent meeting in a very poor condition from a recent
held Stanbridge East, the work
also at storm, there was a very fair turnout.
of this committee was ratified and an The Vice-President of the Society, Mr. E.
active campaigne at once projected by E. Spencer, presided. The local organiza-
the executive. tion was discussed and steps taken to .

at once placed myself in touch


I with perfect it. Messrs. John Krans, Rev.
interested parties in every portion of the George Mossup, A. J. Beedee, H. C.
county in an attempt to awaken interest Blinn, P. Spencer, A. Ingalls and T.
and to bring the Society and its objects Shepherd all interested themselves in the
prominently before the people. A series matter and after the discussion, it was
of meetings in the different local centres decided that Mr. A. J. Beedee should act
was decided upon, but from causes of as Secretary of the local organization andi
which I will speak later it was found ;
an active campaign was at once project-
necessary to abandon many of them. The ed. Unfortunately Mr. Beedee's health
Historical Notes Column in the St. failed, and the work of collecting the
Johns News was also inaugurated under data required in St. Armand East has
the direction of Mrs. Theodora Moore, of been neglected. Mr. Beedee, whose death
Stanbridge East, and by this means ensued shortly after, was a deeply inter-
much ground was covered. It has tended ested and valued member of our Society
greatly to increase tne interest in the and I wish to place on record my appre-
Society and extend its influence. Mrs. ciation of his unselfish labors in our be-
Moore is deserving of our warmest thanks half.

for all the sacrifices she has shown in On


April 29th a meeting was held in

discharging the duties which have devolv- the Town


Hall in the village of Dun-
ed upon her in connection with this ham. The attendance was smaller than at
work. any one of the previous meetings but ;

The projected meetings of the Society much interest was shown. The President
were delayed by circumstances almost be- of the Society presided. The Hon. Sena-
yond our control. It seemed as if the tor Baker, who had driven in from Bol-
fates were opposed -to our plans. The ton some twenty miles distant, under
few meetings which we were able to hold, weather conditions which were anything
were held under the most adverse circum- but favorable, especially to attend this
stances. To fix the date for a meeting meeting, gave an address dealing with
seemed the forecast of a violent snow, "Old Time Dunham," his birthplace. The
rain, or wind storm ;
nevertheless we per- discussion which followed and which was
severed. The meeting was held at
initial participated in by Asa Rykert, E. L.
Cowansville on the evening of January Watson, Dr. Stevens, R. P. Small, Jas.
31st., under the auspices of the Literary Baker and the Rev. H. Plaisted was
Society of that place. The meeting was very interesting and encouraging.
very largely attended and was presided On the 3rd of June we held a meeting
over by the Rev. Dr. Larmour. Through in the Town Hall at Bedford. At this
the illness of the President of our So- meeting the President, Secretary and
ciety, the duty of explaining the aims Messrs. E. Westover, G. H. Baker and F.
and objects of the Society devolved up- X. A. Giroux delivered addresses. Messrs.
on me. I also endeavored to interest the Geo. Capsey, F. C. Saunders and N.
audience in some of the incidents of the C. Davies also interested themselves in

early settlement of Missisquoi. In this, the proceedings. I regret to say, that in


I was partially successful, as an interest- Bedford, although my native town, it is
ing and animated discussion followed, in very difficult to awaken much interest in
which Dr. Larmour, Joseph Messrs. the affairs of our Society.
Smythe, P. C. Duboyce, Rev. W. H. Wat- Our annual outing took the form of an
son, C. P. Taber and others participated. excursion to Isle Aux Noix on July 5th,
From the very lively interest shown at where a very pleasant day was passed
this .meeting it is most regrettable that inspecting the antiquated fortifications of
some local official of the Society does Fort Lennox. The threatening weather
not move in the matter of perfecting the and lack of proper advertising caused a
local organization. rather meagre attendance but on the
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
whole I would pronounce the affair a suc- sonal acquaintance, yet, I know him to
cess. We are much indebted to Mr. Wil- be a warm supporter of the Society, and
liam Mead Pattison for the interest he I am indebted to him for many valuable
exhibited in the matter and for the most suggestions during the year which have
excellent paper which he read at the time tended to make my work easier and more

on Fort Lennox.
effective. I refer to Mr. William Mead
I venture to refer briefly to the matter Pattison, of Olarenceville, and I would
take this occasion to express my appreci-
of finance in connection with our Society,
ation of the kindness and interest shown
it not being altogether outside my par-
ticular function as Secretary. It must be by him and other friends of the Society
in this respect.
obvious to any person who considers the
I wish also to place on record my ap-
matter at all, that it is futile to attempt
work real ob- preciation of the unvarying kindness and
serious in furthering the
self-sacrificing interest of our chief ex-
jects the Society with an income
of so
ecutive, Mr. Noyes. I have always found
meagre as scarcely to meet ordinary ex-
in him, a friend of experience and judg-
penses of office and correspondence. There ment
A. constant outlay, small
always willing to confer and ad-
;

is much to do.
vise about the most trivial matters
though it may be, is inevitable. The
touching the interest of the Society, and
growth matter
in the of correspondence
it is only due to him to
say that our
alone creates an ever increasing demand
success, whatever it may have been if I
upon our income.
may employ the term, is due in a great
The officers work gratuitously. It is
measure to him alone.
too much to ask them to do this, and, A retrospective view of the year's work,
at the same time pay the running ex-
while not likely to afford us any .final
as well as their
penses of the Society
satisfaction, yet on the other hand, can-
own personal expenses. Our present in-
not prove entirely discouraging. We have
come is palpably inadequate to successful- -

broken the ground, and it now remains


ly carry on the work of the Society, and for us to prosecute the work, vigorously,
steps should be taken to remedy this.
intelligently and unremittingly. What a
Prom every source during the year we de- field we have before us No event of !
'

rived an income of $23.95. By practising


great historical significance may have
the most rigid economy, and bringing to occured in Missisquoi but our county's ;

bear on the matter energies which should is richer in historical


history incident
have been employed in doing other work than any our sister counties in
of the
of the Society, I was enabled to admin- district of Bedford. What we have to do,
ister our business affairs and report a
is to unravel the past, to locate 'and mark

surplus of lie. About 50 per cent, of our the highways


plainly by which our
expenditure was for printing, as I am a fathers journeyed to our present position
firm believer in the use of "printer's of comfortable affluence.
ink." The balance was postage, sta-
for But this report has already gone be-
tionary and incidental expenses. After
yond the limit of my original intention,
fullv considering the matter, I have come and for this reason and for fear of laying
to the conclusion that it is entirely in- myself open to the a
charge of being
compatible with the execution of the sort of historical "sign post," pointing
work to say nothing of the dignity of our the way for others but never travelling
;

Society to endeavor to administer its in it myself, I will conclude. But be-


affairs with the limited means at the fore doing so, I wish to say a few words
command of the executive. regarding my declining re-election as
Another matter to which I wish to re-
Secretary of this Society. It is not be-
fer in this report, is, the extensive cor- cause of any loss of interest on my part,
respondence which I have maintained with nor discouragement at the diffidence or
the friends of the Society in every part of lack of interest on the part of others,
the county during the year. From this that I take this course but only for the
;

source I have derived much pleasure and reason 'that time and means will not
my
are reached by this
Many
encouragement. permit the sacrifice. I am actively en-
means who would be difficult to reach gaged in a business the interests of which
otherwise. One of those correspondents I require my most unremitting attention,
wish to especially mention, although I and rather than neglect* the duties devolv-
have not the pleasure of an intimate per- ing upon the Secretary of the Society, I
J. P. NOYES, Esq., Cowansvllle, Ex-President Missisquoi Historical Society.
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 33

prefer to make way for someone who is a moral and philosophical respect for
can at least give them the measure of at- our ancestors which elevates the charac-
tention necessary to the well being of the ter and impresses the heart."
Society and the active promotion of its The question naturally arises, "What
work. can we do ?" It is said that woman is
I spoke of not losing interest. It would intuitive to a remarkable and, degree ;

be impossible for me to, do that. I must


indeed, she does seem instinctively to
retain my interest in things historical make ways and means to carry on any
for the reason that it is an inborn char-
work which particularly interests her. We
acteristic. I may be counted upon to do have received encouragement from many,
my best at all times to promote the in-
and promises of help as well, from oth-
terests of the and perform to
Society, ers. To illustrate what may be and
the best of my
any duty required
ability what has been done by some of the wont-
of me as a member of the Society and en members of the Missisquoi Historical
to ever look with interest and satisfac-
Society, we refer to a letter which was
tion on every forward movement, hoping
published in the Historical Notes column
that ultimately the realization of our of the Bedford News of May 19th last,
hopes will be the full measure of our suc- signed "Constant Reader." In relating
cess. incidents the names of several of the
first in St. Armand
settlers were re-

called, and there was evidence that our


Mrs. Theodora Moore, of Stanbridge, Society had been the subject of conversa-
tion at social gatherings, also that rel-
East, President of the Woman's Commit- ics were prized witness the re-produc-
as,
tee of the Society, presented her annual tion of the quaint old invitation to a
ball, dated "Missisquoi Bay, Dec. 21st,
report or address as follows: 1793." Then, in an issue of the same
paper of the 16th of June we have a
PRESIDENT OF THE WOMEN'S AUX- concise history of one highly esteemed
ILIARY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. and well known family, and in that of the
When the Women's Branch of the Mis- 23rd of June a paper on "Incidents in

sisquoi Historical Society was created at the Canadian Rebellion of '37-'38" both
the meeting of the Society last year, it written by a daughter of H. J. Thomas,
was suggested that, as meetings of the a daughter of the Thomas famous for
Society were held in different municipali- the conspicuous part he played as Editor
ties of the county,members of the Com- of a Radical paper during the troublous
mittee of that branch should be appoint- times of the Canadian Rebellion. A pa- '

ed by the residents of the locality where thetic story of real life is there unpre-
the meeting was held. The suggestion tentiously told. A copy of a letter care-
was not carried out, except in Dunham, fully kept and cherished for sixty-six
where we were pleased to learn officially years is given to the world, telling how
that Miss Baker, of the Dunham Ladies adherence to principles called for the
College Miss Clara Watson and Miss
;
sacrifice of domestic happiness. And,
Jessie Small had been appointed for this quite recently, in the historical column,
branch of historical work. We sincerely dated llth August we have the out-
hope, after this , annual meeting, that lines of the romantic story of Catherine
there maybe a better understanding ;
McDonald, written by one of her great
that women be chosen to represent
may great granddaughters. It is hoped that
every part of the county that, as the ;
the other descendants now living will
scheme or plan of work develops, a live- contribute more facts to this interesting
lier interest may be awakened and that sketch, which would be a fit subject for
much as well as pleasure
profit, may be romance.
derived from engaging in a work which It should be a pleasure to visit the
should produce an influence, soft-
refining, and gather all
possible knowledge
aged
ening, reverential.
from them concerning the early times,
A quotation from Daniel Webster which for we have reached a period in the nis-
was read by the President of this
Society tory of the county in which tradition has
at a former meeting here,
gives a thought become an important factor. It is, in-
worth remembering. It this "There what
is :
deed, surprising interesting incidents
34 MISS1SOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
are related by those elderly people. For methods of our neighbors to the south
instance, not long ago, in conversation of us commendable, when,
is in their
with a friend, she said that 'she had of- schools the children are taught the geo-
ten been a playmate of Chester Arthur, graphy and history of their own native
afterwards President of 'the United States, town first then the county, afterwards
;

when his father, known as "Elder Ar- the State, then the United States before
thur," taught school in the old school- other countries are mentioned, except in-
house in Stanbridge East another tells
; cidentally when necessary to the history
us of the mass meeting held in the old of the United States. There can be no
St. James Church, Stanbridge, when the question but that such instruction is

renowned Hon. Louis Papineau was the conducive to patriotism, therefore let

principal speaker, and again we learn us try to bring out all that is lovely
that the distinguished singer, Madame Al- to see and all that is desirable to know

bani made her debut in a little obscure about the native town, the home, for are
hall, known at the
time as the "Good not lovers, of home the best citizens ? Let
Fellows Hall," which stood opposite the us hope for more enthusiasm and zeal on
Stanbridge Academy. Thus three notable this subject, in fact, enough genuine in-
in his-
persons whose names will appear terest so that in every school district in
have been actors in scenes in that the county there may l;e generous, patri-
tory,
almost unknown, obscure little village. otic individuals or an individual, who
The history Stanbridge Academy will
of will offer a prize for the best essay or
reveal the fact that from among the paper on some local incident of historic
teachers and the pupils of that institu- value, to be competed for by the pupils
tion there have been many who have at- of the school. It would help wonderfully
tained and position in
influence the in so many ways. It would give untold

Church and in the army, in literature and pleasure to the aged as they are con-
in art, and worthy representatives in law sulted and encouraged to relate the inci-
medicine, and in the commercial and dents of early life when the world was
industrial world. It is pleasant to recall all before them it would encourage ob-
;

these things in thought and conversation, servation and stimulate facility of expres-
as we have done recently when discussing sion in the young it would be an
;
in-

historicalmatters. centive to reading something substantial


To my mind, one of the most important and it would create in the young a rever-
things we should undertake, the Society ence for the past which would advance
as well as the Woman's Branch, is to rather than retard their future. All this
awaken an interest in local history in the would help to dispel an ignorance which,
children. Many of them are born lovers at times is truly humiliating.
of history, as is shown by the delight Is it too much to ask or expect
that
so apparent when they listen to tales of our Society and the Woman's Branch of
bygone times, when grandfather and that Society should zealously and gener-
grandmother were children. To develop ously contribute for such obviously com-
this innate taste for local history means mendable ends ?(
more than appears at first sight. The

Several gentlemen then address- The News he said when he open-


ed the meeting. The Hon. Mr. Me ed that paper he had acquired the
Corkill expressed a deep interest habit of looking at that column
in the Society, and said that when first.

he received the notice of the an- The Rev. Ernest M. Taylor the
nual meeting he felt that he must Secretary of the Brome County
attend. Mr. McCorkill tendered his Society, next spoke, bringing
services in any possible capacity greetings from the sister Society
in forwarding the work. In allus- and regrets from the Hon. Judge
ion to the historical column in Lynch, the President, at not being
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 35

able to attend. Mr. Taylor told PRESIDENT.


of the work done in Brome, and Chas. O. Jones.
spoke of the history of his comi-
ty now under course oT pro- V ICE-PR ES DENT I .

duction and expressed his apprec-


E. E. Spencer.
iation of the good beginning made
in Missisquoi. SECRETARY.
Rev. II. W. Nye spoke of the ad- Chas. S. Moore.
visability of interesting the chil-
dren in the Society and its aims. AUDITOR.
Mr. E. R. Smith, after a humor- F. X. A. Giroux
ous allusion to Mr. McCorkill's
admission of reading the News PRESIDENT OF WOMAN'S
spoke of old time Philips- COMMITTEE.
burg, of which he is a native. Mrs. S. A. A. Morgan.
Mr. William Meade Pattison one
of the founders of the Society,
and despite his years, one of its Moved by Rev. Wm. Robinson,
most active supporters, spoke very seconded by G. H. Baker that the
president and secretary comprise a
interestingly of Caldwell's Manor,
an old-time establishment in the committee to revise the list of
western part of the countv, the local officials as may be found
very location of which has al- necessary.
most faded from the minds of Carried.
men.
Mr. Jos. Sawyer, an old resi- The question of finances was
then considered, and
a after
dent of Stanbridge, 90 years of
told some incidents of the lengthy discussion it was moved
age.
by the Rev. Wm. Robinson, sec-
long ago, concerning the locali-
ties with which he was familiar. onded by E. I,. Watson that the
Messrs. F. X. A. Giroux, Rev. annual membership fee be increas-
William Robinson, E. Iv. Watson, ed from twenty-five cents to one

Thos. Hunter and Wilfred Dion dollar to provide finances to


also spoke briefly. meet the annual charges of the
The election of officers was then Society.
proceeded with as follows: Carried.

HON. PRESIDENTS. There being no further business,


Hon. Judge I/ynch. the meeting was adjourned.
Hon. Geo. B. Baker.
Hon. J. C. McCorkill. CHAS 0. JONES,
Mr. John P. Noyes. Secretarv.
MISSISQTJOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.

Early History of Dunham.

SUBJECT OF MEETING OF MISSISQUpI HISTORICAL SOCIETY.

ADDRESSES IJY PRESIDENT AND SECRETARY AND BY HON. G. B. BAKER.

(From the News Report.)

The Missisquoi Historical Soc- building of the first cheese fac-

iety held a meeting in the Town tory in the Dominion of Canada


Hall here Saturday evening, May here. At the conclusion of Mr.
2, The attendance, although
1905. Jones' address, the President call-
not large, was representative and ed upon the speaker of the even-
considerable interest was shown ing. Hon. Senator Baker, who
in the affairs of the society. was a native of Dunham. Mr.
The President of the Society, Baker spoke of many interesting,
Mr. John P. of Cowans- episodes of early Dunham, and lo-
Noyes
was and presided, cated the site of the registry
ville, present
office of the county before its re-
and in hisopening address dealt
with the society's history, moval to Bedford, Mr. Baker re-
fully
ferred to the comparative import-
and showed clearly the advan-
ance of Dunham and spoke of
tages preserving such local
of
historical date as yet remained ex- Bedford, the present seat as be-

tant. Mr. Noyes gave a very in- ing of mushroom growth.


teresting address and was well As an evidence of Mr. Baker's
received. interest in the society and its

At the conclusion of his address aims, itan interesting fact to


is

the President introduced the sec-


mention in passing that he had
driven from Bolton expressly to
retary, Mr. Charles O. Jones, of
attend the meeting.
Bedford, who spoke of the plans
and aims of the society in con- At the conclusion of Mr. Baker's
nection with its work in each interesting address, Messrs. E. I,.
municipality and gave a very gen- Watson, Dr. Stevens, Mr. Asa Ry-
eral invitation to to kert and Mr. Joseph Baker spoke,
everyone
make use of the historical notes all referring to Dunham's early
columns in in- historv and expressed their inter-
making public any
est in the society's work.
teresting facts known to them. Mr.
Jones, also, alluded to some in- This was the first meeting ever
teresting facts touching the earl- held by the society in Dunham,
ier days of Dunham, such as the and the local organization being
location of the county seat at perfected by the choice of a la-
Dunham at one time, and the dies' committee to aid in prose-
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 37

cuting the work, it is quite like- the Missisquoi Agricultural Soc-


ly that other meetings will soon iety if 1836 to '54. A notarial-
follow. The following ladies wer.e copy of original grant of the
chosen on the committee : Miss lands in Dunham to the Hon.
Kmma Baker, Dunham Ladies
'

Thomas Dunn and his associates


College Miss Jessie Small
;
and in 1796.
Miss Clara Watson. At the close of the meeting a
Several interesting relics were considerable number of those
exhibited by some of the gentle- present availed themselves of the
men present, such as copies of opportunity of becoming members
newspapers bearing dates from of the societv.
1836 to 1860, several prize lists of

MISSISQUOI.
Its Origin and Meaning.

continue in the future, as they


have in the past, to be the chief
At odd intervals, for a consider- support of each theory advanced
able period of time, there has been for the name. And singly, or all
enquiry as to the origin and the together, they are as likely to be
meaning of the word Missisquoi false as true, as untenable as
a word which has given name to convincing. The name is striking
a County of this Province, and a and peculiar, attributes which na-
bay and river which lie partly in turally excite the curiosity of
and partly outside its territory. antiquarian minds. It is admitted-
A more lively outbreak has oc- ly of Indian origin, but interest
curred during the past year, centres in the effort to know whe-
which has reached the stage of ther it was a selection, and by
antiquarian discussion, presumed- whom, or an accident, and how,
ly the court of last report. But, or a growth and under what Cir-
after all has been said and writ- cumstances.
ten, it can scarcely be claimed It seems eminently lit and pro-
that the shreds of history brought per that the Co,unty Historical
into service have made the de- Society should bring together in
cision any more conclusive or its first authorized publication
more generally acceptable.Con- the different views which have
jecture, inference, comparison and been put forth as to the origin
tradition, it appears likelv, must and meaning of the word, as
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.

well as the proof which has been Saturday's publication of the


furnished in
support of particular Daily Gazette, Montreal, under the
theories, or furnished in support title " Old and New," Wm. 'Meade
of no authority at all, That -is Pattison, of Clarenceville, a dili-
what we propose to do. It is to gent searcher after local history,
begin at the beginning. It may not and E. L. Watson, of Dunham,
be a high ambition in a worldly whose critical studies of literary
sense. The sordid man may even subjects eminently fit him for an-
call it trivial, but can anything tiquarian work, Mention mip-ht
rightly be called trivial which at- also be made of Mr. R. S. Mar-
tracts the critical attention of a tin,an intelligent Dunham farmer
considerable number of cultured who wrote in the St. Johns News
men and women. At all events a few years ago, that some sixtv
there is a natural curiosity which years before he had been taught
deserves to be satisfied and in the that Missisquoi was an Indian
attempt and
even general
local name meaning " Much Water
history may be uncovered, which Fowl." Other information has
may add to the stock of general been solicited, some of which is

information, of which the world made use of in this paper.


can never have too much. I shall take first the paper of

Judge Girouard, which appeared


II.
in the September number (1905),
The severalnames and mean- of the Bulletin des Recherches
ings of the word " Missisquoi," Historiques Quebec, because,
most generally discussed, if not apart from its comprehensive
accepted, are as follows: character through grouping and
discussing several theories it was
i. Much Water Fowl. the beginning of the recent inter-
2. Old Squaw, or Great or est in the name, fie has discover-

Large Woman. ed some new material and has


3, Pebble or Flint Point. (Point opened the door for fresh conjec-
de Caillou.) ture. The great charm of his ar-
ticle is lessened by translation,
4. Mississagua name of an In-
dian tribe.
but that is a necessity which
must be conceded to the Society's
These names have been written members seeing that but few
about more conspiciously in re- could probably read it in the or-
cent days, by His Lordship, Judge iginal.
Girouard of the Supreme Court
The paper is as follows:
of Canada, who has an estab-
lished reputation as an antiqu- THE ETYMOLOGY OF THE
arian student and author, and WORD MISSISQUOI.
Messrs. John Reade, the clever
writer of the weekly series "When, in 1903, I announced in
of articles in each of the the preface of my
supplement to
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 39

my Lake St. Louis that I was adian public has always been so

leaving the field of historical re- indifferent in respect to the abori-


search, and this I may say here, gines of this country that Father
in order to devote myself fully to Butin, missionary at Sault Saint
my always increasing judicial la- Louis, a man of learning, was un-
1

bors, I was far from foreseeing able to find a publisher for his
that I should so soon return for history of the Indians of his
mis-
closely connected
the discovery of the origin of an though it
sion,
Indian name of almost insignifi- is with that of Montreal. This he

cant importance, which, however, has admitted to me. The Archiv-


seemed to have excited for sev- es Department ought to buy those
eral months past, the keen inter- precious manuscripts.
est of antiquaries on the other From what tribe did the name
side of the frontier. I have been of Missisquoi come ? To what dia-
unable to resist the pleasure of lect does it belong ? To facilitate
the solution of the I in-
responding to a seeker of Worcest- problem
er, Mass., who has asked from me vestigated, at first, the different
the etymology of the name Miss- authentic methods of spelling the
isquoi, given to a small river in name. The archives, and the old
the northern part of Vermont, a maps reproduced by Justin Winsor
bay of Lake Champlain and a and Faillon, among others a map
County of the Province of Quebec. of 1660 (3, Faillon p. 124) clearly
Hverybody knows that it is Indian show Lake Champlain and its ac-
as is the origin of the names of tual name, but they make no
several rivers, lakes and localities mention of Missisquoi bay, al-
which we have preserved, for there though it is there traced. The old-
is no doubt that each native tribe est document which speaks of it
had a geography of its own, is the grant made the 6th April,
tracing back to a more or less 1733, /to Sieur de Lusignan, of a
remote period. To-day, as the Seigniory at the Baie de Missis-
languages of the Indian tribes kouy, (Titres Seigneuriaux, Vol. I
disappear, slowly, it is true, but p. 164). The name must, however,
surely, the Hurons as we shall have been known to the French
point out later, being a striking long before. Another official do-
example the unpublished dictionar- cument written in English in
ies (French-Indian and vice versa)
1783, and reproduced at length by
of the old John P. Noyes, K. C., President
missionaries, among
others those of Father Aubin, S. of the Missisquoi County Histor-
J., missionary of the Abenakis In- ical Society, in his interesting
dians at Lake St. Francis from pamphlet upon the "Karly Set-
1708 to 1755 and similar mission- tlers in the District of Bedford,"
aries of the different tribes, are of
pages 15 and 16, mentions Missis-
great value from an histovi :al quie Bay. In 1815 Bouchette, Topo-
point of view and will, ere long, graphical Description of Lower
be found indispensable. The Can- Canada, pages 185 to 190, spells
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
it Missisqui Bay. That was the
'

rely largely on tradition there


English pronunciation of the old
'

is
always an element of doubt,
name Missisquoy. We also find in "
even in the best considered
the old Revised Statutes of Low-
theory. The definitions given al-
er Canada in 1845 an Act estab-
1

lege Indian origin, but Indian is


the electoral divisions of "an indefinite term in such mat-
lishing
Lower Canada, passed in 1828, 9, ters.
'

One wants to know the


Geo. IV, cap. 73, wherein the :t
particular dialect and tribal
of Missiskoui described. "
County is peculiarities. The locality of
"
Finally in 1853, when Lower Can- Missisquoi Bay, from which the
ada was divided into districts, the "
county is named, was frequent-
"
orthography was changed, and the ed
by the Iriquois and Algon-
"
legislature for the first time, I be- quins and possibly by the Hur-
"
lieve,adopted that of Missisquoi, ons and must have been christ-
"
which has invariably been follow- enecl something by them. I am
11
ed since. It has been perpetuated told that the first syllable of
by the Consolidated Statutes of Mississippi and
'

Missouri rivers
"
Lower Canada of 1860, the Brit- admittedly Indian names
"
ish North American Act of 1867, means water, and if true helps
as well as by all the modern dic- ' '

my belief as to the name of Mis-


"
tionaries, maps and text books of sisquoi. The definitions, so far
geography. "as I know, are two, at least
But, after all, what is the mean- those advocated in print.
1

ing of the name ? A stranger to An Indian name, meaning,


'
i

the Indian idioms I have applied Much Water Fowl.


to the missionaries of the dif- " 2
An Indian name, meaning,
ferent tribes and to the antiquar- Old Squaw.
ians of the district, and it will be " I accept the first, Much Water
seen that it has not been an easy "
Fowl. Missisquoi Bay from the
task to reach a satisfactory con- "
earliest days, was, and still is,
clusion. I have asked from them '

famous for the large quantity


all. the origin of the name, Missis- "
and variety of its water fowl,
quoi or Missiskouy. My first reply "
being on the highway of the
was from Mr. John P. Noyes, of "
fowls between their
migratory
Cowansville, Que., dated the 23rd "
northern summer and southern
May, 1905. I quote it in full: "
winter homes. Its sheltered \va-
"
1 '
I am unable to give an absol- ters make a safe, natural rest-
" "
utely answer to your
definite ing place. Indian names are
" "
query as to the origin and the largely adopted from their hab-
" " its as to food and war. Missis-
meaning of Missisquoi. I have
" "
been trying for some time to qnoi was a place to which they
" run it to earth, and have pretty " resorted to hunt and fish, ac-
" "
well satisfied myself, but in cording to tradition. It seems
" such matters one must have an " and according
quite natural,
" "
open mind. When one has to to the Indian traits that
CHAS. A. JONES, Bedford, President Missisquoi Historical Society.
MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
" " on the war route between the
the name, Much Water Fowl,
" St.
" should have been given to a Lawrence and the New Eng-
" " land
place where game was so abund- settlements, it must have
" had a distinctive name.
;i
ant. The early settlers relate
" I have hoped many times that
'
that the flocks of fowl at cer-
'

" " a
tain seasons near the bay were query like yours would be
so large and dense that the sun
1 " sent that excellent publica-
to
" "
would be obscured as though tion, the Bulletin des Recher-
" " dies
darkened by a cloud. There Historiques. I did not dare
" "
were ne natural marks about to put my feeble French on re-
" cord in a
the bay of so distinctive a char- periodical submitted
1 '

" "to so many scholarly eyes."


acter as to suggest a name. In
addition to the foregoing, a very
' '

More recently, in the Bedford


1 '

old man of the County wrote in News of the 23rd June, 1905, Mr.
" a under non
local paper some years ago, Noyes adds, the de
11
that he was taught some sixty plume of Wayside Warbler, the fol-
"
years before that Missisquoi lowing'
" " There
was an Indian name meaning an o ld text book re-
is ;

"
Much Water Fowl. Thus we have "
cently placed inmy hands which
'

tradition, presumptions and In- " tells a of its own. It was


story
'

dian traits in accord. " Town-


printed in the Eastern
" To "
the definition Old Squaw, ships in its younger days, as a
attach no importance. " text
'

I I can book for the English


" "
find neither tradition nor cir- schools of the Province, and its
" " cover bears the title " Geo-
cumstance in its support. It
" "
may have been inferred from a graphy and of
History Lower
'

broad Misses " the use


pronunciation, Canada, Designed for
"
by Zadock Thomp-
'

Squaw Misses being the ordin-


;

of schools,
" "
ary country name for Mistress A. M., late Preceptor of
son,
:i " Charleston
or Madame, and therefore pre- (Hatley) Academy,
;i
But the spelling "
sumedly old. of Stanstead, and Sherbrooke, L.
"
C., Published by Walton & Gay-
;1
to-day not that of the old
is
;i
time. Three quarters of a cen- "
lord, 1835. In that Geography,
" the
tury ago, and before, and even
1

County of Missisquoi is cal-


" led Missisko as to which I find
'

for some time after, it was


;i " the foot-note
spelled Missiskoui.
Papers in following touching
" "
the Dominion
Archives show upon a still debatable matter.
" "
that in 1785 it was spelled Mis- The orthography of this word is
" "
sisquie. It is only about half a very unsettled. It was written
" " Missis-
century since the present name Missisquoi, Missisque,
'

received statutory endorsement. " koui and Missisco but it is, I


;

I have no access to the archives,


' "
believe, pretty uniformly pro-
;

nor anything else to show what


'
" nounced as if written
Missisco,
" and
Missisquoi bay was called dur- this, I consider the prefer-
1

" " able


ing the French Regime. Being way of spelling it, because
MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
" "
it is most easily pronounced, is semble the '

quoi' of the name


" "
shorter, and most conformable Iroquois. All that is Indian. It
" "
to the original if, as has been probable that before the ar-
is
" " rival
said, the name is derived from of the French at the com-
" the two Indian words Missi "
mencement of the iyth centurv,
" " all
much and Kisko water fowl. the lake, (now Champlain),
" "
The name Missiskisko is said to to the south of the bay had an
" " Indian
have been given by the natives, name, probably Missis-
" "
to the bay and river on ac- quoi, or some name of that kind.
" count of the "
abundance of wa- The name of the County must
" "
ter-fowl in and about there, and have come from the old name of
" " the
Missiskisko was at length short- bay."
" ened In a
to Missisco. It afterwards contrary sense, an old
" became
the name of the coun- missionary of Sault Saint I^ouis,
"
ty." The meaning of the name, familiar with the Iroquois lang-
adds Mr. Noyes, given by him is uage, writes me that the name is
also borne out by the traditions not of Iroquois origin. He believ-
of the inhabitants. ed it was Algonquin. But another,
Then Ernest Racicot, Esq., K. a missionary to the Algonquins,
C., of Sweetsburg, One., another for a great many vears, informs
enthusiastic prober of the past me that Missisquoi (read Missis-
wrote me the same day: kaw for purposes of etymology),
" From what I have been told, is not Algonquin.
" " In "
Mississquoi means, Much Wa- Algonquin-, he says, " the
"
ter Fowl. Even to-day wild root Miss means large, great, en-
"
geese and duck, in their migra- ormous, Mis-abe, great man, a
"
tions from the south to the giant Mis-abos, great hare, ass,
;

" north in
the spring and from the on account of his ears Misi-sipi, ;

"
north to the south in the aut- great river, Mississippi, (Chateau-
"
umn, make a halt at Missis- braind writes it Mischcebe and he
"
quoi bay, where the hunters lie translates Father of Waters;"
'

it
"
in wait for them. Former- he was mistaken). The Ottawa
" when
ly the bay was surrounded River Indians called it old Kissis-
'

with woods, and frequented ipi, the great river, which receiv-
"
only at intervals of time bv the ed many tributaries. Not far from
"
Indians, those birds must, Ottawa found the little Missi-
is
"
without doubt, have gone there sipins, as is found the Belle-Riv-
11
and stopped there, in their jour- iere, Ohio, in Iroquojs.
" "
neyings in still greater numbers. What does the second root of
have reason to believe that Missi-skaw mean ? Must we see
'
I
"
Miss or Misses, means water, in it the word squaw, woman,
"
Mississippi or Missouri are ex- thus preserved in English, and
"
amples. The syllable quoi'
'

conclude that there was in Missis-


"
(which has been written several quoi some extraordinary woman."
'

ways, Koi-Kow-quoi, etc.,) re- Who will tell us that ? I have not
MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 43

the courage to accept that hypo- This seems to me to settle the


thesis." question. It is which
the river
turned then to the Huron mis-
I gives its .name to the bay and
sionaries of Lore tie near Quebec, county, Once again we have a tra-
who promptly informed me that dition, like so many others thrown
those Huron s have completely to the winds, for example, that
lost their language and only which relates that La Salle had
speak the French. I was referred built a stone fort at Lachine,
to a Priest of Huron descent, liv- the ruins 'of which could still be
ing at Mastai, near Quebec, who seen there. And then, the tradition
told me that the word was not of 75 years, invoked by Mr. Noy-
Huron. Without losing .heart I ap- es, is far from being old is ;

plied than to Father de Gonzague, quite insufficient to explain a


missionary of the Abenakis at St. name which runs back nearly
Thomas de Pierreville. Their vil- two centuries. Finally, it is not in

lage is not very distant from the accord with the Indian languages,
bay in question.
(Tanguay, Reper- which are known."
toire, 8, says those Indians lived D. GIROUARD.
in different parts of the country,
even of the continent, apart from I dislike to disturb a belief,
residing at lake St. Francis). He which, after a partial though not
wrote me as follows: iinfair discussion of conflicting
" The origin of the word Missis- views, so eminent a jurist and so
" word
quoi is Masipskoik, a distinguished an antiquarian de-
" which means a place where there clares to be settled. I am unable
" are to his proof so^ overwhelm-
find
pebbles, or flinty stones,
" to be more or reasons so conclusive
particular, Pebbles ing his
" or Flint Point." And he adds: as he seems to think them. It
" We have made some researches looks like a case wherein the tri-
" bunal-has given judgment in favor
amonp-st our old Abenakis, and
" a not in the record,
they all look upon it as having of party
'

been known under that name for


'
and whose claims for considera-
" a tion merit discussion contradict-
long time."
Mr. Noyes, to whom I forward- oirement before the rest of the
ed that revelation is not convinc- claimants are summarily put out
ed that it is correct, preferring of court. Naturally, I hesitate to
his " Much Water Fowl," dissent from so high an opinion.
own,
" " I But then, it is only after dis-
Still," he have an
says,
open mind." He adds that there cussion we can approximate the
are some pebbles at the bay, and truth in debateable matters and
near the banks are quarries oper- this question I venture to, think
ated for purposes of construction is still debateable.
in Montreal. He says that Missis- Having been born on the banks
quoi river is full of boulders, ra- of the chief Canadian branch of

pids, and falls. the river in question and know-


44 MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.

ing it fairly well from source to kind has been found in the nar-
outlet, I cannot bring myself to row valley of the Missisquoi or
believe that an insignificant, un- in its proximity. Even if an oc-
navigable river, buried in a wil- casional Indian purposely or
derness of tangled underbrush, through accident penetrated t'nc
and giant trees, of rock and then useless land so far as hunters
marsh, hills and mountains, up to and fighters were concerned,
fishers
about one hundred years ago, through which the river flowed, it
should have had the preference, is little likely that the river was
in the giving of a name, over the so markedly distinguished from
large and beautiful bay, which scores of other rivers in the vic-
had the further advantage of be- inity, as to warrant the untutor-
ing connected with a lake which ed savage being so struck by it as
was the natural thoroughfare of to give it a name.
the it was later of the
Indians, as The learned Judge is mistaken
white man. The river could not when he says that the Indian Vil-
be navigated even with canoes, lage of St. Thomas de Pierreville
"
so full was it of rapids, shallows,, is not very distant from the
bars and waterfalls. It is not a bay in question." As a geograp-
large stream at its best. It was hical fact it is comparatively dis-
outside any line of communica- tant. That village is about as
tion between Indian tribes north near Quebec as Missisquoi bay.
or south, east or west, even if The country between ''that village
navigation had been possible. The and the bay is traversed by
rugged character and topographi- many streams some of which are
cal peculiarities of the land, as large and even larger than
through which ran were such as
it the Missisquoi river. There were
to deter occupation or iise as a rivers and swamps to pass, moun-
hunting ground or fishing place. tains and hills to surmount, and
And home there was
nearer an the object obtained, the advan-
abundance of game and fish the tages for hunting and fishing
procuring of which required less were no greater, possibly not so
'

exertion. There has never been good, as in the immediate vicin-


found, as there has been found, ity of their own home village. No
elsewhere, anything to indicate one has ever had
the temerity
that the Indians ever occupied to pretend that the Indians nun';-
hunted or fought in the section of ed or fished for a market or for
country, either in Canada or Ver- sport. It was their daily food they
mont, through which the river wanted and which they wanted
passes, at least within the past with the least outlay of pyhsical
couple of centuries. In other plac- effort. .

es frequented of old by Indians, Then, it must be remembered,


there have been unearthed wea- that the Abenaki Indians were
pons indicating early occupation new comers in this Province of
in some form. Nothing of the Canada. Their original habitat
E. E. SPENCER. Esq., Frelighsburg.

Vice-President Mlssisquoi Historical Society.


MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 45

was in Maine and in Acadia, from more frequently than otherwise,


which, at least so far as Maine result from some incident or pec-
was concerned they were driven ularity connected with their ab-
by the English, or were induced, original life, and usually of a
to come to this province by the striking character, or some pecu-
Jesuit Missionaries. Parkinan thus liarity of topographical forma-
located them in several of his tion, which has attracted the par-
books, and informs us
further ticular attention of people more
that it was only some time after anxious for landmarks for future
King Philip's war in New England use than greedy to make their
that any portion of them settled mark as geographers. Such is the
in this province at or near
Que- general practice of aboriginal
" Count Fron-
bec. In Parkman's people the world over since the
tenac and New France under world began. The fact that
"
Louis XIV," Chap. 16, can be Masipskoick" means Pointe de
found an account of the tribe and Caillou or Pebble or Flint Point,
details as to, their habits. The bay is, to my mind an argument
must have been known ,'to the In- against Missisquoi being derived
dians long before
Abenaki, the from that alleged Abenaki word.
towards the end of the lyth cen- There are no pebbles or flint
tury came to the vicinity of Que- around or about Missisquoi Ba-
bec. Why should these new im- or other stones in sufficient quan-
portations, who only wandered tity or strikingly different from
from their fresh location when led other stones in other places in the
by French officers, rush into the Eastern Townships to be remark-
nomenclature of earth's waste able or to attract special atten-
places ? Further, there is nothing tion. On
the contrarv. it is their
related of the habits of the tribe absence which is most noticable.
to warrant they took
belief that The quarry is too remote from
'

interest the water, and at that time had


enough in anything to
start naming rivers and bays, nor too prominence to cause no-
little

is it any more likely that they tice by apeople not in the quar-
would venture a second time into ry business. The Abenaki Indians,
a country which promised so lit- if they took the overland route,
tle advantage to them as the Mis- which is unlikely, would have
si squoi
valley, which was so dif- passed many rivers with as great,
ficult of access, and which, as al- an abundance of pebbles or flint
ready pointed out, was oil the na- stones as the Missisquoi river,
tural and well known routes of and stone formations more pro-
travel for war or game. minent than the quarry referred
Nor can accept without ques-
I to, and to none do they appear
tion the statement that Missis- to have vouchsafed a distinctive
quoi is derived from the Indian Indian name. If they took the na-
word " Masipskoick." The words tural and most feasible route from
are dissimilar. Indian names, their homes. up the St. Lawrence
46 MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.

and rivers
Richelieu to Lake ter to the News, I think Mr. Wat-
Champlain they would find a bay son's should be given here as a
as devoid of pebbles and flints as a partial introduction to what he
dogs ears are of pearls. The Indian says later, and what he has in-
"
meaning Masipskoick" may
of spired Mr. Reade to say,
be accepted as that which is His letter is as follows:
given, but it does not follow Dunham, Oue., Sept. I, 1905.
when soaccepted that Missisquoi My Dear Mr. Noyes:
is derived from that word. I will reply hastily to your very
Judge Girouard will, no doubt, concise and to the point letter on
find consolation for my respectful the origin of Missisquoi. The old
divergence from his views in the form has the second double let-

letter of Mr. Pattison and the ter. You mustgive the credit of
comments the Burlington Free
of the attributing the origin of the
Press, which appears in Sec. VII. name to Mr. Pattison, but having
III. just read some travels by Wade in
1795, in which
he mentions the
At a picnic of the Missisquoi "
Mississagui" Indians as fre-
County Historical Society at the
quentinp- the shores of Lake On-
IsleAux-Noix in July last, (1905)
tario, I was struck by the sim-
the question of the name was
ilarity of the orthography and
brought up by a paper read by the reasonableness of Mr. Patti-
Mr. Wm. Mead Pattison, concern-
son 's suggestion. I have no definite
ing the Indians formerly frequent- evidence to support the theory,
ing Lake Champlain and discuss-
but only inferential probability.
ed by Mr. E. L- Watsoai, by Miss-as in Mississippi, Missouri
whom it was again referred to. at
means water. I notice that you
the annual meeting of the Society
a few weeks later at Bedford. give the name of the Indians as
"
Missisauga". I see in Wade's
Without absolutely claiming the
book he spells Catarqui, the In-
merit of discovery Mr. Watson
dian name for Kingston thus, and
pointed out that the name of the
two. pages on he spells it Catara-
bay might have been that of a
tribe of Indians said to have fre- qua, so one cannot put too much

New var- dependence on his derivations. I


quented northern York,
remember the late patriarch,
iously called Mississagui, Missisa-
Lawrence telling me he had
gas or Mississaugua.
camped with the original Missis-
Mr. W atson's
7
scholarly reputa-
and his calm calculation quoi Indians on his trip from the
tion,
of probabilities seemed to merit bay to the first (deserted) settle-
ment in Ely. I think it was Mr.
consideration of views rather
Pattison who. put forth the domi-
suggested, than dogmatically urg-
ed by him. I therefore wrote him,
cile of the Missaugas as North-
as well as Mr. Pattison. The ern New York.
views of the latter Yours very sincerely,
gentleman
may be found later on in his let- EDMUND L. WATSON
MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 47

Mr. John Reade, whose contri- the Missisquoi County His-


butions for many years to the torical Society in his " Early Set-
Saturday edition of the Montreal tlers in the District of Bedford."
Gazette under the title of " Old The word lias been spelled in dif-
and New," and whose wide ferent ways Missiskotii, ,Missisqui
knowledge and critical scholar- Missisco the familiar form (Mis-
ship have made his papers the sisquoi) finally triumphing over all
subject of keen appreciation by its rivals. Judge Girouard, hav-
students and thoughtful reading ing been consulted by a corres-
people, in one of his articles un- pondent of Worcester, Mass., on
der his usual heading, in the Ga- this
comparatively insignificant
zette of Sept. i6th, 1905, com- question wrote first to Mr. Noyes,
mented upon or rather reviewed who, after offering two etymo- "

Judge Girouard's paper before cit- logies" much water fowl" and
"
ed. Mr. Reade wrote: old squaw," gave the
preference
to the former. He offers some cur-
ious reasons for the
FROM OLD AND NEW. rejection of
the " old squaw"
derivation, sup-
"Among interesting articles in posing it to be based, not on a
the September issue of the Bulletin knowledge of any Indian tongue,
des Recherches Historiques is a but on a vulgar the
conjecture
"
study by Mr. Justice Girouard sound, Missis Squaw," suggest-
(Supreme Court of Canada) on the ing a matronly person of advanc-
the name Missis- ed years. under his nom
Etymology of Writing
quoi. As Judge Girouard points de plume of "
Wayside W^arbler,"
name to the Bedford
out, Missisquoi is the of News, Mr. Noyes
a bay at the north of Lake quotes from the " Geography and
Champlain, of a river in the History of Lower Canada, Design-
state of Vermont and of a Can- ed for the Use of
Schools, by Za-
adian coimty. It has been borne dock Thompson, the
preceptor of
by more than one Canadian 'news- Charleston (Hatley) Academy,
paper. One model country paper Stanstead and Sherbrooke, L- 0.
was originally called, we believe, Published by Walton and
Gaylord,
the Missisquoi News. Judge Gir- 1835." This author, who is no
ouard has found the name in a doubt the well known historian
concession of a seigniory dated of Vermont (mentioned not long
the 6th of April, 1733, to the ago in Old and New,) cites two In-
Sieur de Lusignan, but thinks dian words in favor of the etymol-
with reason that it must have ogy that Mr. Noves prefers. These
been known to the people of the are "missi" (much) and "kisko"
Old Regime at a much earlier (water fowl.) Mr. Ernest Racicot,
period. Fifty years later it is C. F,, suggests that the "Mis" of
mentioned in another document, Mississippi, etc., means "water,"
"
reproduced by Mr. John P. and compares quoi" with the
Noyes, K. C. .
president of last syllable of Iroquois. A former
48 MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.

missionary of Sault Saint L/ouis represent the western and eastern


is sure that the word (Missisquoi) dialects ofAlgonquin. The extent
is not Iroquois. of the Algonquin family of lan-
Another missionary holds that guages may be gathered from Fil-
Missisqnoi (Missiskaw "pour les ling's Bibliography. How little
besoins de 1'etymologie" is not what is common to all its branch-
Algonquin. Judge Girouard then es has changed is shown by com-
consulted the missionary of the paring some of the early vocabu-
Hurons of Lorette who referred laries with corresponding words
the enquirer to a priest of Huron in the later dialects. Yet some-
origin at Mastai, also near Que- times the pronunciation of the
bec, who replied that the word same word by the French and En-
(Missisquoi) was not Huron. Fin- glish varied to an extent which
ally Judge Girouard wrote to Fa- made identification impossible.
ther de Gonzague of St. Thomas Some Algonquin words, such as
de Pierreville, not far from Missis- "assin," "sibi" or "sipi," "wab"
quoi Bay. This reverend gentleman and their compounds are easily re-
offered a new explanation. The cognized. It is also generally easy
"
word, he says, is from Masips- to distinguish any Iroquois from
koik." which means "a place any Algonquin word. For half
where there are flint stones, or Canada and at least a quarter of
pebbles." Mr. Noyes, to whom the United States Algonquin, and
Judge Girouard made known this Iroquois are what Archbishop
last etymology, though inclined Charbonnel called them the 'two
to cling to his "water-fowl" ori- great Indian languages.
1

gin still makes a suggestion that R. V.


would seem to corroborate M. de
Gonzague 's explanation. Although
he says, there are no flints or peb-
bles at the Bay, the River Missis- The reference which M. Patti-
quoi is full of and there-
stones, son has made, as before mention-
fore of rapids and falls. Judge ed, to the New York Indians led
Girouard is inclined to accept M. me to write W. P. Cantwell, Esq.,
de Gonzague 's view as a settle- Malone New York, President of
ment of the question. the Franklin County Historical
It may, however, be worth while Society about the middle of
to mention that in Baraga's Ot- the three extreme northern coun-
chipwe Dictionary, edited by ties which constitute what is cal-
Father Lacombe, 6. M. I., "Mis- led Northern New York, asking for
siquoi" is said to mean "The Big information as to the Mississagas
Woman" (from "misi" big and Indian tribe, pointing out to him
iskwew woman). In M. Cuoq's that during a residence for a time
" misi" is said in early youth in Northern New
L,exique Algonquin
to mean "large (grand) and York, I had received the impres-
"kwe," femme, mulier, woma:- sion that there had never been a
These two works may be said to settled tribe of Indians there in
CMAS. MOORh-. B. A., Stanbridge East, Secy. -Treat-. Missisquoi Historical Society.
MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
the early days prior to settlement. V.
Mr. Cantwell, in his kind and
courteous reply, did not discuss Col. J. D. Bulman, of Sweets-
the matter, but forwarded a mem- burg, P. 0. kindly gave me com-
orandum munication of an interesting old
prepared at his request
book which he had inherited from
for my use by Dr. Collins, Secre-
" Miscel-
based upon
of his Society, his grandfather called,
tary
such information as the So.ciety laneous Correspondence contain-
possessed. It was with a pang of ing a variety of Subjects, Re-
lative to Natural and Civil His-
regret that I learned a few weeks
later that Mr. Cantwell, the foun- "tory, Geography, etc, etc., by
der of that Society, had passed "Benjamin Martin, for the year
away at the advanced age of 76 "1755-56, Printed and Sold by W.

years. It is a distinct loss to lo-


"Owen, Temple Bar, London." In
this venerable book is a well ex-
cal historical research, there and
ecuted "Map of the British and
elsewhere, when such keen intel-
trained by years of profes- French Settlements in North Am-
lects,
sional work to examine into, erica," and the points given agree
and to are re-
with what is now known of the
investigate,
moved from further participation countries, settlements and physi-
cal marks of that period. It was
in life's activities. The memoran-
dum of Dr. Collins is as follows: made by F. Bo wen, Sculp, and
stated it was made from authen-
DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF tic sources. Lake Champlain ap-
NEW Y'ORK. pears upon it as of that name or
as Iroquois lake. The outline of
Report of Indians in Canada, Missisquoi bay is there, but with-
1736, "Missisgues" at Huron, 50 out a name, North of Lakes Erie
men. Report of Sir William John- and Ontario is placed what is cal-
son, 1763, "Mississagais," resid- led the Six Nations, with the ad-
ing above Detroit, 320. ded remark, " conquered from the
Antient Hurons in 1650 and pos-
CENTURY DICTIONARY, sessed ever since." North of Lake
Huron
"Missisaga a tribe of North Am- the Missesagues
is given

"erican Indians, once a part of the Indians with the note "subdued
"Ojibwa, first known in the middle by the Six Nations."
"of the 1 7th century north of Lake The records seem to show that
"Huron and Ottawa they snread the Missesagues of Dr. Collins the
"over South Ontario. In 1846 Mississagui of Mr. Watson and
"they were admitted as the sev- Missisaguis Weld, the same
of
"enth tribe of the Iroquois Con- tribe mentioned 'in that old map
federacy. The name is translated were north of Lake Huron about
"
"Great Mouth," referring to 250 years ago. Parkman (A Half
"
the mouth of the Missisaugh Century of Vol. I, p.
Conflict
"river emptying into Lake Hur- 278), says that in the middle of
"on." the 1 7th
century the Iroquois
MISSISQU01 COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.

swept all before them and made appeared in Saturday's Gazette,


vast regions a solitude, in that 7th, October, 1905, which was
agreeing with the map in the commented upon in Mr. Reade's
Martin book, of Colonel Bui- scholarly style in the same num-
man. In the same volume, ber, in the " Old and New" de-

page, 281, Mr. Parkman relates partment of the paper. The letter
that the French Commander at of Mr. Watson, and the comments
Detroit about 1712, sent to invite of Mr. Reade were later published
the friendly Ojibwas and Missi- in the Bedford News, 2oth October

sagas to come to his aid against last (1905), with an introductor-


other tribes, and that they fished letter by that indefatigable work-
and hunted for the allies. A sus- er, Mr. Win. Mead Pattison, Let-
picion has been created that the ters and comments are given be-

Missisagas were great fishermen. low.


