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The Politically Incorrect Guide™to

the Middle East

You think you know about the
Middle East. But did you know:
@ The Arab-Jewish conflict predates the
creation of Israel
@ Islamic fundamentalism isn't ancient-
which is why it's so dangerous
@ Democracy is not America's friend
in the Middle East
@ Iran can't be reformed-but the
Saudis can
@ Bush Sr.-not Bush Jr.-should have
invaded Iraq
@ Why an Israeli-Palestinian peace is not
only impossible, but undesirable
The Politically Incorrect Guide" to

the Middle East

Marrin Sieff

.... REGNERy
. . . . PUBUSHlNG. INC.
"' _ _ " - , • DC
Cop)'ri3b! C lOOll by Martin 5i.1f

/III rip" ..........,,\. No ~ of !hlo publication lDIIy be ... prod""ed or ' ..... mined
I~ ... y _ or by .ny ..-... .1"""",", ... -*>an.,.l. I"dudl.,. pMo"""",y. ~.
I"" or""1 informolioo 01.,.. . nd .... riIrv.1 'ylll_ ""'" k<lOwn or '0 be I" • .."ed,
.. I!h<>ut ponnlsoloio ID wrl,l.,. from tho publlsbM."""",,, by 0 . . . . . - wbo .. Iu-
10 q...... boW PM, ... In connodloll .. lth .....1.....,lIIe" 10< 1""lu,lo" In 0 .....
azln •• now,po,,",. or tm.dcaol

C. .. JoFnI·ln.Publb,lon dalo OD IIIe ..lib lbe Ubrary ofeonsr-

151.11'1 ~l"'·$"\lO!t.os, ..
Publl,hod In tbe Unlled St.oI. by

IlopMy l'ubll,hl ... Inc.

W.. hl"8lon. DC 20001

M..,Ur...:t..,..; In the United SlOt. of /Imori<;o

1098'&5 < 3l1

BooU ..... nolloble in quonl i'y lor pt'OlllOli.uoNJ or pntnium ..... IVrii. 10 D i _
of SJ>Kla1 Sr.i •• ~.., I'ubU,bl. ., I"" .. 000 Mu..:!I\IMII.. /I,' ...... I'll','. W.. h·
l"IIon. DC 20001. f.,. l"fomuo.1on on dl"""","to.oo ....... .,..,.11 12021l1!1-01WlC1.
To OHobie Ynelak Sleft"
My ~oved 1Iri~. Inspjration. olld Ii~ pot1._
,,'IN> ..... "ifh ",. ...""Y "tip 0/1hfI ""'y. 01 0/""',...
Thank ,.,... . dorljrw.

~ Rrootlol" the , ..... abour tho 'II'or\d'. ""'"

~oII, In<omtt -.q;on

0\0;1 .... ~ .... IKk tho Ott_lfnpi...

n.. Mlddl, EaoI • OOI1IWJ ...,

0r1"""", ,..1" " ..lIbllity ODd .trU.......
"",_0(011........ _ _

_ Id War I could ...... Kip"..l tbo Io4lddt. &oM

c.JllpoII: U. . . . .lmMl.. Lboo 1Wb
tAiropo't"oId _"boo_teeth

O\apft< l: n.. .......1-'i (oooft;n: It'> Mot hrM!', fNh n

no. o:notloa "' ......, Aa ....I·M".U. U.s. ~
...... II all""",
Tho rt. '" IYI tr.a1 ••I·H-'"
a.u""'1I11~ ~I"" '9Z,
r.... b Ai>dull.h .... n. ... ojotdan
11....... DDwbllJln: Unllk", propha
llow Brill'" ,,,,po<Loliot _m.. ..... ~ed 1M ......
1. . .11 ...... nlcl
Th.o IW!oow Bible: II boo!< " ' _

Th.o Inoot.....,.
01 ...-.. <;NelS-

n.w.u .. ... " , ,....

..... Hloo ...,., II bod boF....u.c
0. "" Itt. .....: ,ilZS-UISII
A J-1"" ..... b .ho AIIMo
Wbon .... _ _ ~

Aft. §Adda,": -_TU.iw"

IlanUna on. bonk 'windier
6lnb of. boo Inqllmw"",U""
Tho In,ulJOI'ta: Nco "'" • few .roubIomolen
IIo<nbina ,he Gelid.... 101""""" Tho poIn' of "" "'.lD
II un', • dvU war; II', •• pUnter wor
Why tho 'WJ1 o:cvJdn', 'lOll Bopdo.d
Chopttf . : "" Truth about 1.1...., bdkal hl.III I",', Aftcio.M
('MIld> ,..k" It MO<t Dto_lt<OVS)
Tho wiodam 01 Pri"", TI"ll "
Tho eyel. 01 Arob hlo.O<JI
The Middle EoII .... NlIs\OII: 1$17-1980
Chop..' t 1.-..
Tho ~IID £mpLr.: 1'0'..... !.rID .... """" "
a ..h of _pi. ., U.S. VI. a" ... I..
Uborrol bu.ybodleo ,pori; ,h. llum'" ReYol.1Ion
Ayotolloh KJ>omo.inJ: 11>0 fruit of AmKI<:&n ...... dllnl
Cot1 . . . nd lhe boo,. criol,
1'00'-"",01.11001 I..n
Mod.... IOD (.. uri""11.~klnalln .....
1lartIo<:ncy', bitt_Sift : Mahmoud Ahmodlnojod
I.... 0" bon-o.....o tin.-
Chopt .. 6: n..1uuI~A .. ~
Dao.h .1""". It blnh
W....,19ol1- "n ••
Tho 11<10 lum.
Who',. PaJ .., inJan!
Tho ....1 Y.. _ A .. fa.

f.IYpI'. flgh' '0 dot'r-oy 1....1

Tho SaY ... Union v .. b.nod
Tho ml ...:tllooJ v\o;!O<JI
l!efulu of 11>0 Sb·Ooy 1'0'"
Ni xon: braol', '-. fri ... d
1913: Tho " ...11. _ ti p hiS
l!efulu ofll>o 1$13 .....

• lIt
Cgn' onll

a..pc.. 1: no. s....IiIAN,." of .... s.I"".... ~ 1M ,,,,, ...

Ttoo - r 01 D)' - 1 Is "1 "'-d '"
1.1 _ _ '. _lao '"'" s-dl. _

0 1 _ ODd _ . 10 lolly

How ,,, flab' Mudl... ,_ : Build wallsw ~'''''

Ttoo Soudls ond "",lot: f""", ' P _ ' ' 0 . .HOIo

Unrlemonol l.,. ,he sooo;.
Ttoo ArM .....,h ,h." ...,.Qd
'"'" ""nell.,. .......

KI.,.r.t.J _ ""'011 _ _

Soudl .......- . . - thnoolo

_li. __
MioNIt lut WW1W hocr.l'7S-lOOJ
I\nbo '-flab'
Ttoo . . . . Pwty'.
........ tputo: ........ ond s.ddano
ford·.l.Ilddlo Yot II
Y1111W. RoblD: Ttoo ....... wbo ......... luMI
Old Ilmm, Conor . .lIybt\nc ~ .o lbo I.Ilddl. toMl
Clln'.... : CO" .. oil ovor . .1n

ct>apt.. t: "" MlltlH)' of s.,t....... II

_... -
m..-~ _ ..w..d ,he &I QMdo tbr.oI
Boolt dropo 1M boll 0<1 01 Qoe<Io .....

TIoos...dlo _ , COMJ>IidIIo u..0It.da


"""-- hon " "" MiMI wI: WMI Worb, .... WIIM OM..'t
I. . . ,,,"..,d 01 ,he ... U....... I...
".". or. bon ,,, ....,

I\nb .......... . " . uuwmlat rulo

Why 00101", tho 1arao1l·I'oJ.'!D1OD CODnkt WtlrI', ..,!""
'Mprobl ......
The"-k;on p!po _m, A ....,..Id wi,bobl 011
Good r..- mau p>d nelJbbon
The Studl ooIullon
A 00. Middlo Eo ..

.... ~Itd ......."

IRt roduct ion

he Middle &alt II tbe l .. tiU-io of ....., llbenJ I&.. tuy. And yet

prohebly 110 rwsJon in the world. DOl ...... "'frieI. II 10 chodc·full
of .. wl"'l. polll~y .... ,..t m)'thoIOlY. dll'onlono. and coY ...
combl.....llfIon . . . .. the Cold W.... Amoriao'l ........... and I

hil lory of coIonIloU .... .

It'll trkky ....l k for ,he m.oi.nru.m medllllld Ivy~... H"'domlcs.
bul """,.ho ... I"-Y '''''..... 10 JNilnt .. UsJow fundlmentall.u (the 1A1I·.
ulull en"",I.. , II Ih' vjcUml. Ind ,b .. roglon·. IIny ..1I,lout mlnorily
(1....1·1 ..... l. h POI,ull,lon, 1.lhe oppreuo ........ Il wlY" .... merle-I. Ibe
bad lIuy. and 'he lerrorllt...... lull dosperate f..-lom fIgh, ..... If terror·
iom and lollmk: ""'''''''"m .....
I problem. tho ,.,.bl i,1t1lWl1l1 telll .... iI'l
all put of. mlllennllo.old oii'pule in which hoch .Id...... Ioblame . ... nd.
of cou.... 11'1 mot" In that -...::e of all 111." ...1I"on.
While ,he "'" '''joo. of political ODmOoCt.-.bouI lhe Middle 1M! may
DOl be ODrIIlillenl In their arzumeot.. they .... 1\ ' - penlot..t in tbeir
eanlral the ...., A..-icIllld J.......... bod .
.... Iillaol.,.,.,..,.;ln... liM .110 Yilibly _pod InIO..,.,.1 min'" on Ih'
An....-iaon Rllht______ notIbIy In \be admlnlttratlon 01 a...g. W. U...h-
who. 10 r<NIdy to buy Into \he "8"lIl.1riln PC mythl ......... Il," usb'.
beUeved Ihl' W.. tem·.tyle demOCf'KJ' could n ourl.h lIIywh ...... even in
the Mlddl, Ea.,.
TIll, WII \0 Ihortc hanSe whl, In IOOOm pU.hmen t

Western democracy ..ally I•. It fa U. to ...... Uut " ow hard it II to tranl'
plant domocracy in to a mgion t ... t "a., by and large. rejected n... only
d@mocracy·.,ud-ouil ti.n fou ndation.Uapanman"8"<itodot .. at ). t.. e
e><t",.,...jina.,. cultu.. 1contributiono 01.ndent G.......,R and Rome Uapan
man llged to do th.t tool . but e""n t .... very EnglJoh oyotem nl law .nd
government. Thl •• yotem 1,lb. fullllllt e~ prenion of modem democncy
and was the .yotem of the Middle East'. one'lim_lbeit . bon ·lim_
colonial m."."..
In tbo Middle Easl. the cool of PC dillon ion. can .... .1 in the
OI ..... ur ..