In May 1671 there was a great
meeting of the French and the In-
dian chiefs of different tribes at MR. WM. MEAD PATTISON'S
Sault St. Marie, of which Park- LETTER.
man an account
gives La in "
Salle and the Discovery of the
Great West." It was a memor- ETYMOLOGY OF MISSISQUOI.
able meeting. Of the four Jesuit
Fathers present Father Allouez Clarenceville, Oct. 15, 1905.
made to the Indians what Park- To the Editor of The News.
man calls a "solemn harangue."
Sir, Mrs. Isabel N. Derick has
The reverend father made a brief
to the Al- kindly loaned me a clipping she
but fitting allusion
took from the Montreal Gazette,
mighty, but dwelt at greater of the 7th, which I enclose (for
length and deeper force upon the
you to please return). Mrs. Derick
power King of France. He
of the
told theIndians that if all the thought, as the Missisquoi ques-
tion was under the consideration
King's soldiers stood in double of the Missisquoi County Histori-
file they would reach from where
cal, it (in its entirety) would be
he was speaking to Missisaquenk,
" which than an interesting and valuable con-
is more twenty
was tribution to the Historical Notes
leagues off." Missisaquenk
column of The News, Mr. E. L-
probably the home of the Missis-
Watson, of Dunham, has studied
agas.
up the subject with much interest
VI. and I might say fervor, and de-
serves much credit for it, and

your readers will no doubt be


Mr. Watson, subsequent to his
to see his letter repro-
letter to me before mentioned, pleased
and after Mr. Readers article in duced in The News, I am writing
"Old and New", already q,uoted, Mr. Watson thanking him for his
wrote Mr. Reade a letter which championship of my views of the
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
from Mr.
case. In a recent letter the oldest inhabitants said in
J. P. Noyes he candidly admits early days salmon were taken
that the views of Mr. Watson and near the mouth of the river. How-
myself of the etymology of Missis- ever let us decide the Missisauoi

quoi have some foundation, and he question and then the pike may
has studied some Canadian and come up. It is likely the early set-
other atuhors and adui'ts tlers in
Huntingdon named
some wavering of the opinion he "Trout River" in that county
expressed at our meeting at Bed- from abundance of trout found
ford in September. Mr. Watson's there. Now there is no evidence
researches since that time may that pike were found in sufficient
furnish him with authorities he numbers in the river of that name
has not met and keep the inves- to warrant giving it the name.
tigation .going. Before our next
annual meeting much light will
doubtless be shed on the subject,
MR. K. Iv. WATSON'S LETTER.
and we will have the results of
the highest authorities in the
Continuing the discussion of the
State Vermont. I asked Mr.
of
with Col. etymology of "Missisquoi," Mr.
Noyes to communicate
E. L. Watson, of Dunham, writes
Forbes ofSt. Albans, Vt., Cor.
the following interesting letter :

Sec. of the Vermont Historical


Society, asking the society to join Sir, The desire to meet with
us in efforts for a solution of the the true origin of the word "Mis-
question. sisquoi" is now a subject of great
Mr. Watson's researches have pre- interest to the people and members
sented to my mind another ques- of the Missisquoi Historical Soc-
tion as to the origin of the name iety. At their late excursion to
Pike River in the French-Indian Isle aux Noix, Mead Pattisoii, of
vocabulary collected in 1800-05 Clarenceville gave an able treatise
from the Indian. Mr. Watson says upon the Indian tribes of Canada
"
probably Missisaquas" the Oup- and Northern New York, making
papinassi tribe totaims being the a suggestion that the word "Mis-
" Pike." Now it is not likely pike sisquoi" was in all probability
to any extent were found in the derived from the Mississagua tribe
river of that name in our country, formerly inhabiting Northern New
but rather trout or salmon and York state, I was much struck
the logical inference is the river with the apparent probability, and
took its name from the Indian drew attention to a once very cel-
who dwelt in the vicinity of
tribe ebrated work of travels by Isaac
Pike River. When I came to St. Weld, a man of education, means,
Armand before saw mills had de- and influence, who made a leisure-
stroyed fishing, trout were taken ly excursion, under the guidance
in the river above Bowker dam, of the Indians, from New York
south of Frelighsburg, and I never into Canada in 1793, and whose
heard of a pike being taken, and work went through many editions,
MIvSSlSOIJOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
and whose cuts and illustrations "introduced to General Wayne and
have been copied and recopied in I had then an opportunity of see-
Canada, until the original source ing the plan of all his Indian cam-
has been lost sight of. Instance paigns. A most pompous account
" The Caleche or Marchedonc." He was given of this (Wayne's) vic-
speaks of the "Mississaguis" as tory and the plan of it excited,
the northern border, as indeed it well might, the
frequenting
and the shores of Lake Ontario. wonder and admiration of all the
The spelling of the word only dif- officers who saw it." As is soon

fers in the insertion of a letter A disclosed, Mr. Isaac Weld is sar-


from that of the usual one time castic in thus
complimenting the
way of spelling. He devotes three impetuous Anthony. After explain-
pages in his fourth edition, first ing how
the lighting was
realty
volume, to describing their pecul- conducted, he makes these com-
iarities, and their modes of iish- ments:" It was by lighting them
ing and hunting. He says that the
also in their own way and by
"
Mississaguis" supplied Kingston sending parties of his light
with fish and game. Mentions that troops and cavalry to rout them
their principal village was near from their lurking places, that
Toronto. Speaks of Mississagui General Wayne defeated them, had
Point, near Niagara. Isaac Weld he attempted to have drawn (to
had introductions to all the celeb- draw) up his army in the regular
rities on both sides, including Gen- order described in the
plan, he
erals Washington and Wayne. 'Mis- could not but have met with the
siss" evidently means water, as same fate as St. Clair and Gen-
Mississippi, Missouri, Misstissini,
eral Braddock did, on a former oc-
etc., but what the termination gui casion," Some pages before, Weld
or que means is not so certain, had described the disaster of Gen-
but as Cataraqui, Gananoque and eral St. Clair terms that
(1790) in
Mississquoi are not distant, a might, with hardly any changes
common origin may be implied. have been used for the surprise
of Custer nearly
May we hear more on this subject. ninety years af-
terwards. "A dreadful havoc en-
E-.Iv. W. sued," he writes. "The greater
part of the army was left dead on
the fatal field and of those that
;

FttOM OLD AND NEW. escaped the knife, the most were
taken prisoners. All the cannon,
Weld w as naturally drawn to
r
ammunition, baggage and horses,
the subject of the Indians because of St. Clair 's
army fell into the
the successive warfare of St. hands the 'Indians on this oc-
of
Clair and Anthony Wayne was a casion." His interest in St. Clair
fairly fresh topic of conversation and W ayne
T
led Weld to investigate
during his visit. "On his arrival the methods Indian warfare,
of
in Philadelphia, in the beginning and, en passant, he glances at the
of the year 1796, I was," he 'writes charge that St. Clair's foes were
F. X. A. G1ROUX, Esq.. Sweetsburjf.

Director-Auditor Missisquoi Historical Society.


MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 53

directed by British ollicers. He in the town


Parkdale," he
of
" Old
made it his business to enquire of writes, Fort Mississauga,
some of the young Canadians at the mouth of the River Niag-
whites, as well as half-breeds, ara. Mississauga River in the dis-
who had volunteered to help the trict of Algoma. and Mississauga
Indians against the Americans and Strait, between Cockburn and
thus ascertained that, so opposed Manitoulin Islands, preserve the
were both the Government and name of an Indian tribe "vvho in
white citizens \vlio had reached the latter half of the eighteenth
years of discretion, to have anv century, occupied a considerable
alliance with the Indians in this portion of what is now the pro-
warfare that it was only by ob- vince of Ontario and whose des-
serving the utmost secrecy that cendants still exist at the Missis-
they were able to get unchalleng- saga settlement of the New Cred-
ed across the border. it, and on reservations at Ain-
Incidentally, in wick, Rice Lake,
following the (since 1830),
fortunes of the combatants, Mr. (since 1818), Lake,
Chemong
Weld takes up the subject of the (since 1829), ScugogandLake,
are too
"Mississaguis who live about Lake (since 1842)." These points
Ontario." But he does not rest far (away to admit of much inti-
there. He makes the Mississaguis macy between the Mississaguas,
a text for his general remarks on and any dwellers by the northern
the Indian tribes, beginning with corner of old Cham plain. But the
a comparison of their complexion Indians (Mississaguas included),
with that of the Creeks, Cherokees were not always staidly attached
and others whom he had seen at to reserves. Professor Chamber-
Philadelphia and elsewhere. The lain reminds us that in the Jesuit
best authority on the Mississagua Relations for 1670-71, the "Misis-
Indians at the present time is Pro- sa^nies"
t>
are mentioned as dwell-
in stur-
fessor A. F. Chamberlain, of Clark ing on a river abounding
University, Worcester, Massa- geon which enters Lake
Huron at
chusetts. His monograph on about 30 leagues from Ste. Marie
1 - of the Mississ- du Sault. The good father's ac-
'JT Language
agua Indians," (1892) was the count of his .visit is of truly evan-
first attempt to deal elaborately gelical simplicity. He had no
and scientifically with the people, sooner set foot on shore and recog-
their origin, their language, and nized the cabins of the Mississagu-
their affinities. It was followed
by es than he betook himself to the
a number of contributions on the his of
message. The
delivery
same subject to the Journal of Am- "stump" would seem,
it was used
erican Folk-Lore, and other
pub- in Canada as a pulpit before it was
lications, in which he brought turned to account as a platform.
within reach of the public a mass "Je montay sur line grosse souche
of information hitherto unknown pour me faire voir et me faire en-
or practically inacessible to the tendre tout ce peuple," were,
de
general reader. "Messisaga Avenue says Professor Chamberlain, the
54 MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
words of the missionary's descrip- volume) for first-hand informa-
tion. tion as to the naming usages and
These Indians, who d\velt on ceremonies the branch of the
of
the River Mississauga "distingu- Ojibways to which he belonged.
ished from all the other Mr. Jones, notwithstanding his
branches of the Algonkin stock long association with white peo-
Oin the north shore of I y ake Huron. ple, both in Kngland and Canada,
Subsequently they appear to have was very proud of his origin and
gradually moved eastwards and devoted to his people's interests.
southwards, and to have extended The specimens of Indian names
themselves over a great part of that he gives are exceedingly mus-
Upper Canada." According to the ical as well as significant. In 1855
Rev. Allen Salt, of Parry Island, a Mr. Thomas G. Ridout, of Toron-
member of the Mississagua tribe to, wrote to Peter Jones asking
of Alnwick, the Indian way of him to suggest an aboriginal
spelling and pronouncing the name name for a new G. W. R. station
is Minzezagee (plural Minzezageeg) in which he was interested as a
and signifies people dwelling where proprietor, and in reply Mr. Jones
there are many mouths of rivers. sent him an interesting list, with
They are, according to tradition, the Indian spelling, the English
"descendants of the Ojibwavs who modification of it, arid the mean-
conquered the Iroquois in I7^q, ing of each word. Among these is
after a war of 100 years." The the word Messisaga (in Indian,
new Credit settlement near Brant- Ma-se-sau-gee), meaning the Eagle
ford, founded in 1847, is the most totem, clan or tribe. Eagle is
civilized of the Mississaguas. In a "migisi" in Otchipwe.
manuscript for a copy of which From the foregoing passage in
Prof. Chamberlain thanks Dr Bain the life of the Rev. Peter Jones,
of the Toronto Public Librarv, it will be seen that, if Mr. Patti-

containing a French-Indian voca- son's suggested etymology is cor-


bulary collected in 1800-05 from rect, Missisquoi will have a mean-
the Indians (probably Mississag- ing that is certainly not unworthy
uas), near Toronto, the totaims, of an ambitious and progressive
or tribes of the Huron savages, county.. But unhappily the thun-
were thus described: "Niguic der-bird (the bird of Zeus or Jup-
Coasquidzi, Otter tribe; Passin- iter of classical antiquity) has a

assi, Crane tribe; Atayetagami, symbolic association that would


Caribou tribe; Oupapinassi, Pike not entirely satisfy so loyal a
tribe; Ouascesouanan Birch-bark community as Missisquoi has al-
tribe; Missigomidzi, White Oak ways been. For our own part we
tribe ;Mississague, Eagle tribe." adhere to the derivation already
Professor Chamberlain, after men-' given in Old and New a deriva-
tioning some of the favorite names tion which has the support of Bis-
of the Credit River Mississaguas, hop Baraga, Father Iv acombe and
refers to the life of the Rev. Peter the late Abbe Cuoq, F. R. S. C.
Jones (a most instructive little In Baraga's Grammar and Die-
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 55

tionary af the Otchipwe language, VII.


edited by Father Lacombe (Part
I., p. 300) "Missisquoi" is found
The last document to be quoted
in a list of Indian names that are is a further communication of
explained for the benefit of white Mr. Wm. Mead Pattison, publish-
ed in the Missisquoi Historical
learners, thus: "Misiiskwew, the
big woman, from misi, big and Society's column in the Bedford
iswkew, woman." It is referred to News, the 3rd, Nov. 1905. Some
the Cree branch of new derivations and
meanings
Algonquin
speech. Abbe Cuoq in his Lexique are mentioned thereinwhich it
de la Langue Algonquine, which is may be as well to include with
based on his forty years' acquaint- the others even though adding to
ance with members of the "Algic" the confusion of stock on hand and
stock (see preface), and has the supplying fresh material for con-
approval of such
mighty linguists jecture to nimble guessers.
as Dr. A. S. Gatschet of Washing-
ton, is in virtual agreement \viih
Bishop Baraga and Father I .i- v

combe. "Misi" (page 231), he ex- ETYMOLOGY OF MISSIS-


plains as meaning "grand", and QUOI.
"ikwe" as "feinme, mulier, wo-
To the Editor of the Bedford News :

man." Peter Jones (p. 162) says


that female names are distinguish- Dear Sir, The Burlington Free
ed from those of males by the fe- Press has kindly taken up the Ety-
minine termination "quay" or mology of Missisquoi County His-
"goo-guay" as (Oogenebatigoo- torical Society and in its issue of
the 27th, reproduces in full the
quay, Wabanooquay, (Aurora),
etc.) There is nothing in the name letters of Mr. E. L. Watson of

"Big Woman" that is inconsistent Dunham, and Mr. Mead Pattison,


with the honorable repute of Mis- of Clarenceville, Oue., which were
sisquoi and its people. It would, published in The News of October,
doubtless refer either to some na- 2oth, on the subject. Though the
tural feature in the scenery or to conclusions of the Press are not
some tradition or tale, such as fully in accord with Mr. Watson,
those that Professor Chamber- and my own views, it is but fair
lain has collected or those that to publish them as contributions
Mr. Jameson has comprised in his to the literature on this interest-
Winter Studies and Summer Ram- ing question, though others
bles in Canada, or Abbe Casgrain translate, as Mr. Watson shows,
relates in his Jongleuse the In- the Indian word "Missi" as mean-
dian equivalent of which is he as- ing water. We have to thank the
"
sures us, matchi skueou," (Bad Free Press for light on the subject
woman.) and the interest it has taken.
R. V.
Yours truly,
WM. MEAD PATTISON,
Clarenceville, Oct. 3th, 1905.
MISSISOUO1 COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
"In another column of the Bed- VIII.
ford News, Mr. Win. Mead Patti-
son, alluding- to Mr. Watson's Upon this interesting local ques-

communication and
to the ety- tion concerning Missisquoi there
may be further literature afloat in
mology of the word Missisquoi,
the world, or buried in the ar-
says:
"
'Before our next annual meet-
chives of other countries, as well
as our own, but I take it that
ing (of the Missisquoi Historical
whatever may be found will be
Society) much light will doubtless
be shed on the subject and will be along the lines quoted. Some-

have the results of the highest thing may be found to corrobo-


authorities in the State of Ver- rate that which we have, or
mont. asked Mr. Noyes to com-
I strengthen some particular view,
municate with Col. Forbes of St. but it must bulk largely as here-
Albans Vt., Cor. Sec. of the Ver- in given. Hence, I have not sought

mont Historical Society, asking to extend the enquiry for further

the society to join us in efforts for material as at first w as contem-


r

a solution of the question.' plated. Having considered briefly


"The late Rowland E. Robinson the claim of Judge Girouard for
the Vermont author and histor- the origin and meaning of the
ian, who gave much study to the
name he has so warmly and learn-
Indian names of places and rivers edly espoused, I propose, with
in this region, said in a commmii- equal brevity to examine the cre-
cation to this paper, shortly be- dentials of the others, not, how-
fore his death, that he had been ever, confining myself to the order
informed by John Wadso wh a he >
in which they are enumerated in

described as "a very intelligent the list before given.


Indian of St. Francis, P. Q."
MISSISSAGAS.
that "Missisquoi was originally
Masseepskee, the I/and of Arrow This name has many forms, but
Flints, while the river now bear- I take that adopted by Parkman.
ing that name was Az/.usatuquake, That Missisquoi. or its old name,
the Backward-running Stream. "Missiskoui," may have taken its
"Zadock Thompson, the Ver- name from the Mississigas In-
mont says that
historian the dian tribe, has a fair claim
word, which he spells, "Missisco" among the probabilities extended
(giving also eighteen different to others presented for acceptance,
spellings of it, which he had found L,ake Champlain in the early times
in print), is derived by some from was also called " The I/ake of the
"Mse," meaning much, and Iroquois," because it attracted
"Mskeco," grass by others ;
from the attention of the early whites
" as one of the routes
Missi," much, and "Kiscoo," principal
water fowl. north from their own country of
"The Vermont town of Troy was that tribe of Indians. If the Mis-
at first named Missisco." Bur- sissagas Indians can be shown to
lington Free Press. have frequented the bay with com-
W. M. PATTISON, Esq., Clarence ville.

Director Missisquoi Historical Society.


MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 57

paratively as much assiduity as all start from the mountainous


the Iroquois did the lake, it would and
country of the Adirondacks,
create a presumption in favor of rush in some places through deep
the name being due to that faet. chasms, and over shallow rapids,
There is no proof that they did. in a northerly direction towards
The Mississagas are said to the St. Lawrence, until in close
have been a fishing tribe and the proximity to Lake Champlain. It
fishing Indians never had much of was a land of dense wilderness
a record as lighters or adventur- filled with fierce wild beasts. Its
ers. Eachplace where they were rivers allorded no greater advan.
said to have been located was m tages for fishing than they did for
the neighborhood of places where navigation. Not that fish were
lish were large and plentiful. Mar- not abundant, but they lacked
tin's map before mentioned, pub- the size and abundance of the
lished in 1755, gives their location lakes or the St. Lawrence. Even
as no,rth of Lake Huron, and as supposing the Mississagas Indians
having been driven there by the lived about Lake Ontario, is it
Iroquois in 1650. In that he agrees at all likely they would have left
with the authorities of Dr Col- the abundant fishing grounds for
lins. The references by Parkman large fish of that lake, traversed
also corroborate that view. In the difficult country of Northern
1735, and again in 1763, according Ne\v York, and crossed the foot
to reports they were
official at of Lake Champlain to Missisquoi
Huron or above Detroit. If, after bay waters no better sup-
to- fish in
the latter date, a tribe of In- plied as to variety, quantity or
dians had moved from Lake quality than those to be found at
Huron to within ap'proachable dis- their very door? It is not reason-
tance of Missisqtioi bay, it is able to suppose that the lazy
likely some mention would have shiftless Indians would have taken
been made of it, seeing that they that trouble. They did not fish for
would then be within the neigh- trade or for sport. There was no
borhood of the whites, whose num- market for fish within reach, nor
bers had greatly increased by means for
transportation had
that time in that vicinity, and there been a market. If they start-
who were wandering about using ed from Lake Ontario for- Missis-
lakes and rivers in pursuit of quoi by land a long detour was
furs. There no record of their
is necessary to sweep north of the
ever having come in contact with Adirondack Mountains a section
the whites thereabouts. which even the bold Iroquois
Northern New York, between avoided. And north by water
the St. Lawrence river and Lake would carry them long distances
Champlain contains no natural down the St. Lawrence and up
connecting thoroughfare between the Richelieu rivers, over fishing
those waters. The distance in those days
is grounds, which,
The rivers and the
considerable. .should have satisfied the most
streams were unnavigable. They greedy. It is only the lo\ver end
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
of Lake Ontario that can be said of passing on the one which Za-
to be in Northern New York any- dock Thompson accepted as genu-
way, and even that is not always ine.
conceded. And, in the earliest days, have no retainer for or against
I
at Lake Champlain they ran the the name Mississagas as the ori-
risk of being pinched between the gin of the name for the bay, but
Iroquois and the Algonquins, aiid in figuring up the probabilities it
in later years between the French seems to me the account favors
and their Indian allies and the the against rather than the for.
English and the Iroquois. It was
safer to fish near home. Within re- IX.
I
cent times, comparatively speak-
ing, the only Northern New York OLD SQUAW, OR GREAT OR
Indians are the domesticated Iro- LARGE WOMAN.
qiuois at St. Regis. In the old days
the Indians skirted the western In letter which
the I wrote
border of Northern New York by Judge Girouard quoted in his ar-
the St. Lawrence and the eastern ticle, I rather curtly dismissed
by Lake Champlain on their war- the definition of Missisquoi, "Old
like excursions. Squaw."
I think it is safe to say, Since then I have been led to con-
that if Mr. Isaac Weld really sider its claim more carefully,
made a leisurely trip from New and am forced to admit it has axi-
York into Canada in 1793, under thority in its support in the
form " Great or
Indian guidance, he did not
go slightly varied of

through Northern New York, Large Woman." It seems to be


by land. His mention of the In- pretty well agreed on all hands
dians at Kingston, Toronto and that "Missi" or "Misi," means
further west, gives no ground for great or large, and as the Indian
believing that those Indians had vocabulary was limited, could al-

pushed through the grievous ob- so mean "Much," "A goodor


stacles of Northern New York to deal." There are many Indian
Missisquoi bay. He, no doubt, names in use on this northern con-
journeyed by the lakes and the St. tinent for rivers, lakes and bays,
Lawrence river, for Northern New of which "Missi," or "Misi,"
York proper, only began to re- forms a
part, and as already
ceive settlers at about the same pointed out, the meaning is much
time as did the Eastern Town- or great or large.

ships and then only in small num- The old missionary of Sault
bers, and that was after 1793. And Saint Louis, the correspondent
it is singular that if those Ind- quoted by Judge Girouard, says,
ians had fished at Missisquoi bay it was Algonquin and therein is
on or about that period the early corroborated by Father Lacombe,
settlers about the bay then did not as mentioned by Mr. Reade in
make mention of it, or did not "Old and New."
accept that Indian name instead It may not be amiss to point
MISSISOUO1 COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 59

out that the Algonquin dialect ap- woman?" There is nothing of the
pears to have been the base of all configuration of a woman in the
the northern Indian dialects from bay or river or about them. There
the Atlantic to the Rockies save may have been an extraordinary
the Iroquois, whose generic ton- woman there, as well as elsewhere,
gue was different. Parkman at p 4 but we are in the dark as to
Vol. I, of "The Jesuits in North whether itwas in reference to her
America," says that "the differ- size or some unusual thing she
ence between the original Algon- did.So that, in the final summing
quins and the Abenakis of New up, we accept that name and
if

England, the Ojibways of the meaning we must do it without


Great Lakes or the Illinois of the having discovered the reason for
West, correspond to the difference it. But after all, there is great
between French and Italian, or It- weight to be given to the Algon-
alian and Spanish." The authority quin name as that peb,ple were
of Father Lacombe and the old the oldest known frequenters of
missionary of Sault Saint Louis, that section. Certainly the names
as to the name being Algonquin, have strong claims lor acceptance.
seem to, me to have great weight.
And there is the spirit of the true
antiquarian in the caution of the
old missionary as to the meaning MUCH WATER FOWL.
of the second root of the word.
His "Skaw" and our "Ouoi" do I have reserved the first name of

they mean "Squaw" or "Great or the list given before, " Much Wa-
Large Woman?" And he asks, and ter Fowl," for final consideration,
I repeat his question, "Was there not because it has stronger rea-
in Missisquoi "some extraordinary sons in its favor or .support, but
woman. Who w ill T
tellsus that?" rather because tradition, at least
He declared his inability to ac- the tradition I have knowledge of,
cept that hypothesis. since the white men first settled
On the other hand Mr. Reade, about the bay and they were
tellsus in "Old and New," on the about the bay before they were
authority of Father Lacombe and at the river settled upon that
M. Cuoq's Lexique Algonquin, meaning, and the probabilities and
that the word means, on the au- conjectures are as weighty and rea-
thority of the first "The Big Wo- sonable as those which may be in-
man," and on that oT the last, voked in favor of the others. The
"Large Woman," which mean old people of to-day, who had re-
practically the same thing. If we ceived the tradition from their an-
accept that derivation we are cestors, the earliest settlers, tell
still lost as to how the name came us that Missisquoi was known as
to be applied to that bay and riv- an Indian name meaning " Much
er. We must still repeat with the Water Fowl." The Englishman,
old missionary, "Was there in Weld, and the missionary and
Missisqlioi some extraordinary others who espouse other names,
6o MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
or mention something from which ter fowls which visited the bay
other things may incidentally fol- each spring and fall season, may
low, had not that local sentiment have imitated their cry again and
and feeling, which naturally fol- again, season after season, and
low the fact of living on the spot, joining their sound of it to the
and which would be more likely word "
meaning or
much,"
to perpetuate the name and mean- "large" or "great" have carried
ing. it into use as the place of "Missi-

It may be conceded that neither quack" or "Missi-kaw," meaning


the Algonquin nor the Abenaki "Much Water Fowl." This is rea-
language bear out the meaning, soning by analogy, if there be a
although the Algonquin does in distinction between a species of
part! My letter to Judge Girouard reasoning and broad guessing, and
quoted by him, contains some of is thrown, with the reasons or
my reasons although at the time opinions for the other names into
publication was not anticipated. the same dish for what it is

One of the difficulties respecting worth. It has about as much pro-


that definition is the last syllable, bability in its favor as some of
"Kiou,'' as used in the early days. the other names, with the added
The que, qui, and quie sometimes credit of being backed by a long-
written for that last syllable
J are er and harder word. On the whole,
doubtless due to illiteracy, or I am still inclined to favor the
through attempting to write the traditions of the fathers in Israel,
name from the sound as it struck who first gathered about the bay
the listener. If the last syllable, over ahundred years ago, and
"Kiou" be repeated rapidly and who gave the name a credit-
first

loudly for a number of times, in able standing in the world, and a


the gutteral tones of the Indian, statutory recognition, at least as
it will come to resemble in sound to name, without any attempt at
the quack, quack of wild fowls, qualification as to origin or as to
the final letters being to this day defining the meaning of the word.
but slightly sounded in rural I believe "Much Water Fowl" has
parts. Then there is a principle the best claim for support, and
in language, or a figure of rheto-
therefore mark my ballot on that
called side.
ric, Onomatopaeia, by
which words are formed in imita-
tion of natural sounds or. to imi- XI.
tate the sound of the thing signi-
fied. Familiar illustrations are But, reaching the end, I am still

tick-tack, rat tat tat, bang, etc., forced to confess, as I did at the
to imitate inanimate objects and outset to Judge Girouard that,
bow wow, caw, quack quack, as to imi- whilst I incline to the view last
"
tate animate objects. Amon^ aborigin- given for the reasons stated, I

al people this practice prevailed. have still an open mind." It is, in


The Indians, hearing the loud the final summing up, a pretty ba-
cries of the immense flocks of wa- bel of names and alleged meanings
M1SSISOU01 COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 61

and the greater the efforts to between old friends. Times have
reach a conclusion which will gain changed. Such matters can now be
universal acceptance, the more per- discussed without rancor, for, on
plexing and the less clear they be- all sides, there isnot so much of
come. Such a dilemma is not a burning zeal to have one side
without precedent. The books are prevail over another as to find a
full of them. There have been many clear solution, or an approximate-

disputes in the past over the ori- ly general agreement. There is


gin and meaning of the names of even, I am inclined to believe, less
places before Missisquoi was desire than formerly to follow the
thrust into the arena as a bone of practice of the ancients of whom
contention, and the end is not vet. Prior wrote '-
A notable and amusing precedent
"
is given by Sir Walter Scott in the Geographers on pathless downs
Place elephants instead of towns."
"Antiquary," respecting the word
"Benval," which occasioned a dis- NO YES.
JNO. P.
pute sundering the ties of amity
THIRD REPORT OF THE
M1SSISQUOI COUNTY
HISTORICAL SOCIETY.

ILLUSTRATED.

- 1908.
NEWS TYP.. ST. JOHNS, P.Q.
COURT HOUSE AND JAIL, SWEETSBUKG, QUE.
OFFICERS

OF THE

For 1907-08.

Honorary Presidents : President :

Hon. W. W. Lynch, J.S.C. Mrs. S. A. C. Morgan Bedford.


Hon. J. C. McCorkill, J.S.C. Vice-President :

Hon. Senator G. B. Baker, K.C. Mrs. Theodore Moore Stanbridge


Jno. P. Noyes, Esq., K.C. East.

President :

WOMEN'S COMMITTEE.
Chas. 0. Jones, Esq.
Mrs. E. L. Watson Dunham.
Vice-President :
Miss Elizabeth Rykert Dunham.
Mrs. C. L. Cotton Cowansville.
Spencer, Esq.
Mrs. H. C. Blinn Frelighsburg.
Mrs. F. X. A. Giroux Sweets-
Secretary-Treasurer :

Chas. S. Moore, Esq. burg.


Miss D'Artois Farnham.
Auditor :
Mrs. E. Sornberger Bedford.
K.X. A. Giroux, Esq. Mrs. Hugh Montgomery Philips-
burg.
Miss Harriet Chandler -Stan
bridge East.
WOMAN'S COMMITTEE. Miss Bradley St. Armand.

Honorary Presidents :

Miss C. M. Derick, McGill Univer- LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS.


sity.
Miss E. L. Baker, Dunham Ladies
1
St. Armand East None.
College. St. Armand West None.
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY

Frelighsburg Director and Secre- N.B. In places where there are


tary, E. E. Spencer, Esq. no officers named, there are no
ex-M.P.P. members of the Society and the
Philipsburg None. officer means the only member in
Bedford Director and Secretary, the municipality.
Fred. C. Saunders Directors,
;

Geo. Capsey, J. A. Fortin, A.


T. Gould, F. W. Hatch.
Dunham Township Director and
HONORARY MEMBERS.
Secretary, E. L. Watson Di- ;
Sir James McPherson Lemoine, of
rectors, Sheriff Cotton, Major
J. G. Gibson, E. S. Miltimore,
Spencer Grange, Que.
Jed. G. Scott and Jno. C. Dr. Arthur George Doughty, M.A.,
Miltimore. D.C.L., C.M.G., F.R.H.S.,
Dunham Village Director and Dominion Archivist, Ottawa.
Secretary, Asa Rykert. Edgar Russell Smith, St. Johns,
CoAvansville Director and Secre- Que.
tary, J. Irving McCabe Di- ;
Cyrus Thomas, Esq., Toronto.
rectors, Rev. W. P. R. Lewis,
P. C. DuBoyce, N.P., H. F.
Rev. E. M. Taylor, M.A., Knowl-
Williams, P. Arthur Ruiter, ton, One.
Dr. John Lander, Geo. E.
Short.
Sweetsburg Director and Secre- LIFE MEMBERS.
tary, W. H. Lynch ;, Directors,
Dr. F. H. Pickel, A. J. E. Hon. W. W. Lynch, L. L- D.,
Leonard, K. McKeown, C.
\V. Knowlton, Que.
S. Boright, E. Racicot, K.C.
Hon. J. C. McCorkill, Cowans-
Stanbridge Director and Secre- ville, Que.
tary, C. H. Hibbard.
Dr. George McAleer, Worcester,
Clarenceville Director and Secre-
Mass.
tary, Rural Dean Rev. Win.
Robinson Director, J. C. M.
;
Walter Lynch, Esq., Mansonville,
Hawley. Que.
St.Thomas None. Arthur Meigs, Esq., Jacksonville,
Farnham Director and Fla.
Secretary,
W. "S.McCorkill Directors,
; Geo. G. Foster, Esq., K.C., Mont-
Mayor A. E. D'Artois, L. A. real.
Beriau, James E. Scott, Geo.
A. Truax, Alphonse Desautels, J. J. B. Gosselin, Esq., M.L-A.
Geo. E. Loud. B. G. Jones, Esq., Boston, Mass.
ANNUAL MEMBERS

OF THE

Missisquoi County Historical Society

1907-08

Aver, Win. H., Aurora, 111. Cotton, Mrs. Cedric L-, Cowans-
ville ^ ue
Ayer, Win. H., Aurora,
-
111. )

Cotton, Chas. M., Advocate, Mon-


Baker,A. S., San Francisco, Cal. treal.

Baker, Hon. Senator, Sweetsburg, Cotton, Chas. S., Sheriff, Sweets-


bur Q ue
Baker, G. H., Advocate, Montreal.
-
>

Bell & Kerr, Cowansville, Que. Cotton, Miss M. J. V., Cowans-


V e Ue '
I,. A., Farnhain, Oue.
'

Beriau, f
Wm. Cowans-
-D
. , ,
c .1 Cotton, S., L.D.S.,
Boright, C. S., Sweetsburg.
Bradley, Miss Agnes, St. Armand. Q
.
^ fe Cowansville, Que.
Que.
Brown, W. G., Cowansville, Que. D'Artois, A. E., Mayor, Farn-
Burnett, Thomas I/., Farnham ham, Que.
Centre. Desautels, Alphonse, Farnham,
Burke, Everett A., Toronto. Que.
Buzzell, Enoch, Cowansville, Que. Dickinson, Mrs. R., Bedford, Que.
Buzzell,* Nelson, Cowansville, Que. DuBoyce, P. C., N.P., Cowans-
ville, Que.
Capsey, Geo., Advocate, Bedford, Button, Mrs. Chas. S., Holland,
Que. Mich.
Chandler, Miss Harriet, Stan-
bridge, Que. Farnsworth, P. J., M.D., Clinton,
Iowa.
Choquette, W. F., Farnham, Que.
Clark, Byran E., Y.M.C.A., Bur- Fortin, J. A., Bedford, Que.
lington, Vt. Freligh, Mrs., Bedford, Que.
Clark, Mrs. Letitia, Paquanack, Fuller, H. Leroy, M.D., C.M.,
Conn. Sweetsburg, Que.
Cooper, George, Boston, Mass. Fitchett, E. A., Cowansville, Que.
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY

Gibson, John G., Major, Cowans- McClatchie, Jas., Cowansvilk-,


ville, Oue. One.
Gilman,A. L M School Inspector, McCorkill, Dr. R., C., Farnhaiu,
Cowansville, One. Que.
Giroux, F. X. A., Advocate, McCorkill, W. S., Farnham, One.
Sweetsburg, One. McCrum, John F., Cowansville,
Giroux, Mrs. F. X. A., Sweets- Que.
burg, Que. McKeown, W. K., Advocate,
Goddard,E. W., Sweetsburg, Qiie. Sweetsburg, One.
Gould, A. T., Bedford, Que. McNamara, Mrs. M., Bedford,
Goyette, Ed., Cowansville, Que. Que.
Haines, F. S., St. Lambert, Que. McOuillen, James, Cowansville,
Harvey, Carl W., Enosburg Falls, Q ue '

Yt. Miller, James, Sweetsburg, Que.


Hatch, D. W., Bedford, One. Miltimore, Eben S., Scottsmore,
J. C. M., Nutt's Corners, - ue<
Hawley,
Q U e. Miltimore, John C., Sweetsbnrg,
Hibbard, C. H., Stanbridge, Oue. ^ ue>
Montgomery, Mrs. Hugh, Philips-
burg, Que.
Johnston, Geo. W., Cowansville, A E<j Ottawa.
Moor6)
Moore, C. S., Stanbridge, Que.
Jones, C. O., Bedford, Oue.
'
_. Moore, J. Douglas, Quebec.
Jones, Lafavette, Sweetsburg, _ T ,-
P.
T_ , T ..
H. M., Niles. ^
Ca.
Q UC Moore,
Moore, Mrs. Theodore, Stanbridge
East, Oue.
Kerridge, F. E., Cowansville, Que.
MorehousCj Mr>| Bank Manager,
Kirk, Thos., P.L.S., Montreal. Bedford, Que.
Morgan, Mrs. S. A. C.. Bedford,
Lambkin, Mrs., Knowlton, Que. Que.
Lamoureux, E. M. J., Advocate, Mullin, J. J., Bedford, Qne.
Sweetsburg, Que.
Lander, John, Dr., L.D.S., Cow- Noves, Jno. P., K.C., Cowansville,
"

ansville, One. ~
Lefebvre, J. E., Advocate, Farn- Nye
"
Clarence E., Cowansville,
ham, Que. Q UC
Leonard, A. J. E., Advocate,
Sweetsburg, Que. O'Halloran, James, Esq., K.C.,
Lequin, J. A., Farnham, Que. Cowansville, One.
Lewis, Rev. \V. P. R., Cowansville, Oliver, Dr. A. J.. Cowansville,
Que. Que.
Loud, Geo. E., Farnham, Oue.
Lynch, W. H., Advocate, Sweets- Parsons, Mrs. L- C., Bedford, Que.
burg, Que. Pattison, Albert Mead, Montreal.
Pattison, Miss Charlotte E., Pa-
Martin, J. E., K.C., Montreal. sedena, Cal.
McCabe, J. Irving, Cowansville, Pickle, Dr. F. H., Sweetsburg,
Oue. Que.
MISSISQTJOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 9

Racicot, K-, Ksq., K.C., Sweets- Spencer, E. E., Frelighsburg, Que.


burg, Que.
Rice, McD., Sherbrooke, Que. Taylor, Job W., Cowansville, Que.
Rodger, Dr. D. A., Cowansville, Tippings, James A., Clarenceville,
Q ue -

Que.
Ruiter, P. Arthur, Cowansville, E A
Titchalt> Clarenceville, Que.
~ ue> Miss M. E., Dunsmuir,
Tippings,
Rykert, Asa, Dunham, Que. Siskiyan Co., Cal.
f^ ,1- TVT Truax, Geo. A., Farnham, Oue.
Sabine, Dr. G., Brooklme, Mass.
-r,

TA ^ ,, i<- n ,_ i lucker, Rev. W. Bowman, St.


Saunders, I? red. C., Bedford, Que. JQ Que
Sawyer, Chas., Burlington, Vt.
Saxe, John W., Atty.-at-Law,
Brookline, Mass.
Vllas >
Wm - F -. M.P.P., Cowans-
Scott, James E., Farnham, Que.
Scott, Jedd E., Scottsmore, Que.
Short, George E., Cowansville, Watson, E. L., Dunham, Que.
Q ue Westover, E. W., Advocate, Cow-
ansville, Que.
Slack, Dr. G. F., Farnham, Que.
Smvthe, Joseph, Cowansville, Williams, H. F., Cowansville, Que.
Oue Wood, G. A., Mil bank, S.D.
Annual Meeting.

The annual meeting of the Mis- Mrs. Hoyt, Mrs. Freleigh, Mr. H.
sisquoi County Historical Society Gough, S. Constantineau, K.C.,
held at* Bedford on Friday, the Mrs. and Miss Palmer, Mr. and
23rd August, 1907, was notable Mrs. C. B. Jameson, Mr. Moore-
not only by the number ol mem- house, Mr. and. Mrs. E.'F. Currie,
bers who were present and took an Miss Currie, Mrs. McNamara,
active part in the proceedings, but of Bedford, and manv others.
also by the character of the repre-
sentation. The two most respon-
sible officersof the association, the
President, Mr. Jones, and the Sec- The. President called the meeting
retary-Treasurer, Mr. Chas Moore, to order and asked the Secretary to
were in their seats, and afforded read the minutes of the last an-
ample evidence of the fitness for nual meeting. Whereupon it was
positions which they so worthily moved by Mr. J. P. Noyes, sec-
rilled. There were also conspicu- onded by Mr. E. R. Smith, thai,
ously in- evidence Hon., Judge inasmuch as the minutes of the
Lynch, Hon. Judge McCorkill, Mr. last annual meeting has been pub- ;

J. P. Noyes, ex-President, Rev. lished in the last annual report,


E. M. Taylor, M.A., (Secy. Brome they be accepted? and adopted
His. Association), Rev. W. P. R. without reading. Carried.
Lewis, Cowansville; E. E. Spen- Letters of regret for inability to
cer, Frelighsburg E. Raci'cot,
;
attend were received from Hon.
Sweetsburg; John Mullin, Rev. Sydney A. Fisher, Minister of Ag-
Mr. Bernard, and Mr. Capsey, Bed- riculture, Ottawa, and from John
ford E. L. Watson, Dunham
; ;
W. Saxe, Esq., Attorney-at-law,
Mr. Harvey Beatty, Stanbridge Boston, Mass.
East Rev. Dr. Tucker, .and E. R.
;
The President then read his an-
Smith, St, Mr. W. H.
Johns ;
nual address as follows :

Lynch, Mr.
Cotton, Rev. W.
P. R. Lewis, of Cowansville ;
PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.
Mr. Westover, of Dunham ;

Mr. and Mrs. Hibbard, P". C. Another year has passed away,
Moore, Mrs. Theodore Moo^e, of leaving only impressions, more
Stanbridge East Mrs. F. Guth-
;
or less indistinct, of the turmoil
ries;
Mrs. Jones, of Boston Mr. ;
and strife that goes to make up
E. Batcheller, of Paisley, Ont.; A. men's lives. The earth has rung
Somerville, of Philipsburg Dr. ; with the clang of inarching ar-
Dufort, Rev. W. Bernard, F. C. mies ;
the newspapers have re-
Saunders, Mr. and Mrs. E. Sorn- corded a wealth of incident of
berger, N. C. Davies, B.A., Mrs. greater or less importance, tales
Butler, Mrs. S. A. C. Morgan, of defeat and victory in the great
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY
world outside ;
emblazened abroad duty should I fail to compliment
is indisputable evidence of, human-
v
the "stall" on the thorough and
ity s progress, but up and down efficient manner in which they
the fruitiul valleys of Missisquoi have discharged their duties. Such
only the echoes have been heard. service cannot be procured for
Our toil, perhaps, has been severe money it can only result from
but of the good things of life not the deepest possible interest in the
a few have been allotted as our work undertaken.
reward. A feature of the work which I
In matters historical we may fear we, as members of the Socie-
report a measure of progress. Al- ty, have neglected, is the Histori-
cal Notes column in The News.
though it is true that we have not
covered all the ground we could These notes serve a double pur-
have wished, yet we feel encour- pose; they are not only a medium
aged to persevere. The life of the
of recording
interesting incidents,
society depends upon progress. We
but by this means the
Society was
cannot as an organization stand kept before the public, which is a
still. We must give our members prime necessity if we expect to
something to do, something to succeed in our endeavors. Mr.
think about, and in this we have Smith has generously allotted us
met with a measure of success. space in The News and Mrs.
The unthinking may depreciate our Moore, with equal kindly intent,
lack of excessive activity, but we consented to edit any matter sub-
cannot hope to do everything or mitted to her, but we have not
even many things at once. We can been living up to our privileges.
" here a little and there Let us prevent the Notes Column
only do
a little," and sustained by that from languishing. Almost any of us
"
hope which springs eternal with- are familiar with incidents of more
in the human breast " we must or less interest. Let us put them
in order, that Mrs. Moore
practice the sterling virtue of pa- may
tience. use them.
Since the last annual meeting Another instance where we have
the work in which we are all in- shown indifference in the adminis-
terested has been prosecuted with tration of the Society's affairs is
consistent diligence. A single lo- in not holding local meetings. It
cal meeting has been held at Farn- is a matter of the deepest
regret
gain. The inclemency of the wea-
to me that your chief executive
ther prevented my attending, but officers have not been able to de-
several officers and members were vote more time to this phase of
present and a very favorable in- the work. These local meetings
interest was created throughout. should be held. They should be
The arrangements for this meet- organized systematically and cov-
ing were made by Mr. F. X. A. er the entire county.
Giroux, the auditor of our Socie- The Society has suffered well
ty, and the success of the affair is nigh irreparable losses during the
due to his energy. year through the death of active
The business interests, of the So- members. Conspicuous among the
ciety have been carefully admin- number was. Mr. Win. Mead Patti-
istered during the year by Mr. son, of Clarenceville, who prob.i-
Chas. S. Moore, the efficient Sec.- bly did as much towards building
Treas., and his staff. I feel that up the Society as any other per-
it would be a serious neglect of son. Looking back to my earliest
12 MISSISOUOI COUNT V HISTORICAL SOCIETY

connection with the Society, and is only by conjecture that the curi-
I may say in passing, that I at- ous antiquarian may determine
tended the initial and every busi- who were the great ones of the
ness meeting since Mr. Pattison's earth in those early days.
name was familiar and with un- I well remember in the rural lo-
broken certainty his voice and his cality where I was born that
pen gave force to every forward the old cemetery stones furnished
movement. He is gone, but his almost the sole record of the com-
memory will long remain an in- munity of all the years that were
spiration to us. This simple ex- gone. An aged person pointed out
pression of our appreciation of his to me one clay a certain stone as
services and the terms employed a curiosity. It came from Bur-
in deploring his death are entirely lington, Vt., and cost $85. The
inadequate to express the sense of date of the man's death was 1806.
loss that we feel, and in placing In later days it occurred to me
on record the sincerest expression that this man, whose tombstone
of sympathy for the family of our came from so distant a place and
late friend we are making only a cost so much money, for money
slight acknowledgement of the ob- was much more di Hi cult to get in
ligation that we as a society are those days, must nave been a man
under. Other deaths have occur- of mark in the young settlement.
red within our ranks during the By diligent enquiry I learned that
year, Mr.
viz., H. H. Cotton, of he was by far the most prominent
<

Cowansville; Mrs. H. D. Post, of citizen of his time in the vicinity


Iowa, and the Rev. Rural Dean where he lived. How soon is
Harris, of Farnham, and Iy L. .
memory annihilated by the relent-
Chandler, also of Cowansville. less passage of time.
The paragraph embodying this We must bear in mind in look-
record is a sad one indeed, but our
ing over the past that each neigh-
sympathy goes out to the surviv- borhood possessed a much more
ing friends. distinct individuality than it does
Years must and changes
pass in the present time. The little
are inevitable, and as we stand schoolhouse was tne common ral-
looking back toward the begin- lying place. Here people were bap-
nings of our institutions our view tized, educated, listened to the
is obscured by all the years that in- preaching of the gospel, attended
tervene and the outline of every ob- many a social function that we
ject is distorted. Events loom up, might perhaps consider a, simple
magnified out of all semblance to form of amusement, and finally
their real importance in the un- when all was
over, they were con-
;

certain light, or perhaps our view veyed from these portals to their
of them is so indistinct that their last long rest. All this tended to
primary importance is entirely engender a marked individuality
concealed. In fact, although little that is now rapidly disappearing
more than a century has elapsed as the result of the new centraliz-
since this very spot was an inte- ing ideas that are becoming so
gral portion of the unbroken wil- rife, carrying in their wake de-
derness, such meagre records re- stmction to so much that is dear
main that we are almost unable to us of the older school. This
to even imagine the conditions ex- disappearance of local indepen-
isting over one-half the span of dence is regrettable. To it I am
our existence as a communitv It quite certain we can attribute in
MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY
a measure the constant drain of a prosperous year, due chiefly, as
the brightest of our young men in the past, to the untiring elf or Is
from the farms to the cities. I of a few patriotic spirits. If I

would not say that this is the were to make a list of those who
prime cause, for no doubt the old have borne the burden and heat of
law of supply and demand has the day the name of our ex-presi-
much to do w ith it, but it is cer-
T
dent, Mr. J. P. Noyes, K.C.,
tainly one of the causes. That the would stand at the head, with
urban centres demand the services the President of the Woman's
of our bright young sons is Branch and the Editor of the His-
certain, but the cause to which I torical Notes Column who, is also
have alluded has a tendency to the Secretary's assistant next in
weaken the claims of the soil un- order. Considering the many en-
til the cities' call is well nigh ir- terprises which he has had in hand
resistible. Can we not as a socie- during the past year, our worthy
ty do something toward restoring President has done much to fur-
the sentiment of local loyalty and ther the interests of the society,
independence, and re-establish lo- and Mr. Giroux our auditor, in
cal individuality and encourage a spite of his numerous duties, has
feeling of pride in our surround- found time to secure several new
ings that in many cases are ex- members. Mr. Giroux has been
changed for those often proving of valuable assistance in other
less congenial ? In this way we ways, notably his address before
may become a factor in the main- the successful meeting Held in
tenance of our county's influence Farnham and especially in his as-
by retaining our hold upon our sistance to the Secretary, for
young men. In a material sense which I wish, to thank him most
they can do well here. Let us cordially, and the Secretary is es-
keep them if we can. pecially grateful to him for tran-
But I have already trespassed slating into French, and bringing
upon your time and forbearance before the public in two French
to the full extent that I feel war- papers, the conditions of competi-
ranted in doing, so I will conclude tions for prizes offered at our last
by thanking you for the interest annual meeting for essays on his-
shown by your presence here to- torical subjects.
day. It is a matter of the deep- During the past year six promi-
est personal gratification to me nent members have died Mrs.
:

to believe that interest in the


Post, of Holland, Michigan, who
Society is on the increase and I am will be remembered as the daugh-
confident that our perseverance ter of the Secretary of the late
will result in the accomplishment Reverend Bishop Stewart the ;

of our patriotic object. Rev. Rural Dean Harris, of Farn-


ham Mr. Henry H. Cotton and
;