UVet of American IOldie .... [ranian di ..ident •. and I.raell Jow •. Prntend·
Ing th~', tom. IOn of monl equivalence bulw""n [s ..... li mi..iln . tnk ...
Ind Pal ...,inlln .uid de bombe.... ICIlng u If Our cu....,n, war 10 .In.1
~'etnlr" nlber ," .n "gainll radical I. lam. believing that what might hi""
been. militarily IOund pollcy" one time (toppli ng s..ddam d unnS the
fI ..1 Gul/War when we h.d the troopoln place to do tho job Ihorouglllyl
would sllll .... a Rood IdM ten yMrt later (on the c..... p. with B light force.
Ind wedded 10 . foreIgn policy of slobsl de mocracy~1I of th_ PC
delusion. wMlten the U.S. policy In thn Middle Eut.
In th l, book. my IJ(NII h •• not been to tum out In academle t ..... ti ... on
Ihe hi" ory. cultu",. Ind ",U810ns of the Middle East. !tither. it hu been
to rev"lthe h . .. h facl. about a viole nt . nd im portant reslon of Ihe
wo.ld . Thl' book I. written .. myth-bu" ..... It in jects a harsh d<»e of wh.t
Harry 1"-"1IIIl called ~ Pla ln Speaking" Inlo. publiC debll . Ihat h •• been
fogged over by Ihe endl ..... nobl.IOundins Ii... of media elil'" . nd fo,·
eiB" polley e.:perU.

What works, aDd what does n't

Peace an d ... blllty In the Middle Ea.t.re crudal to American securily
and the wond ·. economy. and 10 we all n...... to Ih"" our PC filters 10_
what .... worked In tile put .nd the p ...... nt 10 bri"ll ca lm ... d Ord8'. The

""".u lIoF""
ReY.J1,. lIMo ...... th obout tl>o World'. 1.4",,1 PoLltlaolly ]..

&IIS_ I. not. feel1lOOd canard lib -odd.-ill3 the tOOl "".... of Ier-
rorism. - orin Id..llJtk: drMm like democrIcy 111 • ,..ion wbono Ilwot Iw
....... worked o ... r.ld. the """fina of I _ I ...d the mUll.,.,. "'" of
1\Ltb)I. The _ I I .. In .......,.iri"8 the tnt-enlly. vkIloollytriboJ cul-
t ...... ofth' 1.I.mlc Mlddl, Eut. which 10 the enemy of all order--<Inl...
II I. ImpoNd from .bove with. mailed Ibl. 1'or ""nl ... ri .. Ih .. flO!
I>olonrd 10 Ih .. Ouomln Empl ....
TodlY. III. cruelll for 0 .... own inl .. rul. IMtlhe .... l1ed fI.1 oomG nOi
from fund.,neollll.l I.on. and nOI from UI (we hlven'l lh, ref01lI'CeI 0.
1M will to do II). II1d 00\ from I.rael (which cannot do It). bu l_ wlil for
II-from Mlcboel Moore'. villlin.S.udi A.. bI • . The SOudll .... lnoon>l*
1..,1 II lhelr own public ..I,\lone In the WO&! , INI Ihll)' are lhe """....,...-
.tty pro-Weetem regime In the ""Cion thaI ""n .... llJtJa,lly bri..,
...d .upPfIM lhe n>Olurolly cbooI:ic peopl.. of lhe d_rt , thonko to their
~th.~,...d CIWnII'Sblp ofu.. bol..... plaao In IIIam. The SOudil
.... abo AmeI'iao·. lonptt ""'di....lly in lhe realon-evoo 1""81" lhan
I.reel. Their h.,..h, ... nd...... ported Cfockdowo 00 Ilrrori.m In rocenl
YNl'l-lnd Ih.. l. dill .. for. functlonl ... oil economy-mIke Ihem 'he
.,.,m..:1 ""ndldale 10 repllCe ,.... Otloman Empl .. II 'he lIablllly·bri ...11l3
powe.l .. Ih, Middle "-II.
8 ... , mekl nO mll"k,: Ih" book I. no lpol"lllo for th .. SOudl...lIh ....
Nor 1.II.n lpol"llli for 1,....1. Nor i. II I n ,polosl. for anyone .. I.. In
lhe Middle Eut, wh ... tbe old motlO ve,.,. much hotdo lrue: Ih' enemy
of my ....... y I. my &leod. M I ... Iill, I undentend lhoot every DDWllry
ofllM Middle Eof,I hu lu own InlM'IISUlnd will pun... tham. And Ihey
are nO\ I lwly,lnt_lhol you or I win lib. IIUI thol only underllna
wby WI nlMi In IPP",..;h the......, wilh cI...,. .,... 10 _ w ..... inler-
_II ... mOil li kely \0 ooin<:id .. wilh our 0 ....... 1\ " I ""8lon I hive OOV·
.red II I "'pori" , for IllIve d.,.;,od.,.. And u .... porte •• I h..... lwlY'
conoon lratlMl nn seni... II the ,ruth .. th.". Ihln Iny pollttcol ty 00' leel 0 •
• nodyn. f1cllon.
u rou ....... t.... hard truth ...... the Middle E.t. If rou WWlt 1Il~
which h .... ClptlVltld mono thaD one White Hou..........tu.nend, If you'd
lib to know t.... Il'Ulb .bou,,,,- oll· ...d 'elTOrilH,ch I.nds, !hen """"
on. IVa' Utib lot. of hlshwaY'lnd ttywly.-for the region I•• n' .... I~
IlUI In t .... end , the Midd le EMI wHl ...... ""1 IINIl .. the Uolx..lln world
tboot It . .Uy II,' worid of ..,Utuy, poor, n.lly, .nd bnoti.h .... Icontenll.
t!tU'k:hId beyond 1M "'..... of.~ by 011 uw:I tbI.o I<> pi..,.. 1M world
In.o -..ttophe, uru- • firm hand u.p. t"-a in pm. II the On.......
Empire_did .


The Middle East a century ago Guess what?

hink ofth Mldd l.. Eut atth .. start ofth t_ty.fln' OIIfI'ury: • Far .. DIIrMo II

T horntl to the ric"""l. high ..1 quality, mo.l _lIy KCMalble oU

depoolll on MtlA; cockpit of an ""u.m. .. Jamil!
wantl to loppl. moden' .....im.. and w . . . . . . .II ~.
~t 0..1
Wat . . . Inll !he
,wslh! ~It

,uctfuI ~ II 1M

Unit..:! SII'.. and lhe \\,...t; n""UI of an "n.ndl.., conflid between

• A IHmdrfd JNrI . .
1srM1 .. and PIIIIIUnianl; .00 widely ....... ecI u !he moll dangerout.,.".
tbe .. holt! .... Id
for COnfruntlllon 1wII_ the major powen, lbough! lbe Mlddle
~ Mlddl .. Eoilt I. filled with unltabl.ltat ... no". o' them more than t.I _ IlRifSl
nl nely YN" old, mott of 'h em "Ill , u£ferlng from crt... of lesltlm~y. rultslale.
HpKI.IUJ tho

"rob nlllonall.m II. ""Ia,ile foree. The .... Ion·. birth ..I. II exlraordl·
Qlrily high. a nd 11I .. te of populltlon IncnNlH vutly Uceedl thoM of
,he naUonlofthe F.uro.-n Union Ind KUNia. ",. wNlthl..t..,d mo.'
~ .. IioIlf .ftIl lbe

fltllegk.o.lly d... l.. ble ...1 _ late In lhe world I. 'h oIL. rich tand of
IOUlhem lrooq . Kuwalt.th.Culf SlIl. ., and Ib,,1lb.ahran ,..ton of Saudi


Bu,lOt.clr. a hundred,..... and you'\I find..."..., _ ofu.... condi·

lionl ... ~........d. The mo.l hackWlrd .... m"' .., an d lJnored ""rtl of Ih.
resJon ..... 'b. d..... n and Ihe coull of lh. "nblan lor ~ ..llnl Cul f.
N"lth .... l .... Ol1oman lultan_who .lto .mbodled tho t;all phate tMI led

all Isl.m in Gon.tantlnopl_nor Ih" chan""lle.leo of any of the gruot
European Imperial pow,," botherod with th""" wI.lelands.
In 11105.lhe region II "nll1M! fK>lilic.olly and ",ligioully. but Ih"""n·
enol .nllud" InwRtd Ihese co"d ilionl il one of Ip"thy. I",hlrgy. and ......
ignation. No major nil d"pmlU h.,." been found wa t of I'enia. Th"
caliphato that rul .. Ihe "'Ilion and giVM il f1Iligio ... dif1l<;l[o" from Con·
8lantlnopl" Is Ignored or widely de'piled by most Mu.liml. Th" main
,,"volu tionary fo",e [I a d",l", among mlddle-da,. prof".. io".II .• tu·
d"nte .• nd [olelieel".I. to at.bli.h Walcm·ltylc pa. llamonlary de,noc·
R1Cf In tbe Otloman Turkish Empire.
At thil time. tho "'I!ion il. poHIIcaI. JInII!!glc. and economic bttckwa·
Ie •. None of Ibe g.rv.ol imperial poW"tI nf the world "'I!Rtd II I I worth a
th imble of blood being .pUled. I.,.. .lorut oceen. of lhe stuff. ThMe.f1I two
Hny jewi.h communili.. in the lalld lIiII known .. !'aleeUrut. On" cont.ino
.,.dlllo,,"l. extremely oI:¥ervl"t Jewl who. polilically...... entirely quiM'
"""t. The second . ......", .maller. con.ltu of weirdly Ideellstic d ...... m...--
jewi.h IntellOlctuaI. from theczarill lI..... ian Empire who dreem oftumlng
Ihem.oelvM Inlo fannen. but.re making I had job of it. "pari fron, Ihe
ulual banditry. the l&nd i. peMlIl'fu[ and h", been f« hund""" of)'ftA. No
one. Including the liny ronununity of [ewioh ..... llen.1iteoum lhat thl, w!ll
challJ!" for 8"n"",tlon •. (At th" Ume, David Ben-Guri"". who would
become 1.....1·. JVNI foun d ing falher. ",plred to become, member of In
Otloman Thrki.h parliament In IstanbuL)
The Otlo",an Th,kl.h Empi_ ' he "'IIioo we calilhe Middle £0011
today-II lightly populated. Pover1y I. I~rribl" and unlverMl. He.lth C8Je.
even by the poor American and Euro~ ... ndard. aflh .. dey. 10 abom-
inahle. Even lmallpox io ..iII quite cnmmOn. Public u nitlry Itand.rd.
"'" none~iltcnl. Infant and child man.lily tlIM .... ,ky_hlgh. l.lam ..1 I
mllgl"" i. tU:.C1IpUcnally quiucent. pallive. and subHrviftnt 10 the pollt.
Ic8l authority of IIlI Otloman Thrkllh ov.".I"",,". Th .. fllCl that the Ottoman
ruletl in Conltanlinople ..... suhan •. and Ihet<lfof1l rule thei r vut

empire-mon then heir the ,I.. of the Roman Empire It Itl grMt. . t

extent_ .bIoIu•• political em"",",",. if far men imporwlt to their 11Ib-

jecb lhan Ihe feet thai they elm embody the b.lp.-t "U&I"'" ,"thority
in IAlam.
In P.I... U.... the dty nf JMuaa.lem Is • t.o:;kWlltlf. nOl.lbl. for It I UCOII>"
tlonel bellity from e f.r .nd it. exceptlonel filth . nd pove .. y. even by
.... inn.l ltenderdl. up cl ..... A hAndflil of '.wl.h pllgrlml COm.....ry
year to weep In the rwTDW. fetld all.y In fronl uflbe I.., .urvlvl"llencl...
lure Will ufthelr enclent '"mpl. wmpound . jeruHlem hu!.en IIndM
the finn. unyleldl"l Thrkl.b yoke for elmo.1 fOIl' hundred yell ... NoIh-
Ina hu changed. Hathl .... it _ . Will.YM chellll'l'
.....t forward e hundred ,...... 10 lhe p.-al. EY1II}'tbI"l hu rbanpd.
Everythl"l bao .......... the oppooite 01. what II _ e eft!u..,. befo:n. How
dId Ihls heppen. end whet 1-.... .hould w. fhould I.... from II?

Ottomans ult. Instability and strife enter

For the put nlMly y..... the defining ch.anIclerililc of the Mlddl. EIIt
hu boon polillelllni lebilit y. Euro~ colonl.l .mpl.... which broughl
liability to other pI'" of lbe world . h.d IUtie II... dylng effect here. Th,
heydey of Britl,b Ind tb, Frencb dOlnlnlon oyer th. "'IlIon luted only
h.·enty·ro ... ,..........."d tbellncluded World War II. By 19515. their polll·
t.caI end economic l n n _ bed been ,Ilml...led from !ren.~. Syrie.
jaden. 11...1. Lebanon. end feypt. 8y 19152 the french wwn gone from
Algerie I t well. wh .... they bed ' - " for more then 1:tO y..... And the
ItelieoI bed bMct In Ubye 10 briefiy the!. if you blinked you would ,,",VI
mu...!them. How1wet brief. Eu~ ..... t."..., the MiddLe EIII _ not
In Ibe Inlerwar y...., Syrie WIll rocked by f1,,,,,, pon-Anb nadonellM
uprilin", "8Il nlt tbe french. end the Brld ,b hed to pUI down e full....,.l.
rebellion In 1'*1 end wld .. p","", riotlllll in feypt.. Under I:Iritl,h ", I•• 1'*1

and EcYpt (\he 'wo _ populOUl ... ,10'" In Ib, "'8kln) ....... _1IIa-
bl,_ ntlver teCUnI. and ..........1 P"'O'. ThroU&houI the 1920. . nd 11130.
feroclllUl polillClOI In' ...... wirled """"8 1M 8rillih overlortlt.IM Ioaol
rul ...... nd Ih, p. rll"",.. lary d""'ocra<;i.. Inlt.lled by the U,III.b. In
.bort. WMlern .U.mpU 10 imP'»' order"" 'h, Middl, EIIt faUed. Wh. 1
... orUd In lb. Americu. "'fric.. or tM _ , of ....iI did not worir. hen.
In the IlSOI. IM..-1 tides of anti· Wilt ..... anli·imperir.llIt pullono
. - . . 11 u.- corrupt. Incompetenl . quail-parliamentary .,..-...... IW'Y.
They ..........pt.c.d by "'Iln>ef mod.led "" tlMo new SO-I bope of ANb
inteliectuII_th. Socil lill Pu.dl.. of
/. . 1M Soviet Union. Socl.li.- dict. lonhlpt
A Book You're Not dedlc. led_ ' 1.,..1 In theory-40 hnl'l'Uv,

1/ S"pp...d to Reid
._ . .
In, the .tand.m of livillA of Ib, pM. .nl
ere In".lled In Egypt . ... 1, ......
1hr1i1...,..uollht~&1It. 1fW..IlI}of
Uby" y.m .... Sy. I•. and Itloq. Egypl.
br HcIwW lot. ~ Ntw 'I'ort ~ A.
bow_. "'ported inetlbili' y 10 mllCb of
lnopf. r969. All ~ ltd f. 1(10 lnt\co
lhe reo' of lbe .... lon. ThI"Oll3h lb. liiSOI
i'Ud n'Iilil:W)' MId paliTlal hisTory d World
.nd '6OtI. Sytla . IId Inq could nOl ,VI ..
WiI' I and itI ilftflmiIth In tht MIcIcIe wt.
find. competent dichlorill.odlll., .y•.
culmiNt~ In !iii' iIbolllion d tht
'em 10 It. hlllu ,hemlelv•. By Ih, 1970..
they flMU y did. bUI lba co.- ... at. 1....1
nf 'ortu ... and oppreui"" tlMo, nc:.aded
anytblll.ll the Ottom.... hid ...... .-led '0 "'eept when Ih.,- .......
_lIy mad. In the flnt dM:lde of tbllWfIOTy.flrst CIfIlury........ Ibl. d ubl·
O\U bnllhl,. .1""" ofet.bilitY...1I 1lart1"8 '0 bnU dowu .
By conuut. Ih. OII""",n Empire Md ruled th, whole vatl .... Ion fur
fOil. bund...! y..... The n ... u no 11 811.I.... nce. no Refo,,,,"lon. no
Indullri.l Revolullon . no l leady proceu o f Improvement Ind dllCllVef}'
in medlclne. lIysJ_. Ot public heIllh. Aft" . bundred )'....... tll, lII0I1
powerful_pi......." . In lb ....orId Ihm"'" lhe lixteenlb century. the

_pIN .ntend I """ thin w-hundnod·yM" procell ollq. .Iow __
nomic md PlIlI~ decline ... lIlive 10 the brawU"," dyrwnlc nad.,... of
Europo 10 Ih. north_. In III IhIol li_. lb. 011 ..........· DD<ltrol ...... tbe
!'IgIon lhay bid conq...-d Illisbtninll'~ In 11M Ill'll IWO d - * of
tbe .htlooolh o.nlury w.. never ........... Iychalleuaod from within. Ind il
_ flhflf1!d. When It co._ 10 c:onlrDlII". tlMo region MId preMl'Vl". .la·
bllily. Ih. Otlonan Th.u proyed fl •• uperio. 10 Ih e 8.ltl,b MId Ihe
.",rICh In the fil'll hBlr of Ihe twentiulh <;enlury Rnd 10 Ih. Amman. Ind
Sovl ... who . .. CCMded tbem. Whol wUlhel._1

The secrets of Ottoman success

wt- Poft",u_ upl.... Vucodo Go .... found I .... Wu.de .....1.10 lhe
_ .round the _Ih"", end of Africa. ,Dd QuUtopber Columbm ond
hi. , _ " " " found n .... lIMo N.w World end lhen lb. w.y _ _ lhe
Pldlk~ hid. 10 lhe old G'18.lh. Middle ENt became. slobll block·
Wiler 0",",1gb!. Thl. pro"'ded opportunity ror tbe OttOmlnl. MId they
m'fUI8'J(l lt mMlerfully. n...", w.'" th ..... key (eel_.
FII'II. th.y WfIf1Ilocal •. Second. Ihey Wert unerly. ",le",I...ly. Ind con·
.IJI.o ll y ruth I..... Third. Ihey WMlled ooly. quiet Uf•.
BelnSloca.l. who h.d .I ....... y conquer..! . nd plund.r..! _ _ lhe
Middle Ewt lOr b.alf. millennium before they IIlI.llly came \0 .lay In lhe
ouly .bt",,"lh cenlury. the Ottomon Th,b knew tbe nel&hborhood. 101
betler thin lhe Iw.DtI .... h-oool .. ry ... perpow... eVer did. Tbey did not
think co.pllaltua and demoa.:y would ooIve all tbe Mlddl. Eut .. prob-
krm . . .. A_nean Id.. n ... &om Woodrow WiI..,., 10 Ceo,.. W. RUlh
b.I.... And Ibly did DO! cIr-.m tbel oommuniom or ..... lCIdaIlom tluch
.. lbtI Scrtl.... peddled) would do it .Ither.
Ey.n Ih. Thru' compl.t. indiff.",oce 10 Ih' ....1••1.1 w, n·belllj of
thel •• ub!e<:u pl'red 10 Iheir 'lrengllio Ind w... Qn,'" of lhel • • "~.

n.. ,.llIkoJ/y I_ rnd hiM I. t.. " loWl. Eut

Tbey did nat ot>-o .bout bulldl", ..w.... dlmll. 01' .cboob .. Ihe
BriU.h . nd f'~ dld . .u ......11. popul.tJOIl ....... ined Low. and tb .....
woo """"'. booby boom of angry. oYer«luc.oled t~ 01' otude"t. r.m·
poISi", throush the . 1....... h .. uUn(J. "Thrk . (JO homo! "
And ev~n If thent had been .nough reIIl]..... n...... lc you", people to
(JIve urban mobo Ih., crlllcolmua. Ihl w.lI .....rwd OI.ton .... 'TUrklah
repu"ll.... for con....en •. ",.n::I1.... 1'uaI!l... when Mriou.ly crotMd
would have 'MUted!hot tlMo mobo IIAyW" I>omoo or. If they w........11)'
delerm.lned to ".pean<! plund .... found ,n. opportunity '0 do to by 101'"
I... the .ulton" annJ .. In$tMd,
Howev..,. rOf .1Ilhelr capoclly fur m.n::U.....llu&hler. Ih' OII01n . ..
'TUrk. wore nly.r. ofl er th"y won Iheir .mplre . ... lenll .... oo" 'Iu11o" or
(Jenocld.1 murdere ... Il k" Adolr Hill er ond 10Jef Stoll ... Unlike Hitle r
.... d Sl&Iln-or Soddom Hu_ln. the ono ,nod"""
Arab rul ... n...... '0
bei", .uch. Iotalltorl&n mon.t ....- d,••ullln_Uph_ d id nat blve an
.ndl.... relenll.... ppetlte for hlood.. {The one who came cloeetl.
Abdul lll.lDld II . who mouocred Annenlon. a nd Bul(JMIan. remOrM-
1.lIly. wU ,I . . one Oflhilitl .nd mOlt Innuenced by W... I.m love of
Tbl. wu lbe third _ or theIr _\ICC"" t ....y I.ft well " nough alone.
And " nllke . hoe OrlU.h In jHlrtlcul.... In.y did not moh Ih. m.... ke of
.......1.................1. IIlbjacU yilt ond undellned dteonu of freedom ond
_lIh lholthey could n....... have been .bll 10 fulfill. In foul' bundrod
,....... the OU(ltnlln 'TUrkish .ullin-aJipM ........ came up .... th enythl...
like M ...... Coru. lha Alilnl;'" Chart .... or the ConallUlion of lhe United
SI.t... Thol wu why they luted .. 1......
It . 1.. helped th., t,levI'lon h.dn·t been 1..""nlcKi yel. But If II h.d .
you can boot lhe oLd .uhan-aliph. would haw k"pI' ' !&hl (Vip on II. No
om 01' .1·1.:..... for lhem .
~'nall)'. for 1111 lMi....1....... Illlea OOIIQU_. lhe .ulllN w..... "' _
lim . and lhey ....bodIed the calip"'l_ha~ L•• they w..... und_ood 10

"'th•• uace.,on to Muhamm ... ·• poUtl<;Oo1 ,ulhorily. So IMy "'en !MIl
...111100.0••11.... 10 motl of their ,ubjecl ... And they '00 undentooot u
lhe Brill,h .ftlltt....... <:e"I'inlydid _~hol poIlti""I ...........m Ihrou&"-
OUI Wtmlc history wen expected 10 keep u.. ... l~ ,ul horitlel otrktIy
in 1m.. F~ ofrelljpouo upnu.iw:> wu inconcelv.ble 101M .ultan·
COIllplu and to Ihel. l ubjecu 100. So wt...n th, Brill,h declined 10 mk:m-
mtnage 10Ct1 ... lipou. preteh .... on Ih, naTno ifO'lll.lll Ihat .. Cbrilll.n.
Ih., Ihou ltl IHve 1.la ... alon ... thl. wu inv.riably 11118'1'",100 by e very
MIddle Elil poptIltlion und ... 8r1t1&b control III • IIgn of w-n- I1ItMr
Ih • ., frI,.,d.hlp and 10lol1l1>C8. Th.1 hel !""i upl.ln . 100. why Ih" Brili.b
lut ... l.... Ih.n •• Inp. 8ll1I."'lion in It... nel&hborhood.
".. O.. om.n .ult......... th" formul. down. aul .11 empl"" crumble.
and tb[J one w .. broughl down by trendy W... t"mIUllon ... d modem
ldeol .......