The then
Mr. L. L- Chandler, of Cowans-
Secretary-Treasurer ville Mr. Heber Townsend, of
read his report. ;

Hartford, Conn., son of the late


SECRETARY'S REPORT. Canon Townsend, for many years
Rector of Clarenceville and Mr.
;

Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentle- Win. Mead Pattison, of Clarence-


men :

ville. The loss to the Society


The Missisquoi County Histor- through the death of Mr. Pattison
ical Society has again completed would be hard to estimate. Much
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY
has been written in his praise, but cretary inquiring for literature re-
I will only quote a few words of garding the Fenian Raid. On re-
appreciation from the Missisquoi ceipt of reports and clippings bear-
County Historical Notes of May
"
ing on the subject Mr. Clark be-
*3i I97 : The active members of came an interested member of the
this organization feel keenly the society which reminds us of the
;

irreparable loss of one of their gift from Mr. Asa Rykert, the pic-
most energetic workers, the late ture displayed here ta-day of an
Major Wm. Mead Pattison, of interesting group around a captur-
Clarenceville. His valuable litera- ed Fenian cannon the history of
ry contributions and indefatigable which is contained in the follow-
labor along various lines for ad- ing letter, which was called forth
vancing the interests of local his- by some inaccurate statements,
work
torical particularly, are wel] previously published in Historical
known and appreciated, not only Notes.
by his associate-workers, but by
kindred societies at home and
abroad."
Mr. Pattison accumulated a vast This was followed by the report
amount of papers and other things and review of Mrs. S. A. C. Mor-
valuable to the society which his gan, President of the Woman's
family have placed in the care of Committee of the Society, as fol-
the Secretary, thereby carrying lows :

out the wishes of him who spent


so much time and energy in their Mr. President, Ladies and Gentle-
collection. men :

During the past year the Socie-


ty has secured three new life mem- Owing to the widely scattered
bers and 45 new annual members. location of the members of the
Following are the life members : Woman's Committee, it is not con-
Mr. J. J. B. Gosselin, M.I,. A., venient for us to meet our com- ;

who very kindly made an unsoli- munication must therefore be,


cited gift of ten dollars Mr. Geo.
;
and has been, maintained by let-
G. Foster, K.C., Montreal, com- ter or through the. Historical Col-
plimentary to Mr. Noyes, and Mr. umn of The News, a privilege that
B. G. Jones, of Boston, brother is highly appreciated. That col-
of our worthy President. umn, as is generally known, is un-
Mr. John W. Saxe, Atty., Bos- der the able editorial management
of Mrs. Theodore Moore, ex-Presi-
ton, has taken a lively and sub-
stantial interest in the Society, dent of the Woman's Committee,
buying several copies of reports who, by her own appreciative com-
and securing two new members be- ments, often calls attention to the
side himself, namely Mr. Geo. pith and point of an article that
otherwise might attract but little
Cooper, and Dr. Sabine, both of
attention.
Boston, and both descendants of
first settlers in St. Armand. Mr. Miss Rykert, of Dunham Mrs. ;

Saxe is a worthy descendant of T. Moore and Miss Chandler, of


the early settler, John Saxe. who Stanbridge, have kindly consented
built and owned Saxe's Mills, so to become members of this Com-
famous in local history. mittee, though it is scarcely pos-
Mr. Bvron Clark, of the Y.M.C. sible for Mrs. Moore to do more
A., Burlington, Vt., wrote the Se- for this Society than she has al-
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY

ready been quietly doing in the her daughter, Mrs. Dutton, who,
way of correspondence and person- in the sweet spirit of filial devo-
al suggestions for its efficiency. tion, although not a Canadian,
In the address just delivered our succeeds her mother in the mem-
recent losses have been touchingly bership of this Society.
referred to. The passing of our In March, an invitation was ex-
lamented co-worker, the late Ma- tended by the National Hist. As-
jor Pattison, leaves a great void sociation to the President or dele-
in the working stall of this So-
gate from the Society to attend
ciety. It removes one who pos- a meeting of that Association,
sessed the time, talent and enthu- held at Toronto, April i8th also;

siasm needed to advance its inter- to attend a meeting of the Nation-


ests. Permit me to express, in the al Council of Women, held at Van-
name of the Woman's Committee, couver in July. Our Society be-
our sympathy for the bereaved
ing still young and backward at
families of the late members of that could only return thanks for
this Society, and our deep sense the extended courtesy. In May
of the loss we have sustained in we received a copy of the Consti-
each individual case. tution and Standing Orders of the
In regard to the late Mrs. Post, National Hist. Association, which
the Woman's L/iterary Club of is making an 'effort to affiliate the
Holland, Mich., of which club she smaller societies.
was the founder, has published in Theladies who were solicited on
pamphlet form a pretty story of the Woman's Committee of the
her life, from which a few sen- M. H. S. responded most cordial-
tences are here gathered and ly, though, apparently in doubt in
adapted :
what way they could serve the
" On Dec. 22nd, 1822, a lonely
Society. An open letter was ad-
farm-house, half way up the side dressed to them through the col-
of a Canadian hill, lay deep in the
umns of The News Nov. I2th, ex-
snows of mid-winter. In the vil-
plaining Art. 2nd of the By-Iyaws.
lage at the foot of the hill, busy Furthermore, permit me to take
hands were trimming the Christ- this opportunity to say that eaon
mas wreaths, when a baby gir]
one, in quietly influencing her own
came to bless the home circle in household or her neighborhood
the farm-house overlooking the
as we have no doubt that she al-
village of Dunham, Que.
" This ready does for the fostering of
home, although an hum- loyal, patriotic and worthy ideals,
ble one, was not without its cul- is advancing the aims of this So-
ture and refinement. The father, ciety. Yet, there may be occa-
the late John Coatsworth, who, sions when it will be convenient
it will be remembered, accompan- to know who may be relied upon
ied the Rt. Rev. Bishop Stewart for special work, then an appeal
to Canada, as his secretary, was will be made to the Woman's
a man of good education. Committee, as a reserve force. As
" At we all know, in the home habits
the Dunham Academy
Anna fitted herself for the work are formed that shape one's des-
pursuance of her vocation. After tiny. Character as well as char-
teaching a few years she was mar- ity begins at home. The family
ried to Mr. Henry D. Post, who is too often allowed to run free
survives her." and browse indiscriminately on
We extend a heartv welcome to all kinds of fiction, with never, or
i6 MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY

rarely, a glance at subjects of from the list that should be


deeper inport. Politicians, and there." That is a point to be no-
all earnest people, know that it is ticed. It is too true that
of great importance what we read. many of
our people are so cautious in the
The Hon. Grover Cleveland expenditure of their time, money
says "In my judgment a know-
: and sentiment that they must see
ledge of history becomes more im- a public enterprise worked out be-
portant with the passing of time; fore they will lend a hand or a
and it seems to me that it never dollar. I must tell you in the
was so important as in these days privacy of this assembly, that it
of stirring events and wondrous has been said by one of the most
change." esteemed and influential members
Hitherto we have given but of this Socieey, he being a resi-
scant encouragement to. Canadian dent of Wayback, somewhere in
literature. But latterly there is the highlands of Missisquoi, that
a visible the Pike River
awakening to national valley harbors the
interests in schools and social cir- most somnolent people in the
cles. Literary clubs and lec/tures country !

are doing much to foster good That assertion is startling en-


thought. ough to awaken us all It is said !

that a stranger has been asleep


"
As a man thinketh so is he." four days at Victoria, and the po-
lice are trying to find out where
In June an letter he comes from. Mr. President, is
interesting
was received from Miss M.
A. there any one missing from the
Tittemore, of San Francisco, an- Pike-River valley ? Allow me to
other loyal member of this So- say in our own defence, that the
ciety, who enclosed for our pro- people of this valley, being chiefly
posed museum a portion of manu- farmers, while they sleep, their
script by the late Horace Greely. crops are growing. Then, too, we
It seems like a hand-clasp extend- associate sleep with peace of mind
ed to us from out the dimness and and a conscience at rest. Lawyers
silence of the past. It is a curio- do not thrive in this valley unless
sity also, by reason of its illegibi- they supplement their profession
lity, which requires an expert to with the peaceful arts of the hus-
discipher it. It is told of Mr. bandman and fisherman.
Greely, that on one occasion he Nothing contributes so much to
wrote a letter of dismissal to an alertness as the habit of stirring
employee in his ollice. The man up game, or hunting for means to
took the letter to another office, circumvent the wiles of one's ad-
where he presented it as a recom- versaries for self-preservation. All
mendation; and "was accepted. such activity is needless in this
Miss Tittemore's letter \vas pub- valley. According to the last cen-
lished in the Historical Column sus, there were 202 persons in Mis-
of The News, lint I cannot refrain sisquoi County upward of So year^
from quoting a few sentences from of age and 19 persons upward
;

it, for my present purpose. In re- of 90. Since moderation is con-


ferring to our second Report, she ducive to longevity, we may as-
says "It was like a flood of
: sume that a large proportion of
sunshine on my isolated life. . . . these are residents of the Pike-
What astonishes and surprises me River valley.
" If a man
is that so manv names are absent A cynic has said :
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY
doesn't amount to anything him- rely tocumber the ground. A new
self, he boasts of his ancestors." century comes, and inheriting the
We refer to ours with pride and ;
unfinished plan, it takes these
it is our aim to keep their mem- crude ideas, and lo they are !

ory green as a model for present just what it needs. It finds them
and future generations, inheritors hewn to fit each other, and out of
of their and brawn and
blood ;
these it builds the compact and
who under same stress of cir-
the graceful .beauty of its institutions.
cumstances would doubtless exhi-
bit a like force of character. Our Respectfully submitted,
predecessors were not somnolent
that is certain. S. A. C. MORGAN.
Our provincial emblem was sin-
gularly and fittingly chosen, for
the early settlers of Canada must
'

have worked with the ingenuity On the conclusion of the address-


and pertinacity of -the beaver, es and reports it was moved by
Mr. J. P. Noyes, seconded by Mr.
though retarded by primitive me- E. R. Smith that a bonus of $25,
thods. Our interest is chiefly con-
be presented to the
cerned, not with those ancestors Secretary
who are perched on the top-most in appreciation of the work he had
done for the Society and particu-
boughs of a genealogical tree but
with those who alighted on the larly in the somewhat troublesome
forests of Missisquoi with such im-
work of the distribution of tho
annual reports and of the corres-
petus as to level them to the
pondence connected therewith. Car-
ground. ried.
Our venerable and esteemed com-
The Secretary courteously thank-
patriots who have attained the ed the members for their kindness
age of ninety years or more, have and appreciation.
witnessed the wonderful evolution
of this country from the mysteri- The election of officers for next
ous silence and grandeur of the year followed. Both the President
forest to the beauty and product- and Secretary expressed their de-
iveness of a garden so much can sire in fact their firm intention
,

be crowded into one lifetime that of withdrawing, owing to the mul-


tiplicity of other duties. Then the
spans the land like a rain-bow, be-
neath whose exalted arch the oper- presidency, on motion of Mr. W.
ations of man lie extended like a H. Ivynch, seconded by Mr. Spen-
The work of the early cer, was tendered to Mr. E. L.
panorama.
settlers was, of necessity, chiefly Watson, of Dunham, with the
of a material nature. Already we hearty approval of the entire
see the work of development, ma- meeting, but that gentleman felt
terial and spiritual, progressing on constrained to decline the honor.
broader lines, which recall the After some little parleving, and in
words of the late lamented Phil- spite of the protests of those most
" One directly concerned It was moved
lips Brooks, when he says :
;

period collects materials, the next by Hon. Judjre Lvnch, seconded


bv George Capser,, Esu., that all
period builds the palace. . .

One century with slow and painful the living officers of last year be
labor beats out a few crude ideas re-elected. Carried.
which lie like David's logs of wood Moved by E. R. Smith, Esq.,
and blocks of stone that seem me- seconded bv Rev. W. P. R. LewiX
i8 MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY
that the Rev. Rural Dean Robin- knowledgCj of this case, but he, felt
son, be elected Secretary and Di- satisfied that the reason why there
rector for Clarenceville in place of were no competitors for these
the late Win. Mead Pattison,Ksq., prizes was because the schools
and Major Chilton be added to. the knew little or nothing about them
Directors there in the place of Mr. and as Judge Lynch renewed the
Robinson. Carried. oiler for another year Mr. Smith
Judge Lynch announced that in urged that definite information
August of next year he purposed should be sent to the principal of
inviting all available teachers and every academy or model school in
scholars of Bronie County to meet the section of the country interest-
in Knowlton, and he asked the, co- ed. Thereupon on motion of Rev.
operation of the Missisquoi His- Mr. Taylor, seconded by Judge
torical Society in this movement. McCorkill, the secretary was auth-
The idea seemed to impress itself orized to prepare a circular ex-
favorably upon the meeting. This plaining the nature of Judge
would not only be a reunion of the Lynch 's proposition and send a
old boys, but of the old girls as copy of it to every school in the
well. district.
On motion of Mr. Noyes, second- During the course of the after-
ed by Mr. Capsey, t\vo more life noon, when one matter or an-
members were added to the hono- other was under discussion, so
rary These
roll of the Association. frequently was allusion made to
were Mr. Cyrus Thomas and the the late lamented Wm. Mead Pat-
Rev. E. M. Taylor, IVI.A. tison, that one could almost fan-
Mr. Noyes was the medium of cy the spirit of the deceased vice-
the presentation to the society president was hovering over the
from Mr. E. A. Mitchell, of Hunt- meeting. This had its culmina-
tion when on motion of Mr. Noyes
ingdon, (who is leaving for Cali-
fornia) of a Fenian sword and- belt seconded by Judge McCorkill, it
left on the battle field of Eccles was resolved :

Hill, while the Rev. Mr. Tayk>r 1st, That


in the death of Major
asked the acceptance of a picture Wm. Mead Pattison, of Clarence-
of the late Elijah Truax, who was ville, late of His Majesty's Cus-
born in Albany, N.Y., in 1772, toms, one of the founders of this
came to Canada in 1792 and died Society and, one of its most active
in Missisquoi in 1874, being 102 and members and offi-
intelligent
years of age. The picture was the cers,whose labors and valuable re-
of an grandson search work in local history, and
gift octogenarian
of the deceased centenarian, Elias whose zealous aid to all the ob-
Sornberger, who was present at jects of this Society have been so
the meeting. generous and abundant during its
existence this Society has sustain-
A year ago Judge Lynch gener-
ed an almost irreparable lost.
ously offered five prizes of $10 each
to pupils of schools in the district 2nd, That the Society, as a
who would furnish the best essays measure of its appreciation of
on the five original townships of such valuable services do publish
and Hi's in its next annual report a por-
Missisquoi Lordship
seemed somewhat surprised to trait of Mr. Pattison with a suit-
learn that there were no competi- able .sketch of his life, and,
tors for these prizes. Mr. E. R. 3rd, That a copy of this reso-
Smith said he had no particular lution be forwarded to his familv.
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY
The resolution was adopted by a also made to a gift by Mr. Elias
standing vote. Sornberger, an octogenarian, pre-
Besides the death of Mr. Patti- sent at the meeting, of a framed
son, the Society has to mourn the photograph of his grandfather, El-
loss of others of its mem- ias Truax, who was born in Alba-
bers, Messrs. H. H. Cotton and ny, N.Y., in 1772 came to St.
;

L- L. Chandler, both of Cowans- Armand East in


1792 died in
;

ville, Rev. Rural Dean Harris, 01 March /aged 103, a pioneer


1875,)
Farnham, and Mrs. H. D. Post, of settler with a thrilling history.
Holland, Mich. There was also presented to the
Then followed the presentation a " Watts'
Society copyof Hymns
of a Fenian sword to the Society and Spiritual Songs," printed in
for its Museum, the gift of A. K. 1783, by Mrs. Elma Butler. It
Mitchell, Esq., K.C., of Hunting- was owned by her great grand-
don, One. Mr. J. P. Noyes, re- father, Joseph Smith, whose name
presented the donor and in his appears among the first settlers of
speech of presentation fittingly eu- St. Armand West. After his
logized Mr. Mitchell's prowess in death it passed to his daughter,
war, skill in the halls of justice Mrs. George Hawk, from her to
and generosity in donating edged her daughter, Mrs. Lewis Rhicard,
tools corroded by time. The and from the latter to her daugh-
sword bore the label :
ter, Mrs. Butler, the donor. An-
" other gift was a curious old stone
This sword of a Fenian officer
" was inkstand found by Mr. G. W.
presented by A. K. Mit-
"
chell, Esq., K.C., of Hunting- Brown on his farm in St. Armand
" to the Missisquoi West.
don, Oue.,
" Hon. Judge McCorkill, seconded
County Historical Society. In
" his hurried exitfrom Eccles Hill by Rev. Mr. Lewis moved a vote
" in May 1870, it was left by such of thanks to all these donors for
" officer on the farm of Augustus their valuable and generous gifts
" to the Society, which was adopt-
Vanderwater, and was by the
" ed.
latter disposed of at the time
" to Mr. Mitchell, then a practis- A small sun-dial, owned by Mr.
" Thomas Jones, of North Stan-
ing advocate of
Sweetsburg,
"
Oue., who was a veteran of the bridge, was on exhibition with the
" 1866 Fenian campaign." other relics. It is a primitive
Reference was also made to the time-piece of the old pioneer days.
picture of, an interesting groups of Judge McCorkill quietly and un-
the Home Guards around the can- estentatiously gave the Secretary
non' captured from the Fenians Sio.oo to help the funds of the So-
near Eccles Hill in 1870 which was ciety.
In response to a request from
presented to the Society by Mr.
Asa Rykart, of Dunham, one of the chair brief but pertinent ad-
the group of captors, mentioned in dresses, relating to matters more
the report of the Secretary. or less historical were delivered by
There were also presented to the Judge McCorkill, Judge Lynch,
Societv at the same time copies of Mr. E. Racicot, K.C., Rev. W.
the Bedford Times, and of L'Avenir Lewis, of Cowansville, and Rev.
and Montreal Gazette. The two Dr. Tucker, of St. Johns, F. X. A.
latter bearing date 'Nov. 1850 were Giroux, Esq., and others, after
presented by Mr. Noves. In the which the meeting was informallv
Secretary's report allusion was closed.
20 MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY

Mr. Noyes and the Fenian Raid Cannon.

Dunham, Aug. 27, 1907. to that, point. From a faded pho-


tograph taken at that time, 1

To the Editor of The News : have had one enlarged, and while
not very good, the persons who
Dear Sir, 1 read with interest took part in the removal of the
the letter oi J. P. Noyes, which cannon to this point are easily re-
appeared in your last issue, re the cognizable. A copy of this enlarged
Fenian cannon, and feel that the
photograph is at present in the
community is indebted to Mr. hands of the Secretary of the Mis-
Noyes for the correct and able re- sisquoi County Historical Society,
ports he has given to the press at Mr. C. S. Moore.
various times concerning the two On the following day the cannon
Fenian invasions. May I be per- was taken to Frelighsburg, and
mitted to add a few more details thence on to Col. A. Westover's,
in support of what he has already where it remained for some years.
said in regard to the captured Rumors from the other side, to
cannon .^
the effect that parties intended to
The Fenia:is in charge of the come over stealthly by night and
cannon did not follow the Fenian take the gun back to Uncle Sam's
infantry, but went independently territory, convinced the few Home
on the road. leading from Franklin Guards in the vicinity that it
to Pigeon Hill, about a mile west would be safer at a greater dis-
from the road running parallel be- tance from the border. There was
tween Franklin and Cooks Corner, a meeting of four of the Home
past Kccles Hill. They drew it up Guards, who discussed the matter,
within a few rods of the line and and decided to take the coveted re-
attempted to lire, but hearing that lic to Granby, but after a few days
sharp-shooters were playing sad they concluded that Cowansville
havoc with their comrades, con- would be equally safe, and it was
cluded that discretion was the bet- sent for from there for a Do
ter part of valor, and detaching minion Day celebration, and left
their horses from the gun carriage, in charge of Mr. G. K. Nesbitt
left it there and made their way where it has since remained, and
back to Franklin Centre, joining at the present time part of the
theircomrades alreadv there. carriage, with the gun, adorns the
A resident of St. Armand, whose grounds of his residence.
farm \vas very near the border, I have frequently been asked why
saw how the matter stood with re- it should remain there, and can
gard to the cannon, and taking only answer that I have no more
oxen after nightfall, drew it over to do with it than the persons who
to his. place, where he concealed it ask the question.
in a barn. The following morning In conclusion, may I venture to
for a compensation, he hauled the suggest that the gun be placed
cannon up to; Pigeon Hill, follow- upon the grounds in front of the
ed by Lieut. R. L. Galer and sev- Court House in Sweetsburg, in
en more of the Home Guards, of charge of the Sheriff of the Dis-
whom the writer was one. trict. This would seem an appro-
There a photograph was taken, priate place for it, and one which
showing the camnon and the eight I am sure would meet with the
Home Guards who accompanied it approval of those who took an ac-
MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 21

live part in repelling the Fenian how they crossed the St. Lawrence
invasions. Yours very truly, from Prescott to Ogclensburg, at
a time when the passage was hard-
A. RYKERT. ly considered safe, and that the
rest of the journey was through
northern New York and Vermont
to the old home. After a time
The Rev. W. Bowman Tucker, Mr. Ayer lived not far from Bed-
M.A., of St. Johns, Que., author ford and when twenty years old
of most interesting historical sket- went to the United States, where
ches in The News, namely two ar- he has since made his home."
ticles on the Miller family and a Both of these gentlemen express
brief history of the Philipsburg great pleasure in their trip "Back
Methodist Church, \ve consider a to Old Missisquoi." It was truly
great acquisition to the Society. gratifying to hear them speak of
Dr. P. J. Farnsworth, formerly the prosperous appearance and the
from Clarenceville, but for many natural beauties of our Kastern
years a resident of Clinton, Iowa, Townships.
has also joined the ranks and writ-
Stanbridge, July 26th.
ten a very interesting letter to the
Secretary.
Mr. Henry A. Ayer, of Colum-
bus, Ohio, and his cousin, Mr. The members of the Society will
Wm. H. Ayer, of Aurora, 111., be glad to know that our esteemed
called upon the Secretary while friend Dr. McAleer, of Worcester,
visiting in Stanbridge, the lat- Mass., has been highly honoured.
ter gentleman becoming a member In Worcester Daily Telegram, of
of the Society. This call brought July 12, 1907, there is a long re-
out the following notes in The " The
view, of his work Etymolo-
News :
gy of Missisqiioi" from which we
" Mr.
Henry Ayer was a
highly quote the following : That Dr.
respected and successful teacher at McAleer has been thorough in his
Philipsburg Academy when the search has become a recognized
school was at its best. He is an fact, and no higher tribute could
enthusiastic member of the Missis- be given than that which he re-
quoi Historical Society, and we cently received at the hands of Dr.
expect some valuable notes from A. Peterman's German book.
his pen, for he is a native of this This book is known throughout
county. In conversation he relat- the world to deal with who's who
ed that his father's family was and what's what in geographical
among the pioneer settlers near world. The editor of his work,
Frelighsburg. He moved to a wrote to Dr. McAleer in Septem-
a place west of Kingston, Ont., ber for a copy of his work, "Ety-
w here his,son, William, was born.
r
mology of Missisquoi," for review.
When this son was three years old He highly, commends the work,
the troublous times of '3?-'3 8 so and as a result of the review, Dr.
disturbed his mother that the fa- McAleer finds that his name and
mily decided to return to their re- his work have been given a place
latives in the vicinity of Frelighs- in the Geographen Kalendar, an
burg. Mr. Ayer remembers that annual publication devoted to geo-
the long journey was made by graphical matters, published by
waggon in the spring of the year. Justus Porthes.
MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY

Cyrus Thomas, Esq., now resid- ham and dwelt upon the building
of the pioneer railway in that town
ing in Toronto, is most gladly
wel-
comed as a member of this socie- in 1858, explaining how Col. A.
B. Foster, the moving spirit of
ty-
At our request Mr. Thomas has the S. S. & C. R. R. had decided
to build from St. Johns to Farn-
sent his photograph and in addi-
tion, we have a short biographical ham, instead of Chambly and St.
sketch for publication in the next Cesaire, beccause these latter mu-
annual report. Mr. Thomas re- nicipalities refused to
grant the
grets his inability to
be with us company a bonus on the selfish

to-day.
presumption that the railroad had
to go through their parish in any
event. Farnham had the same luck
a few years ago when the C.P.R.
The only meeting held during, the built their short line to Halifax
past year was that, previously re- and actually began work from be-
ferred" to, at Farnham on Friday low St. Johns towards Granby,
evening, July 12. According to leaving Farnham a few miles to
able reports in both the St. Johns the south, when the operations
News and the Sherbrooke Record, were stopped and the line came
the meeting was an undoubted suc- direct from St. Johns through
cess ini spite of the absence of the Farnham.
President and Secretary. Follow- Mr. Noyes was followed by Mr.
ing is the account published in The Giroux, a clever Sweetsburg law-
News :
yer, who hailed from Farnham.
i

Mr. Giroux travelled somewhat on


SPECIAL MEETING AT FARN- the same lines as Mr. Noyes, and
HAM. gave the same explanations for
the benefit of his countrymen and
Over a hundred interested per- urged them to cultivate the study
sons responded to a call for a spe- of local history, rendering justice
cial meeting of the Missisquoi His- to their forefathers if they wanted
torical Society in the Town Hall, themselves to be respected by their
Farnham, on Friday evening of successors. He appealed to all to
last week. The chair was ably support the association. The Hon.
filled by Mr. Mayor d'Artois, who Judge McCorkill, of Quebec, a na-
cordially welcomed the visitors tive of Farnham, who is spending
and endorsed the objects of the as- the summer at his suburban resi-
sociation. dence in Cowansville, received a
As soon as His Worship sat down hearty welcome as he came for-
all eyes were turned to Mr. J. P. ward in response to the call made
Noyes, the energetic, epigramma- upon him. He could not, he said,
tic ex-president of the Society. Mr. miss this re-union of the old boys
Noyes made a capital speech, as of Farnham. He expressed his
he always does, combining practi- cordial sympathy with the aims of
cal information w^ith keen, not to the Society and he should con-
say biting, criticism, and irrepres- tinue to give it his support. His
sible flashes of wit. He touched forefathers had been granted con-
upon the aim and object of the So- cessions of land in Farnham, and
ciety, its struggle for existence, had been amongst the first pion-
and the claims it had upon the eers. He contrasted the situation
public for support. He gave sever- of the place to-day with what it
al incidents of the history of Farn- was 75 years ago, when the very
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY
first settlers^ arrived. Hon. Mr. little speech welcomed the visitors
McCorkill spoke in French, and il as well as the citizens of the tow.n,
va sans dire, spoke well and efiec- who had come in goodly numbers,
tipely. D. Meigs, M.P. for
B. notwithstanding the inclemency of
Missisquoi, spoke in English and the weather.
French, giving much historical in- Mr. J. P. Noyes, of Cowansvillc,
formation and advocating the was the iirst one called by the
claims of the Society. He left the President of the meeting/ This
impression upon the audience that gentleman, a lover of historical
he might eventually join. work, and a tower of strength for
Two octogenarian citizens, Mr. the County Society, clearly show-
Scale and Mr. C. Potvi'n, gave in- ed the aim and object of it, and
teresting speeches telling of the as an object lesson gave several
peculiarities and hardships of the bits of ancient history of Farn-
early days. ham, and specially dwelt on the
The meeting was a success in construction of the first railway
spite of the unpropitious weather. in Farnham in 1858, explaning
I might say, in passing, that how Col. A. B. Foster, the mov-
we hope that the promise made a ing spirit of the Stanstead, Shef-
3ear ago by the Hon. Judge Mc-
r ford and Chambly R. R., had de-
Corkill, to give us a paper on some cided to build from St. Johns to
local historical topic, will soon be Farnham, instead of the Chambly
fulfilled. and St. Cesaire way, because
these last mentioned municipali-
ties had refused to grant bonuses
on the ground that the townships
(From Daily Record.) had to build a railway and cross
their territory to reach Montreal.
THE MISSISQUOI Farnham had the same luck a few
HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
years ago when the C. P. Ry. Co.
built their short line, and actual-
Well Attended Meeting is Held at
ly began works from St. Johns
Farnham. towards Granby, leaving Farn-
ham a few miles to the south,
Addresses by Messrs. J. P. Noyes, when the operations were stopped
F. X. Giroux, Judge Mc- and the line came through Farn-
Corkill and Others. ham.
Mr. Noyes was well listened to
Farnham, July 15. (Special.) and left a good souvenir here.
A very interesting convention of He was followed in French Ly
the Missisquoi Historical Society Mr. Giroux, of Sweetsburg, but a
took place here Friday night, Farnham boy, who gave the same
when over a hundred persons ga- explanation for the benefit of his
thered in the Town Hall to hear countrymen and urged them to
the explanation of the representa. cultivate the notions of local his-
tives of the County Board. As it tory, rendering justice to their
was the first meeting of tne kin 1 forefathers if they wanted them-
in this part of the county, it was selves to be respected by their
expected with earnestness, and the successors. He then cited cases
audience seemed to accept the of local history, as tradition gave
views of the speakers with favor it in the family circles, and ap-
Mr. A. E. D'Artois, Mayor of pealed to all to become members
Farnham, presided, and in a neat of the society and help it, each
M1SSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY
theirway, to attain its purpose. MISSISOUOI HISTORICAL
Hon. Judge McCorkill, of Que- NOTES.
bec, but who spends the summer
at his country residence in Cow- Stanbridge, April I9th.
was The following excellent review
ansville, particularly well re-
of " The Voice of the River " was
ceived, and said that as a native
of Farnham he could not miss this
written by Mrs. Clark in a letter
to an old friend
re-union of old boys, when the good :

"In The Voice of the River,'


'

days of the past were to be re- with the inspiration of a true ar-
called, and folk-lore the theme of
the evening. He had always giv- tist, Mrs. Morgan has succeeded
in giving us historical facts and
en much of his support and sym-
pathy to the Society and would pleasing fiction, tender sentiments
continue to do so. His forefath- and practical philosophy, gleams
of humor and shades of pathos, all
ers had been granted concessions
of land in Farnham. and had been
so skilfully woven together that

amongst the first pioneers. He one, in reading, is even unconsci-


ous of v here one begins and an-
contrasted the situation of the
other ends. And not only has she
place to-day with what it was 75
taken into due consideration the
years ago, when the very first
settlers arrived. Hon. Mr. Mc- natural effects of man upon the
Corkill spoke in French and did features of nature and the reflex
action of nature upon the life of
so in real Quebec style.
man, but she has also discerned in
The audience had then the plea- the orderings of natural things
sure of listening to Mr. Scale, a the unwritten laws that apply to
very old citizen, and to Mr. C. mankind as well. For I am sure
Potvin, eighty-four years old, and that the majoritv of thinking peo-
who arrived here seventy-eight ule will say with her that they
years ago. They told of the pe- realize that we, like the river,
culiarities and hardships of the must all, to a greater or lesser
early days. extent :

The whole affair was a success '"


Run our race where bounds are
and the Society has taken a firm
set,
grip in Farnham. W ellr

hedged inon every side,


Tho' we each have our spring-
tide."
Even though we, as a people, arc
"
Within the year the Society has free free !"
issued two publications "The The illustrations are splendid
Voice of the River," by Mrs. S. and recall many well-known spots
A. C. Morgan, of Bedford, and
along the course of old Pike Riv-
the Second Annual Report. We, er while the short poem, " To
;

as an organization, were proud to the Pinnacle," with its two fine


publish so fine a literary effort as views, is a natural and welcome
" The Voice of the
River," which addition to the little book.".
has received unstinted praise from
persons of undoubted ability to
criticize. A few quotations from "THE VOICE OF THE RIVER."
the Historical Notes column m^*
prove of interest in this connec- The Missis(|uoi Historical Socie-
tion :
ty is deeply indebted to the au-
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY

thor of our recently published Maynard, written by Mrs. H. E.


booklet. Starting with its two Thompson, of Potsdam, N. Y..
who is a distant relative of Mrs.
sources, Silver Lake in Franklin,
Vermont, and Selby Lake, in Dun- E. L. Watson, of Dunham. Both
ham, its wanderings are followed must have a more permanent place
until it leaves oil its hide and seek in our records for they are good
;

play and prattle, and assumes a types of the kind of sketch we de-
gravity befitting the end of its sire. Exceedingly interesting let-
course, where it silently merges ters have been received from Miss
into Missisquoi Bay on the Cana- Tittemore, of San Francisco, of
dian frontier. The illustrations which \ve shall hear more later.
are twenty-three in number, and Among the early settlers of Dun-
include scenes from Franklin and ham Village (then known as Dun-
West Berkshire, Vermont Dun- ; ham Flat) was Samuel May-
ham, Frelighsburg, Stanbridge, nard, born in Bakersfield, Vt.,
Riceburg, Bedford, Pike River Vil- in 1789. He
married Maria,
lage,and Lake Champlain. daughter .of Capt. Joseph Baker,
Although this booklet is not in in 1867, who was born in Dunham
itself a scientific treatise, the sub- in 1791. They settled in an old
ject of heredity is incidentally frame house on the farm then
touched upon, \vhen the author re- owned by him which he later sold
" even to this
marks that day do to Edward Baker, for many years
the bull-frogs on Groat's Creek, P. M. in Dunham. He then mov-
" More
croak, rum, more rum." ed to St. Albans, Vt., where Mrs.
heredity transmitted from the Maynard died in 1832. He then
days of the old distillery. (If returned to Dunham and built the
they utter that after they reach house next to the Methodist church
Bedford they are shot.) and kept a general store for many
But we cannot begin to describe years. He died in Enosburgh
this charming little booklet. To Vt., in 1866. He was the son of
be appreciated it must be seen and Stephen Maynard and Martha Ba-
carefully read, and cannot fail ker, his wife, who were the
it first
to please every son and daughter white settlers in the town from
of Missisquoi, either at home or Mass. Their eldest daughter re-
abroad. It concludes with a ceived a government grant of 80
" To the
charming little poem, the (eighty) acres of land, being
Pinnacle," illustrated by two first white child born in that
views, one of the mountain from town, which was named for the
a distance and the other of its Baker family.
summit. Some relics have been received,
CHAS. S. MOORK, for which we thank the donors,
Secretarv. and more are assured when a safe
for their keep-
place is provided
ing.
Afew clippings will serve to
Unfortunately too late for the show the appreciation of the pub-
Second Report, a most excellent lic for the many valuable papers
and valuable paper on Pike River and historical items of interest
of the
was received from Mr. Watson, of published in the last report
that and published in Society. The following is
from the
place,
" Notes " and distin-
column of The News pen of the venerable
,

and also notes on a well-known guished historian, Sir


James M.
early settler of Dunham, Samuel LeMoine, of Quebec :
26 MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY

Spencer Grange, One., AN INTERESTING REPORT.


March 20, '07.
The second report of the Missis-
I was much pleased at receiving quoi County Historical Society
the report of the Missisquoi Coun- has appeared and is, in all res-
ty Historical Society. It was not pects, a credit to that organiza-
only an interesting volume, but tion. Missisquoi County is fortu-
its form is taking and its excel-
nate in possessing a '
centre '

lent illustrations of distinguished where interesting historical data


men and places illumine the text are being preserved, and where re-
in a striking and pleasing man- lics of interest are being collected
ner. The Society seems to have for a museum. That the associa-
expanded wonderfully of late. I
tion is progressive is evident to
take this early opportunity to all those who acquaint themselves,
cordially thank the President, Di- to any extent, with its aims and
rectors, and yourself for associat-
objects and follow up the steady
ing me
as a life member to its des- and increasing interest and effort
tinies, as well as giving to my on the part of its members.
picture a place d'honneur in the
Although regretting that more
report of its transactions. I no-
institutions of a like nature do not
tice it comes before the public exist amongst us, there is a dis-
with an extensive historical record tinct feeling of pride in the fact
descriptive of many localities and that the Eastern Townships pos-
scenes in which a Canadian his- sesses such a splendid pioneer as-
torian would revel. It is indeed
sociation as that from which the
rich in information historical, an- above mentioned report comes.
tiquarial, statistical,
biographi- There is no question as to such
cal, local, and represents a wide endeavor being worth while. The
field of research.
present generation will appreciate
JAMES M. LeMOINE, it, and the coming generation will

To Wm. Mead Pattison, Clarence-


applaud it.

ville.
To every county in the Eastern
" Go
To\vnships we would say :

The Montreal Witness has this and do likewise."


to say :
The Canadonian.
The second annual " of
Report
the Missisquoi Society shows '

what may be done by taking up Mr. C. H Hibbard was highly


the small threads of history of complimented "by the editor of
The tracing of ear- " Old and
local interest. New," in the Montreal
ly the recollections of
settlers, Gazette, for his able article on the
early historical events, and the St. Albans raid which closes the
study of old names may well be contents of the Second Report.
considered of more than a merely Complimentary copies of the re-
local interest. At any rate, the port were sent to leading newspa-
example of these county patriots pers and to the libraries of uni-
may profitably be followed in oth- versities, including the last great
er portions of the Dominion. acquisition to our institutions,
the Macdonald College at St.
Over the signature of " The Ca- Anne. On receipt of the Reports,
nadonian " the Sherbrooke Rec- Dr. Robertson expressed much ap-
ord published the following :
preciation.
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 27

The Sherbrooke Daily Record moved. Certainly your Society


requested some our cuts for
of will be a leading factor in the
publication, which the Society work.
gladly supplied in recognition of You have every reason to feel
courtesies received from that pa- proud of what you have accom-
per. plished and to look forward with
Our also received
Society a courage to greater achievement.
cordial invitation to join the Nu- The address -of your President is
mismatic and Antiquarian Socie- admirable, in style and sentiment.
ty of Montreal on their annual ex- It would l)e good missionary work
cursion, which was at Ticonderoga to have a tract made of it, and
this year. Unfortunately the in- let it be well circulated !

vitation was received too late to Another notable paper is Mr.


take action. Noyes' contribution on the Dutch-
Again quoting from the Notes German question it is a clear
;

column : and scholarly effort if I may use


1

To see ourselves as others see such a word in connection with


us," is sometimes depressing, but one whose clever pen seems to
when otherwise, we may be par- move without effort. Such arti-
doned if we let the world know. cles stimulate the interest in his-
The fallowing private letter was torical research. The idea of
recently received by an old friend arousing such interest among the
of Mrs. Bugeia, better known here school children was an inspiration.
as Miss Julia Meigs. We thank You will accomplish with their
her most heartily for her kind en- voung intellects what you cannot
couragement and fine criticism. with their elders, they being toe
" set in their minds " to use an
EDITOR NOTES. old-fashioned and expressive
phrase and from among those
Novato, Cal., May 2nd, 1907.
;

prize winners mav come the future


My Dear This is to acknowl-
:
historians of Quebec.
edge the receipt of your H. S. re- It is a relief to find the etymo-
port and to thank you for so logical question narrowing to a
kindly remembering me. It makes point flint point.
me feel like one of you as I I find the illustrations of much
would certainly be if I were back interest, especially the portraits,
in old Missisquoi. more especially to me, that of my
It has been a great
pleasure to relative, who seems to bear his
me to read, and re-read these in- honors well also that of mv for-
;

teresting articles. They have a mer townsman, the Hon. Thos.


distinctly literary flavor. You Wood, a fine familiar face. But
are beginning to step out I can ! for beauty turn to the portrait of
well understand the
discourage- Judge Bingham. That head and
ments your work in its present
of profile would adorn a medal or a
stage, and. shall I say ? environ- cameo. Such a nose points to un-
ment. usual character, and one is not
I have in mind a
" " be-
comment, in surprised to read Judge
regard to it, made by a visitor to neath its shadow.
the old county some
years ago. (Judge B. was associated with
It was, in effect, that Mr. Thomas in the publication of
public spir-
it seems to die out a Radical paper in Stanstead dur-
'
completely at
the line," a reproach which I
ing the troublesome times of 37-
hope will, in time, be wholly re- 38.)
28 MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY
"
But why continue ? " They are May-flowers," anemones,
all all honorable men." And the Mottled adder-tongue
line old centenarian rounds out the Jack-in-the-pulpit
collection nobly. Poor old man, The forest ferns among ?

waiting to cross the river where And O, the hills of Dunham,


another than he would be the Fer- The old, old hills !

ryman. There is such a pathos' of Even in


face and those
dreaming my
patience in his Their beauty thrills.
great hands that had toiled in the
wilderness bent and knotted now And O, the old, sweet faces
and able only to grasp his
How the love-light beams !

"
staff." Peace to your ashes, And the spell is broken ;

old pioneer, and for the brave soul 'Tis the way of dreams.
of you, a good place in Paradise !
Novato, California, May '2, 19n7.

I thank you again, clear friend,


i -i
,
and bid von
J
11^1 j
all God speed in vour
We must pass Irom poetry
'
to
r ,
,,-
-
,
figures,
" and count our assets.
unselfish work.
,
,

TT ,
Receipts lor past vear are as
Very sincerely
- yours, , ,,
-
follows :

JULIA PI. S. BUGEIA. Balance from 1906 $ 70.11


Prize money from Mr. E.
Iv " Watson - 5 -So
The following gem of poetry
from the pen of Mrs. Bugeia may
serve to show that, although Mis-
I0 co

ernment ...
f Flrst
^f ort
sold to Provincial Gov-
:

^ 100.00
sisquoi has not produced many p
Cash from C. O Jones 25.75
poets of fame, still the muse is
Prom sale booklet, 01
-n , , ,

known to haunt our hills and val- " The _, ,,' .

Voice ofr the


.

leys, lakes and streams, and may lVer ,,

be aroused from her slumbers by "V


andi"'"
.
1 ,-
, Membership lees Re-
the magic touch ofr a distant hand.
, , , ,
i *
. .

ports sold 117.06


Total receipts $352.42
BACK TO OIJ) MISvSISQUOI. Expenditure :

J. H. S. B. Binding and lettering 98


volumes of First Re-
Back to old Missisquoi port S 34 30 '

journeyed in dreams-
I
Amount "voted" "secretary
Uplift of spirit wings, at annual niee ting 25.00
Just a flash it seems. Second Annual
Printing
Things are queered a little, Report 172.00
'Tis the way of dreams, Publishing booklet, The '

But O, the happy love-light Voice of the River ".... 48.50


That around me gleams ! Postage 16.35
Local printing 4-9Q
Back in old Missisquoi Miscellaneous expenses 9.45
Spring is in the air ;

The maples are in leaf, Total expenses $210.50


The meadows green and fail. Cash on hand $ 41-92

Blue the sky above me, $35 2 -4 2


Sweet the orchard flowers, The whole respectfully submitted.
Silver brooklets singing, (Signed) CHAS. S. MOORE,
Birds in sunlit bowers. Sec.-Treas.
Miss M. A, Tittemore,

Historical and Reminiscent.

MISSISQUOI HISTORICAL NOTKS.

Several weeks ago the Secretary have good reason to expect more
of the Missisqtioi Historical Soci- historical facts and incidents from
ety received a letter with a mem- Miss Tittemore 's pen. She writes:
" I have made a
bership fee enclosed, from Miss M. (Ed. Notes)
Tittemore,. of San Francisco, Cali- study of the Report
"
it was
;

fornia. In this letter she writes : like a flood of sunshine in my


It affords me great pleasure to
'
'

somewhat isolated life. It


become a member of the Society." brought back my childhood
Then she gives a few facts about and youth most vividly they
her early life in these words : stand out before me like a
"
My grandfather was
one of the printed page. My memory reach-
earliest settlers in the countr\ , ed far back and clearly to the Re-
having come from New York State bellion of '37- '38. I heard the fir-
in 1^785, when my father* was three ing of the guns at the battle or
years old. My mother's family, skirmish at Moore's Corner. Mv
Vandewater Knickerbocker Dutch father was absent from home with
came in 1803 when she was the militia four weeks. When he
fourteen years old. Now all lie,' returned I ran down the road to
buried in the churchyard at Fre- meet him, and cried. I could not
lighsburg. I was born in St. Ar- understand why I should cry,
mand East in 1831 and am the last when I was so glad to see him
member of my father's family;
not knowing then that joy can
but my memory is sound, and I bring tears as well as grief. To re-
cotild tell you much that I heard turn to the Report. All the pa-
directly from my
father's lips." pers are exceptionally good. Great
After receiving the second report, credit is due the young writer of
she wrote a letter, enclosing a " The Early Settlement of Cow-
valuable relic, to the Presi- ansv'.lle." >If she is a grand-daugh-
dent of the Woman's Commit- ter of Nelson Ruiter, I shall claim
tee, from which letter the fol- relationship, for he married Eli-
lowing extracts are taken. They nor Traver, whose mother was my
are submitted to the readers mother's eldest sister, and Albert
of this column for the very Mitchell, Esq., K.C., of Hunting-
interesting references, and because don, is my first cousin. I see that
they are an evidence of pood will he is a member of the M. H. S.
and appreciation for the work that What astonishes me is that so
has been done, and are encourag- many names are absent from the
ing and hopeful for the future. We list of members which should be
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY
there." Referring to the relic, of dismissal to another office, and
she adds this explanation : "I passed it off as a recommenda-
will enclose in this letter some tion." Miss Titemore offers, trea-
manuscript of Horace Greely ;
it sures she has kept for years in the
is genuine. In 1867, I think, he following words "I have some
:

delivered an address before the ancient home-made linen-flax, rais-


New Hampshire State Agricultu- ed on my grandmother's farm, and
ral Society Nashua. At that
at spun and woven by my mother.
time I was employed in the office It is at least seventy-live years
of the " Manchester Mirror," was old. I also have a piece of calico
there five years before coming to patchwork, as old as the battle
California. The address was pub- of Waterloo, made by my mother
lished in the " Mirror," and the while attending a young ladies'
proof reader distributed the copy school at Philipsburg. The teach-

THE OLD MILL DAM, COWANSVILLE, QUK.

among us ; and, as you see, I had er was Miss Harriet Townsend,


the last piece, containing the sister of the Rev. Townsend. I

printer's fmal mark. I thought remember hearing her say that


if you accepted a Confederate bill, Miss Townsend read to them at
you would not refuse another in- the breakfast table that Bona-
teresting relic, and that, a sample parte had fallen, so you see it is
of Horace Greely 's own handwrit- ninety-two years old. And it has
ing, though it is quite illegible. crossed the Rocky Mountains with
There were special compositors in me seven times going and com-
the Tribune office to set his manu- ing. If you would like them in
script. An anecdote went the your collection I should be pleas-
rounds of newspaper offices to the ed to dispose of them. I also have
effect that he once discharged a a certificate to teach a district
man, and the man took the note school, issued by Mr. Throop, of
MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY
the letter forgottenI have
Moore's Corner, in 1851, staling
.

what I In her re-


did write.
that he thought me capable of just
teaching a good common school, ply she thanked me for the scrap
of" Greely manuscript, and I said
which meant in those days the
she thought she could turn to good
three R's. The significance of the
three R's has changed since those account parts of the letter, and
when I received your letter, I con-
days. Now they mean simply
Root and cluded she intended passing it to
1

Roosevelt, Ryan.' " M.H.S." column.


me you for your
(Pardon for touching upon
politics.)." Miss Titemore speaks Now may possibly repeat much
I

in highly complimentary terms of that is included in the letters I


" The Voice of the wrote to the Secretary and Mrs.
the booklet,
River," written by Mrs. Morgan;" I
Morgan. The greater part I will
and closes with this remark :
telly y<ou is what I heard my father
;

shall subscribe for the St. Johns and/mother and my -sisters say, who
News, for I have not seen a copy were twelve and ten years my se-
for two years." niors. My grandfather, John Tite-
In Thomas' history of the East- more, came from Dutchess County,
ern Townships particular mention
N.Y. (have I spelled it right ?), in
is made of the Titemore family. 1788 or '89, when my father, John
Titemore, Jr., was three years old,
(EDITOR NOTES.) he and his brother George (the
Stanbridge, July 2, '07. ancestor of your Chas. Titemore).
I think they" landed at Philipsburg
and were among, if not the first,
settlers east of Missisquoi Bay.
Subsequent to the foregoing George took up land some two
Miss Tittemore sent the following or three miles south-west of
interesting letter, and valuable as Pigeon Hill, and I think some of
well, as respects -local history :
his descendants still occupy it.
His son John was the father of
2226 Market St., Dr. Noah Titemore. My grandfa-
San ther took up 200 acres some three
Francisco, July 8, '07.
miles east of Pigeon Hill, a mile
Dear Mrs. Moore, Your kind from the Province line, and when
letter came as a very pleasant my father .married he gave him 75
surprise. I know you by proxy, acres, which is owned by my ne-
as were, and now I will try and
it
phew, Homer L,. Titemore, a great
straighten the tangle in which I grandson of the original owner,
involved you and Mrs. Morgan. I and where I was born. The other
thought the handwriting Mrs. part has passed out of the family.
M.'s and was much mystified At one time it was owned by
when she wrote me she was not Charles Warner, who married one
aware I had become amember of of your Stanbridge girls, as you
the " M.H.S.," of which I am kno~w, and were among my most
very proud. Of course I am in- intimate friends. On the paternal
debted to Mrs. Bugeia, who paved side I come German stock. My
of
the way for the correspon- grandfather's name was Toof and
dence with the Secretary. I his mother's Stahl. On the ma-
mentioned something of myself ternal side were the names Feltz,
and family, and the same sub- also German, but my mother's
ject more fully to Mrs. Mor- name was Van De Water, and that
gan. Possibly you have seen tells its own story Knickerboc-
32 MISS1SOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY

ker Dutch. When reading Thomas rushed in saying the " Radicals ''
A. Janvier's " Old New York," I were coming. The wearers of the
came across this when Jacobus :
stripes blanched to the whiteness
Van De Water was given lots for of paper and tore them oil in a
those taken for some public pur- jifly fortunately they were only
pose. In later years my cousins basted on. My brother Edward
spelled their names Vandewater. was one of them. I was remind-
My mother was born in Columbia ed of it when I read " Vanity
Co., N.Y.,in 1789, and came to Fair." You remember Jo. Sedley
Canada with her parents when 14 tearing of! his regimentals, just
years of age. They settled in the before the battle of Waterloo, and
neighborhood my grandfather
of with his poor French frightened
Titemore. My father and mother the barber, who thought he wish-
were married in 1818, I think, and ed him to cut his throat instead
had nine children. Six lived to of shaving off his moustache. I

grow up, and I am the last one wrote Mrs. Morgan my recollec-
living the eighth child. My tion of the battle, or skirmish, at
grandmother Van De Water (as I Moore's Corner, now St. Armand
like to spell it) was waited on by Station (I like the first name best.
slaves. She was an only daugh- To me St. Armand station so.uuls
daughter Elizabeth Feltz, and I cheap;.
have heard my mother say the Y'ou both have my permission
happiest day in all the year was to make use of anything I nidv
when ' '
Auntie ' '

I have forgot- have written, if you can glean


ten the name came to spend the from the tangled "mess." I am
day with Elizabeth and her chil- not feeling very well.
dren, and by no means could they Received the First Report, and
prevail upon her to sit at table enjoyed it all very much, especi-
with them. Doubtless to her it ally the portraits. Hon. P. H.
would have been a breach of eti- Moore reminds me of Washington
quette. I have heard my mother Irving' s face. I saw him but once,
say she remembered when she but have danced with his brother,
could not speak English. Once her Hiram, at Pigeon Hill, and he
father brought home a Dutch spel- told me he had danced with my
ling-book. She could not be re- mother. All this was when I \vas
conciled to the idea that his oliil- young and he was not. The men
dren should not know their mother of his time were most "strenu-
tongue. When she died at 67 she ous" dancers. Now,I think
could not form a sentence. I am Pigeon Hill could be written up
quite sure I came of Tory stock, to advantage. The dances that
and that accounts for my intense have come off there, and are still
loyalty, which was called out dur- flourishing ;
it was aiways noted
ing the Rebellion of i837~'38. for the "light fantastic" -ever
Then I saw " red-coats " for the since John Martin opened a tavern
first time. I cannot resist relat- well on to a hundred years ago. I
ing one amusing thing. Naturally think the Sagers two or three
the martial spirit entered all the brothers settled there, and at one
boys, and it was quite the thing time it was called Sagersfield. As
to have red stripes sewed to the the "M.H.S" has erected a monu-
outside seam of their trousers ; ment on Eccles Hill, I think there
but one evening, when the boys' should be something said about
spelling class was finishing the the family, if it has not been done
lessons for the dav, some one already. Captain Eccles, a re-
MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIKTY 33

tired British officer, resided in Eccles' portrait, which hung on a


Frelighsburg, with his two chil- piece of furniture, and thought it
dren, Richard and Rebecca (was was her own self, and wondered
her name I think). Her name is why she did not move. She was
all can recall of her. The son
I a handsome woman. Her grand-
married Hannah Vincent, daugh- son, Mr. Squire Eccles, who owns
ter of Adi Vincent, of whom you Eccles Hill, I think, called fre-
read in History of Kastern Town- quently at my brother's, and I
ships, and who was a sister of asked him about the portrait. He
Margaret Vincent, who so tragi- said one of his sisters had it. He
cally lost her life in the first Fe- also told me there was a picture
nian raid. She (Margaret Vin- of the Captain, as well as a coat-
was "
cent) of the salt of of-arms. He was a native of Ire-
the earth." Gentle, unassum- land and of a noble family. Mr.
ing everything that was loveable. Eccles is a plain, quiet man, not
She was a school-mate of my mo- averse to speaking of his family,
ther and the first teacher of her and I think would be pleased to
two eldest daughters when little give any information that might
girls took their patch-work to be asked of him.
school as a part of their lessons. To return to my own family, I
She loved children and they loved have heard them tell how my
her. I recollect passing her gate grandmother Titemore would
with my young brother. She had mount her horse, with the baby in
seen approaching, and was
us front of her and a sack of grain
waiting, with a sweet smile on her behind, and ride over a corduroy
face and in each hand a bunch of road ten miles to Saxe's Mills,
lilacs and those gorgeous red have the grist ground, make Mrs.
peonies, and how beautiful they Saxe a visit and return the same
were. This is somewhat of a de- day. Could our club women do
gression, but I could not resist the like ?^ I have also heard him
paying my feeble tribute to her tell how he remembered going with
many virtues. To return to the his father, when they were build-
Eccles family, Richard Eccles kept ing the lo^ house seeing them cut
a dry goods store at Frelighsburg down the trees. All the land had
and the Captain lived with him. to be cleared. The making of pot-
He was very fond of, his daughter- ash went to pay for the land.
in-law. Richard had two children Mr. David Brimmer manufactured
Mary Anne and James. They potash as late as 1851. There I
died when they were young, and saw the melting process.
his widow then went to her old I fear I have buried you beneath
home to live with her sister, Mar- a mass of verbiage. Not having
garet. They managed the farm for seen a copy of The News for more
many years. It is now owned by than two vears, I am unacquaint-
Mr. Yates, who married my cou- ed with the " M.H.S." column.
sin, youngest daughter of David As I have said, if you can glean
Titemore. I visited her during anything to assist you in your
my stay at my old home in 1900, column, I shall be much pleased.
and I saw no change in the old It is a pleasure to refresh my
yellow house or its surroundings.
It must be nearing a hundred ************
recollections of childhood days.

years. I remember going there Are there two post offices, Stan-
when a little girl, and the parlor bridge and Stanbridge East"? Your
door being open, seeing Mrs. letter was post-marked Stan-
34 MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY

bridge East," so I will send all calm and Wolfe." It is surprising


mail irjatter there. I know Mrs. how few people in these U.S. are
Morgan's is Bedford. There is familiar with his writings, but
where I made my mistake, and, if with the majority what transpired
I remember correctly, the two before July 4th, 1776, is not worth
places are some four miles apart. thinking about. Now, we children
I am much interested in the, ety- always listened on the 24th of
mology of Missisquoi. I have read May to hear the guns at Isle-aux-
somewhere many years ago that Noix fire the salute. I saw the
" Great
it signified a L,ady." When rockets go up when King Edward
opening an account at the Govern- was born. I shall alwayvS think of
ment Bank a few years ago, and him as " Prince of Wales. "I have
was asked where I was born, they the admission card and order of
wanted to know the county, and the service at the funeral of the
when I spelled it for them, " Oh, Queen, held here. It was very sol-
you are from French Canada." I enm. Would the " M.H.S." care
told him I was. He said he was to see how we 'honored her on this
sure of it by the French termini- far Western Coast ? If so, I will
nation of the word. He spoke mail them to vou.
with a pronounced German accent. I am tired and nervous, and
They certainly have threshed it should have closed pages back.
over well. Hoping I have not bored you, I
Am glad to see that the people await your reply.
read and quote Parkman. 1 never
tire of reading his works. Have Yours very sincerely,
read his life during the past year.
Have just been reviewing " Mont- M. A. T1TEMORE.
James O'Halloran, Esq., Ex-M.RP.

Mr. O'Halloran was born near as, but never practiced there, Re-
Fermoy, Cork, Ireland, in Sept., turning to Canada, he studied law
1822, coming to Canada in 1828. with his brother-in-law, the late

JAS. O'HALLORAN, Esq., K.C., Ex:M.P.P.

He was educated at the Univer- Judge Marcus Doherty, and was


sity of Vermont, M.A. 1843, and is admitted to the DBar in Dec.,
now its oldest living graduate. 1852. At the close of fifty years
He, after served on
graduation, of continuous practice he retired,
the Commissariat Staff of the U. and was given a banquet by the lo-
S. Army during the Mexican war, cal Bar and Court officials. He
being present at the hard fought was created a O.C. by Lord Monck
battles of General Taylor. Prior in 1864, was Crown Prosecutor
to his service in the army he had for a time and also Batonnier of
been admitted to the Bar in the the Bedford Section of the Bar,
States of both Vermont and Tex- giving him a seat in the General
MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY

Council of the Bar for the Prov- years its President. On the trans-
ince. He was elected to the Legis- fer of that road to the Canadian
lative Assembly of the old Prov- Pacific Railway, he was appointed
ince of Canada, in 1861, for the its Solicitor for the Province of
County of Missisquoi, re-elected Quebec, a) position he continuously
by acclamation in 1863, and con- held until he retired from practice
tinued to represent the County a few years ago abandoning all
therein until Confederation in other legal business. During that
1867, when he declined being a time he conducted the many im-
candidate. He was opposed to portant suits of the Company, as
Confederation, and, during the de- well in the Courts of Appeal, as
bate on the Quebec resolutions, he in the Courts below. From 1860
proposed that the old Province of to 1867 he practised law in part-
Canada, comprising what is now nership with Senator Baker, and
Quebec and Ontario, should be di- from 1880 to 1890 in partnership
vided into three Provinces, East- with the late Hon. H. T. DulTy,
ern, Western and Central Canada. He married, in 1851, Mary Ann,
Whilst a Member of the House he daughter of the late Edward Fin-
was instrumental in having it per- ley, of Dunham, P.O., whom he
manently established that the Dis- survives. His second son, George
trict of Bedford should have a resi- F., is Deputy Minister of Agricul-
dent Judge. He was for many ture for the Dominion. For years
years a member of the Cowans- Mr. O'Halloran had the largest
ville Village Council and its law practice in the District and
Mayor for several terms, with a was connected with all the leading
seat in the County Council. He cases therein. In early life he was
was also, for a number of years connected for a time with journal-
Chairman of the Village School ism and \vas as accomplished with
Board. He was one of the princi- his pen as he became with his
pal promoters of the South-East- tongue. N.
ern Railway, and during several
Mrs. Anna Coatsworth Post.

The following sketch of Mrs. one survivor, Mr. Charles Post,


Post is taken from the Holland, of South Bend. Throughout her
Mich., Sentinel. She was born in life she was identified with the
Dunham, P.O.; her father being the work of the church, being an effi-
Private Secretary of Bishop Stew- cient and useful member of its
art. She had taken a lively inter- various organizations. She was
est in the Missisquoi Historical chairman of the Flower Mission
Society from its inception. committee of the W.C.T.U., and
Mrs. Anna C. Post was one of each year held a flower mission
the oldest residents of this city, social. More than any other wo-
having come here with her husband man, she organized the Ladies'
in 1848. She was born in Dun- Literary Club of this city, and for
ham, Province of Quebec, Canada, many years has been affectionate-
December 22, 1822, and moved to ly referred to as the Mother of the
In unassuming charity
Michigan in 1846, where she taught Society.
school in Mason, Ingham Co. On she was active, and her memory
will be held in deep affection bv
May 1st, 1848, she married Henry
D. Post at Mason, and moved to all who knew her.
Holland the following year, com- Mrs.Post had two children,
ing from Saugatuck by boat. The
John C. Post and Mary Post but-
town of Holland had been found- ton, of whom Mrs. Button sur-
ed before by the immigration vives. She is also survived y one 1

from the Netherlands, and Mrs. sister, Mrs. Mary Lee,, of Water-
Post was the first American wo- loo, Quebec.
man resident of the city. Her The Woman's Literary Club pub-
husband became the first postmas- lished in pamphlet form a pretty
ter and later established the first story of the life of the late Mrs.
drug store at the northeast corner Henry D. Post, who had been
of River and Highth streets, where closely associated with the early
the Post block now stands. Later, history of Holland. The story
a house was built on the adjoin- follows :

ing lot, and here Mr. and Mrs. A lonely farm house half way
Post lived until the great fire of up the side of a Canadian hill lay
1871, when both residence and deep under the snows of mid-
store were destroyed. After this winter. In the village church at
Mr. and Mrs. Post erected a resi- the foot of the hill, busy hands
dence on West Eleventh street, op- were twining the Christmas
posite Hope Church, where she has \vreaths. And it was almost time
since lived, Mr. Post dying July for the Christmas chimes when a
20, 1897. baby girl came to bless the home
Mrs. Post was during her whole circle in the farm house. There
life a leader in church and religi- was quite a band of brothers and
ous work, being one of the five sisters to welcome her, and the
charter members of Hope Church, little Anna soon won her own
at its organization in 1867. Of sweet place among them. She
the five, there now remains but was a fair and bonnie child from
M1SS1SQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY
the first, and no doubt laid the from the boat, she left the first
foundation for her splendid health print of an American woman's
by these, early years on the farm. foot on the shore. Among the
This home, though an humble forest trees a few log and frame
one, was not without its culture buildings marked the beginning of
and refinement. Her father, John Holland.
Coatsworth, was a man of good A modest structure served as a
education, and during the long general store and home as well.
winter evenings, he gathered his In this store the first post office
flock of nine children about him, was established, with Mr. Post as
and he read aloud to them from postmaster and his wife as his as-
Cowper and older classics, not for- sistant. From this time on they
getting the Book of Common were both closely identified with
Prayer, which became so fa- the progress of the community.
miliar to Anna that she could The first Christmas tree ever in
repeat much of it from mem- Holland was set up at their home,
ory Thus was formed in the and nearly the whole population
children's minds a taste for the of the village about it
gathered
best literature. So childhood and shared its fruits. Many and
passed. interesting were the tales which
At the Dunham Academy, in her Mrs. Post could tell of the hard-
native village, Anna fitted herself ships and privations, as well as
for the work of a teacher. When the pleasures, of those pioneer
she was ready to begin this work, days. Her home early became a
an older brother, who had moved centre of the social life of the
to " the States," invited her to community, where strangers nev-
become an inmate of his home, er failed to. receive a cordial wel-
assuring her that she could do come.
much better in her chosen work Mr. and Mrs. Post were among
there than in Canada. She decid- the charter members of Hope
ed to accept his invitation, and Church, and their children, John
came to Mason, this State, where and Mary, were among the first
she taught school for several children baptized in that church.
years. It was here that she met Both Mrs. Post and her husband
Henry D. Post, to whom she was were fond of flowers, and intro-
married on the first day of May, duced many new plants to the
1848. community in their beautiful flow-
Hearing of Dr. Van
Raalte, and er garden. She brought the first
the colony which he had founded white lilies to Holland, and every
in the western wdlds of Michigan, year since, she has scattered their
the young couple were led to cast fragrant blossoms far and wide
in their lot with these people, the among the sick and lonely. And
Hollanders. Long and difficult the first seed of the sweet clover,
was their journey in those days. which now blooms so freely by the
They went from Allegan to the roadside, was sent here by her
now buried village of Singapore father from the old home in Can-
by horse. Here they were obliged ada.
to wait several days for a storm The great fire of '71 swept away
on I/ake Michigan to subside. They not only Mr. Post's business, but
then came in an open row boat the home where were gathered the
from the mouth of the Kalamazoo treasures of twenty years. Short-
river to the head of Black Lake. ly after "the fire," the home from
When the young bride stepped which she passed away was built.
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 39

Here she planted her beloved lilies deed without her presence.
and filled her garden with flowers But her kind and sympathetic
to use in her work as Superinten- nature expressing itself in loving
dent of the Flower Mission. This service was what won for her a
work she continued until her place in so many hearts. Her's
death, and many were the sick beds was an example of a life lived no-
cheered by these tokens of sympa- bly and unselfishly. I/ike the Son
" came not to be min-
thy and interest from her hands ;
of Man, she
many the sad hearts made lighter istered unto, but to minister." On
by her thoughtful kindness. Christmas 'day her last Christ-
She called together the first mas on earth her table was piled
'

Reading Circle," which has with loving gifts and messages


grown from a small handful of ear- from South Africa. Canada and
nest women to the prosperous many parts of our own country.
" Woman's "
Literary Club of to- They cheered her heart in those
day. last hours. In the home of which
To those who, for any length of for so many years she had been
time, had been inmates of her the centre and life, at the ripe age
home, and they were many, she of eighty-four years, she peacefully
seemed ever after a friend and passed away.
mother. She wished no flowers laid upon
Like Solomon's virtuous woman, her coffin, but what sweeter tri-
she looked well to the ways of her bute can we, who are left, pay to
own household. Her sensitiveness her memory, than to take up her
to an obligation was one fine and work, and carry it on for her sake;
striking trait of this noble char- to remember ever with kindlv
acter. If she received some re- cheer the sick, with loving tender-
membrance/, or any kindness from ness the aged, and with sweet
a friend, she took it with the sim- " Inasmuch
sympathy the lonely.
ple joyousness of a child, but she as ve have done it unto one of the
never failed to remember it and least of these brethren ye have
the giver, and when an opportun- done it unto me."
ity offered, she in her own graci- The Woman's Literary Club
ous, tactful way returned it thrice Board of Directors also passed
over. suitable resolutions, deploring the
Nor must we fail to speak of loss of this valued member.
her rare sense of humor, her quick (Since the above was written
repartee bubbling forth from her during the past winter Mrs.
warm and cheerful heart, has Marv Lee died at Waterloo, and
brightened many a gathering was buried in the family plot in
which would have been dull in- Dunham.)
Browne Chamberlin, Esq.

Lieut. -Col. Browne Chamberlin, In 1853 he delivered a lecture on


C.M.G. and D.C.Iv., Queen's Prin- the subject before the Mercantile
ter and Controller of Stationery Library Association, of Montreal,
for Canada, was born at Frelighs- of which he was for a time a di-
burg, in the Eastern Townships of rector. This was subsequently
the Province of Quebec, on the published as a pamphlet. Having
26th March, 1827. Was educated also taken an interest in the work
in the Grammar School of his na- of the Mechanics' Institute, he
tive place and by private tutors, was consulted by the late Chan-
and at St., Paul School, Montreal; cellor Vankoughnet, then Minister
afterwards in McGill College and of Agriculture, about the measure
University, there receiving the de- introduced and passed by him for
gree of B.C.L. in 1850 and of the formation of Boards of Arts
D.C.Iv, in 1867. Was for several and Manufactures for Upper and
years an elective fellow, and mem- Lower Canada respectively. Upon
ber of the High School Board, as its organization he became secre-
well as the first (and for several tary of that for Lower Canada,
years) president of the Graduates and continued in that office till
Society. He also received the de- 1862, when he was elected presi-
gree of M.A. honoris causa from dent, serving in that office for
Bishop's College, Lennoxville. He three years. While engaged in this
was called to the Bar of Lower work (in 1858) he visited Great
Canada in 1850, and practised law Britain and France and reported
at Montreal and on the Missisquoi to the Board " Upon institutions
circuit for several years. But poli- in London, Dublin, Edinburgh and
tics and literature proving more Paris for the promotion of indus-
attractive than jurisprudence, he trial education." In that and in
became joint proprietor and edi- annual reports suggestions were
tor (with his brother-in-law, John made which have since been acted
Lowe, Esq.) of the Montreal Ga- upon and developed by his succes-
zette in 1853. In the stirring times sors. Also in respect of healthy
of 1849-50 he, became a member of homes for mechanics and laborers.
the British American League and He was sent as commissioner and
of the Union Club, numbering secretary of the Canadian commis-
among its members the late Lieut. - sion to the London Internal ional
Governor Morris and other of his Exhibition in 1862. In 1867 he
college mates, together with Mr, was elected member for his native
Lowe, Mr. Montgomerie, after- county in the first Parliament of
wards representing the Allan Line the Dominion. He did not take a
in England, Mr. P. S. Hamilton, a prominent part in parliamentary
of Halifax, and others. These life,however, speaking seldom and
constantly thereafter, as occasion briefly, his remarks on the assas-
served, by lectures, pamphlets, sination of McGee perhaps alone
articles, in and communications to being noteworthy. He introduced
the newspapers, urged forward the a bill for the reduction of the pay
union of the B. N. A. Provinces. of the members of the House of
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL vSOCIETY

Commons, which was, of course, great readiness of the Government


defeated and he roundly abused ;
to surrender persons claimed by a
and he proposed and secured the foreign power. All modern extra-
introduction of a provision in the dition laws and treaties embody
new extradition law, ordering views then urged. His one con-
prisoners committed for extradi- siderable effort on the stump was
tion to be held over for seven a speech made at Waterloo, Shef-
days, in order to give time for a ford, in opposition to Mr. Hunt-
review of the case on habeas cor- ingdon's /.ollverein, which was a

BROWNK CHAMBERLIN. Ksq

pus. This was subsequently in- good deal praised at the time.
troduced into the extradition law Upon the formation of the 6oth
of Great Britain passed in 1870. (Missisquoi) Battalion of volun-
A sort of kidnapping of a Belgian teers he became, iirst major and
out of Canada under the forms of then lieut. -colonel in command,
judicial extradition induced his ac- and to fit himself for the work
tion. In the celebrated Anderson went through a course in the Mili-
slave case, in that of the St. Al- tary School at Montreal, then con-
bans raiders and the Lake Erie ducted by officers of the 6oth
privateers he had vehemently op- Rifles (regulars). In the early
posed what he held to be the too spring of 1870 his battalion was
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY

placed on active service to guard other Canadian -author, Mrs.


the Missisquoi frontier against an Traill, of Lakefield, Ont. In can-
anticipated Fenian raid. He for- jenction with the last names, Mrs.
sook his parliamentary duties and Chamberlin has published several
placed himself at the head of his illustrated volumes respecting the
corps, the district 'being under the wild flowers of Canada. In 1870
command of Lt.-Col. Osborne also he retired from politics, froiri.
Smith, D. D. A. G. For many the House of Commons and from
weary, waiting weeks, through all journalism, and devoted him-
the discomforts of the rains and self to the quiet, unobtrusive
breaking roads of spring the watch duties of a civil servant. He was
was continued, then for the time then appointed Queen's Printer
abandoned, and then a new rush to and, on the formation of the new
arms, the occupation of the posi- Department of Printing and Sta-
tion at Eccles Hill during the tionery he was made its perman-
night of the 24th and the early ent head and Deputy Minister
morning of the 25th of May at; He was superanuated and re-
noon, an attack by the Fenians tired on a pension in 1891. He
on the Canadian position, and the died at Lakefield, Ont., July I3th,
repulse of the first onset by a de- 1897, and was buried in Ottawa.
tachment of the 6oth, assisted by (T h e Dominion Illustrated
a small band of sharpshooters News.)
raised among the farmers of the (Historical accuracy in an his-
vicinity.Canadian reinforcements torical publication, such as this
coming up, the Fenians made no is intended to be, exacts that the
second advance, but retreated dur- statement in the foregoing sketch
ing the night or dispersed. For as to the repulse of the Fenians at
this action he was rewarded by Eccles Hill in 1870 by the 6oth Bat-
Her Majesty with the Companion- talion, commanded by Col. Cham-
ship of St. Michael and St. berlin, should be corrected, inas-
George, receiving investiture of much as nothing is more clearly
the decoration along with Lt.-Col. and than that
definitely established
Smith, Lieut. -Col. Fletcher and the Home Guards did whatever
Lt.-Col. McKachran at the hands fighting was done there and had
of the Governor-General, Lord driven back the enemy in such dis-
Lisgar. Upon his subsequent ar- order that they never attempted
rival in Ottawa the citizens pre- to rally before the Volunteer sol-
sented him, through the Mayor, diery appeared upon the scene in
Mr. Rochester, with a beautiful martial array. This is said with-
sword Lord Lisgar again presid- out intruding or desiring to de-
ing over the ceremony, in the Sen- tract from the 'merits of the vol-
ate Chamber. In that year he unteers or to disparage in any
married Agnes Dunbar Moodie, way the achievements of Col.
relict of the late Charles Fitzgib- Chamberli'n) on that occasion.
bon, of Toronto, and daughter of Whether the Home Guards would
the late Sheriff Moodie, of Belle- have been so valiant as they
ville, and of Susanna Moodie, nee showed themselves to be had they
"
Strickland, author of Roughing not known that the 6oth was close
It in the Bush," etc., etc., and at hand to. help them out in case
niece and namesake of Agnes of extremity is an open question
Strickland, author; of the "Queens which need nqt now be discussed.
of England," etc., etc., and of an- ED. NOTE.)
Sweetsburg's Newspaper.

It is not
generally known in 1866, and the last on the 24th De-
Missisquoi that, among its many cember, 1869. It was a 'neatly
journalistic enterprises, there was printed sheet and had quite a lo-

HENRY ROSE, Esq.


Printer and Journalist.

once a newspaper published at the cal circulation, though its fearless


Village of Sweetsburg called " the independence on many questions
" District of Bedford Times a raised up some powerful enemies.
newspaper which was well edited It was the day of hand presses and
and printed, and had considerable stage coaches, when the country
influence during its short career. newspaper was no sinecure. Its
Its publisher was the late Henry editor and publisher, Mr. Henry
Rose the printing office being the Rose, was of Scotch birth, and
brick building now occupied by K. had the idiosyncracies of his race
W. Goddard as a residence. Its and rearing. He was born at
first issue was on the 1st August, Wick, Caithness-shire, Scotland,
44 MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY
on the 23rd October, 1822, and, Waterloo Cemetery. His first
after a good elementary education, wife died in Montreal, and there,
learned the trade of printer mar- ;
in 1862, he married Miss Annie
ried; Miss Anne Manson there in Carter, who died in 1891. Of this
1848, by whom there were five marriage there were six children,
children, all of whom are dead ; one of whom is the wife of CLas.
emigrated on his marriage to Can- H. Parmelee, Esq., M.P., and an-
ada, and at once entered the em- other the wife of the Rev. J. W.
ploy of the late John Becket, at Mclaughlin, at one time pastor of
that time conducting one of the the Universalist Church, Water-
principal printing establishments loo.
in Montreal. A short time after In the columns of The Times can
his two brothers, George McL/ean be found much valuable and in-
and Daniel, also printers, followed teresting local history. Its sub-
him, the former becoming a mem- scribers and advertisers have most-
ber, some years subsequently, of ly passed away. In its first num-
the famous publishing house of ber, besides an account of the re-
Hunter, Rose & Co., Toronto, laying of the Atlantic cable by the
Queen's Printers for Ontario, and, Great Eastern there is a report of
on his death, Daniel took his, place
1

a Cricket match between Sweets-


in the firm. They were all skilled
( burg and Knowlton in which E.
workmen. Henry had charge of Racicot, Esq., K.C., figures as a
the printing for the opening cere- successful sport and the appoint-
monies of the Victoria Bridge by' ment of Chas. H. Boright as a
the Prince ofi Wales, for which he Justice of the Peace. The Times
received a bronze medal in recog- was principally conspicuous dur-
nieion, of his artistic work. ing its career for its successful
He finally commenced business onslaught upon the late Sir F. G.
for himself in Montreal, and hav- Johnson, then the Judge of the
ing identified himself with the Superior Court for this District,
Sons of Temperance, than a whereby he was transferred to
strong and popular organiza- Montreal, and for its unsuccessful
tion, he published for some advocacy of the Liberal cause in
years its organ in the last Missisquoi in the Dominion elec-
of the fifties and first of the six- tions of 1867 the slashing edito-
ties. In that organization he rose rials in connection therewith being
to be Grand Worthy Patriarch of written by James O'Halloran,
the Grand Division of Canada Esq., K.C. It was more the or-
East., About 1864 he acquired the gan of the farmers as a medium of
Granby Gazette, which he publish- communicating their views than,
ed until his removal to Sweets- perhaps, any other Eastern Town-
" Dis- The
burg in 1866 to found the ships paper before or since,
trict of Bedford Times." In Dec. old fyles of the paper are now in
1869, he merged his paper with the the possession of Mr. Parmelee, of
Waterloo Advertiser, which he had the Waterloo Advertiser, who will
acquired, removing to Waterloo, probably surrender them to the
continuing as publisher from 1869 Missisquoi Historical Society so
to 1875, and again from 1880 to soon as it has a place of safety
1882, of that well-known journal. for their storage. N.
He died in 1890 and is buried in
The Old Church Tavern.

The accompanying cut of the York, located on the land there in


old Church house, now owned and 1799. The original name was
occupied by Brown Cady, Esq., of Schultze, but like many of the
Sweetsburg, Que., is said to be the names of the old German settlers
oldest brick house in the original in Missisquoi, it was anglicised for

THE OLD CHURCH TAVERN, SWEETSBURG, QUE.

limits Township of Dun-


of the ease in pronunciation and became
ham, and has even been claimed
it Church, which name the family
as the oldest of that kind of con- ever since has retained. The ori-
struction in the County of Missis- ginal John Church, it is said in
quoi. Just when it w as built can-
r
a local history, came to Canada,
not now be definitely learned, but at the opening of the revolution-
men over eighty years of age, liv- ary war enlisted in the British
;

ing in the vicinity, say it appear- service ;


was in the army of Bur-
ed to be an old house when they goyne at the time of that Gener-
\vere small boys. John Church, of al's surrender after his release
;

German descent, from the neigh- returned to Canada settled first


;

borhood of Dutchess County, New


r
at Caldwell's Manor, now St.
46 MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY
George of Clarenceville and from er and mechanic who keeps up the
thence came to Dunham in
1799 reputation of the place as a spot
and settled permanently on the for the dissemination of dry humor
land in Sweetsburg, where, a few and hospitality, for, in some way,
years later, he he erected the brick the Weary Willies have discover-
house shown herewith. That land ed that the old spirit of hospitable
remained in successive generations entertainment still survives and
of the family until a few years the genial proprietor turns no one
ago when it was acquired by Mr. from the door hungry whether he
Cady, whose ancestors fought on can tell a good story or not, or
the other side during that revolu- keeps a bank account or not. Nor
tionary war with better success is the wanderer refused work as a
than the side espoused by Mr. return for favors, if so disposed.
Church. Cady is also the superintendent of
Mr. Church opened a store near repairs for the Court House and
the present building where he, and Goal and, by his cheerful manner
his son John, traded for many witty observations and shrewd
years. He had also a pearl ash tact has greatly helped to famili-
factory and a distillery, where po- arize the genial Sheriff with offici-
tato whiskey was made, and the al duties and responsibileiies, while
place was a noted center for up- keeping the property of the Pro-
wards of half a century, under vincial Government in reasonable
the name of Churchvillc. The repair at fair rates.
old house was long used as a ta- John Church was a Captain of,

vern, and became a central point Militia and a prominent man in


for the stages and teamsters of his day and locality and many a
those early days. The last occu- good story is still current as to
pant as a hotel keeper was a man his business methods in the primi-
by the name of Carpenter, who tive days. His son John Church,
died within the last decade. The jr., died in 1831 and the father in

building of the Court House at the 1839. Many a social gathering


other end of the Village with the was held in that old brick house
changes in transportation brought in the davs when it was a leading
about by railways, were the death- tavern of the Eastern Townships,
blows of Church ville, a name re- known far and wide. Since the
membered only by the oldest inha- railroads came the old taverns
bitant at the present time. Its have all become hotels, or gone to
occupant to-day is a thrifty farm- ruin. .\".
Ernest Racicot, K.C., Ex-M.P.R

Mr. Racicot is the son of the with A. E. Mitchell, Esq., K.C.,


late F. X. Racicot, N.P., and I v eo- and for upwards of a quarter of a
cadie Tremblay. He was born, at centurv alone. He has been twice

E. RACICOT, Esq., K.C., Ex-M.P.r.

Sault au Recollet, P.O., the I3th Batonnier of the District Bar Sec-
July, 1835, educated at Montreal tion and a member of the General
College, studied law with the late Council of the Bar for the Pro-
Andrew Robertson, K.C., and was vince. He was created a O.C.
admitted to the Bar in 1859. He by the Provincial Govt. in 1878
began practice at Sweetsburg, first and by the Dominion in 1887. He
as a partner of his patron, short- has been a Municipal Councillor of
ly after with the late E. Cornell, Sweetsburg Village ever since its
Esq., with whom he was associat- creation and has been its Mayor as
ed many years, for a short time well as Warden of the County of
MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
Missisquoi. He was elected a formally in 1878. He married in
member, of the local legislature for 1868 Susan A., youn^t. ^ ^lighter
the County of Missisquoi, as an of he late Milton R. Bowker, of
independent liberal in 1878 and re- Sweetsburg. Of late years Mr.
presented the County until the gen- Racicot has refused all offers of
eral election in 1881. In 1882 he position from every source, for
was appointed a Commissioner by which his great abilities and high
the Provl. Govt. to report upon standing at the bar marked him
the indebtedness &c., of the sever- as eminently fit and proper, pre-
al municipalities in the Province ferring the independence of pri-
to the Consolidated Municipal vate life. He has of late
Loan Fund, completing his work been indifferent to the practice of
in 1885. In 1887 he was appoint- his profession, though he is pro-
ed Revising Barrister under the bably more consulted than any
Elections Act of Canada, but re- lawyer in the District. Previous
signed two years later. He was to that attitude there was scarce-
formerly, like most of the clever ly a prominent case in the District
young men of his time, a member with which he was not connected
of L'Institiit Canadien, in Mon- on one side or the other. Mr. Ra-
treal, and was one of its officers. cicot is brother of Monseigneur
He was at one time a prominent Racicot of the diocese of Montreal,
member and office holder of the and uncle of Archbishop Laiureviii;
masonic body, sitting in Grand of Manitoba, and a cousin of Hon.
Lodge with such leading men as Senator David, and J H. G. Ber-
.

Sir John A. Macdonald, Hon. geron, Esq., M.P., for Beauhar-


Thomas White, &c., but withdrew nois. N.
PH1LIPSBURG, QUE.

Missisquoi Bay.

Serenely bright from dark prime- And proudly bade his men to en-
val days, ter in,
When silence brooded o'er thy 'Tis Heaven's law the buried
wooded shores, talent shall
And stealthy warriors, veiled by Be given to them who other tal-
evening haze, ents win.
Advanced upon the foe, with And brave Champlain responded
muffled oars, to the call.
Or with swift arrow pierced the
wild duck's breast, With incense, prayers and blows
Or slew the buck that stooped from hand to hand,
to quench his thirst, Before the cross the vanquished
And mirrored here with pride his tribes withdrew,
kingly crest, And "La Belle France," the first
Unmoved, thou saw'st the Red to make a stand,
Men hence dispersed. Unfurled o>'er thee her own " Red-
white-and-blue .
' '

And no reminder left save thy dear Then came Britannia, with her
name, flaming Red ;

We tokens seek along thy grav- Defiantly she set her sons to
elly shores hew
Of braves who roamed here with A fort to cover thy defenceless
undoubted claim, head.
Until the white man came 'Tis swept away and now the
threw wide the doors new.
tale is
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
For here no trace remains of 'Twas here she paused to lave her
stormy life, wounded wing,
Sweet clover blooms where And on thy verdant shores
vengeful breakers ran ;
found safe retreat.
Thy pure, clear depths, through O'er thy repose she still is hover-
years of angry strife,
Were never crimsoned with the Though busy .toil moves on with
blood of man. weary beat.
Secluded here, aside from path of In summer-time here town and
wars, country dream,
Thou smiling ollspring of a Or on thy bosom sport the live-
troubled lake, long day ;

Wert cradled, and watched o'er by Missisquoi, with her charms of


moon and stars, dale and stream,
Reflecting Peace that wars nor Has nothing to compare with
give nor take. thee, fair Bay.
"

S. A. C. M.

THE WHARF AT PHILIPSBURG


MISSISQUOI BAY.
PIKE RIVER.
THE LOWEST VILLAGE ON THE BANK OF THE RIVER
OF THE SAME NAME.

This well-written sketch, " Pike Falls." Why the " Lower Falls "
River," is full of interest, and is was dropped, I am at a loss to
especially welcome now, filling in know, for it seemed appropriate

PIKE RIVER BRIDCK

casually, with historic facts, ref- enough, as it really is the last and
erences made in the charming bro- lowest wherein that river takes
" The Voice of the its last dip to a lower level in
chure, River,"
just published by this Society. reaching Missisquoi Bay.
This contribution to our col- These falls were at one time a
umns is an excellent example of the famous fishing ground, where
" "
material we need, and we hope pike abounded in great num-
that the writer and others may bers, and were literally lifted but
continue to favor us. (Ed. Notes.) of the rapids with dip-nets, the
water seemingly alive with these
The writer can remember many frisky fellows the night often be-
;

of the letters to this office ad- ing spent at this wholesale deple-
" Pike Lower tion of these annual emigratory
dressed, River,
MISvSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
visitants to their favorite spawn- seen on the rivers now. Many of
ing" beds, the propagation of which our local dwellers along the river
aflorded a welcome luxury to many became mariners, and eventually
a poor home at little expense. captains in full command of their
This wasteful destruction of the own ships. Possibly some of the
parent tish at that season has had readers of this sketch may recall
"
its natural result. Our river is Dashing Joe," who later on be-
no longer deserving the name of came " mine host " of the " Red
" Pike " the numbers are con-
; Tavern," and at the same time
tinually decreasing from year to was proprietor of the four-in-hand
year notwithstanding the laws de- Tally-ho coach, running on the
signed for their protection. eastern mail line to Cowansville.
The most noticeable change at At this time here spoken of much
Pike River and the surrounding of the travel from the townships
neighborhood is the change in the to Montreal was by this route. A
nationality. Whereas from 1830 great deal of wood and lumber,
to about 1860 the four-fifths were consisting of scantling, boards,
English-speaking people, it is just plank, railroad ties, telegraph
now the reverse. Pike River in poles, and cedar posts, were cart-
those days was a stirring place, ed from Farnham, Dunham and
many being, attracted here by the Stanbridge. Sometimes ten or fif-
lumber trade as well as other com- teen sloops might be seen loading
mercial pursuits. I have seen four at a time below the falls.
and five stores, two and some- For many years religious ser-
times three taverns, two black- vices were held in the school house
smith shops, two shoe shops, two up to the year 1853, when the pres-
tailors, wagon shop, cabinet and ent brick church was erected.
furniture shop, and butcher shop. Something like
sixty Protestant
Four stages carrying mails came families worshipped at this point,
into the village daily, that from its location being a central one,
the east en route for St. Johns, there being seven roads leading
that being the terminus of the thereto, along the most of which
route. Pike River Post Office was may be found as fertile lands as
the distributing office. any in Canada. And yet the vil-
A vast amount of timber, lum- lage does not, grow. Why ? Echo
ber and cord-wood was delivered saith not. The number left of the
at " the landing
" below the vil- old stock to tell the " story of
"
lage,from whence it was shipped long ago would not make the
by water to different parts of the quarter dozen.
United States, mostly at that The line dividing the Counties
time by sailing vessels, but later of Missisquoi and Iberville passes
on by barges hauled with steam through the village of Pike River,
tugs." from which, before it had reached
The late Mr. Abel Taylor was a two miles, forms an eccentric
leading merchant of that time, boundary line, making for all the
and also engaged in lumberthe, cardinal points in its course. This,
trade. He
and owned several
built I think, was done first when ap-
barges bought a steam tug, with
; portioning territory for ecclesias-
which he exported his lumber to tical purposes, as a part of the
market. Captain John Jenkins counties was taken in for the par-
and Engineer Narcisse Bergeron ish, and later on the same lines
were the p roud officers of this were continued in forming^ elective
craft. These boats are seldom municipalities when they elected
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 53

their own
Council hence part of
; Rocheleau & Son, who have an
the villageis in the Municipality extended trade.
of Stanbridge Station, and part When the Central Vermont Rail-
in St. Sebastien. Something of road project was started, three
the same was done when planning different routes were surveyed, the
for the Roman Catholic Church central one passing through, the
parish, which were parts, I think, village, that to the ea'st at Allen's
of four other parishes. It has been Corner, another nearer St. Sebas-
decided of late that this church is tien. Bonuses from the different
to be demolished and a new and municipalities were looked for to
more substantial one is to take its get the line to pass in further
place the coming spring The west thanAllen's Corner. Stan-

MOUTH OF PIKE RIVER, MISSISQUOI BAY

name, of course, will be the same bridge held the trump card by a
St. Pierre de Verrone. larger bonus, and got their wish.
The village proper, of the pres- Our people about that time were
ent day, covers but a small area. much elated with the prospect of
Its industries or business con- a railroad station at their door,
" The best laid schemes o'
cerns consist of a butter factory, but,
of which G. M. Hastings is pro- men and mice gang aft agley."
prietor. He has made this factory Most of the inhabitants of those
1

very complete in all modern ar- earlier days were old country peo-
rangements. It has also a black- ple, Irish, Scotch and quite a
smith shop, combined with carri- sprinkling from the Vermont side.
age-making and agency, and farm- Much of the farm produce was
ing implements one hotel, a gen-
;
carted through this way to Mont-
eral store, the proprietor being I v .
real, generally stopping over night
54 MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
on their way, with their long red harmonious rendering of their se-
stockings. Of course they had a lections. Toboggan and skating
right to keep warm- These long , parties were in order in winter at
drives \vere generally made in a later date. So it will be seen
winter and were always " welcome there must have d\velt here in the
at the hotels and made happy" past promoters of a sportive as
with the " happy." well as of social enjoyment, with
With a little more indulgence the grubbing toilers of industrious
from those who may read these habits in a struggle for the neces-
chronicles of my recollections, I saries of life.
might mention other attractions Several serious fires have laid
that made this village once a waste a part of our village ;
the
lively little place a flourishing
;
seared spots are to< be seen yet on
Sunday School, a well patroni/.ed the vacant lots. The cause of this
Lyceum and Debating Society, unrenewed condition is too long a
Spelling School, Writing School, story for this short history.
Singing School, Dancing School This irregular and incomplete
and several fine croquet grounds, sketch of Pike River was wholly
\vith more skilful players to the dependent on memory, the facts
square foot than most places now written as they were recalled to
are favored with. A brass band, mind. Hopes are entertained that
consisting of eighteen or twenty the inaccuracy which may ap-
pieces, with its weekly concerts, pear will be indulgently viewed.
" And
found an appreciative audience
*
to the quiet that hangs o'er
cheer their efforts as they dis- the scene as you gaze has follow-
coursed " sweetest melody," and ed the olden din." A. W.
but few there were to critici/.e the
A Brief History of
Philipsburg Methodist Church.

it is to the honor of Missisquoi mand could win Samuel back from


County that it has dealt with Ontario.
kindly hands and has preserved in The St. Armand and Philips-
excellent condition one of the land- burg circuit dates from 1806. Pre-
marks of Canadian life in the vious to this date the pioneer
form of Philipsburg Method- preachers were on the ground,
ist Church. As far as the however, and following up the
writer has been able to ascertain new settlers with the ordinances
this is the oldest Methodist of religion. On the fly leaf of the
Church in the Provinces of Onta- steward's book that came into ex-
rio and Quebec which has been in istence in 1806 there is this entry
"
continuous use. The church in Whereas Fletcher's circuit has
Adolphustown, on the shore of been divided, the former records
Hay Bay, Out., was built under may be found in the steward's
the direction of William L,osee in book for that circuit." Quoting
1791, but then it was long ago ftom information from the pres-
discarded as a place of worship. ent pastor, Rev. W,. Adams, I
In a previous article the writer may say that the first official en-
alluded to Samuel Kmbury as one try in {he Stewards Book is dat-
of the forces of Philipsburg and ed 1819. Previous business' has
as having married Mary Miller. been lost to history. The historian
This was an error through misin- may not be surprised to find
formation. He married Catherine that in the first fourteen or fif-
and was teen years, with everything in a
Miller, sister of Mary,
succeeded by a family of twelve formative condition, and the peo-
children, whose names we have not ple not fully impressed with the
Of Sa- historical value of their proceed-
yet completely collected.
muel Embury, a volume written ings, confusion and irregularity
across the Atlantic, in 1866 says :
might characterize their proceed-
" Mr. Samuel Embury was the ings, and their records kept in
first Methodist Class "Leader in temporary form may have easily
been lost.
Canada, and Mrs. Heck (Barbara In the entry of 1819
the ink has become faded, but the
Heck) was a member in that first
class." That class was formed at one Steward's name which can be
Augusta, Ont., somewhere about deciphered is that of Abraham V.
V. Hogle.
1785. In these days of intense lo-
cal interests, when we of the east At the date of Sept. 25th, 1806,
the Methodist class in connection
scarcely knew where Augusta is
it is refreshing to note how those
with the Dunham aad St. Armand
of the pioneer days held social in- circuitwere as follows .

tercourse over such wide ranges Missisquoi North and South.


of country, so much so that one Stanbridge West and East.
of the fair daughters of St. Ar- St. Armand North and South.
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL, SOCIKTY.
Dunham- North and South. been no vain thing, to have such a
Farnham . roll of goodly men shedding the
Sutton North and South. light of their Christian life upon
Potton. the living to
community, and
Huntsburgh Hast and West. make themselves
respected that
According to Cornishs' encyclo- they might also win respect and
pedia, the ministers in charge honor for their charge and peo-
from 1806 1813 were, 1806, Hen- ple ! Who but Heaven knows how
Eames and Reuben Harris often they sacrificed their own in-
ry ;

Gerhsom Pearse 1808, terests because of conscientious


1807, ;

Oliver Sykes ; 1809,Lansford loyalty to the interests of their


Whiting 1810, ;
Heman Garick constituents !

and Timothy .Minor 1811, Ste- ;


It was during
the ministry of
phen Sornberger [812-13, John ;
Rev. Richard Williams that the
T. Adams and William Ross Methodist Church was built at
At the time of the war of 1812 Philipsburg. The deed of land was
a break occurs in the records. Af- passed on the 7th day of October,
ter the war St. Armand starts 1819, by Philip Ruiter and James
out separated from Dunham evi- Taylor. Ruiter is both a U. K.
dently not the least weakened by Loyalist and Palatine name. The
war. The ministers were 1818 : deed was made to a Trustee Board
Richard Pope 1819, Richard Wil- ;
consisting of Rev. Rd. Williams
liams 1821,, Daniel Hillier
; 1822, ;
and Messrs. Garret Sixby, A. V.
James Booth 1824, John de Pu- ;
V. Hogle, Charles Miller, James
tron 1825, Mathew Lang
; 1827, ;
Blair. James Abbott. Jacob
Gay-
William Squire 1829, James ; lor, Artemas Turner and Alanson
Knowlan 1831, Thomas Turner
; ;
Kilborn. The Parsonage was built
1832, Ingham SutclilTe 1833, ;
in 1825.
Matthew Lang 1835, John Tom- ;
Under the ministry of Revs. G.
kins and John Borland 1836, ;
H. Porter and Wm'. Adams the
James Booth and Richard Gar- church has been completely renova-
ratt 1839, Win. Squire and Mal- ted and is now in a
;
progressive
colm McDonald 1840, R. Hutch- ;
condition. Painted walls, modern
inson and M. McDonald 1842, R. ;
cimilar seating and beautiful me-
Hutchinson and R. Montgomery ;
morial windows combine to make
1843, J. B. Selley and R. A. Flan- it a house where one may gladly
ders ;1844, W. M. Harvard and and reverently draw nea/to God.
R. A. Flanders 1845, J. B. Sel- ;
The memorial windows contain
ley and R. A. Flanders 51846, J. the following names of former
pas-
B. Selley, W. E. Shenstone and tors R. A. Flanders,
:
Francis
C. Silvester. The long list of suc- Hunt, C. M. Hitchcock, Barnabas
cessors of these pioneers includes Hitchcock, Hugh Montgomery,
Wm. Scott, Edmund S. Ingalls, Wm. Scott, and of the following
Gifiord Dorey. James Norris, congregation Margaret
:
-
arid
-

Francis Hunt, John Davies, John Charles Miller, Alexander B. Stru-


Armstrong, T. W. Constable, T thers, Samuel and Philip Embury,
Kelly, Allan Patterson, Chas. R. Annie A. Pharaoh, James and Jes-
Flanders, Robt. Laidly, Jas. E. sie Symington, John K. Montle.
Richardson, R. Robinson, S. Tee- Jane R. Montle, Hiram and Hul-
son. Hiram Fowler, Isaac Wheat- rlah Fleming, Mary Brown, Hollis

ley, Wm. Williamson, E}. S. How- and Robert Hastings, Robert and
ard, George H. Porter, Wm. Ri- Henry Crothers, Sarah S. J. and
lance, Wm. Adams. Surely it has George Hastings, Augustus F. and
MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIKTY. 57

Eunice Hogle, Abram and Miriam to commercial attention, there


Hogle, Rodney and Carleton Rey- may appear in places a. seeming
nolds, William and Mary Jordan. decadence of spiritual Christianity
Bertha Mary arid Mary K. Mor- in this province, yet it may be
gan, Edward Jordan, Morgan and only that truth, life and religious
Mary Hastings, Col. Garret Sixby freedom may appear on a larger
and Bertha, wife of George Sixby, scale elsewhere. The changing of
all of which suggest that an hon- the soil is the saving of the seed.
orable, Christian inheritance has But Philipsburg may still fulfil a
been transmitted to the young mission as nurserv for the nuture
./

people of to-day. Qriginal centres of strong, Christian citizenship.


of influence have changed from May the writer say in conclu-
Eden and Ararat, from h.gypt and sion that he will be glad to hear
Jerusalem, from Athens, Rome from any one who has a copy of
and Worms evejn the banks of the
;
the history of the Eastern Town-
Shannon may forget that the Me- ships, by Cyrus Thomas.
thodist Palatines ever lived there;
and while the Province of Quebec W. BOWMAN TUCKER.
may find its*elf reshaping its work-
ing forces and restating its claims St. Johns, June i8th, 1907.
Wm. Mead Pattison, Esq.

Win. Mead Pattison, whose por- tied at Frelighsburg, One., losing


trait appears herewith, was born her by death, shortly after, he
at New Rochelle, N.Y., on the 8th married in 1865 Miss Charlotte

WM. MEAD PATTISON-, Esq.


Ex-Collector of Cuttoms, Clarenceville, Que.

of Feb., 1828, one of three brothers Krans, of St. Armand East. He


the others being Rev. Eugene T. was for many years a successful
Pattison and Rev. Thomas E. Pat- merchant, filling local offices in
tison, ministers of the Protestant church and state besides being an
Episcopal Church. Educated at Official Assignee, Postmaster,
Irving, Hall, Tarrytown, N.Y., he Commissioner of the Superior
entered the store of his father, a Court and Customs House Officer.
New York merchant to whose bu- He joined the volunteer force in
siness he succeeded on his father's 1866 as ist Lieut, of the St. Ar-
death. In the early fifties he mand East Co'y of the 6oth Bat-
married a Canadian wife and set- talion, served during the Fenian
MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 59

campaign of 1870 and had reached the local press and for the Society's
the grade of Major when he retired. publications and, as well, by the
In 1873 he was named Customs aid he gave to others in the pre-
House officer, at Clarenceville, paration of papers for he was an
One., where he resided until his authority upon disputed points.
death on the 24th April, 1907. His
i
At the time of his death he had
change of residence did not quench nearly ready for publication a
his activities nor his interest in book on the history of the Isle-
the life around him. He interest- aux-Xoix for which he had expend-
ed himself in horticultural mat- ed not only a great deal of time
ters and was a pioneer in grape in its preparation but in the search
culture of which he was for years to setl le questions not too well
an authority recognized for his ex- known, and in the securing of
periments and success not only at maps, and designs for' illustration
home but beyond the borders of a great deal of money. As a
his own country. He was one of further instance of his zealous and
the founders of the Provincial Hor- unselfish labor for the society it
ticultural Association ;
its Presi- should be said that the year be-
dent for a term and always one of fore his death lie bore the personal
its leading members. expense of securing fifty or more
Clarenceville was isolated so far photographs of buildings and peo-
as railway communication was ple in the parishes of St. George
concerned when he moved there, its of Clarenceville and St. Thomas
nearest railway station being I v a- and he was not a weathy man
colle on the G.T.Ry. which could nineteen of which served as illus-
only be reached by crossing the trations, out of a total of twenty-
Richelieu river by ferry or on the seven, for the last annual report
ice. He started the enterprise of of this Society.
bridging the river and after years He was a Freemason, a Conser-
of hard work, success crowned his vative in politics and a faithful
efforts. He was for some vears and consistent member of the An-
the President of the Bridge Com- glican Church, representing his
pany. In all local matters he parish for many years in the Dio-
took a warm and active interest. cesan Synod. One of the distin-
He helped to form the Missis- guishing of Mr.
traits Pattison
quoi Cqunty Historical Society, was his wonderful diligence in
much of its success being due to working for whatever he conceived
hi's intelligent /eal and untiring for the general good as well as for
industry in furthering its work the advantage of his locality. He
and objects. He contributed much did not labor for popular applause
to local history, not only by re- satisfied if some good was ac-
search but by interesting papers in complished.
Miss Nancy Hawley, of Clarenceville,
PIONEER SCHOOL TEACHER OK THE TOWNSHIPS.