Ttle curse 0/ modernitr

19nonI1IOI. apathy. and "'1",10' lilly IuIve bee .. the plliaro of th. Ottoman
Empl ... , buI Ih ..... ult 10'81 lona·l.II'n8 ,t.blllty . .. d In"''1ullity. Th,
empl ..·• downf.ll WII brought about 11.01 by It... Inlldlou. doh", oflhe
hIa. bad Weltem .mpl..... btll by It... lrendy Ihort'l&ht"'n_ ofu.. Turb
IbemMtlv_peclflc.lIy. oflhe hand ful """"'IIMm who had rMd Well-
.." boolu of polltJ<:OoJ lhou,gbt .nd made th, 'ppaLU", m[Jllke of IIkl"ll
lhem eeriou,ly.
In li(NI, tb, lint end sr-t_t aMlp of "'if. c:en lUry of Middle £tot
aMlpe otripped Sui"" Ab<Il" Hamid U In c....llanllnopl. oIlhe.btotu'e
power he I....t -toYed lor """'" then thIt'Iy,...... Abdul Hamid w_1KltOo
rio ... In \h, Wei' for . pprovlll.ll horriftc m'l, c_ of Ib, Olrillian
Armenian """"nunlty In I"" ,mpin In 1896, When • ,"",p ol,ppalUlltly
ldetllille, Q/)vloully oecu l....nd WMlem YOUll.lllrnly officen Ilri ppMI
him of h i, power 10 VlSt MUo" .1 rejold",. Iibenl lntell.au.l•• nd pun·
d lt.1tCI'ON ~;urol''' and Arnutl<;Oo rejoiced \00. Thny wont wrona ... u,u.!.

Th. Younl Th .... , I. lhe officorn ailed lhemMlv....... It.. proi a-
Iype ro.lnnum••• bl •• Imlli' W.. t~ori", UbI ..1 cliquel tblt would
.p.... d unlold .ufforinl ond horror ":1'01' lb. Mlddl. E..,
'I. w. L1 H
A.iI.. Afrlce. Ind lAUn Americe) oy .... the m,xt OIntuoy. rOt in Illeit \'NIt-
. ionate .lIlhulllim to em"l". Ih. powe, of the W.,., u qulclr.lY"!MM-
, ibl., Incl.nl empl .... Ind newly Independen' form .... colon"ll .... In ...
..ik. poured thei • ....,..""'" into the tninlll3..,d """i",of new ...... ...
led by ~Dtabl., Wettem l-' YOU"l omcen. They ... y.... llopped to
_It"" Ih.t ,.... more lhey abiondnned Ih....d .... ' CUI''''''' end .tripped
... eh h,bU. Ind ... t.. llIl. from thel. new .nned fon:eo. Ihe ,_tet
would be Ih' likelihood ,n.1 lhe ...... ,,' Ind .mbhl..... young nmoo ..
mlghll", .. ,h.l. ,li1lMing b.yoneU I"d_
I.t_hlny newt..,'" Dtllhelr own rem·
• .
A Book You're Mot .h..:kJ. polllLaoJ oy .... lor-dI.

\/ Supposed to Rod Th. Thrb did LI hero.. ' nyone ,I...

1lIe 1...:Ier oflbe FOOP was 1)'OUIl8 om.
'.tOUIon Abfogd t.,. Min; T"'-'; ~ 011' nemed I..... U Enver (known eo Eny ....
1ft 0-. YM Boob, 1001. for , ¥Md. Pllhe. *1'I.hl" b.1"lI ..... k of honor),
(O~ K(lJOJnI rJ thi! 'idylltc' ..i!.I_~ En".. I, n... ly unknown In W.tem clJ"o
at me PfOIlIes rJ thr MIcIdIf UII bfl'cn clellodly except for ... n ..... ""d.... r. of
thi! bt&. b.d Wellen> knpefWilIl p mm. hl.lory.
~ i!. 11011 t'IOlhrc IImfl', A/I)'Ohr who WLlhin Ihree )'MrS of Mlu"3 pow..,
- a 10 _ _ _ odtiflll W, i!. WIthout Eny., b.ed foul,hl ,....... w... In Ibe
wMlllon. hnient. I(~..-.d .. thr n.lun. In which tI .. y. pe .... n .. Belun
~ 1,"~io ...... loolSat ... u-Otod nllioru "ripped Ihe empire of enclenl
~ MMiIl-o.tld It¥! heft. P",ylr..,.. It hid h,ld for more In. .. n""
hundred y......
Wh ..... preylouJ (ltlomen rulen f.el", ,uch oett..0:4 had b<Mtn .bl,
10 rely .... lhelr lradltlonal ally, lhe 8rillih Empire. the Land..."" wu dUo
ferentln tIM 1900.. 8 y 1_. Brit.in b.ed '-"fully lined up wilh france

Ind 1I"•• i. in the Triple Entente to contain Germany. whleh. with the
g:t<l&t lIlam.arck long II""" d ... d. wu no Longer shy .boul ltiding ttl .......
to the MIL 1Ii.m.arck had declared th.1 nothing in the Bolkono wAt wor1h
Ihe bon ... of a lingle dead Pon"".nl.n grenadle •. Bur the min who
'''''',ed him .. ch&[}CfIllo•. Kat..,. Wilhelm II. dldn'l tabo thai IMlvl"", He
had vI.lomofhlm""lf .... modem-day Napol""" bringing enlightenment
Ind progress to the .Iumbering Eatl. That wu U bad an id ... for I Ger·
m.n emperor u it would prove to be for Liter U.S. p .... ident •. be their
nom ... Wiloon. Carte •. Clinton . or BUlh.
Under Wllh,lm. Germany I1ltted incMng d ...... to the Otloman
Empire. bur wu repelled by the corru ption. ancient vetliono of Illamic
ri1llal. and obvioul foundering mi li tary Incompetence Ihll embodied
Abdul Hamid'I regime.
By contnut. 11>& Gennan koiMl. Ind hil ""ne.. LI loved I.... no-nonoenMI,
('pl"'rentlyJ virile You ng Thrk •• wit h their dynamic. gc>-gettll1i new
IdOlS. It proved a morri.ge mode in the infemol reglOII •.
In the Ii ... y......fle. I_.the YOUI1i'lUrb IDOved It remubble.~
Into Imperial Gemumy·. comer. lVen Ihough It m ... nt making common
CII Ufe wilh their moo' .ncient enemy. the Catholic ChrilUln m"lll-
nat ional em p ire of AUl tri.·Hungary under the rule of EmpetOl' " ..Ill
The Y"",'3 Thru had no lime for the fuddy-d uddy old reHgioul tradl-
lionoand custom llhot hid defined the H8l:.bwsEmplre, like thel . own.
for 10 1003. But llb the Hai>f;burgo. Ihey loothed the tiny. 'ggrellive.
Ii....,., Liltle nation ... t.t... oh ha Bolbno lib poilOll. And Ihey hoped Gar-
",any would lake core of their mcotl dangem". enemy in modem 11m....
the vul czari.t empi ... " r 11."••11 to their north.
So IlUt u N_. fifty y..... l.ter WOllld falefuLly thro ...· hi. 101 in with
the Sovlot Union and embark on. policy "'milltary buILdup and ey"",,,.1
war ogairul neighboring Iotafll. Envftr Puha embnood imperial Gemtany.

He lmponed c:.n...n m.llliary Idvlton to modetml~ hi' own army and
.mlM,Ud on. cou ... of con&onIMIoa ... hul an E:nsIlnd h, wl'Ofl8ly
thou&hl 10 1M _k In(! deca.d.unl.

World War I could have skipped the Middle East

lron\Qolly. lhe Qltoo:nan Empu. could _Uy MVI ttayed out of world War
[Iunder!he v..lly .uperior. wiN I......,hlp ofbmellnonu. Thn..,. ..t«
.tlyed out of world War Ill. The .park th.1 Nt off Ibe WI. aod Ih ..
destroyed Europe dldn'l Mve 10 .ptetd In lhe Mlddl. FMt-..d If no! ror
En"", '. 00"311"3. II wouldn'l hive. Archdu ke " ..OZ ~·erdlnand. Ih. fl,.
b ... 'thlng .nd extNm.ly un p l...... nl hGI. 10 the H.hobu'll Empl ••. wu
.hot d&lli on I vl.11 10 s..nlevo. CIIplt.1 of th' pl'OVince of Botnl' end
H~I. by 10 LdetUlllc 1.... 0'1 th,y aliI r.netle young Iludent.klll"
calJ.ed Cevrllo Prlnclp.
Tbe _ I n .llon trill&"red CIIliJ for Wlf In the hl",ell mllilary Ind
Imperi.1 elrcl. In V\enne. IIfIrlin.and St. I'M............. Fnmz IoIeph w..
100 old. Cut Nl<:hoJu II quite .Imply too lIupld. Ind Kai_ Wilhelm II
100 wIlllr.IO"OP th......
Out the You.., Th,u. for .l1 lhel. embrw:eofGen,... n genenl... mil.
Itary tdvllO .... hid no t.... ty obll3otlon. to I ny of the f.udlng nilion • .
EngJ.o.nd bad .... n their lraditlonal ally for mONlh.o 120 y..,. .Inea
the dl)'ll 0' Prl .... MInister Wl III .... .-!n Ihl YOUfI8IlI' and hood .....,;1 the
""'piN" bIcon on mon 1"'0 on. OCCIfion. And !::n&land ...... Ined . at
lIVen Env ... und ...lood. tha dom l.. lnl on.1 pow ... In th, Medlt ... •
no .... o Set.
Th'1n Wlnllnn OIutch ill antared th' plct .. n .
[n the .1,lu,..... from 19 11 to 1922.lh_ w.. tomethlng ,,,,fully
,,"pl_.bout lhe YUU"8- brilliant. end dy ... mlc Wi ....on OIurchlll when •
...., he ... d 10 d",,1 with TIlrby ond«ltt nol ... old eod new. In III or
moot of hi. other d""lI.,. with !he Mlddl, EIIt. he proved ,n''lIllle.


dtcl.Iv., ,,1.10.....,., fon:.ful , &lid .... n

_Ionelly rlJIIt. lIut when_. il c:.ma The Fruits of
to dMU", wllb theThru , 1M alw.y. mi .. Revolution
undel'llood th@lnand madethem n'8<1.
't.<hi1.i'~If'd b)' ti"'-MlCft
A. par1 of tb •••• mbitlou. modemlZll'
d , _ ff. Ii Iwother-
lion J>lOI'l'm. lb. Th • .., t..d ~ two
. . - dtMdnoUJhI brttll ... bl~ from tIM
country m..1 famed for bulldl", . uch
thIn ... 10 11114, Chun:hHl wu.tlll flnt
lord of tIM edmll'l.lty. Ih, dvU .... I'I..d of
8rilaln', fabled RoyIoI Navy, . tlll by fa. tb, ......." M. SadIar, 1M
l'rg"l .od m.,., powerful In the ....... Id. lirwIlIIICIofth.Midd/f
8ril.l n, tlumb to Churchill'. enCI3Y .nd lon, on tilt YOUIII Turlo
public .dvoc.:y, hid. powerflll .uperl. RI¥oIution of 1901 in
Drity OVer the Irnperi.l c-m... HJab Seoo c-Ulllinople
fl ...... Il1Id her 111101 Yno".,. .nd "p""
....... monS Ib, world', 1.... 1'" nu.1 _~tf'd..oldfportod b)' Ifle~
pow..... well. Brit.ln cen,lnly dldn',
need 10 Hlze Ihe IWO Otlom,IIIY"u n,
TUrk boul"hlfn helng buill In It, .hi p.
ell«Utiotl 01 poIotkM Ofi9C"'l'IltS Wft I'iCiI

s..dIar on me s.lmt 10"'"

yud,. It could quietly b.~ conclud.,,;l .., ••••,,,, tiw JUi'llilff
- . . kind of compontl".... defll with
Con.tl.ntl nop la In which th, o.bl~ Wen
,I!her hald in Britl,h poru untlilhe eo.d
of'h, o;onntct if 11M Th.u ....... to .I.y neul ... l. or,lf drawn InlO .ny
conflict ... llh 'heir immoo l'I , nel,hbon. not to ule the ,h l~ .,,,I n,1
,It her Drit.ln or ~·ranee.
In.IMd, Churcblll Immed l...ly wenl .....,ho. He order.d th, boul..
o.hJpt Mimd for Britain ', Ko,.-, N""y, In which they p.......d to hive I...
,hen lien ... C&NArL ReM:tlon ICI'OM lite Onoman Empl,.. and nOl lull
llIt1on.,he dominant Th"", Wlf Immediate. ProtOlI m..... llIjj....lJut

n. htltkotly tilt. lOCI""" It lilt 1il1U1, £10M

Britain we ... IMld KI'OM tIM empi,.. The YO\Ina T\lrt. rulers abated Ito.
otItragoo. Germen dlplornltA In ColDlllnllnapll .. w thfi. chance Ind
offered to .epl.:. the Nlzed beui"hlpel' OQU. Bulltwo fly In Ihe oInl·
m~nl wu gettlns Iny Carmen w.... hlp .. r"ly iO Conlt.ntlnopl~ ... tile
Brill.h .nd French ",vleo contmlled lhe Med ll ........ n.
In IMo .... )' Iprl,.. of 19n. how, ..... Cb"rchUllnd hi, brilll.nl bul
wildly IInlllbl, c h l,f of Britllh ......1 OfH"1'tlonl. Fint S- Lord )olin
~1w:t1t~Fllh... I NJllllegenari.n h)'~ manl~nill' wbo
beUenod Britain w.. lhe l..c tribeol of ....... _ MUlled wilh IW ......
Ins Ih, ..Ider. .nd O"~ heule ""ed",,,"
of lhe Imperill Gem.. "
Navy from Ihe _ . And Inoor.... t ....)' mlcrom.naged British n ....1 d l..
poIlUo ... to bolil. "I' lhe Gomnon bell i, crub... GoMen and IJ,.../o" In
Ih' Medllem.n.n. Ihey made I huh of II.
At on. f.'er,,1 moment. Reo. Adml ..l EnI-' nollbridae. the 1J.lti,h
......."'" oomiDlnder off the .... Ihem tip of li.ly. hid the c:hanc. 10 trill'
the Goeben and 81'11kou by 1lIlionl,. I .... vy cruI_ .t eltber end of the
SIno;t or M_I .... In"....! . he pili botb the aul..... th' ...... end ... d
.ILowed tbe c.m.n w .... hlpe to fill 0\11 IInmol""ed " I.... other end. On
AuaUIi 10. 1111 4. Ih. Goeben """"hed .. filly In th. h.rbor Oflhe Gulden
Hom" Conllanllnopl•. bri nlfl"ll with he •••• Cburchlll lllu' wrot ••
unlold mlNfy I nd .u fferlns for the PIOpl.. of th' EIIt. GII.ranleed •
ItrOIIt ......1Jorct to rep'- lboo beullllhipellritain hid ... IZI!id. !::ower and
the YotI .... 1Wb ...... leted their r.tlful.Ulenco with Geron.n)'. On Octo-
be. 30. t914 . lhe Ottoman Empl ... joined the world w_nd Ihereby
ended theCltllllrlel·lonc"lumberofth, Mlddl, Eut.

GallJpoll: Underestimating the Turks

At rU'lI II _med th.t Iuovl"8 'h, OItoma" Empl"" on thel.lld, wO\lld
be mon of Ill,bllll), to 1Iloo eerm.n. and Ih' II.UJtriaruo then III edvan·

Bri". IMd; 11M 0 110111... £nIpl ..

tap. The Dritl,b In poorlicuu. .......... ..pr to knocl: tb, _pi,. OUI oflb,
101M II could be done.
WV ... Itb. COIIple of bold III ....... end Ibey w.".

A Mlllly pthered force from th, Indian Army wu ... nt 10 Bura .nd
Ill"ed 1M lona.los up Ib, nVU RI ......IIIY Ind throu&b th, dMMl
lowltd IkIa.hded. It follo... ed IlUClly Ih' _ e route tMt !he U.S. armed
fo..:. would 01.. wilh con.ld...... bly "-, """",,,,""nd 'len elllhly..elght
yOlO .. 1110' In 2003. OUllhl ... un·1 enou,h for Chun:hlll .... ho In lhe
IIlfln8 o f llllli d lrocled hil Mediler,"",.. n I dmlflll to try to fon:. Ih ..
Ilnllt of th, 0.,<11" ..11.. au Ihat thei r n eet could HII through I nd pOl l
ConJlInllnopl ... Ibell""""11 city of Ih' Otlomln Em l,l ... Il lhe merq of
III bee .. y ......l lIunl.
Aft ... I coupu. 01 ballhearled ellemple tbet echleved ""'hlns _pliO
elM the 'nJ,U .... deren-.
!be mein attempt 10 forot I'" 0enW>eI1eo look
pIeao on Men:h II. 11115. i1tb _ indeed. MChun:bIll..."..,ized In hi.
book 71H. World 01111: 1911-191", the nm. bold..t. and bell "'Iy 10
knocl:!be Ottoman Empire quid.ly out of !he war. lhou", It I. doubtful
Ib il would hi.......... RUllie or brought an ...Iy end to thlll.us!>ler in
J;uropoo ... he end hll edmlterS ... ould lite, melntlln. 8011 .. It "'H,
Churcltlll WII undonl ... hi ..... .., often In u..- deys. by hll own ex...
crabl .. coolce In Ih .. edmlral. he h.d ctw-n for hJab command.
Th, '"ackl", Analo-FMnch bellie n ..1 hit mlneneldl In Ihl ...,Iy
...11.... of !he Derdenttll... end i.. rapid ~Ion thNe benl.. hlpa ........
lunk. 'The fnollrltion oIluovllll their h... belli, neelluperiority only.
fe ... _ mil.. from the capilli of ConIlanllnople. the "111II1II.... d.......
city .. flhe East. WM too much for th, 8rilllh War Cebl,... LIIrd Kitch·
_ , the brut.l, en....lc.• nd wltlea 8rill....... ar minIIter. _.11 for
\andl". ... army on the Gelll"",li pM1I... ula to I"'WP It free 011'-" pesky
ben ...i . . .nd tb" ...llher ed ... DOI ""erl.nd to Ilk, Conll.ntlllopl.. or
nneJly ~ th' Oan:lenellel.., the neet could IIll Ihl"llUgh. Ch"n:hill_
1"''lI·hu rUrlh. Id.... N. lther of them _,ned
10 h.... hlltlleNd 10llklng"

n.. "-liliclll, IDclOffK! G~l de 10 I~' W I~dl. Ellt

I ... lief map. Tha Galli poU penin.ula w.... ven w....... lu.rilory fo• •• Iow
in fantry advance 1I..n was the W... lorn I'mnl.
Ne;IM' o.urchill our anyone .1... 8"ve any IhoUSht 10 Ihe I'.ooloml of
landing a huge amphlblou. force again' l an enemy Inned wllh modem
"'....roo .. l1J<J flrilil.h, AuSI",lian. and New ZMilnd anny lhal came llhore
00 !he be&ches ofGallil"'1l on April 25. 1915. "'" rowod IllflI'Ily by hand
in wDodon bo.!l. ",hOM .idee couldn·1 .101' • lingle .303 rine bullel. Tile
wal~ off Ille bMch.,. ,.... Ihlck wllh blood. No""" t.ad yeI dreotmed of Ille
kind oflrmored.lteoel ... lded . poW«Od landiRgcn fl. or ICf, lhal Ihe " rili.h
I nd Amerioml w()lJld I.l$(t r<)1" III Ihel. Iua;essful "ol'h.ibiowolandingo in
Ille European and P""lflc !h... le ... in Wurld W... II.
Once ... bore . Ih ..... were mBny ""'"' unpl ...... nl IUrpri_ in flo",. tn,
haech ... we'" fa. Imalle. and narrower and Ihe hill. and dlffillrolching
ahove Ihem far higher Ind SI""per !han mOil of the boach... and hill. on
Ihe D·Day beech ... of Nonnandy. ' ,mu h_dn·t been Invenled yel.
(o.un::h!illn raCl would have I maior and w hSPl'Ier role in developing
Ihem .unn.) The Brhl.h and Anu""IAu.t .. liln. I nd New Zealanrle ...l
we", oommanded by on incompetent IwH. Gene ..l Sir Ian Homllton II
Churchlll bvorlte). while Ihe Turu. who wero fighlinS for Iheir hom ....
land. we", led hy one ofthe grealesl leaden I"d 8""0 ...1. in Iheir hil tory,
MUl te f. Kemll. Ihe man I.ter 10 be known II A"lurk. Ihe falher of Ihe
Kemal had been in Ihe o.iglnll Young lU.k ..... olulionory 8fOuP. bul
"'"' qu ickly byp...ed by EIlv • • • nd hi' friend. I I nol OOlns inlell ....1u.1
enough and lackins . .. melenl "poll oh." ILi b. on "'IOn y muroeroul
Incum pelents afte r Ihe",. Ihe Young lU.k. we .... nobo. l They thoughl
Kom,l 100 .brOlivo. too In lolHgenl , a nd 100 unwilling to Ilalter Ihem
ahoul Ihei. ow n ... If,imo.gined -gen lu •. " Whl! Kemll Iboughl of !hem
can be ooncluded from tbe d ungeonllnd plio"'. 10 wblch he I"or oon_
. ignod thorn .