(From Daily Record.)

Clarenceville, Jan. 31. Miss boarded around, and after they


Nancy Hawley, of Null's Corner, had boarded a week for a scholar,
near here, passed away at seven sometimes they had to go around
o'clock Tuesday" morning. again. Some people did not like
Miss Hawley was born April to board the teacher, but she gen-
2ist, 1806, and had she lived until erally assisted in sewing, spin-
April would have been one hun- ning and sometimes helped pick
dred and two years of age. Dur- wool or do the dishes, making
ing all these years she has resided herself agreeable while she remain-
on South Beach Ridge, and always ed. She had some pleasant houses
on the same farm. She w as among to board in, but the most of them
r

the first settlers inClarence- were log houses and not very com-
ville and lived long enough to see fortable. In reminiscences Miss
them all pass away and the vil- Hawley would often relate her ex-
lage in a flourishing and prosper- periences. She would tell of the
ous condition. In the early years place where she was shown to an
of Methodism in Canada, she be- open chamber, where the rafters
came a member of the Methodist and shingles were in plain sight
Church, and has ever remained overhead. She had a good bed and
true to her choice. Her life was a plenty of cover, though the room
long, useful and happy one and was cold. In the morning she
she has gone to her reward, after awoke to find her bed covered with
having suffered but for a short snow.
time. On Sunday last she receiv- The school houses were of log
ed a second shock which caused and the floors uneven. Boards
her death. would fly up and holes would be
The funeral service took place in your path, which must be step-
at the Free Methodist Church, on ped over or fallen into. The
Wednesday, at one o'clock. stoves were of sheet iron, and
would heat up quickly, aod there
WAS A PIONEER SCHOOL- was plenty of wood. The teacher
TEACHER . would prepare the kindling the day
before and go early to the school,
The late Miss Hawley was a and when the children saw the
pioneer school teacner. smoke they came to school. Not
In early life she obtained an edu- every family had a clock to go by.
cation and taught school i'n nearly In one log school house she hung
a.ll the school districts in this vi- her white sun-bonnet up by the
cinity. In those days the teacher strings on a peg not far from the
MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIKTY. 61

floor as the house was low. When and oil she would go to visit a
she took it down she thought it friend, perhaps one hundred miles
was heavy, and looking into it. away. Oxen were mostly useJ for
she saw a snake curled up in the work, or drawing loads. They
crown. The children helped her to used to draw a log into the house
kill it. with a horse and roll it into the
While she was teaching in one fireplace for a back log. There was
place a man died and she was ask- not much sale for anything except
ed to stay all night. No one fat cattle or hogs. These were
came in, so she was alone. He had taken to South River, a few miles
been a wicked man, and she felt off, and then they would take the
as though evil spirits were around. ice for St. John or Montreal.
She thought she would read the
Bible. The family had gone to
rest. She searched high and low,
on every shelf, but no Bible could
be found. Behind the large cup-
board she saw some papers. She
pulled them out and found a leaf
of a testament. This she read
over and over and kept it in her
hand all night and resolved that
if ever she sat up another night
she would take a Testament in her
pocket.
There was no resident minister
here then. Some travelling men
came from the United States and
preached in the houses in the win-
ter and i'n the barns in the summer,
but they came seldom and were
uneducated, but they told of
"
Jesus and His love. M The Rev.
Mr. Townsend was the first Kpis-
copalian minister that settled in MISS NANCY HAWLKY
Clarenceville, about three miles ICourtesy of Daily Record.]
west of here.
Miss Hawlev was baptized and
confirmed in that church and has The farmers would draw their
said that the vows she then took fine spinner. She never was a
she had always tried to live up bags of corn, or perhaps a little
to. Later in life she united with wheat, down to the bay and there
the Methodists, and the ministers take a boat and go to S wanton,
have always taken pleasure in go- Vermont, to a mill. They raised
"
ing to see Aunt Nancy." When sheep, and the women all knew
she was young- there were no jjood how to spin, and some of them
roads. Horseback riding was the could weave. Some of the cloth
way people travelled, both men was taken to the fulling mill and
and women. A woman would tie was made thick and called fulled
up a bundle in a large handker- cloth. This was lor men's wear.
kerchief and hang it on the horn The finest wool was spun into flan-
of the saddle, eet on the horse and nel for sheets and dresses for the
some one would hand her the baby women and children and shirts for
62 MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
the men. Miss Hawley was a very down to rest, and she made liies,
dressmaker, but she was an extia put out all the candles but one
good quilter. and stood guard for the rest of
Flax was raised on the farm and the night. In the morning the pa-
every man knew how to get it out, rents brought the .breakfasts and
and the women had wheels and the dinners, and they were ready
made (sheets, pillow slips and for another day's school.
dresses, men's shirts and children's Miss Hawley always enjoyed re-
wear. markable health.
In one district where she taught Never did she take medicine as
she boarded around as usual. It some do. She never had a linger-
happened that she was in the house ing sickness, and had not her
next to the school house, and just name on any doctor's book. She
before night the woman was taken drank no tea or coffee, preferring
sick and the doctor sent for. She hot water, sugar and cream. She
was very nervous and could not was never on the rail cars, having
stand the noise of the children. a dislike or fear for that mode of
The teacher tried to k eep them travelling.
still, but failed. A new thought Miss Hawley attended school
came to her. She would when she was very young. The
take them to- the school teacher was a Miss Curtis. The
house, so she provided herself with next school in her district \vas
candles and a blanket or two and taught by Dr. Iv ailin, who came
away they went. The house was here a young man from the States.
still warm and there was plenty A few years after he married Miss
of wood. The neighbors, seeing a Nancy's eldest sister, Miss Han-
light, came to see what was go- nah. When Miss Nancy \va.s nine
ing on at that hour, and some of years old she and her brother John
the women who were going to went to school in Stanbridge.
care for the sick brought their taught by the young doctor. They
children also. After a while some boarded themselves. There were
of them wanted to go home, so some pleasant recollections of that
the teacher called the house to or- school. There was and is now a
der and began school. This went steep hill .by Mr. Snyder's, a,nd the
on for a while till some fell over school house was near. The girls
on the blankets prepared and took and boys, too, had a fine time
a sleep. Those who were not slee- that winter. Old Mrs. Snyder let
py kept reading, spelling or re- them have a trundle bed to ride
citing till finally they too lay on down that hill.
Dr. Farnsworth's Reminiscenses of
Early Life in Missisquoi.
Clinton, Iowa, April 15, 1907. Some friend not long ago wished
me to write up my recollections
Mr. C. S. Moore, of the Curtis family. With your
Stanbridge, P.O.: permission, when I have time to
collect my notes, I will send you
Dear Sir, The Second Report of the early history of the Curtis
the Missisquoi Historical Society families. The Derricks have be-
received, with certificate of mem- come the prominent residents of
bership. It gives me much plea- the Manor and few of the Cur-
sure, bringing back old places and tises remain. I meet them fre-
old names. I am only- two-thirds quently in the West. They were
a Canadian. I was born in Ver- once almost as numerous as the
mont, 1830, but my mother was Derricks.
born on " The Manor " and I I am amused at a curious error
went to live there in 1837 and
. in your illustrations" Anthony
lived there until 1850, when I went Derrick's House on South Street,
to Burlington to college. After Clarenceville over ;
a hundred
graduating in the University of years old." In the picture it
Vermont, 1850, I took a medical looks venerable enough to be of
course and came back to practice that age, but I remember well
medicine with Dr. Brigham at when it was built, say in 1840-2.
Philipsburg for four years. I came Part of the stone for the cellar
west to Iowa in 1864, and be- came from our farm, and I drove
came Professor of Materia Medi- the team that drew part of them
ca in the Iowa State University, there. Next south is my grand-
and lectured for 25 years. I am father's house, built about 1830,
now on the emeritus list. I am and is now the oldest house on
if you are not a grand- the street.
.wondering
son of Hon. P. H. Moore, and if I can recall
many details of the
your residence, Stanbridge, is the early history of the settlement of
Stanbridge where I practiced Caldwell's Manor, and in 1860
medicine for part of a year before knew most of the people of Bed-
I started for the West." ford, Stanbridge and Philipsburg
My grandfather came to " Cald- and Mr. Noyes says
vicinity.
" there were very few Dutchmen in
well's Manor in 1792, Aniasa
Curtis. Three brothers and a sis- New York and probably none in
ter came about the same time. Canada. Did he ever hear of the
My mother was born there in Catchpaws, and there were others.
1800, and in those old days of Very truly,
no newspapers, news was preserved P. J.'FARNS WORTH.
and transmitted orally. I believe
she knew all the people on the (The true name of the people
west side of the Manor and many called Catchpaws was Ketzbeck.
in Alburgh, where they came from, One of the family, spelling his
and their connection. I heard name Katchback, but pronouncing
much of it, and remember part of it Catchpaw, was one of the As-
it, but in a busy life much has sociates of the Township of Shef-
passed out of memory. ford. ED. NOTE.)
Cyrus Thomas, Esq.

"
Among the Grand Old Men '

gathered by foot over the entire


of the Eastern Townships, says in 1903, has received the highest
the Daily Record, must be enconiums from the press, literary
included Mr. Cyrus Thomas, people and the reading public. This
formerly of Abercorn, author of work, like all of his literary ven-
several books of real merit and of tures, shows that he is a keen ob-
special interest to the people of territory of these counties. His
the townships. last work, " The Rev. John and a
Mr. Thomas was born in Troy, Few Philanthropists," published
N.Y., June I5th, 1836. Two years
afterwards his parents removed to
Quebec, which province had for-
merly been the home of his father,
who was a farmer. He was edu-
cated at the Academies of Richford
and Swanton, Vt.; he subsequent-
ly spent two years in the Troy
Conference Seminary, but was ob-
liged to give up the design of com-
pleting a college course, and to
abandon the study of law, owing
to health.
ill He followed teach-
ing for twenty-live years, during
which time he had charge of the
best known Academies of the
Eastern Townships and Northern
Vermont. He was, also, Principal
of a large public school in Staten
Island, N.Y.
Mr. Thomas was an early con-
tributor to the press, and in 1866
published a small volume entitled MR. CYRUS THOMAS,
" Contributions to the
History of Author and Ex-School Teacher, Abercorn, Que.
the Eastern Townships." Some [Courtesy Daily Record.]

years later, while Principal of the


Waterloo Academy, he published server of human nature, and that
" A is his desire to foster the
History of the Township of it
Shefford." Subsequently, finding noblest impulses of the heart.
his health too delicate to continue Mr. Thomas has held office as
school work, he devoted himself al- Secretary-Treasurer of Sutton,
most entirely to a literary career. and as member of the Protestant
His next publication was " The Board of Examiners for teachers
Frontier Schoolmaster," the of the District of Bedford.
whole edition of two thousand He married, Dec. 1861, Miss
copies being sold in eighteen Mary A. Spencer, of St. Armand
.

months. In 1896 he published " A East, Missisquoi.


History of the Counties of Argen- He was a member of the Congre-
teuil and Prescott," a large, close- gational Church. He died at the
ly-printed volume of nearly 700 home of his oldest son in Richford,
pages, the material for which he Vt., the I4th Feb., 1908.
BEDFORD BRIDGE

Historical Clippings,

The following sketches pertain- skilful mechanic and manufactured


ing to old County families were spinning wheels, weavers' looms,
reels, reeds and all other appur-
mostly written by the late Henry
tenances necessary for the making
Ross, of Stanbridge East, and pub-
lished in the Waterloo Advertiser.
of cloth.Among the many settlers
arriving in Stanbridge at that
Mr. Ross was an accurate and time few were more gladly wel-
painstaking \vriter and a poet of comed or less needed in the new
no mean merit. His death was a settlement. Immediately after his
arrival here he purchased a lot of
loss to the Society. Some local
land and commenced making im-
scribe should do for him in the bio-
provements, but, being joined by
graphical way what he, in ,his life- his brother,James, from Massa-
time, did for many others. chusetts, thetwo brothers opened
a shop for manufacturing pur-
poses. So great was the demand
for their household articles that
STANBRIDGE EAST. the shop .was kept running day
and night^ In addition to the
THE BRIGGS FAMILY. amount of business done, after the
close of the second year, they com-
George Briggs, a native of Han- menced making chairs, some of
cock, Mass., settled at Stanbridge which are still in existence, one in
East in 1806. Mr. Briggs was a particular, an armed rocking
66 MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY
chair, formerly belonging to Mrs. favor of his assistant, and Mr
Nancy Chandler, hut now owned Briggs was appointed in his place,
by Henry B. Kemp, Esq., of this a position that he held for a quar-
place, is prized very highly by the ter of a century with credit to
owner as a valuable relic of by- himself and to the advantage of
gone days. John Corey, of Han- the community. His three sons,
cock, Mass., having engaged in the Joseph R., Washington I., and
manufacture of household commo- William Howard Briggs, are fa-
dities at this place, Mr. Briggs vorably known in this section of
disposed of his village property the country, W. I. Briggs having
in 1811, and afterwards bought out occupied the position of Manager
the improvements at that time of the Eastern Townships Bank at
belonging to William Huckins, Lot Waterloo, One for many years.
,

No. 3 in the 2nd Range of lots in


Stanbridge. This farm, now one of
HENRY ROSS.
the best in the County of Missis-
quoi, Mr. Briggs afterwards ex. (Since the foregoing was writ-
ten Mr. Elijah J. Briggs has pass-
changed with Mr. James Blinn ed away. ED. NOTE.)
for a farm in Dunham. On this
farm Mr. Briggs remained until
the spring of or '36, when
1X35,
his family removed to Whitby, in
Upper Canada, where he resided THE SAWYER FAMILY.
until his death, which took place
in the year 1848. Of Mr. Briggs's Benjamin Sawyer, a soldier in
sons, it may be said, they were all the British army, came to Ameri-
talented musicians, but having ca during the Revolutionary war
been brought up on a farm, they and served under Sir John
followed farming as a pursuit, in Burgoyne until that, unfortu-
which they were fairly successful. nate officer surrendered his
James Briggs, brother of George forces to the Americans in
Briggs, after the sale of the furni- 1777. Hoping to make his
ture shop, followed the occupation escape from the country and re-
of farmer through life, and resid- join the King's forces in Canada,
ed for many years on a portion of the proud hearted Englishman re-
the land now owned by Col. Gil- fused to sign a parole of honor
more. James Briggs' family con- whereby he would not be allowed
sisted of five sons and six daugh- to leave the country during hosti-
ters. Of the sons, Elijah, Jen- lities, imless properly exchanged
kins, George, Lyman and James, with the enemy as prisoner of war.
Elijah J. is the only one now liv- After having been kept a prisoner
ing, and at present is ninety years for five months, he managed,
of age. For over forty years he through the friendship of a sentry
was engaged in mercantile pur- on duty, to effect his escape for a
suits and unlocked the first mail short period, but was finally over-
bag ever opened at Stanbridge hauled and taken back to camp,
East, which event took place on where he was compelled to suffer
Julv 6th. 1836. Mr. Briggs was shameful indignities heaped upon
actiner as assistant P.M. at the him by the American soldiery such
the time. Mr. Stephen Chandler as no person of spirit would be
having previously been appointed likely to bear. He finally signed
postmaster. Mr. Chandler subse- the parol and afterwards, having
quently resigned his position in been joined by his wife and two
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 67

daughters from England, settled been a friend of his father's fam-


in the Township of Canaan, situ- ily and a kind neighbor.
ated in the northern part of New
Hampshire, where he remained un- HENRY ROSS.
til1801, when himself and family
emigrated to Stanbridge, where he
was awarded 200 acres of land for
his services while in the British THE HART FAMILY.
army. This land he afterwards sold
to Joseph Baker, and the property Ebenezer Hart, an American sol-
at the present time is owned by dier during the Revolutionary war.
AH and Ari Martindale. Sawyer was a native of Potsdam, N. Y.,
subsequently removed to Dunham, and came to Stanbridge East in
where he, with his son, cleared up 1809. Mr. Hart at that time was
a new farm and became fairly pros- in receipt of a yearly pension from
perous. While living there he was the American Government, and,
visited by John S. Gibson, the having other means at command,
soldier who had befriended him opened a general store at this
when he was held as a prisoner by place, near the site now occupied
the Americans, himself (Gibson) by Mr. E. H. Eaton's brick resi-
having connived with Sawyer at dence at the south side of the riv-
the time he was allowed to escape er. This store is said to have
while held as a prisoner. Gibson been the first one erected at Stan-
was a professional trapper previ- bridge East. Previous to Mr.
ous to the w ar of Independence
T
Hart's arrival here he had acted
but enlisted under the banner of in the capacity of local preacher,
republic, and afterwards, when in which calling, it is said, he
hunting and trapping beaver in greatly excelled. Leaving his
.northern New Hampshire, fre- store in the charge of his two sons,
quently called at Sawyer's house Mr. Hart devoted much of his time
for provisions, previous to 1795, to visiting distant neighborhoods,
when these two soldiers, who had sometimes appointing meetings to
met each other as enemies in 1777, be held in the open air, at other
became lasting friends through life. times inside the residences of the
John vS. Gibson is said to have early settlers, in the meantime be-
built the first house on the ground coming a favorite visitor with the
now occupied by the village of people of the Eastern Townships.
Frelighsburg. Benjamin Sawyer, Mr. Rice Heaton, an early settler
who was the writer's great grand- at Stanbridge East, having pur-
father, died and was buried on the chased Mr. Hart's articles of
farm owned by himself and son trade, removed the goods into a
in Dunham. He was 93 v years of new store erected on the north
r

age at the time of his death, which bank of the river, leaving the rev-
took place in 1831. The Sawyer erend gentleman to devote his en-
property subsequently passed in- tire attention to religious mat-
to the hands of the late Daniel ters, who continued preaching un-
Westover, who erected a wall til the fall of 1828, when, on one

composed of granite around the occasion, while journeying to


grave of the old soldier, Mr. West- Farnham on foot, he missed his
over at the same time charging his way and was compelled to remain
sons who were present to never in the woods over night during a
disturb the present resting place severe storm of sleet and rain,
of one who, when living, had ever without protection or means to
68 MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY
start a fire. From the effects of Americans. They further state
that night's exposure he never en- that, at the close of the battle, 60
tirely recovered. His infirmities of Brant's men lay dead on the
increased, and, as he was incapa- field, with 22 of their own men
citated from doing further work, he killed in that day's action. The
divided his property among his Americans having retreated,
sons and daughters and removed Wightman was taken in charge by
to Brasher, St. Lawrence Coun- a German family residing in the
ty, N.Y., to reside with George Mohawk Valley, where he was se-
Abbott, a son-in-law, at whose creted for three long years,
place he afterwards died from the until his wound healed and he was
effects of an overdose of Lobelia in a condition to leave the coun-
administered by a Thompsonian try. From thence he came to St.
doctor. Two of his sons, Samuel Johns, where he found employ-
'

and Nathaniel Hart, removed to ment for several years on works


Michigan, where, after having ac- being constructed by the Govern-
cumulated a handsome property, ment. In 1791 he settled at St.
they died not many years ago Armand Centre, where he erected
a hotel, the chimney of which
HENRY ROSS.
building is still standing. While
residing at that place the town-
ship of Stanbridge was being sur-
veyed into lots, when it occurred
THE WIGHTMAN OR WEIGHT- to Mr. Wightman that, inasmuch
MAN FAMILY. as the British Government were
granting lands to the soldiers who
Thomas Wightman, a United fought for the Crown during the
Empire Loyalist, joined the Brit- Revolutionary war, he would lay
ish forces at the outbreak of the his case before that Government."
Revolutionary war, and was ta- hoping to receive a grant of land
ken prisoner in a skirmish with for past services. His petition
the King's rebellious subjects soon was favorably received, and a
after the date of his enlistment. grant of 400 acres of land in the
He was subsequently paroled, and, new township of Stanbridge was
although a prisoner still in the awarded him. That grant of land
eye of military law, so great was included Lots No. i and 2, lying
his attachment to the British in the Third range of lots in the
cause, that in a moment of weak- township of Stanbridge, and, at
ness, he forfeited his life by re- present, are owned by Noah Wight-
joining his company previous to man, Gardner G. and William
receiving his acquittal as prisoner Stanton, descendants of the grand
of war. In a subsequent encoun- old hero, who braved death that
ter that took place in the Mohawk the Empire might live. The sub-
Valley in 1778, young Wightman ject of the foregoing sketch died
was severely wounded in the hip at an advanced age and was
and left on the field in a helpless buried in the Lagrange Cemetery,
condition. American writers, in near Hunter's Mills, St. Armand,
referring to this fight, state that the inscription upon whose head-
Brant, who led the expedition, stone, which the writer procured
was assisted by 400 Tories and some fifteen years ago, I regret to
Indians, thereby striving, in a say, has been mislaid or irretriev-
manner, to condone the effect of ably lost. That there should be
that day's defeat in the eyes of any person so far lost to all sense
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 69

of decency as to make disparaging tract in any way from the truth-


remarks in regard to the findings fulness of the same. This puts the
of those who have every reason to writer in mind of an anecdote he
believe that not a few of the Em- read many years ago of a crank
pire Loyalists emigrated to this who went about the country lec-
section of the country is cause for turing that there was never such a
regret. In the history of the Mar- person as Napoleon Bonaparte. In
tin family, brought out by a re- proof of his argument he quoted
cent librarian in Boston, a branch the names of several authors who
of the Martin family, known as had never mentioned Napoleon's
United Empire Loyalists, is traced name in their histories. He got
to Caldwell's Manor, where their along swimmingly until he met a
buildings were burned by renegades French Guardsman, who had not
from the United States. These only seen Napoleon himself but
facts, with others of a like nature had fought under him in Egypt as
which have been handed down dur- well.
ing the past century, do not de- HENRY ROSS.
Historical Notes.

From a series of papers publish- said, convened by letter or notice


ed in The News in 1899 we take from A. Kemp, Esq., chairman of
the following in reference to early a meeting of trustees heretofore
held to determine upon the site
church organizations, the facts
and erection of a court house and
having been gathered in that res- gaol for the county of Missis-
pect from the registers of marria- quoi." The care exhibited to
ges, baptisms and deaths in the make no damaging admission is
office of the Superior Court for apparent in the opening sentence.
It continued that the trustees for
the District of Bedford, making the townships of Dunham and
them so far. as possible, chronolo-
Stanbridge protested against the
gical. There are also a few un- proceedings of that meeting as be-
der thesame heading upon other ing illegal and unauthorized by
matters and from other sources. William IV., cap. 66, seeing that
a meeting of trustees duly called
by the senior magistrate of the
county on a former occasion had
MISSISQUOI. been unable to agree upon an eli-
gible site forthe said court
There a vague, tradition afloat
is house and four being for one
jail,
that, for a period in the history place, and four for another that;

of Missisquoi, there was a deadly- a report to that effect had ,been


rivalry between Slab City, now made to the Governor-General ;

Frelighsburg, and the Flat, now that, therefore, it had been unani-
Dunham village, as to which pos- mously considered that the act
sessed the most commanding in- had become inoperative in the
flence, and was the most import- county, and the meeting dissolved;
ant. The embers of that rivalry that subsequently the chairman
may exist yet among the gray was notified that His Excellency
heads, but it exercises no control- declined to assist the trustees in
ling influence at the present time selecting the site, which notice was
among the new generation. It laid before the trustees at a gen-
would appear from the minutes of eral meeting, when it was unani-
Notary I,alanne, in the archives mously resolved to ask the Legis-
of the Superior Court at Sweets- lature to amend the act, so as to
burg, that the feeling of rivalry- enable the inhabitants of .the coun-
was keen in the thirties, and that ty of Missisquoi " to participate in
strategy, was resorted to, at times the advantages it was calculat-
to score a point. As illustrating ed to bestow " that this was
;

this feeling, the pages of a protest done, and the act amended, au-
made by that notary on the 23d thorizing the Governor-General to
of September, 1834, is in point. appoint commissioners to select a
It commences by stating that, "at site where the trustees were equal-
a meeting of trustees, as it is ly divided upon the question of lo-
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY

eating the court house and gaol ; upshot of the matter was I do not
that since that amendment, the know, but as to the main question
Seigniory of St. Armand had been of building the court house and
" two
divided, it is alleged, into gaol for the county of Missisquoi,
"
parishes that the protesting
;
nothing came of it. A period of
trustees had learned with surprise about 35 years elapsed before the
that two trustees had been elected court house and gaol was finally
for the additional parish of St. located at Sweetsburg for the
Armand that all the trustees for
;
whole district. It is reasonably
the county had again been con- certain from the wording of the
vened to meet and act upon the protest and the fact of a protest
question of locating the site for being thought necessary, that lo-
the court house and gaol, a ques- cal feeling was considerably
tion which the protesting parties wrought up over the subject of the
declared had been duly considered court house aud gaol. Had there
and disposed of, without agreeing been an agreement, the site locat-
upon the site for the building, and ed and the buildings erected, it is
therefore could not again be le- highly probable that things would
gally revised for the consideration have been different in this district
of the trustees, but must be de- from what they are to-day. The
cided by commissioners under the trustess were men of local promi-
amended act, and that " the 2ist nence at the time, and had much
" section of
the aforesaid act au- to do with public affairs. It is
" thorizes the election of trustees now since that
nearly 65 years
" in parishes, &c., which have protest. Is there anyone now liv-
" hitherto neglected to do so who
can give a history of the
"
;
ing
but this can only be done after matter ? Where was the inn of
"
the expediency of building, and Henry Boright ? N.
" the location, shall have been de-
" termined upon, and their duties BISHOP STEWART.
" extend no further than the stib-
To the Editor of The Xews
'

may
;

sequent proceedings re- :

" Dear Sir, The contributor of


Therefore, William Ba-
quire."
ker, Sylvanus F. Hastings, Ephm. very interesting church" records in
Knight and George Chandler, four your last issue asks, What be-
of the trustees protested against came of the Hon. and Rev. Charles
further proceedings of that meet- Stewart ? " A reply from this
ing, as illegal and unauthorized field of his labors may be in or-
by the act. Notary Lalanne then der, as showing his Episcopal ad-
certifies that on the same day, at ministration. Caldwell's and
the hotel of Henry Boright, he Christie's Manor was created by
read audibly the said protest to royal letters patent May loth,
the other trustees, viz., Ralph 1822, by authority of King George
Taylor, Anson Kemp, Ephraim the Fourth into the parishes of
Hurlbut, P:iijah Billings, Abel St. George and St. Thomas, ac-
Hurlbut and Horaeio I. Throop, cording to the establishment of
and left a copy for each of them the Chui ch of England. A church
in the room. This protest gives was erected at the present village
one the idea that St. Armand had of Clarenceville in 1817. On the
resorted to to score a
strategy -nst of Feb., 1829, the Rev. Mica-
point, by having the parish divid- jah Townsend was duly and ca-
ed so as to increase the trustees nonicallv inducted to the rectory
and out vote its rival. What the of St. George by the Archdeacon
MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY
of Quebec, specially appointed ad character in Bishop Stewart to
hoc by theRight Rev. Charles venerate and cherish Son of the
!

James Stewart, D.D., Lord Bishop Earl of Galloway, a nobleman by


of Quebec, whom the churchmen right, a nobleman by nature ! We
here have cause also to hold in have nowliving here and in the
pious memory. Mr. Stewart, es- adjacent State of Vermong, per-
tablishing the church in St. Ar- sons wno received the rite of bap-
mand and these parts, removed to tism at his hands who speak with
Hatley, One. While there he was pride of the fact they tell us
;

advised of the contemplated resig- that when Isle aux Noix, on the
nation of the iirst Bishop of Que- Richelieu, was garrisoned by an
" for the
bec, and he applied posi- imperial force he held services and
tion in case it became vacant." I administered the rites of the
find in the reports of the Canadian church, in the military chapel on
archives at Ottawa a reference to the island once a month, driving
a letter date/1 at Hatley, Octo- on horseback from St. Armand,
ber 8, 1818, by him to Lord Gold- some 20 miles to St. Johns, and
burn, Colonial Secretary, as fol- thence by boat, sent for him by
lows : the garrison, to the island, some
\2 miles. The place and date of
"
My desire to be Bishop is to his lordship's decease in England,
do good, but it is an arduous situ- and any other particulars of his
ation, and my office as missionary life and works, the writer will be
at Hatley will be attended with very grateful for.
less anxiety, though it needs hard Yours truly,
work to make the church there
prosperous."
W'M. MEAD PATTISON.
Clarenceville, One., April 10, '99.
The date of his appointment to
succeed Bishop Mountain is not at
hand, but I find the Hon. and Rev.
Charles James Stewart in the year ANGLICAN CHURCH.
1822 in charge of the vast terri-
tory now comprised in the pres- The archives of the Superior
ent dioceses of Quebec and Mont- Court show that the first register
real, as Lard Bishop of Quebec ;
of acts of civil status issued to a
I also find references, to his clergyman in the district of Bed-
" to ...the charitable" ford bears date the 25th
appeals Sept.,
in England for funds to 1804, paraphed by Judge Ogden,
build churches and send out of the King's Bench, Mont-
missionaries and a pamphlet he real, issued to the " Reverend
was
had circulated there on " The Charles Cotton, minister of the
Church in Canada." His zeal was Established Church at Missisquoi
unabated, and he was the same Bay, etc." It contains nine en-
humble, self-sacrificing man as tries, allbaptisms. The first en-
Bishop he had been as missionary, try in the register is as follows :

when making his way in the town- " Performed at Saint Johns on
ships of Quebec on horseback and this twenty-seventh of September,
on foot through the forests and eighteen hundred and four, Har-
on foot, cheerfully accommodating riet, daughter of John and Lucin-
himself to his surroundings and da Lane, of Saint Johns, born the
what hospitality the humble pio- eighteenth of March last past,
neer afforded. Truly, we have a was baptized Thursday in pres-
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 73

ence of the following persons by register for South Dunham, the


me. 28th Nov., 1847, is Stevens
CHAS. Baker.
(Signed) C. COTTON,
" Minister." The aforesaid Stevens Baker is
" stillto the fore and lives in Cow-
(Signed) JOHN LANE, ansville. Whilst a warm friend
LUCINDA LANE, and supporter of Parson or Priest
ERIC McBEATTIE."
Cotton, as he was ^enc-rally call-
ed, it is not quite certain that he
What became of Harriet Lane ?

There is a from 1804


hiatus supported the grandson of that
to 1808 which last year
in worthy clergyman at the recent
election in Missisquoi.
two registers were issued, one
for South and the other The Rev. C. C. Cotton died in
North Dunham, to Rev. Chas. 1848. He had no register for that
" minister of year. But the proof of his death
Caleb Cotton,
rests upon family traditions or
the Episcopal congregation," in
both cases. One was paraphed possibly an entry in the perma-
nent register at Dunham, for there
by Judge Reid and the other by is no proof in the archives of the
Judge Ogden, both of the King's
Bench. In some way Judge Ogden court at Sweetsburg. The good
old parson, who for 40 years fur-
put the date of his register 80
nished proof of marriages, burials
years ahead, writing at length
1888 instead of 1808, and the rest and baptisms for so large an ex-
" seventh tent of country, is left without
of the date day of Oc-
The parson beat him by anyJ of
his own decease in the court
tober."
fivemonths by making the entry archives. If Priest Cotton had
left the chronicles of his experi-
on the 1 5th May, 1808, of the bap-
tism of Eliza Monivra, daughter ences during his long career as a
of Frederick F. Strite and Eliza- pioneer is so many ways in the
beth Freligh, of Dunham. Prob- district of Bedford, it would be

ably the minister on with


went interesting reading, perhaps more
his entries until he could get an generally so than his grandson's
" in Nevada."
opportunity to send to Montreal Early days
to have his register authenicated. N.
From 1808 the two registers were
issued to him concurrently.
The last entry made in a regis- ST. ARMAND WEST.
ter by Charles C. Cotton was as
follows : "On this twenty-fifth of
On the 2nd April, 1806, a Regis-
January, Augustus Swan,
1848, ter of Acts of Civil Status, au-
of Dunham, yeoman, deceased, the
thenticated by Judge Ogden, was
2 ist inst., was buried this day in
issued to the Rev. Charles Cot-
Uie presence of the following per-
ton, minister of the Established
sons.
Church at Missisquoi Bay, now
(Signed) CHAS. W. COTTON, the parish of St. Armand W est.
r

Minister. The first entry therein is the bap-


(Signed) STEPHEN TREE, tism of Jacob, son of Jacob
ARCHIBALD M. MIL- Teachnet and Mary Morver, his
TIMORE. wife, of Highgate, Vt. The second
entry refers to a family having a
The last signature, the one name occasionally mentioned in
which closed up Parson Cotton's English-speaking countries, and is
74 MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY
otherwise suggestive as to merit, by Rev. C. Stewart was made on
copying at length : the second dav of May, 1808,
.

" On the wherein he records the baptism of


2ist of October, 1806,
Peter Smith, of St. Arniand, and Charles Norke, son of Joseph
Elizabeth Peer, of the same place, Powell and Asther Solomon, his
spinster, both of lawful age, were wife, of the Seigniory of St. Ar-
married at St. Armand in presence mand. The registers for St. Ar-
of the subscribing witnesses. mand West were issued to t he
Hon. Rev. Chas. Stewart up to
(Signed) PETER SMITH, 1816. The last entry made by him
ELIZABETH PEER, was in the register for 1815, in
Contracting parties. which he recards the baptism of
(Signed) CHRISTIAN WEHR, Margaret, Dubenia, and Nancy
JR., Maria Manson, three daughters
of Win. Manson and Ruth, his
JOSEPH SMITH, wife, of the Seigniory of St. Ar-
Witnesses. mand, on the 2nd July, Did
1815.
By me, not that Win. Manson remove to
(Signed) CHAS. C. COTTON, Mansonville and become an early,
if not the earliest, founder of that
Minister."
place ?

The Peter Smith referred to can- The firstentry made by his suc-
not be " Honest Peter," late of cessor, Rev. James Reid, was
Her Majesty's Customs at St. Ar- made on the i6lh July, 1815, and
records the baptism of James
mand, because he is too voung to
fit the dates. That Peter Smith Wallace, son of Isaac Brill and
Eli/.abeth Wehr, his wife, both of
was 21 years old in 1806, which
would make him 114 years of age Stanbridge, born on the 5th of
now. " Honest Peter " is several March, 1815.
Did that Brill move 1

to West
years younger than that. Bolton later ?
In 1808 the register for St. Ar- N.
mand West was issued by Judge
Ogden to the Rev. Chas. Cotton,
whose last and only entry therein
records the marriage of Peter
ST. ARMAND EAST.
Rosenberger,of St. Armand, and The first register of St. Annan,
Catherine McDonald, of Stan- 1

which took on the East was issued on the 22nd Janu-


bridge, place
1 4th March, 1808. ary, 1808, by Judge Panet to "the
In the first folio of that register Honorable and Rev. Charles Stew-
the Rev. Chas. Stewart makes an art, minister of the congregation
" The Rev. of the Church of England, at the
entry as follows :

Charles C. Cotton moved from St. East End of the Seigniory of St.
Armand to the Township of Dun- Armand, etc." The first entry
therein records the baptism of
ham, in the District of Montreal,
on the 28th March, 1808, and was Maria Anne, daughter of 'ohn
succeeded in his appointment at Jones, of this Seigniory, and
St. Armand by the Hon. Rev. C. Mary Magdalen Heney, his wife.
Tile sponsors w ere George COOK
r

Stewart, as witness his hand.


and Hannah Cook. The last en-
(Signed) C. STEWART, try made by that clergyman was
Minister." in the register of 1815, and the
The first entrv in that register names are so familiar as to war-
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 75

rant copying at length : "On the Protestant sects, passed an


tfiis 12th dav of July, 1X15, John act giving Methodists a legal sta-
IVInsgrave, son of John Coats- tus. I hazard the opinion that
worth, of this Seigniory, and the Methodists were incorporated
Anna Quackenhr- ,
wife, born, by the French Roman Catholic
on the 3rd day of July, 1815, was Legislature of this province ear-
baptized. The sponsors are the lier than they were by the exclu-
Rev. C. Stewart, Hannah Horton sive Protestant Legislature of the
and R-alph Coats worth, of Bid. Upper Province. In 1831, Rev.
dick, near Durham, England. That Thos. Turner had the register for
entry is followed by one made, by St. Armand and Dunham circuit.
his successor, Rev. James Reid, His first entry was the burial of
recording the burial of EftV Hum- Agnes Sixby, who died on the 2nd
phrey, in the 7Jst year of her Sept., 1831. The witnesses were
age. Peter Sixby and Garret Sixby,
In scanning the pages of these jr., names familiar in the history
registers of the early years of this of St. Armand. Probably Capt.
century, one is struck by the fact Sigsbee, of Maine, naval celebrity,
that nearly all the parties to was of the same stock. When his
these acts not only write their daughter clandestinely married a
names, but generally much better painter a short time ago, she gave
than their descendants of the pres- her name as Sixby. It may have
ent day are in the habit of doing. been a jump at a marital name,
N. or it may have been a harking
back to an old family name. The
Sixby's, as well as the Sigsbee's,
have a military record.
METHODIST CHURCH. From 1831 to 1858, when St.
Armand circuit passed from the
The first register issued in the Montreal to the Bedford judicial
present district of Bedford for district, the ministers for that
'

the people called Methodists " circuit were as follows, viz.: Revs.
was paraphed by Judge Foucher Ingham SutlilTe, Matthew Lang,
on the T5th April, 1820, and grant- John Tomkins, Jas. Booth, Win.
ed to "the Rev. Richard Williams, Squire, Richard Hutchinson, B.
of the British Wesleyan Con- Hitchcock, Hugh Montgomery, H.
gregation of Methodists in St. Ar- M. Harvard, Wm. Scott, E. S.
mand and Dunham," etc. The Ingalls, C. Norris and Francis
first entry therein was the bap- Hunt.
tism on the yth May, 1820, of In 1839, Dunham appears to
"
Mary, daughter of John Pew have become an independent cir-
and Elsha, his wife, of St. Ar- cuit, and from that date to 1558
mand." The witnesses were John registers were issued to Rev. John
A. Rhodes and Hiram Moor. Per- Brownell, Matthew Lang, John
haps some old resident of St. Ar- Tomkins, John Borland, Hugh
niand can and will tell what be- Montgomery and R. A. Flanders.
come of those people. No other The records of the Methodist
register was issued until 1831, thr Church may show other names. I
reason probably being that until am giving only those to whom
1829 there was no leeral authority registers were issued by the court.
for such issue. In that year the From this and previous papers,
Legislature of Lower Canada, it will be seen that the beginnings
with its usual liberality towards of both the Anglican and Metho-
76 MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.

dist churches in the district of scared into piety by graphic de-


Bedford, were in the parish of St. scriptions of the lake of brimstone
Armand. The Anglican church had and fire reserved lor the really bad
priority in church registers, al- fellows. It was a chemical com-
though it is reported that Metho- bination which the native did not
dist missionaries had exploited relish, particularly as the preach-
the country earlier. It may be ers were not in accord as to the
that the people of St. Armand, in duration of existence on the lake
in those days, were looked upon aforesaid, and not too sure where
as fair game for missionary effort the dry land was located. Ignor-
to rescue them from their fallen, ant as those Millerite preachers
unregenerate state, or it may be unquestionably were, they accom-
that the people sent up a cry for plished, in a few years, much
Christian teaching, to which re- more than all the missionaries of
sponse was made in the manner other beliefs had been able to do
before mentioned. The latter view in a long period of time and with
cannot be so easily sustained. An much labor. Even those who did
early historian states that the not actually fall into line with
early settlers were a rough, pro- the Millerites, did not see eye to
fane lot which can readily be un-
; eye with them as to the precise
derstood and, in a measure, ex- date, had a pious tremor which
cused, seeing how they were har- sent them in large numbers to the
ried on leaving the United States churches of a more orthodox char-
for Missisquoi Bay how sore their
;
acter for baptism. The figures in
feet must have been in hurrying to the church registers indicate pret-
get here their
; worry to get ty clearly the state of alarm
" vittles " and land after their ar- which existed. Take the St. Ar-
rival, and their disappointment in mand and Dunham circuits men-
finding that the Governor looked tioned as a test :

upon them rather as land grab-


bers than as persecuted loyalists. Baptisms St. Armand Dunham
There were many things more pres- o
singly needed, from their point of 1840 ...
55
view, than churches and parsons, 42
though there could have been no 129
prejudice against the ministry of
the latter. In favor of the first 19
view it may be said, that the 17
registers were issued at first to ii
missionaries, as such, and the 17
baptismal entries therein disclose
no such rush for that Christian
rite as would have been the case A few observations will make my
had the demand come from with- point clearer. In 1839 St. Armand
in. But a change was at hand. and Dunham were one circuit,
The Millerites had preached for with one register. In that year
years and proved their preaching the joint circuit had 31 baptisms.
by calculations based upon pro- Notice, by adding the two togeth-
phecy that the world was to be er, the great rush up to 1846, by
destroyed by fire in 1843 --in which time the scare was over,
April, 1843, I believe. The year and the figures dwindled down. In
is right, but I am not sure as to the years of big figures, the bap-
the month. The people were tisms were largely adults. When
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 77

the danger was over it was only sued to Messrs. Laf ranee and Fal-
infants. There has never been such vey, missionary priests for the
a stampede in St. Armand and Eastern Townships. The first en-
Dunham. The pace then set has try therein was the baptism, by
never been again reached. Per- Father Falvey, of John Alexander,
haps the material was exhausted. son of Alexander Beck, tailor, of
There is a good deal of religion Stanbridge, and of Margaret
at the present time in those muni- Sauer, his wife. The actes regis-
cipalities. The people are pious. tered in that year were 81, nearly
But, perhaps, another scare might all baptisms and covered locali-
stimulate the zeal and ardor of ties from Philipsburg on the west
some of them. If judicially or- to Barnston in the east. Registers
dered, I can furnish a list of those were issued to missionaries up to
whom a scare would benefit, at 1847, and the next in date after
least would not harm. 1846 was specially issued to St.
From 1840 to the summer of Croix de Dunham. While in the
1843 Rev. Richard Hutchinson was first register, 1841, the entries are
in charge of said St. Armand cir- altogether signed either by Father
cuit. Then he left that church. Lafrance or Father Falvey, the
He became a Millerite. A Metho- years which follow show that
dist historian (Carroll) says : there were many assistants,
"
Unhappily, a talented and influ- among whom we notice Fathers
ential minister, the Rev. Richard Phelan, Pineault, Morrison, and
Hutchinson, stationed at St. Ar- others. The dates indicate that
mand, imbibed what were called regular appointments were made
Advent views, and continued to for different localities. On some
spread them in the Wesleyan com- occasions there would be as many
munity, till being pressed by his as 20 baptisms. In one register
ministerial superiors to keep si- we encounter the signature of John
lent until the district meeting, he Gough, now clerk of the court at
left altogether before the year was Bedford, to the acte solemnizing
out and retired to the United his marriage. It is the same bold
States." and legible handwriting used by
As the year ended in June and him to-day to sign writs to worry
the end of the world was fixed for his unfortunate compatriots. The
April, it can be understood why signature gives no indication that
he declined submission to church he was suffering from cerebral ex-
authority. Later, he became an citement, at a time when it is par-
Advent minister at Waterloo, donable, and yet he was young on
where he lived many years final- ;
the nth of August, 1842, and the
ly, in the latter part of the 60' s, days were hospitable. One finds
he removed to the United States, many familiar names in turning
where he died at an advanced age. over the leaves of these registers,
N. names of men locally prominent,
and of others who have long since
1

been gathered to their fathers. It


ROMAN CATHOLIC. is doubtful if there was at that
time a church or chapel building
The first Roman Catholic regis- specially dedicated for church pur-
ter issued for and used in the dis- poses in the district of Bedford,
trict of Bedford, bears date the while to-day one is scarcely out
23rd of July, 1841, and was para- of sight of a spire on one of its
phed by Judge Gale. It was is- churches, or of the sound of the
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.

church-going bell. The handwrit- tist ministers, it is remarkable


ing of Fathers Lafrance and Falvey that, notwithstanding their regis-
creates a presumption that they ters contain many entries of acts,
were from France. We presume there is not one which records a
there is no one living in the dis- baptism. They seemed to be much
trict who remembers them, but sought after to celebrate marri-
their w.ork has borne fruit. N. ages, judging by entries, but the
Baptist part did not fructify. Per-
haps they sowed the harvest which
others had the good fortune to
reap. It was a marrying and not
BAPTIST CHURCH. a bapti/.ing church. It is true a
few births are entered in an inci-
The first register for the Baptist dental sort of way, as though not
Church in the county of Missisquoi of much account, but not as bap-
was issued to the Rev. Frederic tisms. N.
Bosworth, Stanbridge, by Judge
Rolland, on the I2th Feby., 1842.
His certificate shows that he \vas
ordained on the ist July, 1841, by ANGLICAN MISSIONS.
Benj. Davies and John Girdwood,
Baptist ministers, Montreal, and In the archives of the Superior
called to the church on the 8th Court, Sweetsburg, are three regis-
Jan., 1842, the installation being ters of acts of civil status, issued
conducted by Rev. Messrs. Davis by Judge Pyke, of Court of King's
and Girdwood and a Mr. Thomp- Bench, to Rev. \Vm.
Montreal,
son, the certificate of call and in- Dawes, travelling missionary of
stallation being signed by John the Church of Kngland under the
Weightman, church clerk, and Asa Society for the Propagation of the
Martindale. The first entry in the Gospel, covering the years 1838.
register was made in March, 1842 1840 and 1841. There is not an
the day being in blank of the
entry in these registers in any
burial of Catherine Corev, wife of
way connected with the District
Reuben Corey, of Stanbridge of Bedford, and it is not quite
Ridge- On the 5th of May follow- clear why they are here. They
ing is the entrv of the marriage of should be either at Beauharnois or
Guv Meigs and Lavinia Walbridge, St. Johns.
both ofStanbridge. The names In the last register, from the
are familiar in the county of Mis- third day of October, 1841, the
sisquoi. entries are all made and signed
In 1843 the Rev. Francis N. Jer- bv Win. Bond, now the Bishop of
sey was ordained, and then called the Anglican diocese of Montreal,
and inducted as pastor of the Bap- and are mostly baptism of adults.
tist Church at Stanbridge, the Curious to know something of the
register for that year having been Rev. Mr. Dawes and the connection
issued to him, and for the seven of Bishop Bond with that work,
following years, after which there enquiry was made of him with the
was a lapse. The names entered result that he courteously furnish-
in those registers are of people ed information which will interest
now well known in local annals many readers. Rev. Mr. Dawes
in the townshin of Stanbridge and was travelling missionary in the
vicinity. Although those two Districts of Beauharnois and Iber-
clergymen were ordained as Bap- ville. His health failing, in 1841.
LVIISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 79

he was appointed to Christ ieville, and many Vermont clergymen, in-


and on the death Mr. Baldwin,
of cluding Rev. W. Smith, D.D., St.
to the rectory of St. Johns, where Albans Rev. C. B. Cady, St. Al-
;

he died of ship fever about 1848. bans' Bay ;


besides pastors of
BishoptBond succeeded him as tra- churches at Highgate and Swan-
velling missionary for these dis- ton, forming "an ecclesiastical
tricts in 1841, after assisting him council" to use the language of
from June 1840. In the winter of the minutes. The last register is-
1840-41 he was sent by Bishop sued to that church w as in 1854 r

Mountain to visit the Kastern to Rev. Mr. Buckham. Who was


Townships, and went as far east and what became of Rev. Joel
as Bury. On that visit Bishop Fisk ? did that church cease
Why
Bond preached at Dunham for to exist there ? What is its his-
"Priest Cotton," as he was called. tory. J\T_

Can any one give any further in-


formation about Rev. Mr. Dawes?
It is nearly 60 years since Bishop
Bond made that trip through the NEW CONNEXION METHOD-
Hastern Townships. Is there any ISTS.
one living there now who remem-
bers seeing him on that occasion ? In 1843 a register was first is-
N. sued to the Methodist New Con-
nexion by Judge Day to Rev. Ho-
ratio Nelson Kimball, for the Dun-
PHILIPSBURG ham Circuit of that section, who
appears to have been ordained at
THK PIONEER CONGREGATI- Montreal on the 24th Sept. 1842.
ONAL CHURCH. His certificate of ordination is re-
corded therein. A change was
On the 1 7th September, 1843, made, whereby he was released
the Rev. Joel Fisk w as called as
r
from the caution imposed upon
pastor to the Congregational his Potton and Bolton colleagues,
church at Philipsburg. The min- as to acting as "lord over God's
utes of the meeting at which heritage." Just why this was
he was inducted as pastor, done does not appear. Per-
are entered in the register haps Potton and Bolton came
issued to him for the year in under the favored nation's
by Judge Gale. There would clause, so to speak, or it may be
appear to have been a large ga- that it was considered that lord-
thering of clergymen for those ing it would be more efficacious
days when travelling was difficult. than oversight for Dunham. It
Philipsburg was probably a weak may be left as a harmless open
spot in religious matters in those question. But there were other
days, hence the large array of peculiarities connected with this
clergymen. It mav have been. Dunham, Circuit indicating singular
But there are surface indications looseness in ministerial supply on
that godliness existed, for did not the part of the general church or-
the late Dr. Brighamand "Hon- ganization, by whatever name it
est Peter" reside there at about was called, as well as great lax-
that time. There were present on ity in the issue of registers by
that occasion, Rev. H. Wilkes, the judges in those days. These
Montreal, Rev. C. Strong, Mon- registers \vere paraphed by the
treal Rev. E. Knight, Waterville;
; judges, and one judge did not seem
8o MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY
to know, or perhaps care, what 1849, 1850 and 1851, to Elders
the others were doing in that de- Kimball, Thos. Ogden and Joshua
partment of judicial duty. Hence Gear ; Revs. Ogden and
1852,
the registers were doubled and Gear, Elders
1853, Kimball,
trebled at times for the same Adams and Gear 1854, 'Elders
;

year for the same circuit. Adams and Gear 1855, Elders
;

Each judge* appeared to have an Kimball and Gear 1856, Elders ;

N. C. Methodist Missionary doing Kimball, Hunt and Gear and in ;

pastoral work in the same terri- 1857, to Elders Kimball, Gear


tory circuit, so far as the entry and Rev. Wm. Bennett. It will
of civil acts was concerned. And be observed that the New Connex-
there may have been rivalry in ion Methodists did not pursue the
the ranks of the elders, for, it itinerant system as a regular ar-
was a great time for marriages, ticle of faith.
and the generosity of conjoints As before intimated, these min-
was probably a more reliable isters were in the schedule of
source of income than a stipulat- marrying, rather than baptizing
ed salary, or a passing round of ministers. As such, they were
the hat, to eke out a living. Tra- useful in a new community. But
dition informs us that some of during the Millerite scare year o
these elders enjoyed a wide reput- 1843, they got into the rush line,
ation as marrying ministers ; as it were, and baptized about
that some among them cut be- 80, instead of the usual two or
low the tariff, like notaries in pur- three a year. When that heated
suit of a job and anyway, ma-
;
term was over, cold storage re-
trimony was regarded by all as sumed its functions, and bap-
the cash asset of the calling. And tisms went down to zero, whilst
it must be borne in mind that
,
matrimony resumed its old place
they did not then have the cheap as a social function. And then
aid of the local item through other denominations began to
which to advertize, the bagging of trespass on their preserves. If not
the game by a gushing paragraph wealth, comfort and prosperity
always beginning with the well- had taken the place of privation
worn phrase, the sacramental and hardship. A new generation
words, "A pretty wedding, etc," was more exacting. The old had
or "A very pretty wedding, etc," to give way to the new. Those
or "One of the prettiest weddings, old elders are gone. Others have
etc." or banalities to the like ef- reaped the harvest, the seed of
fect, with which newspapers are which was sowed by them under
now interlarded ad nauseam. To great difficulties. The denomina-
return to our shepherds. Under tion which commissioned them
the system mentioned, registers has ceased to exist. It has been
were issued for the Dunham cir- absorbed in the Methodist Church
cuit after the year last mentioned of Canada. They have no his-
up to 1858, as follows : torian. Their names are scarcely
1844 to Elder Kimball and Rev. remembered. While the Wesleyan
Levi P. Adams, jr. in 1845, to ;
Methodists have histories and re-
the foregoing, and Rev. Francis cords of their early work, and of
Hunt ; 1846, Elder Kimball and the men who did that work, there
Revs. Thos. Howard and Joshua is no chronicle to record for pos-
Gear 1847, Elder Kimball and
; terity the zealous work of those
Rev. Benj. Haigh 1848, to the ;
humble and earnest, though illi-
same and Rev. Joshua Gear ;
terate preachers, who sowed the
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 81

seed which has made the Method- count of these early elders, whose
1st one of the strongest Protest- work was so intimately connected
ant sects numerically speaking, in with the growth of these town-
the District of Bedford. Is there ships ? A live historical society
no one left to gather the facts, should see to this. N.
and put upon record, some ac-
Something About the Olden Times in

Missisquoi, St. Johns, Etc.