Unllklllwtm. K_l &110 proV1ld to be lbe .......... w .... Mnllon ..........1
who could lCtuaUy win. major bam... HI Wilnl oa 10 w;n 1oI.0rtbem-
..wi . .I.... Ihl _ mod"", W_ern ann] • .
Kllt'IIl w., ...tv;....! by Goon.....l 0110 Uman von Sind...... brill lani
c.rman gene .. l or ,ew;.h origin di.t,ntly ..1,tlMl to the family who
owned Ih .. American depanRl<lnl at"", I",hman Broth.... KI","! l ad von

Enver and Nasser: 'TlMt Losers Everyone loved

rweo'S c~ ben ftrir p¥alltIs to thII: of GamII AbdrI NHMf In lIJ'PI
E hill' , ctnI~ lit..... Nmft. £noeolfd I 1liiy CfCt4l of mllitll'1 om.
em who f'II)OIIIed ...... iONIistic.lobmI.fOIfIII'Itlc paII1ocalllCllions IIId
who ~ ~. ~~ 'oO'ben ttwy ~ pooooft. buI who
""tty.) ~ lIlY idel whM to do 1l!);I.
~~. II INsl. ,. fnt took tIl!Itefic IItIIS to flif lilt IIICIenI' IlNncIll
IIId ftIIIW ~ IIId ~S ~.. of t!lf poor frIIthro.. Of prlSWl., d
tilt Nilt [lei". ~ dietl'f ~ ~ to do tNt. l ike ""11ff !If '"II
~ttd fO;V ... ..,.., ~ Ij)ft(~ to his idoflf'C p!ilIoc bill dMIlned
«CIIIOlOlIu IIId IOII'Id bo.MIm ~.1IId !If dIdn~ ' - , dut low
to ..... Of ~ Nt ~ry-wJoOch dietl't uop In from ""'P'cllld
hotm.. no tIIIt those ""'" did.
I..b N.K1fI. 1I'IraupI' combNtion d t"ftd. UI foIpor,o. 1IId ""'" he
Ihoutrt fII$ poInbi sbt.o_ u-1M'OItd inlotnehu fcni&n..",
!lui few all his ftllppiO'lCl d 100:10;0 •.,) IIId ..,. cHc. he _ 1MfI_

hoprIm II trlinil; Of cOf\'WilllldIf'C onnin In roI ~ INn he willi «0-


Sand.... rwh ed reinfurQIments up 10GoUipoli and kcpllhe allied fufCM
botlled up on the beach8l . The aUi8l .• peorh .... ded by Ihe AUAlraUan •.
nuode pauloruol8 efforu 10 .torm the cliff•. II In Ct.Ilml ....led In the clinuoc-
lie bottl8l11 Suvla Sey from Augut! 6 through Augull 21. 1915.
In The World en,I" Churchill depicll thai bottle 8.I1be Hin8" of Fate.
Had the AustraU .... boen able to hang nn. had Ibe Brill,h II"nerall mRn·
aged 10 gather enot her compAuy or two of lroopo .• nd hid Ihe War Cobl·
no\ In London ol>own IUlt ,little mora """kbone, he argued . the beighll
It Schnllar Hill would have boen held. II would have boen a downblll_
all·th... wey Iweep 10 Constantinople. the .Init. would ha~ boen opened
. t lISt , I nd endle... e normoul convoy. of British. Fhlnch. and even
AmeriC&II munilionl would hIve flooded 10 Ruuli lo preven l lh. col.
llpoe of the ~i" army and prevenl lhe RUllien Revolution and aUlhe
h_ tombo of d ... lb and l uffcritlJlthal flowed from it.
The iuue ramline eU Importlnl one Into Ihe twent y-firet cenlury for
U.S. pollcyn.. k...... well I. hi.toriBn. and w.r hl"ory enthulil.ll.
Befor. P...I Wolfowltz ... rved ao American deputy <!efenMo _ ery from
2001 to 2005. urgitIJIlhe InvlSlon of Iraq. II dllln of the John. Hopl<.l.ns
School fr:. Advanced inlernational Siudies in WashltlJllon be lllu>d to take
favored gradulte .tudenll on lri p. 10 I.c.nhullo ohow them how d ....
tbe GoUi poU campalgn_nd Churchill·, vilion-came 10 changing Ihe
COurse oftwent!eth -<:enlury hillory.
BUI In reaUty. without lank •. I",ck.o, .nd Ihe tactical doct rine Ind
tralnitIJI loClJry 0011 rapid ...... oMd war. the Briti. h couldn·' hRve hoped
10 .dvl nce 1\ morelhln I ,,",wllnd the Thrl:l would have fought them
III the way and kept them bouled up. AI.... Ih8 thirty·mile CalUpoll
pen lnl ula continu81 w ith hmy. revine territory fo. mll81 beyond th e
landi ng he.w:h8l. Win n ing Ihe baule. at Su vl. Bay Ind Sclm it a. H!II
woul d lUll ha ve boen the prelu de to end Ie.. bloodbalhs of tb. kind
already occurring on Ihe W8Ilem Front. And by th. time Suv l. Bly wal
foughl In Augut! 1915. Ihe Ruuian army had already I... t millio/U dud

on Ih. !!ulem Fronl Uld beeD forud 0111 of Poland. IIII . . ia ·. colle.,..
by Ib.., w.. i ..... ltmle.

UUOD' 0/ Goll/poli
n,., Brilleb der... ,.t Go.Uipoli In 1915. and Ibe mIlCh .ma ll.... one It Kill

,bal .. me )'Mr. 11113h' I....... to \\'""Iern nalloM aboul gettllJ& ..,\AIt3led

lu the MIdd le Ea.t that"'" m orn rel""ant DOW Ih.n ever.
Flrtl. local pOl'u lftlion. and nation. in the ~Ion Iboliid not he
dMplted Ot undCreltlm.oled ju'l heo:au ... lhey have lOlit w... roo- teo .... or
hundred. of yu .... Ever)' war il dlfferenl. Th" Brlll.h . ud the A~b

Mllona chroalcr.Uy uud_ timated the lewl.h communlly In P.leftln,

In 19047_ 11141• ....t btMlll ~mated m. £cypll.".and the Syrian.
10 1173.
s-.nd. battt.. w..... and mil iluy aom . .isno '*'
be "1Ir)'-y to ItIrt
but "III")' bud to Il0p. Once y"" .... In. )'0"',.. In. and, cr.m .. I,n t, k..
on a medllle of III own. I"",IJIIJI in uni ....in .... _ l U l l U cuuahl..
_rand the doadlock doepenr.. The Uniled Slal_ hu been l... mlllJl lhat
In Iraq.
Third. I""al popul allon l that JHlrform mllo~bly In the f_ of One
kind of wl r CIIn I>roye fonnld. bly brlllllnl In Inolhe. kind o f conflict.
The TUr .... f.Ued ml ..... hl)' when Ihey .uem pled offen.lv. opentlon.
qalnillhe Drillih In Sinai In IIH5 and 191& end qalnll the Ruylen.
arollnd Lake Van . 8ul when Ihey had 10 flabt. " ..I"' lforw.nI de r..,.
live 11...,.le 10 protect Iheir aneat .. 1 b""nland .t GtoJILpoll. or later
..,Inlll the In.-.dillJl C ..... k anny in 192o-11IZ I . Th,IJ.h pMMDt Mlldlen
PIO....:! to be the epitome Dr coun,ge .... lUene". end tou.&bne_od
they won.
Tlt.al lutOn IPPU", 10 Iwenty·llrtl..:entury Intq too. Th. Iraqi army.
even .1 the hel"" of III POW'" in 1991. proved uHI_ ...In" Ihe eu..,k
nr. YUI U.S. and aUI...! fo",," commanded by c..ne.. 1Nonnan Schwarz·
knpf. II proved flquelly helpl .... agalnll the IlghlnlllJl Ihrolt. of Ihu U.S.

n.. "-Imc.llyIDc_ G~Id. I. t~. IiIlddll Eut

Anny an d Marinel In the 2003 cam paign. Yel Ihe ... ma ..,Idle.. had
foughtluJI"rbly and .~fully oga; nll Iranian hum.on wo"e alloch In
the HI86- I \I~8 Inm.I""IWar lUll I few yaan befo..... And when II CIJIIe
10 I guerrilla war "&oIlnsl U.S. fo""" with In finilely ,uJl"tlor f1 .... power
from May 2003 on. the Sunni MUIUm In,urgenl, In Iraq proved 10 be
innovative. adaptive. rulhl ..... and unMly ....I""tl_.

Europe's ·slck maD" bas some teeth

For mOI1l tban a cenlul)' beforelhe.lort of World Wat I. Ihe gn>IIl crui,l ·
Ion empl ..... of E.. roJl" looked .. pon Ihe Otloman Empi .... u the "Sid Man
of EuroJl"" _ roiling edlfica Ihal wo .. ld collapee If Iny NriOUI power
wem 10 war "lI1;n,1 il. This widn preod ",Iumpllon loy behind the
naively romanlic belief among young BrltI.h offi<;e" who ..iled off 10 , ....
Gollipoll camv-l&n In 11115 Ihal ;1 would combine Ihe epic herol,m of the
Trojan W.. wllh I.... gallonll)' and Irlumplu of Ihe .... Iy en....d ....
Bul Ihe Brllilh quickly learned the hard lOlly Ih8t if Ihe Otloman Turk"
bh f.mpl .... 101M Il ick old "'"n. il wu a.lck old man wilh teeth Ihalllill
delivered a nuly bile.
Win' lon o.urcl!IIl·, vilionary Clmpaign 10 knock Turkey oul of Ihe
war wilh I l ingle blow wu drowned In blood. The Turkl.h oo<U<:ripl..,l.
d ie .. led by Kemol foughl with feroclou. bravery and keptlhe Briti.h.
AUJlraUan .• nd New Zealand dlvl.lollJ pinned down on Ihelrliny hMch·
h .... d. 1...01'" the ...... )'III'. en Anglo-Indian army of 10.000 men led by Sir
o.arl ... Townshend marched up from the Pera;." Gul( 10 lake B."t.d.d
bul wU blocked by ,Irong. unanticipaled Ottoman fIIi.tonce. Town·
. hend. rather than oenlibly ret"",1 back 10 Ihe .. fety of Kuw.!! on the
coall ... I .tlll for lo"ll. falol w ....U in Ih. lown of Kill while Ihe Turko
. Iowly b"t , I... dily built up thair force. and cut offhl.o Una of ""......1.
n... double Brltl.h humiliation. ofeallipol i and K"I.ma.had lhe old
myth of!he weak. comop\, ond COW".,ll y old Turb. Th"y put the Brililh
IIrt"llllock 1M Ollomon Empi ...

on ,... ddf"".lve. I k;~i"llbeir wound .. Ii would be lwo yean bafore far

Jurr. bett... orpnlUld Briliab armiN alated lbe Iabori..... I..k 01 rolling
up I'" ClUom&n Emlll .... ;n ..... Middle wI from II. ut.......ltief. drivi"l
In,o .... leatl ... &om f.cypt and bKk Inlo M~poI.ml .............. tr.q. from
8ul the Brill.h dlJ,Ulan.t C.Uipoli .nd Kul I.ughl UI Import.nl I....
IOn ,h.l 1\,1.I.h poUcym.kero quickly forgot_lid th.t twenty·firol·
celllury U.S. pollcymakero forgol 100. However INIckw.rd ' hey milh'
,ul"',f1cl. liy ' PP"' by W..lern ".n d.rd •• Ihe lOCi",l.,. of .he Mldd Ie
Ea .. h.v, ...... nsth. Iden lity. Uld .... ilience of their own. COII'l" .... inl
them ,"d ....... plng ,hem i.oft,n a far tough ... lob thin II 'Ppearlll liro,
.ishl .


.... --
he ....... 1.....11 amBia loday lsn'l aboul bortl .... and ......... _ . Guess what?

T II'I aboul ••truggl. for .od.tenu. Th. orIlinl of tM amnicl

Ind'" U. in the poat-World W... I hlppenl"" Inlhe"'lion, bul
• AI ...... "

beyond It..! . lhe mmmonly und-.;.od bittory of mil OOI1BicllI riddled

with polllQUy conacl mytho and m;lOOllCIpIlont.
.-..:.demt. ... d the ......,. Uke to tay the -'rir.. bepn with Iheex\lW)l'·
dLrwy 1967 Six·C.y W....... d 1."",1'0 oonql>Ml oftheGaza Strip. the W"",
..... a r.nn liliiii
.a,. 1M IIMII I

and tho I'lieotlftllM
llank • • "em "",,.Iem .... d the Colan U,ighll. TIIII War (whlcb Waf a dldn~ ..... hi...

preemptive 001 d,r.m.lve w... by brael). Waf poll" of a 1.'11'" war lhol had • "''h.n MCIIIlI. to
l1arted h,I'. OInlury 111.11... m.alntallllng II,.. aNI
• ..... 1M lIrMIIII ron
.... laIiIlO -.w \buI

The creation of Israel: An aoti-Musllm U,S. conspiracy? _ow.
If )"011 believe tb, ,belorir: of the . . . . . M1.lJ1l1ll 'Il\.ltor loday . ......111
• TIM! IoroIo oWIn
tbe unholy "P".... of tbe c..1 s..W>-tbe Unll'" SW...... fM:t, 1he fint
w" '-tUelo
-- .....
pr1IIIitienl 10 add..- the t.u.e WII Woodrow WIlIIOn. who 1WIr .......... ""'...
It.. Ideo> of. - lewhh ....tloo.] home In P. ICIfIi .... • "~.JtwI$Io
The Id. of ......l had lIS .... ad ...... ,........... I.... Brillsh. who In 11111
'lOuld the f.maul IIallour Declaration. calling for Ih. Cff>IIIIon of. ",wilh _, ,.a. .
. . In '''7-
"'1".T hlo Waf 001 OUI !lfB';I;.h 1!lV<) f", Ihe ... w.... d Ih, ZI!lnl"", IlIKWIg lb. Wnt DiRk .nd
them. (Zhmi,' I•• 1000ded wo.d.lo be." ..... hilt It lltlll1l11y mNn, 10111000&
who belieye. in • Jewl,h 1.lte.) The Balfo"r O"clanotion WN .,;tuIUy
t..oo on the ludlcroul benef that tho Zionm II>MInn of thoo lI .... comrolled
the BoI_h""lk IUwolulion in R.... I. and Ihe political d¥llny of the United
SIale-. The Zion;"". who knew their own powerl."... ..... never dreamed
Ihey held loch Influence or uplnldlo anything of thoo 10<1.
In lulumn 191 7 the Britl,h War C.binei faced. dl .... proopM:!. RUNi.
WLf f1oundel"in3 and on the veil!" of beina knocltfid ou, ohhe war. and It
would be many monlhl. fM""h.opA 1n00001h.n I y... r, bef_ new American
arml.,. could be trained. tnnlporled. and OIpIllzed 10 plUJIlhe hoi"" on
the wMkened w...tom ~·ront . !low could Britain keep RUN;. on It. feet
and Amen"" committed In th.o m..... tlme7
51. Marl< Syl<ea. Britain'. chief diplomatic negotlalor on Middle East
alJaIn. had an ....wer. In flowering. _Ii<; lanjjUlfl'l that ....d. morto Jike
• bod Victorian novel than oobe. document. of ,tate, he proclaimed that
Ihe Zlonl.t movement had YNI power over the Bollbevlu in R....i. Ind
OY"" the IIOYertlment ofPrelld"nt Woodrow WiI_ In the United St.,....
Commi' the Orilish ca"", 10 Mtabl iohlng I ,ewl. h homeland In Palestine.
and ·C..... t Jewry· would make .u.... RUNi. ltIyed in the war w h ile
.peeding Up America', commitment to ... nd it. Irmi.,. to the Weotern
Front. The despente governn,ent of Prime Minl' t.". o.yld Uoyd Coo'll'"
fMdy 10 clUlch 1I .... w•. bought Into thl. fevered f,ntllY.
None of thi. kooky calculation WN known to Ch.im Wel""" nn , Ih"
h... d of the Zionll! movement In Britain. He genuinely tlooughl thaI Ihe
growing Hritioh inte ....t In hiI Clu", WII hued on I ""Nlon for the Bihle
and ju.tice for the Jew.... wen II on gnotilude for hi. own uoefulrole In
buti dl ns modem munition. f.,;toriet the lenglh of Bri llin 10 provide
more IheU. for the wor.
If Welzmann had known whll WII tru ly molly.llnS th8 Brlti,h
embrace of Zion!.m. he would ha~ l'u&hed. It wu tnJe thaI the .... we ....
• d;"proportional. number of J8W1 _mona 1M Bol.hevlk lead.flbl p. moot
:':-'.' ""~..... :-~l'-"".'~"'\..'.'W-' Iv"" •':"':-. .-
.'. ' ... " • ";''-•• 'W'. - - - -• , ' •• , ' •. ,' ••

An Unlikely Friendship
n 1919, DIvid &en-Wion.1~ "*'Y oU!ef ~ tibm! ""'~
I !tom ~ ~~ ob\cIn ~ 01 ~. Aw. and the ~ mt. ~ 10
Pwl$ hopirc 10 ad¥o«!~ hi$ ~"s uw lor ",,100.:.000 10 U.s. ~I
WOtld«:tw W,bon (no frlMd of tht lionol' " 10 p.rI ~ miIdI,) ancI lOthe ~.
s.tIlI~ l'N<:e COnf~. hrk w~ ~ ~., WItt. slmII¥ Iqlef\lh ancI

IpIirtmem $pACt om II I prtII'IIIm. .., ~WIon $1"Yfd In tht Utn\' holt'!

iI$~ irnpt<\I'IOouI J'OIIl: IOf'I'IaI'Itic ~iU. TIwy bt<_ rut fr~

And the,.".. ttl) 00 MoM. funn ~ 011 ft<ocIOUI rebellion ~1

F,ft;t MId then Corrm.nu ....... tIl NorTh VItD'IIm. ~ kn-(uoonlNt
if the B<it$~NI ~ ~wouId ~be_for the ~
...~ iIo:Inw in N!. .dtpo;iodell. ~ ~I( 01 v--.

DOIably IAon l'roIlk y. 8Ul1hoy w &.". tiny mlnorh)' Imona their own
people Ind-. sood COmmuni.'......... h.y hated I WII)' form of ' . ... l.h
""Ion.lllm. Throughou' the "",nty.four y.... of Sol"I", h illory. any
form of ,ewllh nIUo".lill or Zionl l! orpoll.llloo ..... me.d lu.lr IUP-
p.--\ by • .-.1.-. SovMt regl .....
Tbe ld .. tn.1 Wood", ... Wilson ... uln Wel:unann', pocket w.. _
""'... ludlc..,.. • . WillOn. for , II hi. '" lk of ... t!o ...i ..I'.det...... hUllion .
..... MIIlI)' HleCllYI IUId arbUn.ry about which llatloMlI' ''' he .mpow-
.ed and whkh he ~ Of ""preMed. H, _ _ ,bowed any Iympolby
for Ib, 1_llh nallonal hom. policy Ind li ter ... ot envoys to PoI ... tiDl
who oppooed It femcloully. The fI ....t U.S. preoldent to publicly Ind
uplldtly ,lIle bl, ...,pport for the ..."bll,hmenl of. )ewllh olllonil
borne III PI I..II ... WII Wi!IOIl·' lua:euor. Warrell G. H,rdlna.
Marl; Syklll died of Ihe Sponi'h nu In 11119. bovlng mllde hi, ma,1; on
hlotory. Sllcc."lve 8,n."."llooo of )ewl, h Zlunl," and 1' ....11' fflVered

him as a IV""t fri .. nd IIId blmefactn" Almo.t none of them l:new that it
wat hit CIIvalier ..:cepta",,", of lOme of th" worot anti·Semitic mythl that
put him at their .I d",

How II all began

Th" toOU of th. Anb-I .....li conflict lie In Ihe 1917_1920 period. Such
conflict was unavoid.ble. Th. jewl.h people bad a bareditary p..-nCII
In P.l ... ';n .. IInlnll back m!>", thlll tb"", thou ... od y... n. There had
alway. been s ignificant Ilumbert of '''W
I then, Mpecl.lly In Jentsalem ,
But aft", the British JIOVOImm"nt committed Itself to the Jawish natlonal
hnme poliCy, P. l... Unlan Anb oppooitl!>n to the retumlna lewl.h com-
munity was unmlentiIIJ.
Thill might not have "",ttered If the Britl.b ..... their empim the wly tha
Rnm.no or the OttOmArul had: boldly decLorl"ll thalt policies and pu.hina
them through, "'II&"'i1- of .... i.t.llOII. But the Briti.b """que....... did nOC
beh."" I I conquero ... AnU-Semi tic pmjudioo wll rInllHmt In the Brltlah
Army'l Occupied Enemy Tilrrilori ... Admlnlltratlon, wh ich ruled Pal_
tin .. from 1917 to 1920. Ourina thote fateful )'1!In. offi.,... and Mlmlni ..
trBton a' the highest level of tha Bri ti.h buntllucracy 81><e enoou.-gement.
protection , and promotion 10 the mlHlt mutdemulalld extmme anti·Jew·
;,h Pal ...tinlan leaden. NO! rnrprIJl"8iy, thair favorites turned OUt to be
"'lually vidou.enemies of th .. Britillh I I well.
One favorite .ntl·I......1claim II that the """"lion of bra,,1 m.... nt driv·
1"11 Arabi from Iha Holy Land. In truth. there W8I room for both popula·
tlonl 10 live lid" by sid ... lIlotorian Dotvld Fromkln ... tim.l... the
P. Itl$tl nIBn Arab populatioll in 1917-191 B II 600,000, wblch may be far
100 high. Th" t"rritory of PalestlllG II..:! been nV"lled by mom than four
y... n of war and by" fi .."", rami"" tbat killed thoupnds of Arabi and
Jewl .Ilk... (Th .. lI .... t jewlo.b 1ICb01., c..rohom Scholem mcal1lHi in hll
memoln mom than Mlf • century later Ibat wb"n b" fint ClIme tn
Jerusalem he w... bl" 10 buy huge numben of"' .... ancienl boou on Jew-
llh mYllicbm In Jerusa l.. m t.ac.u"" Ihe hol y men snd Iheir f,mlli'" who
had owned Ih em h. d died of hlUlF and di_ ... d urinS Ihe wsr. Pal_
I;nia" Arab ~"U h.ad d iad In aWn IV""I... numbon..1
P.Io. UII6 had IIOI~" a tOlally emplY. d_ rlad Isnd undo.lbe Thru.
buI il we. certainly a very liShlly populated on ... In 1881. I>&fo", any
modem lignificanl 'ewlsh Immi8Jl'tion from Ih .. curlll RUNi8n Empire
bogall. in ve.,. IIndl numbers for the next Ihirly_th ..... yean. the ' Olal pop-
ulatIon w .. ~a;nly I.... ,han hlf a million.
Ironically. 111"11"1 Amb Immlgrallon Inlo Pal ... t;n" duri"3 I.... ~-World
War I period 01 Britim rul .. lknllwn .. ,1>& Mandl,.. ). larsely overlsnd from