To the Editor of The News : then several times larger than did
the Great Kastern wdien I saw it
The Baptist Church at Abbott's in New York Those were
harbor.
Corner, near Frelighsburg, will the palmy days of steam boating
-celebrate the centennial of its on the lake. The steward of one
founding on Sept. 6th, and has in- of the boats told me of an oppo-
vited me as one of its "own boys" sition line cutting rates from
to be present on the occasion and about $3. 50 from St. Johns to
deliver an address. I propose to Whitehall, clown to 25 cents, and
go, and speak on a topic of gen- then to nothing, and then his line,
eral interest, not only to the to cap the climax, offered any
members of that church, but to one who would go to Whitehall
the people there generally, on and return by their line, not only
" Some of the Problems and a free passage and meals, but a
Achievements of the Nineteenth bonus of 25 cents, and that broke
Century." Since receiving their the camel's back, and normal
invitation I have been recalling rates were restored. I was shown
the old days at and about Fre- a glass factory which filled me
lighsburg, and much of that life of with amazement, and last of all
forty or iifty years ago comes back the railroad, with its 6 x 6 or
to me with fascinating vividness, larger timber rails, on which were
and so I write down some of them spiked down the flat ,cast tire
for your paper, which I am glad to rails, which would occasionally
learn has many readers there. spring up and thrust themselves
First of all, one or two reminis- through the bottom of the cars.
cences of St. Johns. My mother That railroad, like the typical
"brought u])" a girl from Sabre- country Sunday School of my boy-
vois, and in 1846 I was sent to hood, shut up shop and hibernated
drive the team to take her and hei during the winter. In later years
sister home for a ten days' va- I used to drive the farm wagon to
cation. I remember how we drove St. Johns, laden with skim cheese,
from Frelighsburg, through Stan- tough enough to roll all the way
bridge, Bedford, Henry ville and from Frelighsburg to Montreal
so on to Sabre vois. While there w.ithout breaking. I don't know
some of the Jones family took who tried to eat the cheese, though
us on to St. Johns for a day's I was told they were shipped to
sight-seeing. How big and broad the Crimea, and hence I never won-
and wonderful the Richelieu river dered at the enormous fatality list
was compared with the Pike Riv- of that war !

er of Frelighsburg, and that long Coming to Frelighsburg, my re-


steamboat lying at the wharf, a collection of it was being sent
side-wheeler which seemed to me down to the "city," as everybody
M1SSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
styled the place, with a written with a colonial door, against
order from my father, Casper B. which the guns of Admiral Dewey
Hibbard, who lived on Whitney might have thundered in vain. He
Hill, about two miles south, mak- was a very jovial man, rather cor-
ing the journey thither via the pulent, who, like John Bright and
delightful ascent to Chamberlain other typical Englishmen, knew
Hill, which nature had generously the merits of good roast beef and
paved with round water-washed old port wine. He had a warm
stones of the average size of hen's place in my English heart for his
eggs. My first errands sent me to courtesy and kindness. Then there
Abel Hairlburt's store near his new was the Orrin Kemp's store, of
brick house built over fifty years brick, just beyond the hotel, where
ago, and the long time w.onder of my father also traded. Mr. Kemp
the town. Its architecture and was my ideal of a true blue tory.
carved work in wood was supposed He purchased my great-uncle, Je-
to rival the wonders of the world didiah Hibbard's, commission, ac-
renowned Taj-Mahal of India but : coutrements of war, etc., and was
I don't think
" ever after a prominent man in the
Uncle Abel, as
1 '

everybody .called him, ever flatter- local militia. He was imperious


ed himself in any such way. His and proud in bearing, though a
little old store, with its low model citizen but any one who
;

smoked ceiling, evidenced no spe- differed from him in politics or re-


cial marks of greatness or preten- ligion he regarded as his inferior.
tions. remember, however, how
1 I stood in awe of him. an awe
I looked with
boyish wonder on which bordered on fear.
the row oi barrels back of the There were four of those Kemp
counter, whose smooth oaken brothers, Orrin, the merchant,
heads bore such printed inscrip- churchman and politician ; Levi,
" who
tions as these Bourbon Whis-
:
kept the hotel, in whose
" dance room upstairs they used to
key," Kentucky Whiskey," and
" Old Mediord
Rum," and once in hold their winter edition of the
later years, when called upon for county fair for the east parish of
a speech in Old Medford itself, I St. Armand, when the women
told them, to their great amuse- brought out their patchwork,
all
ment, how in my boyhood I be- rose quilts, striped and fringed
came acquainted with the name of mittens, clouded socks, etc., etc.;
their town. Mr. Hurlburt did just and the men their cheese, butter,
what all country merchants did in grains, pork and beef. mother
My
those days, and in these days, too, usually secured some choice prizes
for that matter, sold what the on mittens and double cream sage
people wanted, only it took more cheese, while my father went in
Old Bourbon and Old Medford to for the ducats on his 325-!!). white
run a community then than it does Suffolk ten months pigs, and his
now. I presume thev are all gone black sea wheat. It took about
now, and the happy and prosper- a fortnight for the wonders of that
ous people of the present day drink fair to lie exhausted at the fireside
" H and O " and in the social neighborhood
only from Pike Riv-
er, filtered through sand, gravel gathering's. Then Lincoln Kemp
and charcoal ! was a blacksmith his hoiise and
;

Besides Mr. Hurlburt s store, shop w ere on the road leading to


1 y

Stuart Reynolds everybody pro- Abbott's Corner. He was a good


nounced it as if spelled " Run- mechanic and a good citizen, and
" had a he never boasted of his politics or
nells shop neat the hotel,
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY

religion, and I have observed that hence Mr. Kemp did not keep nag-
the less people possess of those ging the people by his pestiferous
things the more they brag of interference. I want to do my
them. There w.as another Kemp, share to keep fresh and green the
Anson, -the customs ollicer, and I memory of such a man.
verily believe he was one of the There was one other of this aged
best officers in Her Majesty's ser- class, James Little, a second vil-
vice. He had a large stock of lage blacksmith. He was a holy
what people out west call "horse terror when he was full, as he was
sense" and not a little of the milk occasionally. He was
a good
of human kindness. He never felt workman, but could out-swear
it his duty to go pulling up Cham- the army in Flanders, and look
berlin Hill, two miles, to Casper like the evil one himself. I went

Hibbard's, to see if the latter's to his shop once on some errand


wife had snrreptiously and feloni- as a little boy, and found him half-
ously smuggled a paper of pins seas-over, but a perfect Hercules
into Canada from Vermont, be- at his forge and anvil. Once while
cause she happened to be in a he was shaping the article for
store in West Berkshire when she which I was waiting, he suddenly
wanted them. In all those years brought down hi's hammer on the
he never interfered, though he anvil most vigorously, and look-
knew that every family not only ing me fiercely in the face, said :

"
brought pins, but sometimes a Boy, don't you ever believe
pound of tea or a print dress pat- more than half you hear, and half
tern, in the States without en- of what you may believe is a d d
riching the collers of the Colonial lie," and the look and words were
Government. That thing went on burned down and branded into my
on both sides of the line and Mr. youthful memory.
Kemp knew it on larger amounts
; But I must leave Drs. Chamber-
people paid the duties. Why, a lin and Barnum, Priest Reid, the
man on the frontier forfeited his political campaigners, etc., to
standing intellectually, socially, some other time, if it ever comes.
politically and religiously, if he
paid duty on small goods, and LEWIS B. HIBBARD.
Centennial of the Baptist Church at
Abbott's Corner.

A hundred years ago the 6th of church from the day of its organi-
September, 1799, the First Bap- zation down to the completion of
tist church, and probably the iirst its 'hundred years of existence.
of any denomination in this sec- The original number of members
tion of the country, was organized was seven, and the first church
at Abbott's Corner. The mem- building was erected- on the hill
bers now connected with that north of Abbott's Corner on land
church, together with a large num- donated by George Wales in 1802.
ber belonging to other church or- This building was used until 1830,
ganizations, and friends generally, when it was abandoned, and in
united in celebrating the Centen- 1841 the present structure was
nial, which proved a complete suc- erected, which is still in good con-
cess in all respects. The day was dition. Ten ministers from among
line, and the people from the im- its members have been sent out to
mediate neighborhood, augmented preach, and one, Rev. Charles Hib-
by many from a distance, filled bard, sent out to Burmah as a
the church edifice to overflowing. missionary, where he remained 14
There were present representatives years.
from Boston, New York, Chicago, Rev. L,ewis B. Hibbard, of High-
Minneapolis, Montreal, St. Al- land Park, 111., gave a very in-
bans, Vt., Richford and many structive address, the subject be-
"
other places of lesser note, all ing Some Problems and Uchieve-
coming from their respective ments of the Short ad-
Century."
homes for the purpose of revisit- dresses were also made by several
ing old scenes and taking part in other gentlemen present, and a
the exercises of the day. People centennial poem by Mrs. Bertha
who left their old homes here long Scofield Masse, of Grande I igne, v

years ago in their youthful days One., was read. Dinner was serv-
returned grey-headed, and there ed in a large, commodious tent
were many hand-shakings and con- near the church, and was free to
gratulations as recognitions took all.
place after so many years of sep- Rev. J. G. Lorimer, of Geor-
aration. Rev. A. tv Arms called
.
gia, Vt.; Rev. Mr. Humphrey, of
the assembly to order, and nomi- Frelighsburg, and Rev. Mr. Prou-
nated Rev. W. G. Scofield as chair- ty, of Franklin, Vt., were present
man of the day. An historical ad- and took part in the proceedings,
dress was read giving the princi- w.hich were of much interest
pal events of the progress of the throughout. N.A.S.
The Late Henry Ross. Esq.

Henry Ross was born in Dun- a steady decline until, finally, on .

ham, July i(Sth, 1827, his father the evening of Sunday, Sept. 9th,
beiag a pioneer settler described he passed away.
as "a quaint, picturesque, good On the following Tuesday after-
old man." Always of a studious noon, the funeral services were held
nature, Mr. Ross improved every in St. James' Church, of which
opportunity for education within the deceased was a member, the
his reach. When thirty years of rector, the Rev. R. Y. Overing, of-
age, long before the days of mod- ficiating. There was a large at-
ern surgery, he seriously injured tendance of friends and neighbors,
one of his knees, which finally ne- including the scholars from the
cessitated amputation of the leg. elementary and model schools,
As a distraction from torturing who gathered to pay the last tri-
pain, and to while away the tedi- bute of respect to our aged and
ous days of close confinement in worthy life-long resident of this
a lonely place, he took up the community. At his request the
study of botany, the children worn-out body was laid to rest
bringing in from the woods wild under the great elm tree in the
ilowers for classification. So ex- church cemetery. His aged widow
pert did he become that he was a and ffi'thful daughtei, Mrs. Kmilv
recognized authority on the flora Ross Perry, of Minneapolis, sur-
Canada.
of this part of vive him, and at present remain in
Unabje longer to perform the the home.
arduous work of a farm, he start- Mr. Ross was irreatlv interested
ed a small grocerv at Stanbridge in local history and had contribut-
Station, in the meantime learning ed sketches and incidents to differ-
telegraphy, and for fourteen years ent newspapers, in fact he was an
he was the faithful and efficient authority on the traditions of pio-
operator of the V.C.R.R. at that neer life in this country. A col-
place. But he seemed doomed to lection of all that he has written
physical suffering, being obliged on this subject would be valuable.
several times to submit to surgi- The publication of his poem,
" Xorman Hazard Fur
cal operations. Through all these ; or, the
vicissitudes and changes his faith- Trader's Story," was a surprise
ful wife and daughter stood ready to many, who had not dreamed of
to assist him in meeting the extra his talent in that direction. It
expenses incurred. Finally the fa- called forth favorable comments
mily moved to Stanbridge Rast, from recognized critics, and he had
and here Mr. Ross was telegraph the honor of receiving a letter
operator for the M. P. & B. R. R. from His Majesty King Kdward.
For ten years he was secretary- Perhaps that one cannot honor his
treasurer for the school municipa- memory more than by expressing
lity of Stanbridge, resigning only the quality that he most admired,
a few weeks before his death. and of w.hich he was a living ex-
r

About three years ago he sustain- airmle throughout his whole life,
ed the greatest sorrow of his life " He was an honest man."
in the death of his only son, C.
Sherman Ross, since which time Stanbridge, Sept. I4th, 1896.
there was a gradual failing T. M.
The Farnham Hospital.

The Ste. KH/abeth Hospital, must be well recommended.


latter
situated in the town of Farnham, They are usually leeble persons,
in the county of Missisquoi, and \vomen, old people or a few mem-
directed by the Soeurs Hospita- bers of the clergy taking a needed
Hers whose mother house is in rest.

THE STE. ELIZABETH HOSPITAL, FARNHAM, QUE.

St. Hyacinthe enjoys the unique The Hospital was founded in the
distinction of 'being the only insti-
spring of 1876 by the Rev. J. B. Veron-
tution of its kind in the county or,
neau, Cure of the Parish of St. Romuald
for that matter, in the District of
de Farnham, who had just founded a
Bedford. Its object is to afford a
Convent for the girls and a Col-
refuge for the sick, the poor and
the orphans, where they can find a lege for the boys of his parish,
comfortable home, at a reasonable apart from the completion of the
and even 'gratuitously when interior of the parish church. It
price,
It is above all a shelter will be recogni/ed at once that his
possible.
for the unfortunate, and it is only personal ellorts must have been of
when these are comfortably placed the highest, apart from the fact
that there is room for patients or that into those 'institutions and
low into that work he put all his sav-
lodgers at rates which seem
r

for the accommodation given. The ings and income. It is due to


MISSIvSQUOT COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIKTY
him that credit should here be poor, the sick, the orphans and
given lii'm for his zeal and benefac- the unfortunates, for relief and
tions in these respects. In the help in the Hospital. They have,
firstdays of the existence of the incidentally, greatly relieved many
Hospital he was almost alone its municipalities from the great ex-
sole support. The worthy sisters pense which public and municipal
were not then located in the ex- charity necessarily exacts, thus
cellent edifice, of which the front lessening the burden of the taxpay
-

alone appears in the cut herewith, er. Of late years, one of the prin-
but their asylum was part of a cipal sources of revenue has been
house situated on the corner of an annual bazaar, held in the
St. Paul and Yamaska streets. It month of February each year, in
was only in the autumn thev were the organization of which the good
able to take possession of that sisters are ably assisted by the
part of their own building, then I/adies' Charity Society of Farn-
completed, to which constant ad- ham. Thus, this year, so zealous-
ditions have since been made, as ly did they work and plan that
necessity for their work required. the receipts amounted to over
The deserving and self-sacrificing $2,000 in the space of only one
sisters had no means of their own, week.
and, in the first days of their It should be borne in mind that
work, had to rely upon their own the doors of this institution are
industry and the alms and presents freely opened to all without re-
bestowed from time to time by gard to nationality or religious
generous persons, who aided them faith. If one suffers from hunger
with furniture, provisions, linen, or pain, admittance is gained
etc., for, in that period of a finan- without other qualifications or re-
cial crisis money was scarce. straint. Its usefulness has been
I/ittle by as the years rolled
little shown in cases of accidents and
on the institution grew, until to- particularly those which occur
day the buildings cover many hun- upon the different railways which
dreds of square feet, surrounded converge at Farnham. It is not
by a considerable piece of land, a rare spectacle in Farnham to see
from which a part of the subsist- the victim of an accident carried
ence of the Hospital is .derived. through the streets of Farnham
There is now, as a fair average, from the cars of the C.P.R. or
250 persons under the sheltering G.T.R. to. the Hospital, where
roof of this well managed Hospi- wounds are dressed and often seri-
tal, among whom there are many ous operations performed. It is
who contribute nothing for their to the credit of the medical men
board, lodging and care, whilst of the town that they have,
those who pav do so at a modest among themselves, arranged to
price. To make up for the deficits give their services gratuitously,
the good sisters relv upon Provi- each in their turn, to the unfortu-
dence and the charity of the pub-
:

nate sick patients of the Hospital,


lic. So well known are their good recompensing themselves in part
works that they are welcomed in from private patients and those
the localities where they solicit able to pay. The Hospital has a
aid as disinterested workers for laboratory and pharmacy ample
the relief of the Lord's unfortunate for its needs.
poor. Ordinarily collections are Finally, one may be permitted to
solicited only in the parishes and say that this is one of the most
places from whence have come the useful and benefkient institutions
UISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
of the district. It is a credit to deserving a local institution, one
the town and county. The zealous cannot do better than to suggest
and self-sacrificing sisters who con- a visit to it, when passing
duct it are entitled to the kindest through Farnham, to see the ex-
appreciation for arduous and oft- cellent work which is being done.
times unpleasant duties always Such visitor will be welcomed and
gratuitously performed so far as it will be edifying to the visitor.

they are personally concerned. In N.


furnishing this brief sketch of so
The
Canadian Loyalists and Early Settlers
in the District of Bedford.

(This contribution to the pages stimulate investigation. There are


of the annual report is inserted obvious reasons for this, and it
herein at the request of the olli- is quite clear, as well, that such
ccrs of this Society, dealing, as it value depends not only upon the
does, with the first settlers of the truth of the narrative, but upon
County of Missisquoi. In its ori- the fair appreciation of the facts.
ginal form it was read before his- The fitful, and, at times, acri-
torical and other societies in the monious controversy of the past,
early years of the organization of as to the early settlement of the
the Society. In 1900 a pamphlet District of Bedford respecting loy-
edition of some hundred was print- alty, has obscured rather than en-
ed for private circulation, which lightened the subject. There is no
was soon exhausted, and, there lack of traditions of historical
being considerable demand for it research and investigation in the
by those engaged in local histori- true sense - - in the historical
cal research, a like edition was sense, there has been practically
issued in 1906, by a third party, none. One result is, that the zeal
which has nearly shared the fate of uninformed partisans has led to
of the first. Since its publication the labelling as U. R. Loyalists,
there has been, in divers ways many who came after the fever of
and from- many independent loyalty had been replaced by the
sources, ample corroboration of factor of self-interest, and even of
the views therein expressed. Note those whose arrival was long sub-
of Committee.) sequent to the necessities of loyal
expression. The result has been to
The early settlement of a coun- create a feeling of doubt or skep-
try, the habits, hardships and ex- ticism, as to U. R. Loyalists akin
periences of its pioneers, have a to that expressed by the irrever-
" These new
charm for those perhaps a select ent pilgrim in. Rome,
few who delight in the investiga- saints make one doubt the old."
tion of a subject which exacts a It is not, therefore, a matter of
certain amount of research in or- surprise that the unwarranted as-
der to attain a fair measure of sertions of such ill-informed ad-
accuracy. There is a commend- vocates have caused a generation,
able tendency of late to regard not keenly interested in the U., R.
with favor the economic, or poli- Loyalists, to surmise that these
tical value of history, apart from loyalists are an historical mys-
its interest as a narrative of tery, and as utterly discredited,
events, whirh should assist and so far as relates to location, as
MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY
the descendants of the lost tribes the popular cause were able, tact-
of Israel. It is fortunate for those ful and daring. But candid Am-
of another turn of mind, who de- erican historians admit that they
sire historical accuracy, that the were leaders of a minority when
zeal and industry of our Cana- it came to a linal rupture. It was
dian Archivist have, within the unfortunate for the royal cause
past lew years, procured a con- that the loyal majority had, from
siderable quantity of the oilicial among themselves, no leaders.
records of the early settlement of The Colonial officials who, by na-
the country, by means of which ture of their positions, assumed
the trivial incidents of credulous to guide if not to lead, were not
or interested news gatherers, so in touch with the people, and were
zealously exploited heretofore as to some extent discredited by the
history, are shown to be value- antagonisms of long years of dis-
less. The idle tales resulting from pute between them as to Crown
the creative fancy of man, called rights. The Declaration of Inde-
tradition, and which have, uncon- pendence was the act of a Congress
sciously, a tenacious hold upon without legal authority. Ban-
even intelligent people, though the croft, an American historian, said
"
times are recent, and written re- it was nothing more solid than
cords available, are, by means of the unformed opinion of an im-
these records, in a way to be dis- formed people."
pelled. Carlyle calls history "the The Colonists enrolled as sol-
letter of instructions from the old 'diers on the side of the Crown
generations to the new." Accept- exceeded 25,000, and, during the
ing that definition, it is the duty war, their homes were destroyed,
of the present generation to ex- their property confiscated and
amine its letters of instructions, their families bitterly persecuted.
as contained -in the official re- Justice requires the admission
cords, so as to place the pioneers that, in this, as in other civil
of the District in their proper wars, there were reprisals in which
class. This involves an examina- the Loyalists imitated the deplor-
tion of their credentials, as well able example of their adversaries.
as the consideration of their ante- Feelings of intense bitterness and
cedents, and of the causes and mutual hatred were created which,
events which led to their coming, when the conflict ended, could not
as well as their situation on ar- l)e dispelled, nor the desire for re-
rival here. venge allayed. The conquerors
It will scarcely be disputed that easily became persecutors. De-
the early Canadian Loyalists spite the provisions of the treaty
sprang from an adventurous of peace, specially guaranteeing
stock, whose escape from alleged the protection of the property and
Old World persecutions to secure rights of the Loyalists, many of
religious and political freedom in
1

,
the State Legislatures ordered con-
the New, in no way quenched their fiscation of their property. Perse-
love of conflict, or dislike of any cution was encouraged and up-
authority which they did not
t
held.
dominate. Apart from the official This persecution drove the loyal
and interested classes, the mass Colonists into exile. There was a
of American Colonists on the eve tremendous rush into Canada and
of the American Revolution, were Nova Scotia, taxing severely the
practically united in opposing the resources of those Colonies to
Mother Country. The leaders of meet the urgent necessities of
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY
those destitute and suffering ex- grant It was further
bestowed.
iles. And through the, efforts
it is shown as an instance of loyal
of the government to aid those thrift, that after the death of 25
exiles, and to give them a perma- of the number, their demise had
nent settlement, that one finds been concealed, and the British
from the official records a recog- Government had continued its
nition of different titles titles generous relief to necessitous loy-
which designate a into
division alty by paying for their support.
three fairly marked classes. These When the British Parliament met
classes seem at times to be fused in 1783, after the close of the war,
or blended, but a little considera- His Majesty in the speech from
tion will show a marked differ- "
the throne said That a due
:

ence in treatment, and a distinc- and generous attention ought to


tion to which practical effect was be shown to those who have re-
given by government action. It linquished their properties or pos-
will be understood that prior to sessions from motives of loyalty
1791 the Province comprised Up- to me, or attachment to the mo-
per and Lower Canada, in which, ther country." As a result of this
apart from the seigniories, the suggestion a commission was is-
immense area of waste land be- sued to receive claims for losses
longed to the Crown. As they from classes of suffering Loy-
all
had no market value, a grant of alists,which continued its work
land was an easy form of com- until 1788. Claims for the sum of
pensation. To locate the ground* $50,410,941 were fyled, on which
and allot the settlers, a prelimin- was allowed and paid $18,912,294,
ary survey was the first step, and which was repudiated by indefen-
for many reasons the first grants sible pretexts by the American
were on, the Baie de Chaleurs, and Government, though the losses
on the north banks of the St. were shown to be in violation of
Lawrence and the lakes, the Loy- the Treaty of Peace. The mother
alists being assembled at Quebec, country was generous to all
Sorel and Montreal for transpor- that class of sufferers. The old
tation. Colonial office-holders appear to
have been a greedy lot, and diffi-
cult to satisfy. Their names cut
a big figure in the official records
The class to be considered
first for free grants of land. One sam-
was composed of English offi- ple will illustrate their character,
cials, and
Colonial non-combat- selected because his covetous eye,
ants who left the rebel colonies having been cast upon our Town-
at the beginning of, or during the ships, gives his greed local color.
war. These men did not depreci- Abraham Cuyler was Postmas-
ate their merits or miseries. They ter at Albany, when the revolu-
had the art of so exposing their tionary struggle began, and being
griefs and services as to meet, a Postmaster was naturally and
from a generous government, a officially loyal. He lost his office
fair measure of reward for fugitive and took the road of forced exile.
loyalty. Early in 1782 an inves- He came to Canada, and later
tigation showed that upwards of went to Cape Breton, and secured
$200,000 had been paid for the offices at different times, ranging
support of 415 refugee Loyalists, from a modest Inspectorship to a
in London alone. This was apart
Judgeship had applied for a Cus-
;

from offices, pensions, and land toms appointment, and acted as


MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 93

Lieutenant-Governor, whilst keep- of this class, just considered, were


ing on fyle sundry claims for land not U. E. Loyalists. The Colon-
and compensation. He did not ists were not enrolled as soldiers
get along well with the local pow- in the war, and the native born
ers, so he resigned from the Bench, Englishmen were bound by the
and, the war being over, he pushed ties of birth and allegiance to be
his claims for compensation in loyal without exacting compensa-
New York, as well as in London. tion for fidelity to such ties.
From the latter place he wrote
the Canadian authorities for a
II.
grant of the whole Township of
Heminingford, which not being
conceded, he pointed out lands in The second class of Loyalists
Dunham, Stanbridge, Farnham, comprised the Colonial soldiers en-
ShefFord and Stanstead, for \vhich rolled in the Army prior to the
he desired a grant. Then he turn- Treaty of Peace in 1783, and who
ed up with a claim for a part of came at once, with their families,
Montreal, but as this had been re- to Canada at the close of the
granted to a church, his family war.
was given 3,600 acres of land else- This second class appears to
where, as an equivalent for the have left at once without stop-
church property. Later, as he ap- ping to barter their allegiance.
peared to want a farm of his own Large as their number was, the
to carry on, and the land officials Crown was generous in granting
seeming by that time to have them land, in conveying them to
tired of his importunity, it was the places alloted for location,
ordered that out of the disposable and in granting them temporary
lands in Farnham, a grant should aid and subsistence. And to es-
be given to Messrs. Cuyler and tablish their identity, and to dis-
Allsopp. He and two of his sons tinguish them from the Refugee
became Associates of the Town- Loyalists, for all time to come,
ship of Farnham, and received the the Government on the 9th of
usual allotments of grants as such. November, 1789, by a minute
But as Mr. Allsop had received of Council ordered that : "All
"
prior grants, and Judge Gale had Loyalists who joined the
to take a mountain, " standard before the Treaty of
and his
" Peace in 1783, and all children,
wife's relations, swamps and "
ledges, towards their considerable and descendants of either sex,
shares therein, it may be fairly "
are to be distinguished by the
"
presumed, that the U.E.' affixed to" their
'

disposable letters
Crown Lands in Farnham were ex- "
names, alluding to the great
hausted before Judge Cuvler got "
principle of the unity of the
What "
into the precinct. finally be- Empire." Itwas further or-
came of himdo not know, but
I dered, at the same time, that a
one cannot help sadly reflecting, Register should be kept so that
what an additional glory it would their posterity might be discrimi-
have been for Farnham had Judge nated from future settlers. It is
Cuyler been entombed within its reasonably certain that all did
borders, to excite, in later years, not register. The Ontario list,
the grief and curiosity of search- Town-
containing many Eastern
ers for job lots of U. K. Loyal- ships names, is procurable, but
ists. there is no special list for Quebec,
It is submitted, that the whole because Loyalists were excluded
94 MISS1SOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY
from settlement on Crown panels exiled Loyalists. Their primitive
south of the St. Lawrence. makeshifts may, to-day, excite a
By the Order of Council we have smile, but they do not lessen re-
a clear and authoritative defini- spect. Many instances of such
tion of the Loyalists. It is not makeshifts are recorded in local
a courtesy title, nor gained by history, or have been handed down
common repute. By it we Tind from generation to generation.
the distinguishing conditions of a Mr. Kdward Harris, a descendant
U. K. Loyalist to be i. An en-
: of a U. K. Loyalist, in a paper
rollment as a Colonial soldier in read before the Canadian Institute
the army during the war or 2. ;
at Toronto in 1897, related one of
A descendant oi such soldier. The those incidents, common to most
descent from such soldier in not of the early' settlements in some
diilicult to establish where there respects, resulting from pioneer
was an enrollment in the
Regis- make-shifts, which deserve repro-
ter. The absence of registration duction. He said that in 1794 his
creates a presumption against the grandfather became the first set-
claim to be a U. K. Loyalist, tler in the Long Point country on
which cannot be overcome by a the north shore of Lake Erie, hav-
bare statement of such claim. ing removed there from New
Through ignorance of the Order in Brunswick, where he had settled in
"
Council many have assumed that 1783. In the absence of all other
an early land grant must have clothing and supplies," he writes,
been the reward of loyalty, and " the less
fortunate settlers, and
" as a
therefore, an ellective title to the rule, all the men, used the
" skins of animals.
distinction of being a U. K. Loy- The girls, in
alist. But all these early land 1

mild weather, usually wore a


"
grants were not given on account buckskin slip. White goods,'
'

" were not iknown in those days.


of loyalty. The official definition
"
should, however, determine the Miss Sally Sprague, a line girl
"
matter. The true U. K. Loyalist, of 14 or 15 years, had, in my
as just pointed out, was a Colo- "
mother's kitchen, with her par-
nial soldier who, as such, had suf- "
cuts, noticed washing going on
fered the hardships of actual war, " in the usual of boiling in
"
way
and had been exposed to its per- soap and water. A few days af-
ils and risks, 'during which he had
"
ter, Sally took advantage of her
"
been conscious of the persecutions parents absence to wash her only
and sufferings of his family and "
"
garment, the slip. This she did
friends at home. He had under- by boiling it. We all know the
" action of water and heat on lea-
gone the trials and miseries of
"
deportation when the war was ther, and Sally had to retreat
"
closed, and had endured great , into the potato hole under the
" When her parents return-
privations for years thereafter floor.
"
through want of means, and by ed, they soon found the shrunk-
reason of remoteness from mar- " en slip, and then the girl. She
kets and civilization. It is- mani- " was brought dow n to my mo-
r

such men " ther's house in a barrel, on an


festly unfair to class
with those who had not borne "
ox-team, four miles, and tern-
arms, however much the lattel " clothed until more
porarilv
"
may have suffered through perse- "
buckskin could be found. This
cution or otherwise. One cannot MissSpratrue's grand-daughter
read without interest, to say the " is now LadyB. in Kngland."
least, the painful records of those This incident is also related in
MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 95

Dr. Ryerson's history of the U.E. of them would not carry the chain
Loyalists, with considerable dif- to mark out their own lands,
ference as to particulars, although without exorbitant pay from the
both he and Mr. Harris obtained Government; that there was trick-
their information from the same ery in the disposal of their lands,
person. and seeking further compensation;
III. that there were land speculators
and jobbers that there were cla-
;

The third class of Loyalists com- mors, jealousies, grasping greed ;

prised those Colonial non-com- that there was sedition, led by an


batants who, with their families, unholy combination of a lawyer
left after the Treaty of Peace, at and an apothecary that thev had
;

" to make
the conclusion of the Revolution- magistrates out of
ary war, through the fierce perse- men whom God Almighty never
cution which for a time followed. intended for the office, but it was
That this class came to Canada Hobson's choice " that there
;

as a result of the merciless perse- were many worthless characters


cution before mentioned, is record- among the arrivals, and that
ed in the histories of that period, some of the settlers were indiffer-
is treasured among the annals of ent. His Excellency, the Gover-
the people, and is borne out and nor-General, finding that despite
fully verified by the official docu- all efforts to satisfy everybody,
ments of that day. It is the prin- the dissatisfaction and artifices
cipal, if not the sole ground upon continued, ordered the immediate
which that large number of refu- discontinuance of provisions and
gee Loyalists based their persist- aid to those who, from fickleness
ent claims for provisions, compen- or languor, threw obstacles in the
sation and land grants. They way of the general good. The his-
were quick to see the strength of tory of those quarrels, between ex-
the cry of persecuted loyalty, with iles and Executive, is not now
a well-disposed, and not severely really essential. It is mentioned
critical Executive. But, as the to show the character of a class,
Provincial authorities could not which, coming so closely on the
at once comply with all their ur- heels of the U. E. Loyalists, and
gent demands, there was grave like them receiving land grants,
dissatisfaction, followed by strong has found in our day people who
complaints. It was impossible for rank them with those ancient wor-
them to be patient, or to make thies. The claims have been ex-
any show of self-reliance, seeing tended to cover, as U. E. Loyal-
that they had lost everything, and ists, the calm and peaceful Quak-
were in sore distress. They were ers, forced into exile. The droll
not in a position of isolated inde- effect of placing the umvarlike
pendence, with sufficient means of Quaker in line with the essentially
support, which warranted their warlike U. E. Loyalists, because
taking the stand of those early both received Crown bounties, does
Connecticut settlers, who pro- not seem to have occurred to
claimed that they would be gov- them.
erned by the laws of God until An incident of that time, which
they had time to make better. the Canadian archivist says he has
The official reports stated that never seen referred to bv an Am-
those early Canadian settlers erican historian, and which is re-
would make malignant representa- called bv. allusion to Quakers, is
tions against an angel that some
;
interesting, as showing a peculiar-
96 MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY
ity of those early Loyalists, British subjects and become citi-
though not otherwise in line with zens of the Republic but our
;

my subject. The small Island of inclinations and good will were


Nantucket, off Massachusetts, is rejected ; they persecuted us,
said to have been inhabited in confiscated our property and
I 7^5
by Quakers connected with drove us into unwilling exile ;

the whale fisheries. In that year therefore we come to you and


they gravely proposed to separate ask for a land grant, on the
from Massachusetts, and become score of loyalty, and compen-
a neutral state, or, failing in this, sation for losses suffered, be-
to become an appendage of Great cause not allowed to change our
Britain. The newly-arrived I/oy- allegiance." It is clear they
alists in Nova Scotia successfully would have remained, if allowed to

opposed the scheme on the ground \ do so. Hence, their loyalty was
"
That in that case all the whale not spontaneous, or disinterested.
" oil from
the Northern States Go they must and go they did,
"
would pass through Nantucket, and naturally made the best of a
" as the
product of the industry bad bargain, by getting as much
" of British
subjects, and be ad- compensation as possible out of
"
mitted into Great Britain
free the Crown.
"
of duty, to the ruin of the same While it is essential to the
"
trade carried from Nova
on truth of history that the facts
"
Scotia." The thrifty and saga- should be stated, it is not neces-
cious Quakers may have had in sary to harshly judge those unfor-
view the advantages of their posi- tunate and impoverished exiles.
tion, as a point for smuggling ra- The colonies were their homes.
ther than any possible benefit to There they were born and reared.
the Empire, by adding their island There were ties of race, kin-
thereto. If so, they were check- dred, laws, institutions and re-
mated by the foresight of the Loy- ligion common between them and
alists. This, however, seems to be the successful Colonists in the
the first record of the adoption of war. Together they had wor-
the National Policy in Canada, shipped at the same altar, shared
and should set at rest all recent the vicissitudes and perils of Co-
claims as to its paternity. lonial existence, and borne the
After these digressions we come burdens and enjoyed the comforts
back to this third loyalist class, and pleasures of civil and social
who have themselves prepared the life in their several communities.
record which excludes them from The change to them from a colony
the slightest consideration as U. to an independent nation, accus-
E. Loyalists. The only reason tomed as they had been to a con-
they gave, at the time, for com- siderable measure of local self-
ing to Canada, and the only rea- government, would not be so sud-
son ever given on their behalf is, den or distinct as it would have
that after the Treaty of Peace, been had not these conditions ex-
they were grievously persecuted isted, or had they been conquered
and driven into exile. What those by an alien race. It is evident, as
refugee Loyalists, in effect, said, well, that the British Government
was this " We desired to had contemplated their so remain-
:
stay
" in our old homes and retain our
ing, inasmuch as the treaty of
"
property to do this we were
; peace expressly provided for the
"
willing to change our allegiance, protection of their property and
" to surrender the
position of rights. The subsequent evasion of
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 97

the treaty could not have been culty in finding land in the
foreseen: Nevertheless, we must Richelieu country and to the
be careful not to unduly magnify west of Montreal, and, of
the passive position of neutrals in course, none whatever in the vir-
a war into the highest kind
civil gin wilderness up the St. Law-
of patriotism and loyalty by rence towards Lake Ontario or
shouldering them into the ranks on the Canadian shore at Nia-
of those who risked their lives, gara, nor for the fourscore fam-
as well as their fortunes, as loyal ilies who settled as far down
soldiers of their Sovereign, as did the St. Lawrence as Gaspe and
the genuine U. H. Loyalists. the Bay of Chaleurs.")
(Since the foregoing was writ-
ten the view's expressed as to this A fertile source of error respect-
third class of loyslists have been ing the old Loyalists comes from
corroborated and confirmed in the the long, alphabetically arranged,
life of Lord Dorchester, Governor- and frequently repeated lists of
General of Canada, in Morang's applicants for lands, contained in
edition of the "Makers of Can- several years' reports of the Do-
ada," Vol. V., p. 236. The bio- minion Archives. These are apt
" The influx to mislead, and, in fact, have mis-
grapher there says :

of 1783 has already been allud- led, many, as to the quality of


1

ed to. It was the immediate re- those therein named. A very lit-
'
'

suit of the close of the war and tle investigation, and comparison
1

'
included disbanded Loyalist of dates, will show that those lists

regiments as well as people of comprise the old Associates, who


'

'
all sorts and conditions for were the pioneers and actual set-
1
whom a residence in the new tlers of the Eastern Townships, and
'

republic was either impossible, who obtained their lands long af-
1
unsafe or unpalatable. Later ter the U. E. and other Loyalists
1
arrivals consisted of those who had been definitely located else-
'

might have gone in '83, but where. They were, on the whole,
'

were deterred not merely by the an absolutely different class from


'

reported rigors of the climate the old Loyalists, or later class


'
and infertility of the soil, which
of settlers. The error as to the
'
was a common impression to Associates has been greatly helped
1
the South, but by their fears of along by the persistent claims of
I
the Quebec Act and of strange recent partisans, by the eulogies
" laws and the absence of repre- of local biographers exalting the
" sentative Government. All the dead, to propitiate the living, and
;

" and Militia


Loyalists corps by taking early residence, loyalty,
" land grants and U. E. Loyalists
wtre, of course, in the first
" as synonymous or convertible
batch, over six hundred, for in-
" terms. The placing of the Asso-
stance, having been settled by
" Butler and de Puyster at Nia- ciates in the old Loyalist class
" which preceded them does them an
gara, and about five hundred in
" the Crown Seigniories of Sorel injustice, for the Associates, being
" and others near Montreal, Cham- more self-reliant, possessed of
" It was some means, and not dependent
bly and St. Johns. . .

II
quite obvious that ex- American upon Government bounty, were a
ct
colonists would not be satisfied better class of settlers for a new
u to hold land under
seigniorial country than the old Loyalists
"
usage, and it was necessary to could have been, had they settled
"
go outside the line of the seig- here, as a little consideration will
u niories. There was little diffi- show. For several years after the
98 MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY

treaty of peace in 1783 our Gov- row for hostility. The fact is,
ernment positively refused permis-
.
the Government wanted settlers,
sion to settle along the border. the settlers wanted lands. Under
After 1791, when the Province was such conditions, no technical or
divided into Upper and L,owjer Can- sentimental considerations were
ada, the policy was changed so as likely to be an obstacle in the way
to induce English-speaking settlers of an agreement between, the par-
to locate, and settle on the Crown ties. Some of the leaders of the
lands in the Eastern Townships, Associates were business men,
then unsurveyed, and a survey was who went into the undertaking
a first preliminary to a grant. for speculative motives, or to
The intentions of the Government make up the required number, and
were widely disseminated in New who disposed of their interests and
England where over 150 years of never came, nor intended to come,
settlement had exhausted the mar- at all. After the survey, the Town-
ket for farm lands in order to ship was erected, given a name,
attract, as settlers, those desiring and the lands allotted to the As-
to secure good lands for settle- sociates by grant. Thus Dunham
ment, on easy conditions. So ear- was created in 1796, Potton, Bol-
ly as 1788 the advantages had been ton, and Brome in 1797, Farnham
urged of getting from New Eng- in 1798, Stanbridge in 1801, and so
land a class of settlers, who had on up to 1807, when a halt was
repented of their hostility to the called. St. Armand, St. George
British Government. The new de Clarenceville and St. Thomas
policy comprised an organization, were created Seigniories prior to
or company, called Associates, to the conquest and not being Crown
whom the new Township was lands, could not be granted or
granted. The agent of the Asso- made Townships. Governor Pres-
ciates, called the leader, was usu- cott, a few years after the adop-
ally a man with some means and tion of the policy in question, di-
influence. He became responsible vided the Associates into three
for the conditions, the only one classes : I. People who had al-
of the many really pressed being ways been attached to the British
the cost of the primitive survey, cause ;
2. People who have been
which had to be made as a preli- led astray and 3. Mere specula-
;

minary to the erection of the tors, whose applications he said


Township, and the granting of were numerous. He complained
lands. The Associates, with re- bitterly to the home Government
markable uniformity, alleged prior of the attempts of the speculators
attachment, or repentence of hos- to obtain large grants in order to
tility, which, as they
had origin- create a monopoly of straw men ;

ally been "British subjects, involv- being put up as applicants to evade


ed no severe moral strain. Be- the regulations of the complicity
;

sides, the war in New England, of members of his own council in


from whence they mostly came, the schemes of collusive tricks
;

had been on its outskirts, so that with land surveyors to further


those living inland in the 'go's' their plans, and the dissatisfac-
had probably never borne arms on tion of these land jobbers, as Chief
either side. The Government took Justice Monk called them, when
no sentimental view of the mat- their plans were thwarted. In the
ter, and accepted means and char- Tipper Province they were having
acter as conditions, more than their troubles, for, in 1802, an of-
professed prior allegiance, or sor- ficial classified the later refugee
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 99

settlers from the U. S. as I. : tain the elements from which true


Those enticed by a gratuitious of- patriotism springs. But whatever
fer of land without any predilec- lace the Provincial authorities
may
tion for British constitution 2. ;
have put upon formal professions",
Those who had from the U.S.
fled it is evident, from the official
for crimes or to escape their credi- documents, that they looked upon
tors and 3. Republicans who
;
them as a good-natured contri-
came as settlers, to plot against vance, and were not deceived as to
Great Britain. The Associates their value. They were quite con-
were of a better class of men than tent to receive a good class of set-
these, but were not of the Loyalist tlers, on their own rating, with-
class mentioned, which came at the out minutely scanning motives.
close of the war, as a little con-
sideration will show. A
period of
Running over the list of Asso-
ciates, a similiarity of well known
about 13 years intervened between
the Treaty of Peace and the grant names, combined with parity of
of the first Township to the Asso- objects, creates a presumption that
ciates. The bitter, and general some of the old classes of Loyal-
ists had gone astray, or been be-
persecution following the close of lated in receiving grants, and had
the war, as before mentioned,
drove into exile every man suspect- joined the Associates, as their last
chance. Their recognized loyalty,
ed of attachment to the mother
through early arrival, would tend
country. This long period is con- to aid, materially, the Associates
clusive that those Associates who
in obtaining Township charters
came on the creation of the Town-
and allotments of lands, but there
ships must, during their residence were not many of them at the
for so many years in their old
best.
homes, have satisfied the local au-
thorities there of their satisfac- There also appear, now and then,
tion with, and allegiance to the isolated specimens of the old Colo-
new order of things. Had they nial English officials who may
not done so, it is certain that have cast in their lot with the As-
they could not thus have re- sociates, for the reason before
mained among a people on the mentioned. A case in point, and
alert f or British sympathizers, close at hand, is that of the late
and against whom that people Samuel Gale, whose local title of
were violently enraged. Judge Gale, it will do no harm to
This long residence, where the accept. The decay of his tomb-
authorities exacted active and stone in East Farnham seems, at
open, and would not tolerate pas- irregular intervals of time, to ex-
sive allegiance to the new nation, cite the grief of the casual and
dispels any possible illusion as to curious visitor, and, as the trem-
loyalty to the Crown. Its tardy bling fingers push aside the moss
manifestation, until stimulated by from the epitaph commemorating
self-interest, is incompatible with departed virtues and greatness, a
loyal sincerity, or consist- new rule of historical interpreta-
ent with the active vigi- tion dawns upon the saddened
lance of Americans towards mind and Judge Gale is promoted
suspected Loyalists A loy-
. to the U. E. Loyalist class, to
alty which is dormant, or linger- which he has no more right than
ing, until spurred into action by to that of -Judge. There are in-
the prospect of material advance- surmountable objections to his be-
ment is not generally thought to ing -so considered. The true U.E.
be of the highest order, or to con- Lovalist was a native born Colo-
IOO MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
nial soldier, or the descendant of new country where 'salts was the
one. Judge Gale was neither. He leading industry, neat cattle cur-
was an English Colonial official of rent money, and the hospitable
the non-combatant type, then a stimulent for lordly revelry was
refugee, and an Associate.
later distilled from the succulent pota-
Born, reared and educated in Eng- to, he had to content himself with
land, he came to the Colonies in a coat of arms, and a local title
1770, secured a public office and conferred by neighbors, prudently
was married. When the Revolu- anxious to propitiate the only man
tion came, his remarks were not in the settlement who had a grind-
appreciated they raised a preju-
;
stone. Having started early in
dice against him. One of his bio- life as a public officer, and follow-

graphers says He may have


:
' '

ed in that line for many years, he


overstepped the bounds of a calcu- hankered in his rural retirement
lating prudence." After release on for public position, and as he could
parole from imprisonment, he join- not be a Duke, he was appointed
ed the British Army near New a notary public, then, as now, an
York in i//6, and for several office of mystery, honor and emo-'
years performed clerical duties as luments. With this office, and the
cashier and itinerant paymaster opportunity of rendering valuable
for the army, and -came, to Canada services to the early settlers, he
a few years after the close of the closed an eventful life. But, after
war. In a memorial to the Brit- all, is it a surprising thing that,
ish authorities in 1787, lie refers in a time of
peril, Judge Gale re-
to these things to his loss of of-
: mained true to his Sovereign ra-
fice and its profits, to the' confisca- ther than become an ally of the
tion of his property, and prayed, rebels Had he followed ancient
!

" for such relief as


therein, may precedent in preferring pottage to
appear proportionate to what birthright, and cast in his lot
'

mav have been granted to other with the rebel Colonists, he would
suffering Loyalists, who likewise justly be held, up to scorn, as a
'

'

served in departments of trust traitor to his Sovereign. Being


'
in the civil branches of the an Englishman he was loyal, and
1

army.
11
civil branch is not
The those who now claim a special dis-
the fighting branch of an army. tinction for him on that score, do
For himself, Judge Gale never his memory a gross iniustice, and
claimed to have been a soldier, or display ignorance of the English
a IT. E. Loyalist. Had he borne character. It is an indirect way
arms, it would have been men-' of saving that English loyalty is
tioned in his memorial. After his a subject of dicker, and barter, *

arrival he was given an' office, and fidelity to allegiance an unusual


in 1798 he became leader of the incident, and an Englishman's pa-
Associates of the Township of triotism based upon expectation of
Farnham, receiving a land grant. reward. The end of the question
His kind solicitude for his wife's is, however, that he does not come

collateral kin and there were ten within the terms of the Order in
in the family procured each of Council as to U. E. Loyalists.
them considerable grants. He had In studying the question of ear-
loftv ideas, among them being the ly settlement one may well keep
desire to establish in Farnham a in mind that it. was about thirteen
family estate, after the English years after the location of the
pattern, with tenants, doers and Loyalists before the' first Town-
all the baronial fixtures. But in a ship was created, and granted to
MISSJSOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 101

the Associates that a survey was


;
action, of the Executive, as well as
an essential prior condition the prior condition, and the then
to a grant that the want of
; pressing needs of the settlers, and,
such survey is conclusive against a in addition, has a quaint flavor,
grant that the Government had
;
which gives it a peculiar interest'
forbidden settlement on the bor- The lavish use of capital letters
der that the terms and condition
;
and peculiarities of spelling and
of the grants to the U. E. Loyal- punctuation therein cannot be just-
ists differed from those of the As- ly attributed to disrespect or dis-
sociates, and that the Order in loyality. The English lacks the
Council absolutely settles the mat- finish and perfection which are con-
ter. sidered indispensable by the 'best
;

While perfectly clear that


it is writers of our day, but then there
the first settlers in the Townships is no doubt as to the object. The
were not the old Loyalists, but charges of fraud and underhand
the Associates, as before stated, dealings are ambiguous only as
yet it would seem that a few stub- to the identity of the parties
born men pitched their tents in the whose names are suppressed. In
Seigniories when and where there our clay, Ragged Philosopher
w.ere no owners on the spot to would solve the difficulty by in-
warn them off, and from thence serting the familiar names of
Government for " " or
importuned the Wilfie," or Dickey,"
"
permission to settle therein, on Joey," or other symbolic terms,
and about Missisquoi Bay. This by which he playfully represents
was firmly, and at times angrily certain phases of human deprav-
refused,the Government offering ity in the criminal exercise of po-
them lands elsewhere, where the litical functions.
Crown owned the lands and on ;

refusal, they were officially warn- The Memorial is as follows :

ed that their provision allowances


would be cut off- a more serious " To His Excellence Henry Ham-
matter about the Bay in 1784 melton, Esq., Governor in and
than in 1900. Finally, the Gover- over the Province of Quebec
nor-General ordered their houses and Territorys thereunto be-
to be destroyed, and the, settlers longing, &c., &c., &c.
sent for location to St. Johns,
" a "
which, even then, was called The Petition of the Subscribers
cursed place." humbly sheweth
Dr. Brymner, the Dominion Ar-
"
chivist, has kindly furnished me That the fift day of Octr. in
with extracts from the official or- " the Year of our Lord, 1783, we,
on in his " with many otheres Petitioned
ders, fyle Department,
to the
discontinuance of " His Excellence Fridrick Halde-
relating
"
His Majesty's bounty of pro- mand, Ksqr., the then Gover-
"
visions for the winter, at Missis- nor, and Commander i'n Chief,
"
quoi Bay, as w ell as a memorial for a tract of land East of Mis-
r

from the settlers there, to the "


sisquie Bay, for Each of us there
Government in reference to the " to receive hisPortion of land,
same subject, whereby it was " allowed by Government for ser-
shown that effect was given to the " vices but not Receiving an An-
" swer to our Petition untill late
apparently harsh orders. The me-
morial is in " in the Winter Fallowing, and
quoted full, among "
other things because i't shows the we being Desireous, to. Git -in
102 MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
'
some way of Liveing again, and Donations Allowed to Loyal-
'
to retrieve a littleour Losses ists, by Government, Should be
(by Cultivation) which we suf- given to us from the time that
1

fered During the unhappy trou- Every one of us, and Families
hies in North America which were struck off the Provision
1

losses were very considerable list. And we humbly beg your


'

with some of us, and very sorely Excellence will Please to Con-
Feel'd by Every One of us and descend, to. favour us with an
Your humble Petitioners, would Answer, Withere we shall Shall
not be under necessity of trou- have Provision, Or no, for it is
bleing you, had they at present our Opinion that all Loyalists,
what they have lost, and were Settling in the Province of Que-
opleged to leave in the hands of bec,, are Alloued Provision
the Enemy, since they from the wethere on king's Land or not,
beginning of the late troubles in if within the Province line, More-

America, adheared to Briti.sh over, we humbly beg to- inform


Government, and joined the Brit- your Excellence, that We little
ish forces in the Year 1777, but Expected, Nithere do we think,
since, as above mentioned, were that itGovernments inten-
is
desirous to git into some way tion, any Order, from our
or
of liveing, we bought a tract of Most Gracious King, and his
land of Mr. Robertson of St. Perliment, that all such of hi's

Johns, and some of us settled true and faithful asSubjects


thereon before Ever his Excel- Your Petitioners, Should be
lence Fridrick Haldemand, struc off of all bennefits from
Esqr., the late Commander in Government, as Donations of
Chief had Given Orders or Point- Provs, and Othere Things, alow-
ed out Places for the setling of ed by Govert. Except such and
Loyalifts, but so it was, that only such, who setle in them
since some of us setled at the Perticular Places, which Per-
Bay of Missisquie, and Otheres hapes through the Indication of
Could not move, whenthe or- Selfe interested Gentlemen, has
deres came out for to setle at been put into the head of the
the apointed Places, by Reasson late Commender in Chief, to
of Sickness, and Othere Hin- Pointe out for Setling of the
drance in their Families, and all Loyalists in the Province of
of us hopeing that we should Yit Quebec, Furthere more, we
Git the land in the Parts we doubt, Yea we are most sure,
Petitioned for, but so it was, that there is some underhand
since we did not Go, to the Dealings with the kings Provs,
Place or Places pointed at, we by them who have the posts for
were struck off the Provisions Giveing Orders for the Loyalists
list, part of us since the 24th. Provs. as for instance at St.
of May last, the Otheres at Dif- Johns, c., For we sent a Peti-
ferent times After, but all of us tion to Your Excellence Deer,
since the 24th. Octr. last. last, and Never hear'd thereof,
Wherefore we most Humbly beg Wherefore we beg Your Excel-
your Excellence in your Clemen- lence will Please to Condescend
cy, and love to Your Fellow to Derect Your Answer to Chn.
Men, who have sorely suffered Wehr Lieut Royl. Yorkers at
During the late Rebellion both Mississquie Bay, and to the care
in body and Estate, and Ordere of Mr, Alexr. Taylor at St.
that the Provision and Othere Johns, and if Your Excellence
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
" will most Dunham in the same
"
Graciously Please to in 1796 ;

Grant us our Petition, Your Pe- Adam Deal and also Alexander
" titioners as in
Duty bound Shall Taylor and Christian Wehr in Sut-
" ton in 1797, and in the same year,
Ever Pray,
" CHRISTIAN WEHR, Philip Ruiter in Potton. There
(sd)
CONRADE BEST, were other Ruiters of the same
CHRISTIAN MAVER, stock and class among the Asso-
JOHN RUITER, ciates in Dunham, Potton and
ADAM DEAL, Stanbridge, as well as six chil-
JOHN COLE, dren of John Ruiter in Roxton.
LTJDWIG STREIT, The Ruiters seem to have prosper-
GEORGE FELLER, ed despite the drawback of having
JOSAMIND DROW, owned lands in Roxton.
LODWIK STRIT, Junr,
JACOB THOMAS, The early settlements in Missis-
PHILIP RUITER, quoi and Brome Counties ran
JOHN VAN VORST,
along nearly the same lines, at
JAMES HENDERSON, about the same dates, and among
ALEXR. TAYLOR, much the same class of settlers,
"
Missisquie Bay, Feb. ;th, 1785." but it was different in the County
of ShefTord.
The names of most of the sign-
The Township of Farnham, east
ers of this pathetically indignant and west parts, and the Township
memorial bear the earmark of
of Brome were, within the limits
Teutonic origin, although some of
of Sheflord County until discon-
the expressions have a distinctive-
nected" in the '50'$ on the forma-
ly Hibernian flavour. Dr. Brym-
tion of Brome County at the ex-
ner says, that among all the docu-
ments relating to Missisquoi Bay, pense of Stanstead, Shefford and
Missisquoi Counties. After prior
that memorial is the only one
survey, the Townships of the Coun-
which contains a list of names and
" ty of ShelTord were created as fol-
adds
"
:
Nearly all of whom I lows
am aware fought during the
:

"
war as Loyalists." The press- Stukely in 1800 ;

Shefiord in 1801 ;

ing importance of the matters re-


ferred to in the memorial is suffi- Ely in 1802 ;

cient to warrant the presumption,


Granby in 1803 ;

Milton in 1803 ;

that all the people there at that


Roxton in 1803.
time, affixed their signatures. The
untenable possession of these Loy- The leader of the Associates in
alists, as show.n by their me- Stukely was Samuel Willard, an
morial, does not justify a claim influential man in his day, who
at this time of a general settle- has still many descendants in the
ment, nor warrant the pretension Townships. In the Company of
that their temporary sojourn in a Associates are the well-known
seignory, by itself, establishes an names of Knowlton, Lawrence,
early settlement as U. E. Loyal- Sargent and Page, also well repre-
ists in the Townships of this Dis- sented by local descendants. The
trict. long period which had elapsed be-
Of the signers of that memorial tween the close of the war and
a few can be found among the As- their arrival indicates that they
sociates, for instance, Adam Deal, did not deliberate in haste, nor
Ludwig Streit and Philip Ruiter should the coincidence of a land
104 MISSISQUQI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
grant be construed as a motive ish American Land Company,
for quickened loyalty. The leader from which it might be inferred
of the Associates of the Township that it was practically' sole pro-
of Ely, was Amos Lay, Jr., a land prietor. The first settlements
surveyor, who was granted one- were made about 1834.
fourth of the Township, much of Granby and Milton were largely
which passed to his son, the late granted to discharged soldiers and
Dr. Amos W. Lay, who resided militia men, about one hundred of
there for many years prior to his the latter locating in Granby,
death. Governor Prescott, in a which may account for its martial
letter to the home authorities in spirit ever since. The descendants
1798, detailing at some length the of the original grantees of Milton,
fraudulent schemes
. to obtain which was not much, if anv,
Crown Lands, appears to approve settled until about 1830, have dis-
of a movement, of which he gives appeared from its limits.
the copy of an advertisement pub- More local history pervades the
lished in Vermont and other early settlement of ShefTord at the
States, inviting applications for commencement oi the century, at
lands in the Townships. This ad- least more available local his-
vertisement was given by Auu.s tory, than of the other Townships
W. Lay, Jr., co-operating v/ith of the County.
Captain Ruiter, of Missisquoi, to The leader of the Associates of
obtain members for Companies of Shefiord Township was Captain
Associates. Shortly prior to the John Savage, from the Hudson cr
first settlement in Ely, a land sur- Mohawk Valley of New York, with
veyor by the name of Trenholme w.hom, as Associates, were two
met a tragic death near what is other John Savages and Peter Sa-
now known as Balling, in the vage, relatives, and the well-
north part of the Township, where known names of Wood, Hayes,
he was surveying with a party. A Ketzback, Lawrence, Lewis, Bell,
fire which they had kindled in the Moflatt, and McFarland. John
forest burnt off the roots of a tree, Savage, leader, made his first vis-
which, during the night, fell upon it to Shefiord in 1792, having come
and instantly killed Mr. Tren- to Canada by way of Lake Cham-
holme. He was the grandfather plain in 1783. Captain Savage and
of Judge N. W. Trenholme, of his Associates had a narrow es-
Montreal, and of the Rev. Mrs. cape from the wiles of the land
Fessenden, of Hamilton, whose grabbers and officials who, by im-
zealous work in creating Empire posing severe conditions, and con-
Day has gained well deserved re- spiring with surveyors, usually
cognition. forced money or land from Asso-
There are some indications ciates or so discouraged them that
pointing to a member of the Rui- they threw up their applications.
ter family as the leader of the As- Simon Z. Watson, land surveyor,
sociates of the Township of Rox- discovered the attempt to rob
ton. There has been no rush to Captain Savage and his Asso-
obtain credit for the position. No ciate* without their knowledge,
one has clamored for the honour, and thereupon threw up his job,
or even of that of first settler, and made a 'deposition exposing
though it has usually been the the tricks, which he forwarded to
home of statesmen. Half a cen- the Governor-General, who, in
tury ago or thereabouts, all the communicating it to the British
" The
poor land was owned by the Brit- Colonial authorities, said :
I0 5

" shown
"
imbecility in the practi- dodge of Allen's to incite Con-
cal
working of the plans of the gress to admit Vermont into the
"
monopolists does not lessen the Union, and thereupon they aban-
" existence of the plans thetn- doned the crafty Allen. The Mr.
" Had these plotters
selves." Huntingdon referred to was prob-
succeeded, the settlement of Shef- ably a relative, or ancestor, of
ford would probably have been as the late Honorable lyucius Seth
long deferred as Ely and Roxton. Huntingdon, who represented Shef-
Whilst the official records speak of ford for so many years in Parlia-
Captain Savage and Squire Sa- ment. It was well known that he
vage, it is probable that both was of U. E. I/oyalist stock,
titles belonged to the same man, though it had not become a habit
one for warlike, and the other for in his day to boast of it ostenta-
civil distinction. In his petition tiously.
to the Government in 1792 for The early history of Sheflord
compensation for losses, he alleged Township is the history of the Sa-
his services as an officer in a New vage family. It was the dominant
York Colonial corps during the family in its early settlement, and
Revolution. His quality was ac- even up to the middle of the cen-
cepted by the Government, but the tury, but only a few are now left
grant to him later was as an As- there. They were of Dutch or
sociate. In 1783 a report from a German though the name
descent,
" It may have
frontier post says
" returned with
Wright has
: creates a difficulty.
two brothers Sav- been Americanized and toned down
"
age, w.ho have come to look for from a Dutch or German name, as
" an
"
asylum for a great number of have the Churches and Pickles of
loyalists, -who. have determined
" to leave
Dunham, who in the Dutch dialect
a country wholly under were Schultz and Puyckel, or some-
the direction of thing like. It has also been said
'

the oppres-
"
sors." Captain Savage went that in an early day an Irishman
on from that border post to St. named Savage married a Dutch or
Johns. .An official report from German girl in the settlements of
that post on the frontier said that that people in New York, and hence
the people on the American side the name. This does not seem un-
were very insulting in their re- reasonable when we consider the .

marks, but in a broad spirit of not unremarkable propensity of


magnanimity, the officials said Irishmen to commit matrimony,
"
they regarded it as merely the and the facility with which the
" mad sallies of vulgar fools," Dutch or German absorb the as-
which may not have been too se- similated races. But all this mav
vere. The same official report as be left to a future historian of
to Savage states that Messrs. Shefford or of the Savage family.
Campbell and Huntingdon, two (The wonder as to the Irish
ruined loyalists, had arrived, fol- names of Savage, Mitchell and
kowed by a Mr. Wirt, who de- many others in Missisquoi and
manded their return to Boston. Sheflord appearing among the
Mr. Huntingdon remained in Can- German early settlers in those
ada, but a little later Campbell Counties, as stated in the text,
went back with Savage and Ira and of whom but few, if any, on
Allen, to Vermont, to aid in arrival spoke any other dialect
settling loyalists there, pursuant than German, is now accounted
to a scheme of Allen's. It soon for through its having been shown
became clear that this was a that the emigrants from the Ger-
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY
man Palatinate to England were pears to be akin to the claim of
distributed partly in Ireland, near Puritan descent in New England,
Limerick, and partly in Dutchess or Norman descent in Old Eng-
County, New York, and elsewhere land, and exposed to the same
in that and other Colonies, in the scoffs and suspicions on the part
early part of the i8th century. of those not of the same blood.
About fifty years later, through But when one casts a retrospec-
the exactions of landlords and tive glance over the history of the
other minions, the Irish-Germans settlement and development of
in large numbers joined their this District, and of its first set-
countrymen in the N. Y. Province, tlers and their successors, one read-
from whence many were driven at ily sees that a fair and moderate
the close of the revolutionary view is essential, and that to dis-
war into Canada. It is a fair and criminate is impolitic and unjust.
reasonable presumption that it The old Associates were the true
was through intermarriages with pioneers, who began the forest
the Irish during the sojourn in clearing epoch without relying
Ireland that the Germans men- upon Government bounty for pro-
tioned came into possession of dis- visions or aid. And after them, in
tinctive Irish names. But, on ar- the '2o's' or about that time there
rival here, they were Germans in came from New England its sur-
speech, habits, thrift and manners, plus of skilled mechanics and
See Rev. W. Bowman Tucker's tradesmen, and even professional
Camden Colony. ED. NOTE.) men, who, with their trained skill
and larger means, placed their
little shops and mills and foun-
dries and tanneries on every con-
In the use of the term, " venient water-power and thereby
Early
Settlers," in this paper, its mean- aided in extending the good work
ing is properly restricted to those begun by the old Associates. Is
who received free grants of land it not largely from the descen-
from the Crown. However com- dants of this later class that have
mendable may have been the en- come the men whose business capa-
terprise and the virtues of those city and enterprise have done so
who "bought in," so to speak, much to build up these Eastern
they have no special claim for con- Townships. Nor will it be forgot-
sideration on the score of loyalty ten that through all these years,
beyond earlier, or even later sett- people of other races, and people
lers. Nor can it be reasonably from the Old World have filtered
assumed that, because a few Loy- into these Townships, assimilated
alists strayed from the places with the older stocks, and aided
where the Government had located in advancing its prosperity. Hence,
them, and subsequently acquired the wisdom or expediency of un-
lands in the Townships as Asso- duly exalting one class more than
ciates, or by purchase, a claim of another is questionable, though,
general settlement by U. E. Loy- as an abstract historical question
alists in any locality can be justi- there may be, and are, good rea-
fied or supported. It is not, how- sons for judicious investigation.
ever, discreditable to those old U. But, however this may be, we can-
E. Loyalists that so many in our not honestly forget that it is from
day are eager to claim descent the feeble, remote and scattered
from them. It is an excellent tes- settlements which those hardy pio-
timonial of their worth. It ap- neers created about a century ago
MISS1SQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 107

that have come material prosper- future full of encouragement. It


ity, and the comforts of civiliza- is to be regretted that the only
tion which we of this generation phase of the personal life of those
so fully possess and enjoy. We early pioneers can only be gath-
should treasure with honest appre- ered from dry official records, deal-
ciation the memories of those ro- ing with the wants and conditions
bust men of the olden time, who of material existence. No his-
did so much under adverse condi- torian recorded their acts, nor
tions and trying- circumstances to poet portrayed their sentiments in
build up our country so that life verse.
for us is more tolerable, and the JNO. P. NO YES.
The Camden Colony.

A STORY OF THE UNITED EMPIRE LOYALISTS.

There has just been issued (Ap- and picking up scattered threads
ril,1908) from the press, a book and weaving them into an intelli-
bearing the above title from the gent whole, in the hope that ulti-
pen of Rev. W. Bowman Tucker, mate good may result, than in
M.A., St. Johns, Oue., which has possible financial returns. We
a distinct bearing upon some of venture to say, however, that good
the early settlers in Missisquoi. as it is, in the course of a few
Thus has a special interest for
it years he will yearn to re-write it.
the members of our County His- Not that he has written badly or
torical Society, and besides, is of wrongly, but that his mind, hav-
value in helping to clear up mat- ing been specially directed to a
ters touched upon in this and for- particular subject, he will con-
mer reports of the Society. There stantly meet new facts and views
has seemed to be a mystery about which will create a desire to begin
the early German settlers in Mis- over again. Such is the fate of
sisquoi a mystery which their him who essays, with an open
descendants have displayed no spe- mind, to indulge the writing of
cial anxiety to dispel. Further, local or family history.
there was something romantic The Camden Colony, as a title,
about them, and their arrival, is somewhat misleading. The
which has exercised a certain American Germans in Canada
charm over those at all interested would have been better. It is a
in local history. That charm has pity, too, that the Colony has not
not been lessened by the reticence been more definitely located. It is
of their descendants and the diffi- called by Mr. Tucker the Camden
culties thereby experienced in District, Charlotte County, New
writing about them in the at- York State (p. 42). There is
tempts at local history thus far no Charlotte County in that
made. State, and probably never was.
Mr. Tucker's book is the most There is a Camden, the shire-town
helpful effort thus far made to of Oneida County, which was pro-
clear up that mystery while not bably the locality meant, seeing it
removing in any way the tinge of was only a little further up state
romance which has for so long sur- than the Mohawk or Scoharie
rounded that people. It discloses, German settlements and within the
even on hasty examination, an territory in which Sir Wm.
amount of valuable work and in- Johnson exercised sway over the
formation which can best be appre- Indians. .The main thing, for our
ciated by those who have tried the consideration is, however, that
same field. It is, unfortunately, a some of tnat Colony came to Can-
work the remuneration for which ada, and fimong them some drift-
consists rather in the immediate ed Missisqiioi way. It seemed easy
intellectual pleasure of hunting out for those Germans to change their
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 109

habitat on the slightest provoca- many others all descended from


tion. him. There the book an ex-
is in

Embury, a German-Irish
Philip cellent portrait of Niles Galer, of
was one of the founders of
exile, Dunham.
Methodism in New York. His son In the wayback times the Miiller
Samuel is claimed to have been (Miller), Sw.eitzer (Snitzer) and
the Methodist class leader in
first Embury families intermarried to
Canada, he being a loyalist exile. good effect and the blood of the
Catherine Elizabeth, daughter of main stocks of two or three cen-
Philip and sister of Samuel, mar- turies ago appear, by the tables in
ried Duncan Fisher, of Montreal, Mr. Tucker's book, to run in the
one of whose grea4-grand-children veins of their present descendants.
being Hon. Sydney Fisher, Federal So that it would appear that Hon.
Minister of Agriculture. The Tor- A. B. Aylesworth, Minister of Jus-
ranees, L,unns, Ritchies and other tice, of the Ontario Miller branch;
prominent Montreal citizens are Hon. Sydney A. Fisher, Minister
descended from her also Arthur of Agriculture, and the Millers,
F. Simpson, of Lennoxville. Galers, Snitzs, and all those, men-
Peter Miller, another of that tioned, including Garnet Safford,
type, settled in St. Armand in of Sutton Junction, are blood re-
1784, where the stone house erect- lations,if not political allies. It
ed by his son Charles in 1806 still is a goodly race.
exists. Descendants of Peter com- The temptation is strong to
prise the notable families of the quote or cull more largely from
County and its vicinity and have the book. Our present purpose is
scattered abroad in the land. to direct attention to it in the
Apart from the Millers, there are hope that our members will pro-
the familiar names of the Galers, cure and read its pages rather than
Saffords (of Sutton), Sixbys, Em- to essay criticism or analysis of a
burys, Tittemores, Brills, Chad- production which has literary ex-
seys. Calls, Holsopples, Fosbergs cellence, apart from its value as an
or Vosbergs, Yates, Ingalls and historical effort. N.
FOURTH ANNUAL
REPORT OF THE
MISSISQUOI COUNTY
HISTORICAL SOCIETY

Errata

Page 33, 1st linoinsert word "not"


after word "will."
Page 34, 2nd line, 2nd column insert
word "passing" after the word
"round."
Page 34, 5th line, 2nd column coma aft-
er word "race" followed by small
"w ".

9th line from bottom of 2nd


Page 34,
a period after the
par., 2nd col.
word "soil" followed by Cap. "I." 19O8 19O9,
Page 35, 5th line from bottom of 2nd
par., 2nd col., substitute the
word
"such" for "and."

News Tt/p., St. Johns, Qite.


REPORT OF THE
MISSISQUOI COUNTY
HISTORICAL SOCIETY

FOR 19O8 19O9,

News Typ., St. Jolinx, Qtie.


I
A considerable number of copies of each of the three preceding
annual reports are still in possession of the society and can be ob-
tainedfrom the Sec. - Treas. Chas. S. Moore, Esq., Stanbridge East,

P.Q., at the nominal price of seventy-five cents per copy, unbound-


A copy of each of the three reports and of this fourth report with
annual membership fee, which is one dollar, will be given for $3.00
Index to -

Missisquoi Historical Society Reports

READING MATTER.
FIRST REPORT.
Page
Missisquoi Historical Society ....^ 4
Missiquoi's Historians 6
United Empire Loyalists 9
Eccles' Hill Monument n
The Late Dr. Cedric L. Cotton 17
The Late Dr. N. A- Smith ,
21
Constitution 23
Annual Meeting 26
Dunham Meeting ,... 36
Missisquoi. Its origin and meaning 37

SECOND REPORT.
Special Meeting ;
... 8
Annual Meeting, President's address 9
Secretary's Report ,... ,... 12
Address Woman's Committee 14
Members of the Missisquoi County Historical Society 20
Contributions , 23
Etymology of Missisquoi 26
Parliamentary Representation 29
The Missisquoi German or Dutch 31
Paper of Mr. Somerville, "Roger's Rangers" 36
The Early Settlement of Cowansville i

37
Brief Sketch of Dunham ,

41
A Stanbridge Incident of the Troubles of 1837 43
Impressions of a New Comer Fifty years ago, E. L W/atson ... 46
The Chamberlains 48
The Old Block House at Philipsburg 48
The Freligh Family 49
The Rice Family, Stanbridge 49
The Arthur Family in Stanbridge \
50
Bingham Family Record 50
Mrs. Pattison's Children 51
Hon. Philip H<enry Moore 51
Hon. Thomas Wood 52
Georges Clayes, Esq 53
Daniel Bishop Meigs, Esq., M.P... 53
J. J. B. Gosselin, Esq., M.L.A 54
The St. Albans Raid, 1864 >
55
INDEX Continued.
THIRD REPORT.
Page
Officers Missisquoi Historical Society
of the 5
Annual Members of the Missiquoi County Historical Society,
1907-08 7
Annual Meeting, President's address 10
Secretary's Report 13
Mr. Noyes and the Fenian Raid Cannon 20
Special Meeting- at Farnham 22
The Missiquoi Historical Society 23
Missisquoi Historical Notes 24
The Voice of the River ;
24
Back to Old Missisquoi (poem) 28
Miss A. T. Tittemore, Historical and Reminiscent 29
James O'Halloran, Ksq., Ex-M'.P.P., 35
Mrs. Anna Coatsworth Post 37
Browne Chamberln, Ksq 40
Sweetsburg's Newspaper 42
The Old Church Tavern 45
Krnest Racicot, Ksq., Kx-M.P.P 47
Missisquoi Bay (poem) 49
Pike River 51
A Brief History of Philipsburg Methodist Church 55
Wm. Mead Pattison, Ksq., 58
Miss Nancy Hawley,, of Clarenceville 60
Dr. P'arnsworth's Reminiscences of Karly Life in Missisquoi .
63
Cyrus Thomas, Ksq., 64
HISTORICAL CUPPINGS.
Stanbridge Kast :

The Briggs Family 65


The Sawyer Family 66
The Hart Family 67
The Wightman or \Veightman Family 68

HISTORICAL NOTKS.
Missisquoi, Selection of Court House Site 70
Bishop Stewart 71
Anglican Church 72
St. Armand West 73
St. Armand Kast 74
Methodist Church 75
Roman Catholic 77
Baptist Church 78
Anglican Missions 78
Philipsburg 79
New Connexion Methodists 79
Something About the Olden Times in Missisquoi, St. Johns, etc 82
Centennial of the Baptist Church at Abbott's Corner 85
The Late Henry Ross, Ksq., 86
The Farnham Hospital 87
The Canadian Loyalists and Karly settlers in the District of
Bedford 90
The Camden Colon v . 108
INDEX Continued,

ILLUSTRATIONS.
FIRST RKPORT.
1'age
Il.on. Judge Lynch, LL.D
Kccles' Hill Monument 12
Hon. Geo. B. Baker 16
Hon. Judge McCorkill 20
Dr. C. I,. Cotton 24
Dr. X. A. Smith 28
J. P. Xoyes, Ksq., 32
Chas. A. Jones, Ksq., 40
K. K. Spencer, Ksq., 44
Chas. Moore, Ksq., B.A., 4^
F. X. A. Giroux, Ksq 52
W. M. Pattison, Ksq., 56

SKCOND RKPORT.
Sir James McPherson Lemoine.... 6
Dr. Arthur George Doughty.
K. R. Smith, Ksq., TO
John Hunter, Ksq 12
Homestead of the Late John Hunter, Ksq., 14
Judge Solomon Bingham 16
Stephen B. Derick Homestead 18
Hon. and Lieut. Col. Henry Caldwell's Manor House 20
Anthony Derick Homestead 22
"Kastview" Residence of Win. Mead Pattison 24
"St. Jacques" Catholic Church and Presbytorv, Clarenceville 26
R. B. Derick's residence 28
Mayor LT riah Traver Chilton's house (former Townsend Home-
stead) 30
Clarenceville House, Tlis. H. Derick, modern 32
Charles Derby House 34
John Robinson's house 36
Cowans ville Flouring Mill 38
Residence of Mrs. F. U. and Miss Carrie M. Derick, M.A.,
South Street, Clarenceville 4
Truman B. Derick's house 42
The Old Block House, Philipsburg ,
48
Hon. P. H. Moore, M.L.C-, 50
Hon. Thomas Wood, M.L.C 52
Late George Clayes, M.P., 52
D. B.
Meigs, M~P.,
-
54
J. J. B. Gosselin, M.L.A 51
Late Calvin Derick, Ksq., 56
Reuben H. Vaughan, Ksq., 58
I N DEX Con fin ncd.

THIRD REPORT.
Page
Court House and Jail, Sweetsburg, P.O., 4
The Old Mill Dam, Cowansville 30
James O'Halloran, Esq., K.C., Ex-M.P.P 35
Browne Chamberlin, Esq., M.P., 40
Henry Rose, Esq., 43
The Old Church Tavern 45
Philipsburg, One., 49
E. Racicot, Esq., K.C., Ex-M.P. 47
Th"e Wharf at Bay 50
Philipsburg, Missisquoi
Pike River Bridge 51
Mouth of Pike River, Missisquoi Bay 53
\V'm. Mead Pattison, Esq., ".
,
58
Miss Nancy Hawley 61
Mr. Cyrus Thomas , 64
Bedford Bridge 65
The Ste. Elizabeth Hospital, Farnham, One-, 87
-
Index -

Missisquoi County Historical Society


1909-1910.
READING MATTER.
Page
Officers
of Missisquoi Historical Society H
Members of the Society 12
Annual Meeting 1908 16
Annual Meeting 1909 32
The Nameless Dead, poem 38
Hon. G. B. Baker 41
Late Asa Rykert 43
Hon. Judge Buchanan 45
Hon. Judge Badgley 47
Miss. County .Council, action to Volunteers on Fenian Raid ... 50
Princess Salm Salm '
51
Gifts to the Society ,

52
Birth of, Dunham Township % 53
Notes, Historical and Reminiscent by Miss M. A. Titemore ,.. 55
Sweetsburg Court House and Jail..... 57
St. Armand 62
Negro Burying Ground
Recollections of Mrs. H. S. Drury. *>4
Moore's Corner Battle 1837 67
How J. p. Rexford captured a Fenian 75
Historical Data and Dates
Birth of Missisquoi
County, Dr. Geo. McAleer 76

ILLUSTRATIONS.
County Building, Bedford .... ,5
Fairfield T T

Methodist Church, 40
Philipsburg
Hon. G. B. Baker, K.C 41
Late Asa .Rykert '... 43
Hon. Judge Buchanan
45
Hon. Judge Badgley
47
PrincessSalm Salm 51
Sweetsburg Court House and Jail , ,
57
Moore's Corner 5-
The Cornell Mill
/4
Officers of the

Missisquoi County Historical Society


For 1909-1910.
[Or since the last list was published.]

Honorary Presidents : WOM KX '

S COMMITTEE .

Hon. W. W. I.ynch, J.S.C. Mrs. K. L. Watson Dunham.


*Hon. Senator G. B. Baker, K.C. Miss Kli/.abeth Rykert Dunham.
Jno. P. Xoyes, Esq., K.C. Mrs. C. L., Cotton Cowansville.
Chas. 0. Jones, Ksq. Mrs. H. C. Blinn Frelighsburg.
Mrs. F. X. A. Giroux S \veets-
President :

burg.
Hon. J. C. McCorkill, J.S.C. Miss D'Artois Farnham.
Mrs. K. Sornberger Bedford.
Vice-Presidents :
Mrs. Hugh Montgomery Philips-
K. K. Spencer, Ksq. burg.
F. X. A. Giroux, Esq. Miss Harriet Chandler -- Stan-
bridge East.
i
Secretary-Treasurer :
Miss Bradlev St. Armand.
Chas. S. Moore, Ksq.

Auditor :

Geo.
LOCAL ORGANIZATION.
Capsey, Ksq.
St. Armand East None.
WOMAN'S COMMITTEE. St. Armand West Xone.
Frelighsburg Director and Secre-
tary, K. K. Spencer, Esq.,
Honorary Presidents :

ex-M.P.P.
Miss C. M. Derick, McGill Univ-
Philipsburg X one.
T

ersity.
Miss E. L. Dunham La- Bedford Director and Secretary,
Baker,
dies' Fred. C. Saunders Directors,
;

College.
Geo. Capsey, J. A. Fortin, A.
T. Gould, F. W. Hatch.
President :

Mrs. S. A. C. Morgan
Dunham Township Director and
Bedford.
Secretary. E. L. Watson Di- ;

rectors, Sheriff Cotton, Major


Vice-President :

J. G. Gibson, E. S. Miltimore,
Mrs. Theodora Moore Stan- Jed. G. Scott and Jno. C.
bridge East. Miltimore.
12 MISSIvSOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIKTY.

Dunham Village
- - Director and LIFE MEMBERS.
Secretary, *Asa Rykert.
Hon. \V. W. Lynch, LL.D.,
Cowansville Director and Secre-
Knowlton, Que.
tary, J. Irving McCabe Di- ;

Hon. J. C. McCorkill, Cowans-


rectors, Rev. W. P. R. Lewis, ville.
P. C. DuBoyce, N.P., H. F.
Dr. George McAleer, Worcester,
Williams, P. Arthur Ruiter, Mass.
Dr. John Laucler, Geo. K.
Walter Lynch, Esq., Mansonville,
Short. "

Que.
Sweetsburg Director and Secre- Arthur Meigs, Esq., Jacksonville,
tary, W. H. Lynch Directors,
; Fla.
Dr.~ F. H. Pickel, A. J. E. Geo. G. Foster, Esq., K.C., Mont-
Leonard, W. K. McKeown, C. real.
S. Boright, *E. Racicot, K.C. J. J. B. Gosselin, Esq., M.L-A.
Director and Secre- B. G. Jones, Esq., Boston, Mass.
Stanbridge
H. Hibbard. H. H. Curtis, Montreal.
tary, C.
*Mrs. Freligh, Bedford.
Director and Secre-
Clarenceville- Miss E. L. Baker, Dunham.
Rural Dean, Rev. Win.
tary, W. V. Rice, Esq., Salt Lake City.
Robinson Director, J. C. M.
;

Hawley. *Mrs. Freligh \vas the first woman to


become a life member.
St. Thomas None.
Farnham Director and Secretary,
W. S. McCorkill Directors,
;

Mayor A.E. D'Artois, L. A. ANNUAL MEMBERS.


Beriau, James E.
Scott, Geo.
A. Truax, Alphonse Desautels,
Albee, Henry, Bedford.
Geo. E. Loud.
Ayer, H. J., Columbus, Ohio.
N.B. In places where there are Aver, Win. H., Aurora, 111.
no officers named, there are no
members of the Society and the *Baker, Hon. Senator, Sweetsburg
officer means the only member in Baker, Miss E. L., Dunham.
the municipality. Baker, Geo. D., Dunham.
* deceased. Baker, G. H. Advocate, Montreal.
Blanchard, Win., Bedford.
Bradley, Miss Agnes, St. Armand.
Brown" W. G., Cowansville.
Boright, C. S., Sweetsburg.
HONORARY MEMBERS. Boright, Guy C., Farnham.
Borland, Miss J. Q., St. Johns.
James MtPherson Lemoine, of Buzzell, Enoch, Cowansville.
Sir
Buzzell, Nelson, Cowansville.
Spencer Grange, Que.
Capsey, Geo., Advocate, Bedford,
Dr. Arthur George Doughty, M. A., Que.
D.C.L., C.M.G., F.R.H.S., Chandler, Miss Harriet, K Van-
Dominion Archivist, Ottawa. bridge, Que.
Edgar Russell Smith, St. Johns, Choquette, W. F., Farnham. Que.
Que. Clark, Byron E., Y.M.C.A., Bur-
lington, Vt.
*Cyrus Thomas, Esq., Toronto. Clark, Mrs. Letitia, Poquonack,
Rev. E. M. Taylor, M.A., Knowl- Conn.
ton, Oue. *Constantineau, S., Bedford.
MISvSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 13

Cooper, George, Boston, Mass. Lauder, Dr. J., Cowansville.


Cotton, Mrs. Cedric L-, Cowans- Lefebvre, J. K-, Farnham.
ville, One. Lewis, Rev. W. P. R. Cowansville.
Cotton, Chas. M., Advocate, Mon-
,
Leonard, A. J. K., Advocate,
treal. Sweetsburg.
Cotton, Chas. S., Sheriff, Sweets-
burg, One. McCabe, J. Irving, Cowansville.
Cotton, Miss M. J. V. Cowans- McClatchie, Ja's., Cowansville.
ville, Que. McCorkill, W. S. Farnhain, Que.
Cotton, Win. B. L.D.S., Cowans- McCruni, John F., Cowansville.
ville, One. McKeown, W. K., Advocate,
Curley, Michael, Dunham. Sweetsburg. Oue.
Currie, 1C. F., Bedford. McNainara, Mrs. M., Bedford.
Miltimore, Eben S., Scottsmore,
D'Artois, A. E., Mayor, Fariiham, Que.
Oue. Montgomery, Mrs. Hugh, Philips-
Desautels, Alphonse, Farnham, burg, Oue.
One. Moore, C. S., Stanbridge, Oue.
Derick, G. C. Clarenceville. Moore, Willoughby, Philipsburg.
Dickinson, Mrs. R., Bedford, Oue. Mioore, Mrs. Theodora, Stanbridge
East, Que.
Fitchett, E.A., Cowansville. Morehouse, Mr., Bank Manager,
Fleurant, Edward, Farnhain. Bedford, One.
Freligh, Mrs. Bedford. Morgan, Mrs. S. A. C., Bedford.
Fuller, H. Leroy, M. D. C. M., Mullin, J. J., Bedford, Que.
Sweetsburg.
Noy.es, Jno. P., K.C., Cowansville,
Galer, J. N., Dunham. Nye, Clarence F,., Cowansville.
Gibson, Major J. G., Cowansville.
Giroux, F. X. A., Advocate, O'Halloran, James, Esq., K.C.,
Sweetsburg. Cowansville, Oue.
Gleason, Mrs. H. E. Cowansville.
Goyette, Ed., Cowansville. Parker, David Esq., M.A., Bedford.
Green, Heman, Meigs' Corner. Que.
Parsons, Mrs. L. C., Sweetsburg,
Hauver, P. A., Cowansville. One.
Harvey, Carl M., Enosburg Falls, Pattison, W. B., Detroit, Mich.
Vt. Pearson, Mrs. Chas. E., Ottawa.
Hatch, D. W., Esq., Bedford. Pickle, Dr. F. H|., Sweetsburg,
Hibbard, C. H., Stanbridge. Que.
Hughes, Geo. R. Cowansville. Plaisted, Rev. H., Dunham, Oue.
Hunter. Thomas, Venice.
*Racicot, E., Esq., K.C., Sweets-
Johnston, Geo. M., Esq., Cowans- bur Q ue
- -

ville. Racicot, Mrs. E., Sweetsburg, Que


Jones, C. O., p;sq., Bedford.
R ice, McD., Sherbrooke, Que.
Jones, Lafayette, Esq., Sweets- Rlce Mrs
' - w
V., Salt Lake City.
-

burn; Rodger, Dr. D. A., Cowansville,


Que.
Kemp, A. E. Esq., Toronto Ruiter, P. Arthur, Cowansville,
Que.
*Lambkin, Mrs., Knowlton. Russell, Major Win., Stanbridge,
Lampee, Charles Irving, Chelsea, Oue.
Mass. *Rykert, Asa, Dunham, Que.
MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.

Sabine, Dr. G., Brooklinc, Mass. Tittemore, Miss M.A., San Fran-
Saunders, Fred. C., Bedford, One. cisco.
Saxe, John W., Atty.-at-Law,
Brookline, Mass. Yilas, Wm. F., M.P.P., Cowans-
Scott, James 1C., Farnham, One. ville, One.
Scott, Jedd 1C., Scottsmore, One.
Short, George 1C., Cowansville, /\Yall)ridge, A. S., Mystic, One.
Que. Watson, K. Iv., Dunham, One.
Smythe, Joseph, Cowansville, One. Watson, Mrs. 1C. I,., Dunham, One.
Somerville, Andrew, Philipsburg, Watson, Rev. B., Way's Mills,
One. One.
Spencer, 1C. 1C., Frelighsburg, One. Whitcomb, Nelson, Dunham, One.
Strange, R.A., Cowansville, One. Whitfield, Mrs. Cieorgc, Cowans-
ville, One.
Taylor, Job AY., [Montreal. Wood, O. A., Santa Cruz., Cal.
Thompson, Airs. Harriet E., Pots-
dam, N.Y. Yeats, Dr., Dunham, One.
*
deceased.
COUXTY BUILDING, BKDFORD, QTJK.

The first meeting of the County Council for Missisquoi was held at Badford,
the 12th Sept. 1855, when Henri Desrivieres \\as named Warden, and David Browne,
afterwards the first Sheriff of the District, \vas appointed Secretaryv-Trea'surer. The
township of Stanbridge made a proposition to erect a building for a Registry Of-
fice and County purposes. The proposition was subsequently accepted, and the
1

building was erected in 1857 at a cost of three hundred pounds, the con^
tractor being George H. Plogle. Thomas Capsey, Esq., became Sec-Treas. of the
County Council in 1858 and was the first Clerk of the County Circuit Court.
That building was burnt the 24th May, 1873. The present building was at
once erected and possession taken early in 1871. Capt. Henry N. Bockus was the
contractor, the contract price being $-1,895, with an allowance of $200 for extras
The cut shows the present building.
Annual Meeting.

The animal meeting of the M. C. been printed in the annual report


H. S. was held in the Town Hall, be adopted without reading. Car-
Bedford, on the 2Oth day of Aug- ried.
ust, 1908. The President then read his ad-
Among those present were Hon. dress.
Judge I/y-nch, Hon. Judge and
Mrs. McCorkill, Jno. P. Noyes, THE PRESIDENTS ADDRESS.
K. C., K. E. Spencer, ex-M. P.
P., Mr. and Mrs. W. V. Rice, Salt Ladies and Gentlemen : It is a peculiar
Lake City, Utah Rev. E. M. ; gratification to me to welcome so many
Taylor, M.A., Knowlton Rural ;
of our friends here to-day, their pres-
Dean Robinson, Clarenceville Ru- ;,
ence indicating a continued interest in
ral Dean L/ewis, Cowansville Rev. ;
furthering the purposes of our organiza-
At must have
H. Plaisted, Dunham Rev. W. ;
tion. times, I confess, I

that the workers were few although


felt
Bernard, Bedford Rev. R. Y. Ov-;

the harvest was indeed plentiful. Your


ering, Stanbridge Rev. Mr. Brown ;
officers are always greatly encouraged by
Bedford Mr. Alex. Watson, Pike
any expression of sympathy and interest
;

River Mr. J. J. Mullin, Bedford


| ;
on your part and I earnestly entreat
Thos. Hunter, Venice Mrs. Fre- ;
you to continue during the coming year
li'gh, Mrs. Morgan, Mrs. Decker, such a measure of interest that they
Mrs. Chevalier, Mrs. McGowan, will feel encouraged to greater effort and
Mrs. Z. K. Cornell, Miss Borth- thereby much more ground will be covered
wick, Mr., Mrs. and Miss Saun- than ever before.
ders, Mr. and Mrs. E. Cume, It is true that the continuity and suc-
Mr. and Mrs. Constantiticau, cess of organization depends almost
our
and Mr. George Capsey, Bed- entirely upon sentiment, and sentiment
ford ;
Miss Bradley, St. Ar- is not readily engendered in a new and
mand Mr. Lampey, Boston Mr.
;
;
developing society it is only in our re-
and Mrs. F.W. Jones, Mrs. Herbert trospective moments that the softer emo-
tion intervenes and we are carried away
Phelps, Mr. and Mtrs. C. O. Jones, to the realms of the unreal and non-
Miss Gladys Jones, Bedford; Miss In our bustle and hurry to sat-
existent.
Borland, Mr. E. R. Smith, St. isfy demands made upon us younger
the
Johns Mr. David Parker, Mr.
;
ones by the progress of our community,
Henry Goff, Major Wm. Russell, it is well, indeed, that we can pause in
Messrs. S. P. Knight, P. C. Moore, our strife to cast a glance backward at
C. S. Moore, Mrs. Theodora Moore the scenes intervening since the inception
from Stanbridge. And other pro- of our local municipal organizations. The
minent citizens. men and women who created our inde-
of them
The morning session was opened pendence are all gone and many
are forgotten. It has been said that the
at ii a.m., President C. O. Jones,
pioneer in any walk of life leaves only
in the chair.
his bones over which later comers duti-
It w as moved by Mr.
r
J. P.
fully erect a monument. It is hardly so
Noyes, K.C., seconded by Hon. in this case. The memories of the pion-
Judge McCorkill that the minutes eers of this country would ever have re-
of the last annual meeting having] mained in oblivion had they depended up-
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
on those who came after to erect their likely or possible. Much more remains to
memorial. They are not indebted to us be done and what we may now consider
in this matter they erected a substantial as beyond the range of possibility may
and durable memorial of their existence. be easily accomplished after the comple-
This country, with its farms and vil- tion of the necessary preliminary work.
lages, remains as a monument to those We are simply links in a chain and our
hardy characters. We
look about us, and simple efforts may enable our successors
take great credit for considerable achieve- to do many things that we would, but
ments ; although we occupy
but, really, that we consider beyond our capability.
we built We
found here a goodly
not. It is not well that we should feel des-
heritage and we have entered into it. pondent. Our work, appearing to us so
W e cannot avoid giving, if we are fair-
T
difficult and so lacking in results, may be,
minded and readily acknowledge merit, to and, probably is, only necessary as a
the pioneers of this country, the fullest prelude to the real work of the society
measure of credit for what we are and when it have gained that stability
shall
for what we have. and momentum which invariably results
It is not likely that the true history from the well'doing of the little things.
of the I do not mean to
County of Missisquoi will ever be your achieve-
belittle
written. The record of the successes of ments for I know the price
that has
the great ones of our little world will been paid as their equivalent, but they
be resurrected and preserved but the may be only a voice in the wilderness, a
story of the true builders of our towns forerunner of a more perfect fruition of
and townships, those hardy sons of toil our hopes and wishes.
who cleared the farms and built the 1 must not moralize longer as there
primitive mills, must ever remain a mat- are other points upon which I Avish to
ter of conjecture. We read of the kings, touch. I regret that
I cannot speak de-

statesmen, and soldiers, to whom Eng- finitely of the administration of the busi-
land's greatness is attributed ;
but of the ness affairs of our organization. Our an-
men who manned the factories and ships nual report was issued as usual, edited by
the men who really made England Mrs. Moore and Mr. Noyes. We are deep-
never a word. Yet all wealth, power and ly indebted to them for this and similar

progress is dependent entirely upon lab- work that they have done for us. These
or and no real advantage can be gained reports will long remain as evidence of
except it result from it. Should intellect their ability in this To the
direction.
be so exalted ? Why not yield to our secretary we also owe a debt of grati-
forerunners the credit due them and, in tude that we may be long in repaying.
gratitude, reclaim in a measure the mem- Mrs. Morgan, the President of the Wo-
ory of their existence, made up, as it man's Committee, has proven herself an
was, of toil and self-sacrifice ? We should industrious and painstaking worker and
act. Time passes We fix our I am sure that no one could do more
quickly.
attention on some
prospective incident, in her position lo increase our influence
perhaps a business venture, or a journey, than she has done. I know full well that
the time approaches and soon there re- I voice the sentiment of every member of

mains only an impression of the event. the society when I utter these words of
We are sailing swiftly down a stream, earnest appreciation, and extend to these
object after object is left behind and workers our sincere thanks.
soon shrouded in obscurity. Should we You have noticed many times, no
not employ the present ? Have we not doubt, the great office buildings that line
been too apathetic as regards the affairs many of the principal streets of our great
of our society ? We have striven, but our cities. Oftentimes some gigantic figure
ideals have never come to realization. carved in stone apparently supports many
Ideals in fact are elusive, like the horiz- stories of solid masonry. Every muscle
on they recede as we advance. We may stands out prominently, speaking elo-
feel discouraged at times at the lack of quentlv of the great strain in supporting
results from our labor, but we may con- the immense weight. If you were familiar
sole ourselves with the thought that we with the builders methods, you would
have at least accomplished a little more, know that these figures support no weight
perhaps, than we at one time thought whatever. They were placed in position
i8 MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL vSOClKTY.

after the .
walls were erected and manv The past twelve months have removed
times after the completion of the building. from the councils , of the world many
My position in the Missisquoi Historical whose wisdom and experience seemed in-

Society is a similar one. To a person dispensible to the welfare of humanity.


ignorant of the workings of our organi- Hut "God is in His world and all is

zation, it may appear


carry great that I well." Among those whose loss we deep-
weight in its affairs, hut such is not tlu
i
ly regret is the late Mr. Cyrus Thomas,
case. I, at present, am so situated that an honored member of this society, and a
I add nothing to the Society's stability historian who compiled a valuable con-
or usefulness. Realizing this fully and tribution to the history of the Eastern
knowing that the Society's interest, as Townships.
wellas my own, will be best served by We also mourn the loss of, the late Dr.
pursuing this course, must as.< you not I Robert Struthers, a valued son of Mis-
to nominate me for the position of "resi- sisquoi, and one interested in the broad
dent another year. I may be taking much field of life and in the efforts of this so-

for granted in making this request. You ciety to give the honor and appreciation

may have no intention of nominating me, due -to our home land and to those who
but know that you are kindly disposed.
I have made it what it is.
I do not wish you TO believe that I am Hut we may console ourselves with the
insensible of the honor you have done me thought that personal influence does not
in times past, ln:t I fivl that my useful- die it is cumulative.
ness to the society lies in some other di- Key. III'. Tucker justly says In "The
rection than occupying the position oi Camden Colony" "At the present time
:

chief executive. I am still a young man Canada is at the stage where new Euro-
and my business is of a very exacting na- pean (and other foreign) deposits may
ture. Naturallv the society's affairs are soon obliterate some or all of the valu-

many times, no doubt, negle"te-d to tin- able traditions that have given strength
advantage of my personal interests. Last and romance to the young nation. Hence
year demurred at my re-election, this
[ it behooves us to perpetuate the records
year I wish to forestall your action and of pioneer families." And we may add,
make a most emphatic request that you let us leave our own on the 'foot-prints
pass ire by, as I cannot longer remain in sands of time,' as a sign that 'what we
my ]:re,sent position. have we hold.'
I thank you, ladies and gentlemen, for We see with, satisfaction, that the wo-
the kindly interest you have shown, by men of Canada are fast awakening to
the attention you have given me. It is their responsibility in the moulding of

not likely that I will soon appeal to you the national character which is made up
under similar circumstances and with of the units of a household or a neigh-
these closing words,
enjoin you let me borhood no less than of larger associa-
to each do a little to help on the work, tions.

for the united services of many are more Man moves with the force of the natur-
al elements that carry all before them
potent than the struggles of the isolated
few, no matter how strenuous they may with great show of power. Woman's in-
be and, as time glides onward, the mul- fluence, like that of the sea, is scarcely

titudes of little things that each member thought of unless it be withdrawn.


of the Society may do, will mold them- From the first settlement of the coun-
selves into a composite whole, the at- try, Canadian women have been home-
tainment of the objects of our organiza- makers, fulfilling the part to which na-
tion. ture assigned them, and facing the duties
devolved by the exigencies of the times,
ADDRKSS BY MRS. S. A. C. from generous hospitality at their scant
board, to the moulding of bullets, scrap-
MORGAN.
ing of lint and the defence of their homes
August 24th, 1908. by force of arms, and messenger service
Time a in times of peril.
passing train that car-
is like
ries us onward to our destination, while Now, the home has expanded beyond the
the scenes and events that we pass four walls of the dwelling till it includes
through recede into history. the Dominion.
MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIKTY.
In our private homos it is tacitly un- Nor must we fail to give generous
derstood that man
conduct the gen-
shall praise to our convent schools whose cur-
eral affairs upon which depend the main- riculum is now modified to conform to
tenance and protection of the family ;
the requirements of the Provincial Board
while woman devotes herself to the care of Education, and whose pupils are re-
of the family as individuals their health, marked for their grace of manner and
education, morals and manners. pleasing address.
Miss .Jean Graham says "How We are proud to say that the same
:
quickly
one can tell whether the mother is a wo- kindliness, intelligence and loyalty that

man who characterize Missisquoi County, pervade


giving her family anything of
is
our fair Dominion, whose waving grain
the culture that is more excellent !"
This is what woman is solicitous about
and luxuriant forests invite the stranger
in the language of Emerson's pine tree
though her range of thought has
:

to-day,
broadened with the growth of the nation.
Apropos to this:, and in conclusion, al-
low me to say that one interested in edu-
cation, and particularly in the success of
"The runes that I rehearse
our local institutions, marks with favor
Understands the universe."
the result of the influence and training

imparted to the pupils of Missisquoi's su-


school for Dunham Ladies' "My branches speak Italian,
perior girls
College. English, German, Basque, Castilian,
Mountain speech to Highlanders,
In addition to the excellent class stand-
Ocean tongues to islanders,
ing of the pupils, the refined, unobtru-
sive womanliness as exemplified by
To Finn, and Lap and swart Malay
its
To each his bosom secret say."
graduates is indeed 'the substance of thing-;
hoped for,' and reflects much credit on Respectfully submitted,
the solicitous care of the teachers, and on
the parents who loyally patronize that
S. A. C. MORGAN 7
,

institution. P'-es. Woman's Committee M.H.S.

BY MOONLIGHT.

We wandered forth, Love and I,


my
When all was when hanging high
still,
The full moon silvered bank and stream ;

She sifted on us flecks of light


'Twixt leaves that quivered in the night,
As restless infants
1

stir in dream.

But ah There were in that soft scene


!

Bright memories, the shades between.


Beloved forms had leaned where we
Then stood, upon the bridge that spanned
The stream, intent with toil they'd planned
For time, that glideth to the sea.

Just here the store, and there the mill,


Tho' passing, yet a mission fill,
And still the stream goes glinting by,
Unfailing in its ceaseless flow
To broader scenes and brighter glow
And even so, my Love and I.
S. A. C. M.
2O MISSIvSOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
the Third Annual Report of the
SECRETARY-TREASUR- edited
Society. Lest the public should give un-
ER'S REPORT .
due appreciation in the work of prepar-
ing this most creditable and interesting
The Sec-retary-Treasurer in his report
report, I will simply state that he (the
said :
was conspicuous by his ab-
Secretary)
Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen /
sence from the country about that time.
In presenting this, my third annual re-
Many words of appreciation have come
port, to the members of this society, the to us in regard to the Third Annual Re-
first thought which presents itself to me port of the M.C.H.S.
is my indebtedness, as Secretary, to a The annual members now number 91.
few energetic and deeply interested per- Cowansville, Sweetsburg, and Scottsmore
sons, whose untiring interest and unre- together furnish 40 names Bedford 12,
;

munerated labors continue to keep the Dunham 8, Farnham 7, Stanbridge 3 and


society in an extremely vigorous condi- Frelighsburg, Philipsburg, Venice, Clar-
tion. The situation sometimes reminds enceville, Meig's Corner, St. Armand and
me of the old story entitled, "How- Mystic one each. Individual members
Mary and I killed the bear." You will throughout the Dominion and the United
remember that Mary led the attack States make up the balance. I have no
which her companion directed from the doubt whatever that our membership
housetop. In like manner I might relate could be quadrupled by a personal canvass
how the Secretary's assistant and I of the county. We need a Secretary who
-wrote several hundred letters during the has the time and ability to devote to this
past year, how Mr. Noyes compiled and work.

FINANCIAL STATEMENT
of the

Missisqtioi Historical Society for the year ending,

August, 2oth, 1908.

Receipts. Expenses.

Cr. Bal. from last year 41.92 Dr. Bonus to Secretary at


Gift at annual meeting annual meeting 25.00 . .

from Hon. Judge Mc- Paid on Mr. E. R.


Corkill 10.00 Smith's printing bill 93-54
Sold 9 copies "Voice of Printing 5.50
River 4-5 Postage 11.29
I life member . . . .
5-OO Sundries 4.38
Membership fees . .
98.00
Reports sold . . . .
-5.10 Total expenses .
139.71
Cash on hand to balance 24.81

$164-52 $164.52

Outstanding Accounts.

Bills payable $91.31


Less cash on hand 24.81

Deficit $66.50
MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIKTY. 21

The vSecrctary then referred to societiesand institutions, is indis- 1

/etterswhich he had received. It pensable and is earnestly request-


was ordered that theiy be printed ed.
in the next annual report as well Will you kindly supply for the
as the newspaper references to organization (Missisquoi County
our reports. Historical Society) which you re-
present, the requisite information
vSIR JAMES MACPHERSON under each of the heads in the in-
IvEMOINE. closed outline, and forward it to
the
Office of the
Spencer Grange, May 17, '08.
Handbook to Learned Societies,
Dear Sir Please present my
:

Library of Congress,
thanks to the President and Direct-
Washington, D.C., U.S.A.
ors of the Missisquoi and District
Society for sending me their an- Very truly yours,
nual report which, on perusal, I
find extremelv interesting it cov-
ers a great deal of ground, and
;
HERBERT PUTNAM,
throws much light on an import- Librarian of Congress.
ant portion of the Dominion. I
was pleased to find a picture and The forms were filled out and
notice of Win. Mead Pattison, a forwarded .

former and esteemed correspondent


of mine.
Mr. J. P. Noyes' paper on the
IT. E. Loyalists, is excellent. I DEPT. OF THE INTERIOR.
was particularly interested in it.
The type, paper and illustration Geographer.
in your report, do credit to your
society. Ottawa, May i8th, 1908.
Yours truly,
Dear Sir : I note in the "Review 7

J. M. LEMOINE. of Historical publications relating


to Canada," a review of the second
report of your Society. As these
papers would be of much assist-
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, ance to me in connection with my
Washington, D. C., work, I desire to obtain copies of
same.
May 8, 1907.
If there are any of our maps
Dear Sir The Carnegie Institu-
:
that would be useful to yooir So-
tion has in preparation, under my ciety, I shall be pleased to supply
Handbook
Learned of same.
direction, a
Societies and Institutions, which
JAMES WHITE,
is to contain information of im- Geographer.
librari- Secretary,
portance to investigators,
ans and others but not hitherto Missisquoi Historical Society,
presented in convenient form. Bedford, Que.
In order that the statement
about each may be accurate and The reports were sent and duly
adequate, the co-operation of the acknowledged.
22 MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIKTY.

The Boolkseller and Stationer of Detroit, Mich.,


Canada has this to say : June II, 1 9os.

Kditorial Oflice, Toronto, Chas. S. Moore, Sec.-Treas.,


March 23, 1908. Missisquoi Historical Society,
Stanbridge Kast, One.
Chas. S. Moore, Esq.,
Stanbridge, P.O. Dear Sir I wish to thank
:
you
very heartily for the copy of Mis-
Dear Sir Your kind letter of
sisquoi Historical Society Annual
:

March conveying information


20.
Report recently received from you.
about the Missiquoi County His- Its pages are of deep interest to
torical Society, is much appreciat- me. You are to be congratulated
ed. examined the two reports,
I
for your efforts contained in this
to which you referred, at the Pu- line report, I wish to be continued
blic Library today and was much as a member and take pleasure in
impressed by the virility shown in enclosing one dollar which I be-
your organization. Usually these lieve is the annual dues.
historical societies are kept alive
with difficulty by the efforts of a
Yery respectfully yours,
W. B. PATTISON,
very few members, but your so-
ciety seems to have a large and (A son of the late Major P.)
interested membership.
I shall await with interest the FROM MRS. PATTISON.
arrival of your third report mean-
while am
inserting in oair forth-
I Clarenceville, May 30, 1908.

coining a short paragraph


issue dear Mrs. Moore
about your society and when the My :

report comes something more will I received a copy of the third re-
be said about it. port which you so kindly sent me
Thanking yon most heartily for and for which I am very thankful,
your jkind reply to our previous and would send, through you, my
letter, belie, ve me, warmest thanks and appreciation
Yours truly, to the President, Secretary, Mr.
\V. A. CRAICK, Noyes and any others, who have
Editor B. & S. shown such high appreciation of,
and spoken in such kind terms of
Mr. Pattison's efforts in behalf of
287 University St., the society and in other ways..
Montreal, Mar. 16, '08. I want to congratulate you on
the appearance of your third re-
Dear Mr. Moore :

port.
Yours sincerely,
I may say that I was brought up
on the traditions of Missisquoi CHARLOTTE K. PATTISON.
county, both my parents having
been born there, as indeed, I was
48 Elm St., Toronto,
myself a half century ago. I at- June
tended school in Dunham in my 14, 1908.

youth and resided t\vo years in I am late in acknowledging your


Frelighsburg where I taught in the very kind and sympathetic letter,
Academy some thirty years ago. as w ell as the report, both
r
of
Yours very truly, which I was very glad to receive.
H. H. CURTIS. The report is extremely interesting
MlSSIvSOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIKTY.
and well got up, and I am grati- The Secretary received this val-
lied with the sketch of my clear uable criticism regarding the third
lather. annual report from Mr. K. I v Wat- .

With sincere thanks for your son, of Dunham, "The report is


jkindness, very, creditable. Your commenda-
I
remain, tion of the 'well written sketch' of
Yours very Pike River, bv A. W., which he
truly,
styles 'irregular and incomplete,'
vSARAH C. THOMAS. is not only what you state, but
a model for communicating relia-
ble information. I only wish it
Ollice of the Archivist, covered more pages, and that you
Ottawa, 13th Aug. 1908. may secure the same pen for fut-
ure productions."
Dear Sir I have received
:
your
invitation to attend the annual In July numbers of The News
meeting of the Missisquoi Histor- the Rev." Dr. Tucker, lately of
ical Society on the joth instant, I St. Johns, and who is the
fear that my duties here will not author of a very interesting
permit me to leave Ottawa but ; book, publishes two letters anal-
I shall make an effort to be pre- yzing and reviewing the third an-
sent. nual report. Dr. Tucker's critic-
I remain, ism is so able and coinpliment-
Faithfully yours, ry that w
would like t'o quote
ARTHUR DOUGHTY. largely from it, it time would al-
low.
These few selected sentences es-

18 Darling St., pecially arrest one's thoughts :

Montreal, Aug. lyth, "Mr. Noyes and his co-laborers


are very far from assuming that
Montreal, Aug. I7th, 1908.
things are sacred because they are
Chas. S. Moore, ancient it is because they are of
Esq., B.A., ;

sacred importance that they be-


Stanbridge, One. come ancient. And these writers,
Dear Sir I regret my inability
: enjoying a fellowship in literary
to attend the annual meeting of pursuits, intercommunion of spirit
the M. C. H. S. in Bedford on in wayselevating, a're most not-
Thursday next particularly in ably adding to the wealth of their
view of the prospective visit and country's literature and at the
address of Jno. W. Saxe, Esq., same time graciously serving hu-
whom 1 hoped to meet. manity. For, in recognition of
I am sure you will have an inter- each man's freedom, our only right
fact of two to coerce him is in the play upon
esting occasion as the
sessions being arranged for assures, his reason and moral convictions,
and the quickening of the histor- which, perchance, we may accom-
ical spirit as shown by the various plish by an abl2 advocacy of help-
articles your last report justi-
of ful ideals. And history is valuable
fies us in expecting. only sor- Am as showing the products of
rv that I cannot have a share in ideals."
the pleasure of attending.
quoting from Dr. Tucker
Still :

Yours truly, "I could suggest that as the


W. BOWMAN TUCKER. churches have done so much to
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
make thepeople (the peo- Spirit of the Muse has been there.
ple usually think they make the But happens that the
it ,so of/ten
churches), the Society would do spirit fails to take on bodily or
well to encourage complete histo- literary shape. One cannot help
ies of the churches, showing what wishing that the teachers in our
they have particularly done for schools were better qualified to
their localities, and the characters teach their pupils the arts of
that have been connected with poetry rhyme and metre -
them." and an intelligent and appreciative
"To one who like the present criticism. Unfortunately many
writer enjoys the pastime of read- scholars leave school with an ab-
ing character from photos these horrence of the poetic, and we have
cuts are even more suggestive than reason to believe that many a tune-
the sketches. They are all ''old- ful note is thereby silenced. Poetry
timers,' and that means that they is the music of the soul, expressing
hear the marks of settled convic- itself through the dream language
tion, strong purposes, conscienti- of the intellect. But when a teach-
riess and unquestioning faith in the er tells his pupils that poets have
righteousness of the end they have something wrong with their brain,
in view. Look in .those faces again is it any wonder if courage is not
and see if such are not the lines equal to the task of productive-
therein, and note, too, the utter ab- ness ? A French writer has said
sence of the time-serving, self-seek- that man}-, poets die young. That
ing spirit. The Missisquoi Histori- is our country's misfortune."
cal Society does'well to keep up the
Here Dr. T. quotes a stanza
elevation of ideals by which the from Mrs. Bugeia :

young are to be governed.."


"I would not, if I could, pass "And O, the hills of Dunham,
over the delightful reminiscences The old, old hills !

from Miss Tittemore (a name link- Even in my dreaming


ed with the founders of Methodism How their beauty thrills."
in this country), Dr. Farnsworth,
Lewis B. Hibbard, and of Miss "The theme is worthy. The ex-
Nancy Hawley, the most ancient pression natural. It's the cry of
of all, and whose connections on
delighted childhood let out for a
the Hawley side may easily be holiday. It is the home-coming
found in Ontario as well as in
daughter, who knows no place like
Quebec." HOME. Mrs. Morgan's "Missis-
"The cuts illustrating the art- quoi Bay" is reminiscent, patriotic,
icles on 'Pike River' throw one in- restful and meditative. One won-
to a dreamy mood until he re- ders if the poet has not chided the
calls school-bov days by the river inertia of man in the midst of Mis-
bank, and wishes he could refresh sisquoi 's unsurpassed loveliness
himself amid such quiet nature and inspiration, when she sings :

scenes as those of Pike River."


Mr. T. agrees with the learned " 'T was here she paused to lave
critic at Wash., who said that her wounded wing,
America needed poets "Else-
: And 011 thy verdant shores
where I have expressed my won- found safe retreat.
der that the voices of nature heard O'er thy repose she still is hov-
in St. Armand had not produced a ering,
great Canadian poet. I am glad Though busy toil moves on with
to find by this report that the weary beat.
MISvSIvSOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIKTY.
In summer-time here town and ed that Brome and Missisquoi
country dream, should be comparatively alone in
Or on thy bosom sport the live- this work. It is true that Comp-
long day ;
ton has its published history.
Missisquoi, with her charms of Stanstead has its "Forests and
dale and stream Clearings" and some counties find
Has nothing to compare with a partial record of their early
thee, fair Bay." days in some other published
worjks. But Sherbrooke, Rich-
The poet who wrote these lines mond, Stanstead and Shelf ord
has capacity for more, and we have no adequate story of their
trust she will add to the enriching early days. The task of collecting
of the literature of her county and material becomes every year more
of onr country as a whole. difficult, and in a very short time
will be impossible.
Yours truly, The pioneer days of every one of
BOWMAN TUCKER, these border counties were days of
W.
heroic endeavor against many dif-
3 8 Darling St., Montreal. and amid great hardships.
ficulties
The records of those days would
July 6, 1908. be an inspiration to, all future gen-
erations in this section of country.
It is to be hoped that the success
which is attending the historical
In its issue of Tuesday, May 26, societies of Brome and Missisquoi
1908, the Sherbrooke Daily Record, will supply the needed incentive
under attractive head lines, and for the organisation of similar so-
garnished with a life-like picture cieties in other counties of the
of onr worthy president, publishes Kastern Townships."
a most excellent and appreciative
review, of the third annual report,
together with a list of officers, Just here, I would like to take
directors, honorary members and
the opportunity to publicly express
life members.
my appreciation of t'he Sherbrooke
Quoting in part from the Re- Record Company for many, kind-
cord :
nesses and courtesies to the so-
"Wonder has often been express- ciety.
Sec'v..
MISSISOUOI COUXTV HISTORICAL SOCIETY

A Good Work.

ELOQUENT TRIBUTE TO THE MISSISOUOI HISTORICAL


SOCIETY.

(Montreal Gazette, June 1908.) later settlers,


the writer continues:
This subject is all the more im-
The Missisqnoi County Historic-
al Society, to the work of which portant from the fact that Unit-
more than ed States historians have be-
we have already
once called attention, has re- gun to do justice to the Loyalists.
its third an-
One of the latest and most careful
cently published of them
nual It contains thus apologi/.es for his
report.
much valuable information regard- predecessors "Our writers ignore
:

the position of the Loyalists and


ing the early settlement of the
their terrible conflict with the pa-
Eastern Townships, concerning dis-
leadersin triots, whom thev almost equalled
tinguished pioneers, in numbers." This writer shows
war, in peace, in agriculture, in
mercantile life, in municipal ad-
in ho\\ many ways misunderstand-
ministration and in local develop- ing was caused by the exaggerat-
ment. There is one point to which ions of the revolutionists as to the
attention is called by one of the character, aims, actions, standing
and creed of the Loyalist party.
society's honorary presidents (Mr.
John P. Noyes, K.C.), in which it For a long time Sabine stood
alone, but no\v it is the old thick-
is important that right opinions and-thin anti-British writer whose
should prevail. There is no quali-
fication that is object was not to discover and
significantly ap-
make known the truth.
plied to anv class, community or
individual that has been more va- "Our histories," says a candid
guely and, in the very nature of and able historian, "sneaking es-
things, incorrectly used than the pecially of the Revolution "are
term "1 1C. Loyalist" in connec-
T
. able rhetorical efforts, enlarged
tion with the history of Quebec Fourth of July orations or pleas-
and Ontario in the i8th century. ing literary essays on selected
As we know, there were some Bri- phases of the contest. There has
tish families settled in the Marit- been no serious attempt to mar-
ime Provinces and in Quebec (Low- shall all the original sources of in-
er Canada) before the Loyalist set- formation." But, within a few
tlement. \Ye know or have the years, a new leaf has been turned,
means of knowing a good deal and some of the recent accounts of
about these earlier settlers, their the War of Independence mark a
origin, standing, and, in a good revolution in the writing of his-
many cases, their descendants - tory. And there is no phase of
some of them persons of mark and that conflict on which so much
influence are still living in the fresh light has been shed by the
places where their forefathers made new school of historical research
themselves a home. as that which concerns the princi-
After determining the difference ples and movements of the Loyal-
between U. E. Loyalists and ists.
MISS1SOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 27

Mr. No-yes is in good company merit, as because it oilers a fine


\vlien heundertakes to write town- example what such associations
of
ships' history on the basis, not of may accomplish. Nor is it alone
mere tradition or reputation, but even in the Townships and ;

on that of contemporary docu- through other parts of Canada our


ments. We are glad, however, to historical societies have done a
have an opportunity of commend- work of research which has been
ing the work that this deserving recognized, not in Canada only,
society the Missisquoi County but in the United States and
Historical Society had already
1

Europe.
achieved, as well for its intrinsic

It is gratifying to be favorably In a private letter Mr. H. I.


noticed by The Review of Historic- Aver, of Columbia, Ohio, express-
al Publications, relating to Cana- es kindly interest in the society.
da (Toronto University). Mr. Aver is onlv one of many to
From Vol. 12 we quote the fol- express appreciation .in a private
lowing in reference to our 2nd re- way.
port :-.

The Secretary has lately receiv-


"The Missisquoi Historical So- ed valuable reports from The On-
ciety (*) is one of the few local tario Historical Society, The Lit-
historical societies in the Province' erary and Historical Society of
of Quebec and is doing excellent Quebec, and The Vermont Histor-
work. In connection with the ical Society.
word Missisquoi Mr. Noyes proves
that it is derived from the Abena-
We are indebted to Mr. Giroux
ki
for an excellent translation into
language (however unlike, it French of our circular, regarding
now) and that its meaning is "the
where iiiusket-ilints are prizes offered for best historical es-
place
found." It was at Philipsburg, says, appearing in a late issue of
on the shores of Missisquoi Bay, I,e Correspondent, Farnham, Que.
that in 1759 Rogers and his Rang- Mr. Giroux is also the author of
ers landed to undertake the des- a valuable and interesting article
truction of the Abenaki villages appearing in our third annual re-
situated on the river St. Francis. port, entitled "The Farnham Hos-
It was to Clarenceville and Saint- pital." This article will help to
Armand that in 1783 some Amer' bring to the notice of the public an
ican colonists went from the State institution of which many of us
of New York, to which their ances- are in ignorance. An institution
tors in turn had come from the Pa- doing the
1

no'blest kind of work, and


latinate. It is known that several doing it in a large way an insti-
;

of these American Germans emi- tution whose doors are freely open
grated to Ontario, and it would to all the sick, the orphans, the
be curious to know if any connec- unfortunate, without regard to na-
tion has been kept up between the tionality or religious faith. "If
two groups. The origin of other one suffers from hunger or pain,
settlements is admirably told in admittance isgained without other
the Report." qualifications or restraint." We
are glad to have our report a me-
(*) Second report of the Missis- dium through which some know-
quoi County Historical Society, ledge of this noble institution may
Bedford, 1907, Pp. 60. be brought before the public.
28 MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.

The Secretary then continued : ELECTION OF OFFICERS.


I regret to record the death of two
prominent members during the The election of officers was then
year, namely Dr. Robert Struthers, taken up. Both the President and
of Sudbury, Ontario, and honor- Secretary declared that in conse-
ary member, Cyrus \V. Thomas. quence of their pressing duties they
Ksq., of Toronto. could not possibly accept renomin-
Some ation, whereupon Judge Lynch,
interesting and valuable
relicshave been offered the Secret- deeply regretting the decision of
two chiefexecutive officers, and
ary, for the society, for which- we. tribute to their zeal and
wish to express our appreciation paying
and thanks. efficiency submitted the name of
the Hon. Mr. Justice McCorkill for
At this stage of the proceedings the presidency. He urged his elec-
an adjournment was made when tion on several grounds but chiefly
all present accepted the cordial in- because of the contemplated cele-
vitation of Mr. M. V. Rice, of Salt bration next summer by the New
Lake City is now with Mrs.
(who York and Vermont Historical So-
Rice on an automobile tour to his cieties at some point along Lake
old home) and lunched with him Champlain of the tercentenary, an-
and Mrs. Rice at the Bedford niversary of the pioneer after
House, where an excellent spread whom the lake was named. Judge
had been prepared. Lynch said it was altogether prob-
The morning session was then able that the Missisquoi Historical
adjourned until 1.30 p.m., in or- Society would be invited to assist
der to accept Mr. and Mrs. Rice's in that celebration and it was con-

gracious invitation. sequentlv desirable that the Socie-


ty should be represented on that
occasion by a gentleman of ability,
social status and acquaintance
Afternoon session at 1.30 p.m. with the early history of this part
of the country, and he knew of no
was opened by the address of the
one who could surpass Judge Mc-
President of the Women's Com- Corkill in these particulars.The
mittee, Mrs. S. A. C. Morgan as motion was seconded by Mr. E. E.
appears on page 18. Spencer and enthusiastically car-
ried. Mr. McCorkill acknowledg-
The following amendment to the ed the compliment in warm terms
constitution was then moved by and accepted the honor paid him.
Mr. J. P. Noyes, seconded by Mr. At the same time he took occa-
K. R. Smith, and was carried un- sion to deliver a most interesting
animously :
speech in the course of which he
took his auditors to Quebec and
That the words "a Vice-Pres-
presented to their attention some
i

ident" in article IV of Constitu- vivid sketches of the recent magni-


tion be struck, and the words "one ficent tercentenary celebration in
or more Vice-Presidents" be sub- that city. He was loudly ap-
stituted therefor ;
plauded on resuming his seat.
2 the words "Vice-Pres-
That It was moved by Mr. Noyes and
ident" be struck in article V of seconded bv Mr. Geo. Capsey that
constitution and the w ords "Vice- r
Mr. E. E. Spencer and Mr. ~F. X.
Presidents" be substituted there- A. Giroux be elected Vice-Presid-
for. ents for the ensuing year. Carried.
MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 29

On motion of Mr. C. S. Moore, nephe\v of the poet John G. Saxe,


seconded by Mr. F. C. Saunders and whose ancestors were early
the following officers were elected : settlers in Missiquoi is as follows:
Honorary Presidents Hon. Jus-
tice I/ynch, Hon. Senator Baker, Boston, August 18, 1908.
Mr. J. P. Noy.es and Mr. C. O.
Jones. Dear Mr. Noyes :

Secretary E. W. Parker, Bed-


ford. May I ask you to express to my
fellow members of the Missisquoi
Auditor George Capsey, Bed-
Historical Society who may, be in
ford.
attendance at the annual meeting
Mr. Parker protested against
taking this office, as he expected
in Bedford, my greetings and my
to be out of the county later but regrets that I am not able to be
present and to take part as an-
;

his ability and talent for research


nounced by the Secretary in the
so eminently fitted him for this
notice of the meeting. This anti-
position, it Was sincerely hoped
that he would reconsider the cipated pleasure I am obliged to
give up at the last moment, but
I
matter and while here, give us his
assistance as secretary. He was am nevertheless with you in spi-
rit and shall look forward with
I
soon after called to Washington, D
eagerness to the annual report of
C., and was therefore unable to ac-
cept the position, though kindly your proceedings.
May I ask you also to present
offering to> assist us in other ways. to the Society the forwarded copy
It was moved by Mr. Noyes, se- of Bradford's ancient manuscript
conded by Mr. Saunders that Mr.
history of Plymouth Colony which,
Capsey be elected auditor. Carried. after a long absence, has returned,
Moved by Mr. Giroux, seconded and is now regarded as the corner-
by Rev. Rural Dean Robinson, stone of the history of the Com-
that Mrs. S. A. C. Morgan, be re- monwealth of Massachusetts. The
elected President of the Woman's curious history of this manuscript
Committee. Carried. indicates that many similar re-
It was moved by Mr. Giroux, cords may lie slumbering and only
seconded by Mr. Noyes that all awaiting for some Historical So-
past honorary presidents be re- ciety to rouse them to take their
elected, and that the name of Mr. true place in history.
C. O. Jones be added to the list. The career of this manuscript by
Carried. Win. Bradford, one of the first
On motion ofMr. E. R. Smith, Governors of the Plymouth Colo-
seconded by Mr. Giroux, the se- ny, makes a romantic page of his-
lection of local officers was left
tory in itself. This precious docu-
to the executive, committee. ment was used by several New-
Then followed an address by Mr. England writers and finally
Noyes in which he presented to the came into the possession of the
society a valuable book, given by Rev. Thomas Prince, pastor of the
John M. Saxe, Esq., Attorney at Old South Church, who kept his
Law, of Boston, Mass. books in a little study-room in
It was moved by Hon. Judge the steeple, and bequeathed them
McCorkill, seconded by Mr. Cap- in 1758 to the church. After the
sey that a vote of thanks be ten- British troops evacuated Bcxston
dered to Mr. Saxe for his generous in 1779, the Bradford manuscript
gift. Carried unanimously. w as presently found to have van-
r

The letter of Mr. Saxe, who is a ished, and after unknown wander-
MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL vSOCIKTY.

ings was located by means of spe- a remarkable work historical so-


cial quotations therefrom,about cieties like yours are accomplish-
1858, in the library of the Bishop ing, and the important relation
of London's Palace at Fulham. The they sustain to our civic life.
return of the manuscript to the They perpetuate the deeds of the
Governor of Massachusetts was a forefathers and by intensifying pa-
graceful act of international court- triotism and good citizenship form
esy and the presentation thereof a bulwark of liberty.
was a memorable occasion, when The historical society in New
speeches of distinguished diplomats Kngland has flourished ami taken
and scholars accompanied the re- dee]) root in every town, county
turn to the Archives of this valua- and state. The library of these
able manuscript. May this copy societies is filled with town-his-
remind the Society that Canada tories, so that, apparently, each
and New England in the romance town contributing its special
is
of colonization have a common history to form the history of the
heritage. State. The people have supported
these societies generously and in
May I also ask you to present to many cases as part of civic duty;
the Society a photograph of a mo-
the societies have taken their
nument recently erected in the Ja- as established institutions
maica Pond places
Parkway, by his and are proud of their scholars and
friends, to the memory of Fralncis
libraries.
Pairkman, who discovered the pic- The Missisquoi Society has now
turesque side of Canadian life and
won great fame in writing the an- published its third annual report
and proved itself worthy of a more
nals of Canada, which are still the
classics in her history. His bio- general and generous support. The
work of an historical society is
graphy should arouse your tender co-operative and rests upon the
regards for his noble life and for
his works as yet unsurpassed for special acceptance of personal res-
ponsibilities by each member, and
literary excellence, for appreciat- not like the "willing team" with
ive spirit and for the vast range
one horse willing to do all the
of reliable information.
work and the other willing that
Your second annual report had a he should. The society and its of-
special article by yourself on "The ficers are to be congratulated upon
Germans in Missisquoi," which the success achieved and to be en-
opened up an interesting chapter in couraged in the good work
the history of German coloni/.a- until your membership roll num-
tion. As a descendant of one of bers a thousand of willing workers.
these German pioneers in Missis- Thanking you again for your cor-
quoi County, I sincerely hope that dial invitation, I remain,
some member of your Society will Faithfully yours,
undertake the history in detail of JOHN \V. SAXK.
these German settlers who are
worthy of a place in the annals of The following gentlemen then de-
Missisquoi. livered short Rev. E.
addresses :

An index to the publications and M. Taylor, Hon. Judge Lynch,


transactions of the historical so- Rev. Mr. Lewis, Mr. F. X. A. Gir-
cieties of the United States and oux, and Rev. Mr. Plaisted, Dun-
Canada, published by the Library ham, after which the meeting was
of Congress, (a remarkable bibio- informally adjourned.
'

S. S. MOORE,
graphy) has recently come into my
Sec. pro. tern.
possession. This book shows what
P AIRFIELD.
The above cut represents the Cowansville residence of Hon. J. S. McCorkill,
Judge of the Superior Court, (Quebec. It was built in ISfi.'i
by the late Win.
Carter, Esq., in his life-time of the widely known firm of Carter & Cowan,
wholesale merchants, I\Iont:eil. It r.assed to his son, Win. P. Carter, Ksq., who
sold it a few y.ears ago to Judge McCorkill.
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY

Annual Meeting- -1909.

The annual meeting of the Mis- The President, Judge McCorkill,


sisquoi Historical Society was then gave the annual address,
held at Bedford on Monday after- which was as follows :

noon, the 3oth August, 1909, in


the Town Hall. The Hon. Judge THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS
McCorkill, President, occupied the
chair, while Mr. Charles Moore, Ladies and Gentlemen :

B.A., acted as Secretary. Among Personally, and as President of the


others present were Rev. K. M. M.H.S., I extend to you, members and
Taylor, M.A., representative of friends, a very hearty welcome, and I
Brome H,ist. Societv Mr. J. P.
; bespeak for the Society continued
Noyes, K.C., Rev. W. P. R. Lew- even increased interest, not only in
and Mrs. J. C. its meetings, but in everything that
is, McCorkill,
Cowansville Mr. and Mrs. W. V. will tend to its success, and to its use-
;

Mr. R. T. fulness to the county and to the coun-


Rice, Salt Lake City ;

try.
Hazard, Austin, Texas Mr. K. ;

L. Dunham Mr. and An old and trite saying, to the


Watson, ;

Mrs. Jenkins, St. Arinand; Mr. K. speaker, and to the occasion, is,, 'that
"an open confession is good for the
R. Smith, St. Johns and from
soul!" My confession is that I have
;

in and around Bedford and Stan-


done nothing during the past year to
bridge Mrs. Freligh, Mrs. S. A.
;
advance the Society's interests. I say
C. Morgan, Mrs. Theo. Moore, it with all due humility and regret, and
Rev. A. E. Mount, Mr. and Mrs. with a full realization that we are
C. O. Jones, Mr. and Mrs. Saun- taught to avoid sins of omission as well
ders, Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Gough, as sins of commission.
Mrs. S. Coslett, Mr. and Mrs. It is usual under like circumstances
Bockus, Mr. J. J. Mullin, Mr. to offer palliating excuses. I am fain
to further confess that I can offer no
George Capsey, Mr. H. F. Parker, satisfac-
Mr. Z. E. "Cornell, Mr. A. M. excuse that will be entirely
tory, even to myself. I may perhaps,
Stone, Mr. Robt. McKee, and the
however, be permitted to hope that my
Misses Gilman, Spring and Her-
absence from the county, the extreme-
bison and others. character of the work
ly laborious
Deep regret in consequence of the which I am required to do in my ju-
unavoidable absence through ill- dicial office,and the fact that I really
ness of Hon. Judge Lynch was ex- was elected for a particular represen-
pressed by the Chairman and other tative purpose, which did not material-
members. This was the first ize, may, in some measure, mitigate
the

meeting which His Lordship had degree of my offending. It was thought


missed since the Association was that perhaps the President of the His-
formed 12 years ago and no one re- torical Society of the only county in
Canada, which borders on Lake
gretted his inability to attend
more than he did himself, especi- Champlain, might be Invited to the
proposed festivities of our neighbors,
ally as he was a co-delegate with in commemoration of the discovery, 300
the Rev. Mr. Taylor from the
years ago, of that historical lake, by
Brome County Society. that great Frenchman of whom Dr.
The minutes of last meeting were Colby writes, in his "Canadian Types
read and approved. of the Old Regime," "from Columbus
MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 33

to Sir Alex. McKcnzie will be found the Society has suffered as a conse-
an explorer of a finer temper, or a quence.
more native genius" than Samuel de We all rejoiced to know that Missis-
Champlain. quoi with the rest of the Province and
One year ago we celebrated the 300th Dominion, were well and worthily re-
anniversary of our birth as a nation, presented as a nation, at peace, but
so-called, by festivities, ceremonies and prepared for war, in the persons of our
pageants of rare magnitude and mag-
esteemed Lt.-Governor, Sir Alph. Pel-
what we are wont letier, a former colleague of mine on
nificence, at, to af-
the
the Superior Court bench of the dis-
fectionately call, "ancient capital,"
trict of Quebec; Sir Lomer Gouin, my
looking out upon the great and beauti-
ful St. Lawrence, of which we are so
former chief, when I had the honor to
justly proud, where the foundation
form one of the executive of the Pro-
stone of the national structure was laid. vince, as its Treasurer, the Hon. Rod-

Every race was there Indians in Lemieux, Postmaster-General of Can-


their war paint and feathers, armed ada, one of the most eloquent, graceful
with bows and arrows Frenchmen, and finished orators of our Dominion.
some decked out in all the gay and pic- The Governor-General's Footguards of

turesque court and military trappings Ottawa, the Royal Highlanders of


of the "old regime," others in the less Montreal, two of our finest military or-
attractive garb of the peasant. Brit- ganizations, in the latter of which I
ishEnglish, Irish and Scotch,
the in
had the honor to hold a commission for
attractive uniforms of the various re- some nine years, and last but probably
giments which composed Wolfe's army. not the least interesting to the assem-
It was in every respect a most credit- bled crowds, by the descendants of the
able and glorious commemoration of Six Nations, who did their part to add
what must be to every to the historical interest of the Lake
Canadian, Brit-
ish as well as and surrounding country.
French, a great and
memorable national Of these interesting anniversary pro-
event.
ceedings, I can therefore only speak
After such tribute for the founding from hearsay, and from what I saw in
of a nation, neighboring it on the the press. That the Canadian repre-
north, how could the great, populous sentatives, provincial, national, mili-
prosperous and proud Republic be con- tary and aboriginal, acquitted them-
tent with anything mediocre or local selves with distinction, was admitted
in the commemoration of our hero's by everyone, and we of the M.H.S., de-
discovery, one year later, of the body clare ourselves to be content and satis-
of water, which our geographers teach fied.

us, is only the extension to the south The Society lias in the past been
of our own placid fishing ground, particularly fortunate, in both its sec-
"Missisquoi Bay," The occasion was tions, in the selection of its principal
graced by the great personal presence officers its working officers the pre-
of the head of the nation, and by the sidents, vice-presidents and secretaries.
less conspicuous presence of the gov- The success of a historical society de-
ernors of the contiguous states. I pends largely upon the enthusiasm and
may assure you that if the appropria- devotion to duty, of these officers. We
tions of the
bordering states, the limit- have heretofore, at our annual meetings
ed accommodation of the bordering been treated to addresses, not only of
towns, and the long list of distinguish- great interest, but of rare literary fin-
ed and representative Canadians, ca- ish and excellence. These addresses
pable of doing honor and credit to our have been embodied in the three re-
country, did not admit of the Cham- ports which the Society has given out,
plain Committee climbing down to the They are familiar to you, and I am sure
President of your Society, for Can- that my appreciation of them is only a
adian representation, the absence of an re-echo of your own individual opin-
invitation to the festivities must not be ions.
looked upon as a slight, and it I do not therefore intend to traverse
must not be inferred that the status of the same territory in the few remarks
34 MISSISQUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
I have to make. In them you will find year, as regularly as the year comes
fully set forth, the principal objects of round; from the Protestrnt or English
our Society, and the work which has panel to the Catholic or French panel.
been accomplished during the past year Our ambition seems to be to get away
except the publication and distribution from the soil at least of this Pro-
of the third report a most interesting vince, and to betake ourselves to the
and creditable publication, the credit great centres of commerce to trade, to
for \\hich is wholly dre to other mem- business; to the professions; or to the
bers of the Society. I am informed West to the wheat fields or to the
there is a '.a'ance due for the ^.ost of its mines. We cannot contemplate, though
production which must of course be we contribute to it, the passing of our
met without delay. race from this, our heritage this land
of merry and beautiful and ideal ma-
Although I do not intend further
to refer to what has been done, I shall ples these hills and valleys we love
though we abandon and flee from them,
trespass upon your patience for a mo-
without a tightening of the heart-
ment or two with a few observations
as to the future for while we know strings.
;

But, ladies and gentlemen, while we


that a good deal has been accomplished,
regret,aye regret, we would not be
much, indeed, lemains to be done, if we
are to achieve anything like a com- true Britishers if we were dead to the
of this historic instincts of the race or regret the pass-
prehensive history
ing of our race. We, however, attach
county.
no blame whatever, not the most in-
I wish, first, particularly to im-
particle of blame to the re-
finitesimal
press upon your minds what has
markably cohesive race which is suc-
more recently been impressing it-
ceeding us the remarkable race which
self upon mine. Undoubtedly you
know it already, but possibly you have through the centuries not only pre-
served Its identitv. its language, its cus-
not realized its significance to the work
toms and its religions, amid what
of the Society. I mean the fact that
might be considered not only adverse,
the English speaking element in this
but to a certain extent hostile sur-
county decreasing in numbers with
is
This is so not only roundings, for at least a portion of the
startling rapidity.
of Missisquoi, but also of other coun- time, in the territory within which it
was confined, when it came under the
ties of these beautiful Eastern Town-
It would seem to me that the
rule of a strange and theretofore hos-
ships.
race which redeemed these glorious
tile sovereign, but has spread out in
every direction,even to the neighboring
hills and fertile, beautiful valleys, from
their primitive, uninhabitable and al- Republic, still preserving its national
most impenetrable condition, to what language and
characteristics, religion.
They have been brought up to love the
we see them to-day-j-is passing from
soil of this native province
their
them-j-is giving place to a race which
loves the soil better than we do. I they have remained on the soil, if per-
have not had time to look up statistics, chance certain members of the family
even if I were so inclined, to see and have had to leave, they are advised,
realize the full significance of the when they can, to come back to the
movement, and how long it will possi-
soil. They are content and happy on
bly take to denude tnem entirely, but
the farm.. As a consequence we are
statistics are unnnecessary for my pur- emie-rating from the townships they
pose. I have only to remind you of are immigrating to them and taking
the number of the little red school our place.
houses, in which so many of us re- But it is not so much to bewail this
ceived our earliest training, and which sad condition of affairs, that I am re-
we will ever hold in reverence and af- ferring to it, as to draw a lesson from
fection, notwithstanding the well de- it for the benefit of our society; to
served stripes we associate with them, impress upon you and all our people
which have been, and which are from the immediate necessity, if we would
year to year being closed ;
of the farms hand down to future generations, the
which have passed and are from year to early history of our county, we must
MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 35

one and all bestir ourselves to obtain ships, whether in religious, political,
from those who can still furnish them, municipal, educational or social life
those -\vho are still with us, al,l the lo- generally. It must be evident to you
cal incidents v hich in any way had a
r all that if we allow those who can

bearing on the social, political (in inform us to pass away before we ob-
its broad and non-partisan sense), tain it much interesting and valuable
and religious life of the people. His- information will be lost.
tory is biography. Morang & Co., of It seems to me, ladies and' gentlemen,

Toronto, published a work in twenty everyone in the county should be in-


volumes, the last volume of which was terested in this work. This is parti-
given out a year or two ago, entitled cularly so of the descendants and con-
"The Makers of Canada." The bio- nections of the pioneers who first
graphies of the makers of Canada penetrated the forests of the various
governors, statesmen, educationists, townships and laid the foundations of
merchant princes cover a large part settlement, and of those who subse-
of the history and development of our quently helped in their development.
country. We want an important part I myself am a descendant of one of
of the biographies of the makers of the pioneers of Farnham, who, by the
this county, of the various townships, way, was not a United Empire Loyal-
towns and villages of the county, and ist, but who, nevertheless, on the
when we have them we will have an banks of the Yamaska, built for him-
important part of the history of Mis- selfand family a log cabin, and as one
sisquoi. These biographies should of our Canadian poets tells us, John
not be confined to the men, for the Tompkins, erected on the 2nd Conces-
gentler sex played their part and sion of Deer, in the sister Province of
played it well, else it had not grown Ontario,
and developed as it has.
"The front was logs all straight and
I need not say that we must not sound
confine ourselves to the biographies The gable was logs, all tight and
round."
alone of our people. We must con-
sult the archives at Ottawa and Que- It was not such a house as he had
bec the registry office, the court quitted in the City of Glasgow, but it
house, the secretaries of municipali- was warm in winter, and let us hope
ties, of school boards, and even of our it was fairly cool in summer.
histories, for are we not told that, dur- I have some information of the
ing the Seven Years War, between the early settlement, and of the subse-
French and British, for the possession quent history of Farnham. I intend
of the land, Major Robert Rogers, of to make it my business during the
the British force, landed at or near coming year to obtain more in fact,
Philipsburg, and from there, with his all I can, and to put it into form for
band of scouts, crossed the country on the archives of the society. May I
his way to attack and destroy the vil- ask others to do the same for their
lage of the Abenakis Indians on the own localities, and may I specially ap-
St. Francis river near Sorel. Other, peal to members of the Women's
and many like historical facts which Committee not only for a continuance
are to be found in the histories of the of the good work they have already
Dominion, were local to this county. done, but for increased effort in the
Missisquoi is rich in historical ad- direction have outlined.
I Some of
ventures, and eventually they should the finest and most interesting con-
all be gathered in; but what should tributions in the past have been from
engage our more immediate attention their pens or have been due to their
are the local facts as distinguished assistance and encouragement. I trust
from national; everything which per- I may not be disappointed as to their
tains more particularly to ourselves, assistance and increased interest dur-
the biographies of our principal citi- ing the year we are entering upon.
zens, and the list must be a long one, I have been disappointed not to see
the trades and professions they follow- the usual historical contributions in
ed, the part they played in the im- the columns of our sympathetic friend,
provement of their respective town- The News, during the past year. Let
MISSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIKTY.

us hope for a renewal of them in the Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen,
If I were to addres? only the Women's
near future.
And now, ladies and gentlemen, the Committee of this society, 1 might
penitent sinner has spoken. I fancy nearly as well commune with them in
I hear my fellow-townsman say he the silence of my own room so few of
will defer his rejoicings until the end them ever attend our annual meeting.
of the year, when he may the better Hut a sort of mental telepathy as-

judge whether the penitence is sin- sures us of their hearty co-operation in


cere. Strange, is it not, that when the promotion of general intelligence
we get beached, so to speak, upon all the sure guide to a people's happiness
matters that relate to our society, we and prosperity.
instinctively turn to him a Missis- Ruskin says, "The best women are
quoi man by adoption only. The indeed the most difficult to know, they
fact he has the historical instinct
is are recognized chiefly in the happiness
permeating his whole system oozing of their husbands and the nobleness of
out of him everywhere, so fatherly their children; they are only to be di-
in its character, that we gravitate to- vined, not discerned, by the stranger;
wards him as na+.uraly as the child to and sometimes seem almost helpless
its parent. I know that if his ances- except in their own homes."
tors had been of the county our re- This naturally brings to mind the
ports would have bulked even larger "International Council of Women,"
than they do. More the pity for us, which has recently been held and con-
for he is so interested in his family cluded apparently to the satisfaction of
connections that I hear of him passing those interested in the amendments
part of his vacation travelling from grave- which they advocate along many lines.
yard to graveyard on the New England Those chivalrous women seem to be
Coast scratching the moss off their tomb- chosen instruments for the world's bet-
stones. All honor to him and to them. terment all in the general economy of
They were honorable men and left an nature evidence of growth which
honorable record behind them or he sometimes takes us by surprise and
would not so risk injury to his finger makes us sit up and think.
nails. I bespeak from him a large The "National Historical Association"
measure of his valuable counsel and with which this Society is affiliated
assistance, and I will not complain if met at the same time as the Council
from time to time he prods the peni- of Women. The Missisquoi County's
tent to keep him up to his professions brief report was forwarded to be read
and promises. by one of our honorary presidents, Miss
C. M. Derick, of McGill Univeristy, who
was also convener of the Department
of Education, one of the topics dis-
The report of the Secretary- cussed by the Council of Women.
Treasurer, .Mr. Moore, followed.
We esteem it an honor to have been
This revealed a comparatively, in- represented by so distinguished a dele-
active year. The Association had gate.
It is with deep regret that we recall
remained in a quasi dormant
the loss that not only this society, but
state, largely in consequence of the
society in general has sustained in the
absence from the county of the demise of our highly esteemed and ac-
Secretary-Treasurer elect, and the tive members, Mr. Asa Rykert and Mr.
numerous engagements of the chief Joseph Sawyer. I beg to be allowed to
executive officer. The financial re- extend to their families an expression
port showed a small balance on of heartfelt condolence from the Wo-
the \vrong side of the ledger. men's Committee of the Missisquoi
Historical Society.
A sketch of Mr. Rykert's life is in
Mrs. S. A. C. Morgan then read course of preparation for our next re-
her address as President of the port. It is to be hoped that some ap-
Women's Committee, which was as preciative person may be kind enough
follows : to gather the facts of the venerable
AIISvSISOUOI COUNTY HISTORICAL vSOCIETY. 11

Mr. Sawyer's pioneer life for the rec- As we see him, he overlooks not the
ords of the Missisquoi Historical So- land, for there is no ictnd in sight on
ciety. At this period in the history of the Canadian side, at least but dark
civilization and empire-building, mark- unbroken forest as far as the eye can
ed by centenaries and tercentenaries, the extend, except where beaver-meadows,
world pauses and looks backward not here and there, afford partial openings.
to stand petrified hut to read, mark, Glimpses of narrow gaps in the
learn and inwardly digest the marvel- woods at the west show where a road
ous achievements won by plain, unos- constructed by former French govern-
tentatious men, working almost single- ors leads from United States' territory
handed and unknown to the world in to St. Johns and other military posts
their day, showing the immense force on the Richelieu. There, columns of
of strong personality concentrated on smoke from widely scattered points
rise
one main line of action. in the wilderness, indicating where the
Such men exist even in our own day; temporary camps of adventurers are
but we cannot see our leaders for the located.
crowd. When the throng is dispersed, The oppressive silence is broken
these men loom up through the dust only at intervals by a gun-shot, or by
like towering monuments to letters, the occasional resounding blows of a
arts and science, and the world recog- prospector's axe.
nizes and acclaims them. No church spires point the way
It seems fitting in this connection to heaven-w ard; but the towering forest
7

indulge in a brief contemplation of the trees are silent guides and friendly
main object of this society the appre- monitors, asserting the majesty of God,
ciation of the staunch character and and the brotherhood of His creatures.
arduous lives of our own kith and kin, There are no beaten paths, God is
who laid the foundations of prosperity everywhere. His presence is nowhere
in Missisquoi, whose past has already more reverently felt than in the vaulted
been reviewed to some extent but, like arches of the forest. Our early fathers
a diamond, her many facets ever lend and mothers were strengthened and
new interest to the subject. comforted by the nearness of Him who
That we may the better appreciate