PC Myth: It's All about the Palestinian Refuaees

1~II m. mytM obou! m. Anb-IsrHlI ctW1ict. this 0Ilt is b)- I~f tho! most pmlIlfnl. Tlw
O pli&flt of tho! f\l1..tiniorn-Alob!. rod }tw!.-w» (I!f!,;nly horrendous II the tnd of the
00-1'U8 wM. Bu!: il !Me Nd ~ no WII'. ~ would hoM bHn no ref~ II tht tnd of it.
AIr ..timit..! 100,000 f\llmirUn .~ _ (1M..! b)- the _. iKCordir( 10 l-"I ..tlm.itH
rrD filM ~ftfl Thd Wild Mlo.! u¥;tly the wmoe lipe is the runbrr of Srp/IlnIk:}tw!. ...no

_~ t.ptliod lrom thri. _~I hrJrr,n tIvooJhoot tho! Ali!) world in tho! bKkliSh _ of Pff-
SKUlion! tNt loIlowtd lho ..u.bIi""-'" of hlHl Almosl ill of them todrd up roirc 10 tht
It'wfsh mit.
h should ~150 bI' not~ thor in tho! ... from )9.IS 10 19018. ~' Ifu' tIIirty million
.eflCffS _~ (.ut~ by tho! tnd of World Wff II .. E...... the r«IrlWWlC of NlinNI boInWlK
thi! ~10Wfd. itld tht horrifK ffIiI\SiI;m itld _ bfr_ HincM rod Muslims in the 1941 pirtl-
lion of 1ndi.I. So the rNl OUICOIM of the OO-19oIa w.' WIll ~ 1!IiSSM.1Ilou&it fff from 1I'IpfKi!'-
OentfCt "wftf of populilion bftWHfIlv~ itld lhe Ar.o world.

n . ,,1I1l<aIlJ I........, ""Ld. I. Lh WLU I. Eul

Syria and Iraq. may have ft)I.,...,.jed the numoo.. of Jo>w. Imml8"'"llns inlo
the count')' in .boIolute num~ at the Amu ti">e. The Dritw.limlted the
numbflr of jewilh immign.ntl ha..,d on p"",umed economic abtOl"ptive
Cll*'ity ifthu land. Thl. hulally meant tbegovwnmenl"l ,"wll h Agency
and the Jo>wLAh mp.nizalLOJlI runni"ll and encuu-.gins Ih.. ...c1l8ment had
to, provide tho OCOll<llIlic in"""tructu", for 'mmignont. before lhey arri""'!.
Out tho SMwl"llI'f'MPftrily of tho urban oconOiny aloo .Itracled large
nUnlhe .. of hnb pMI8IIll Itom neighbori"ll cou.ntriM. Tho Driti.h nuver
bothered crllCklng down on Ihem: they didn't heve enough lroop" 10
cl ..... the land borden evellif they wan ledlo. h •• .... ult. jewish InvMt-
menl .1.., ended up .ignifieant ly II",nSlhen lllS the PaluLinlan Arah
urbo.n populaLion.

Tbe rise of Haj Amln al· Husseini

For Ibe elltl", troubled length of the 8 rltw. milllit)' occupalion and Man-
date In 1'.I8ItI1l6 from 1911 to \941. the figure of Haj hmill ,1·lIu_lnl.
t .... m"ft i [Muslim rellst""" leader! 006r,,",[em, blocked Ih. paW ofthe
BriU,h .nd Zloni.t jewl.h Mltll ..... If )'Ou'", Mekl"ll' """",a of the .Irife
II1d hallOO in tho Arab-Io_1I connlct.thll Dri li.h·plcked mu fti I... (!nod
place to look.
Huuelnl.. couoin of Yauer hnfa" w.. .....,n mono murdaMU' loward
h i. own people than he waf toward the Brili.h II1d , .... Pa l",Unien Jew..
Once he w" In om"". It n.v.... occurTtd to the Britl,h occuplo...-.. It
would cenainly hne occurTtd tn tbel. OtlomBn Turkllh prodeceuo.--
10 .;n'ply remove him from nffice or ki ll hilll.
Thl' ml.placed constitutionality queasi ness wu qulclr.ly HfUl'ed by
Hu.selnl and hi. follower.. encoung,nli the nluftl to defy with Impunity
the Britisb rulen who h.d appointed him In the fin t place.
Hus.alni Waf no ... riou. I.lamlc derlc. He was .Imply a hand..,me
younsJunlor notAble from One of the two or th"'" moot prominent P.l .....
Unl.n famlli. In thoe higbLandJ of "al..dna.
H, wu abl. 10 ri .. 10 the to p d.. plte hli
L "_" looks You're Not
)"'"lh . nd I..... perienat h.ecoUM he curried
f.vllr with Ihe Drililh .... pecl.lly with SI.
1/ Supposed to Read
O~ by""", COIl,,,, nI ~
£mett Rlcllmond. Ih. chl ..r architect of lhe
Uj)Ierre; New Yort; Snon nI SdIu\,,,.
B.ld. h .dmlnl.trall"", In J....... I. m. who
.bo h.ppened 10 hoe fIerc, ly ."tl·Semllic ,."
and 1l11nl. _lonary. GtrIftIs f9¢ nw '"' ~ ~ t.,
RIchmond p...... lIed upon hi. 10118-1....., o.n K<.I'lINf\; New YooI<: 0. Ypo P'rm.
10YtIf. Sir Ronald St ...... (I ......"'" 1111011"1.., ""-
offi<;l.1 who b.ed drifted the Lnramolll.,...,.,.. Two hichlr fDdM)Ie. ~1 fflflKhtd.
IJlDn,I"nc. wilh Sherif HuneLn In Meoc.lln nI MIl-NnOed boob fnl pWliWd
191~1916 .nd Ihen 8.rbl..,J Ihel. pl.in ANrIy fort)' )'tM'1CO nI,TiII ......lled
.... nl.., beca.... of his Uos"lotlc lnoompe- introduC1iolll 10 the ferooou:IlVture of the
IIIDCII. Slom hed been prumoted 10 80".... 00-194 ...
nor cl)erulalem. where hoe 8'" Richmond an
Inn" ... IL • • job II .... iflanl _ . . , . 10 Ihe
Britl.h ruler of P.lesll .... High Camml"lon.,.. SI. l{erbert Sam""l. Sam"el
was Jewl. h. bm n""'" Importanl ly. hoe wu. hish·mlnded. dG-goodlna lit..
...1 fool who 1.le, oppooed ChurchiLl'. wamln81 .bo,,1 lhoe ,IN of Nul
Germ,ny. Samuel lUI[vely fo llowed RlclImolld·. ,..;omm.nd.llon .nd
puted nver I>Mler qUIIllned CIIndidal.. 10 'ppoilll the dlpl"ed. hand·
_ . Lmpecr.obly .... nn .. ed bul .1110 plycbopelhiCIIlly fM>OCIdaland
mu,derou_youOS HuuelnllO Ih,lob. T.... of lhouoand. of inl>OOllnl
...... t. and J.w. _ .. 10 di.1O thM Samuel could feel hlsh·mlnded .nd
m"",lIy IlIperWr.
Th ..... fter. for more lhen a qu.rt e, of. """"lfy. l"cc_lve B.llloh
admlnlslnllon d.f.......d 10 IIII .... lnl II If he _ .. the .rcbbilhop of Can·
II, _ nnthlosoflbe Ulld.. FI ..... be "~Ied agompeilP' 01_
.1...lIon and lerror 10 <:OW lhe Nuhublbi clan. the moderale mended

no. ,,",UUcaU, [.... met GoJ( . to 110 . .. l.dl. latl

family of nolablo wbo w"'" the Hus..,in[I' Inclenl rivIls. Then . p[t>-
neerillJl I form of dIplomacy his coulln A",fal would o.dopt on a grand
ocale, he [nternaUonall:t6d and [Ilarnlclud the naUve Pal ... Unlln Arab
oppooition to lhe Jewish Jetl lement in PalotlOG. He look advlntoge of
the 1929 ri ot. In Jeruu lem tn claim thet the Jewl we,.., plottIng 10
dealroy the Dome o f the Rock and the aJ·Aq .. Mooque. The government.
of IUn"Oundl1lJl Arab natl"n. Egypt. [nMj , and Soudl A",hlo , Nger 10 dIs_
tract their "wn populotl""" from dom ... tlc I..u ...... d ... tablilh their own
CNdentllla. followed Hu .... lnl·.leod. By 1936. when the main P.I_lln-
Ion Arab revolt heaan o",lnat the Brltlah rule .. and the Jewllh Zlonlll
Jettlen, Hu ..elnl was Ibe undoubted domlll.l.lll fig\lle &IDOna Pllettln-
ian Arabi.
He wUa dipsI",. for h[, people, but he was 01 ... popular among Ihem.
Uk, any no!lve population faced with Ihe ludden appearance of [um-
"""n coloniall. Plleolinian. f'OH up In delisnOll. lie n::ely oppoo illJl the
Jewis h lettlemenl and the BritIsh polley of lu pponlna It. A ""nlury o f
war might well 11.0..... been [n""'IBhle in any cue. Bul the fact ... mal",,!hol
Hu .... inl wu far mnn extreme, murderouI, .nd unrelentlng Ihon the

How the eon.p;..cy Theorists C..atedl.....

"To my mind. tht liclni>« w - . tht my d tht litullion-tht problem ii. '-'
w tIwy to tJ. Qtisflo!d7 Wim 'Gmt kwIY iCollnst II!I !tom is no posWk cl!inc:f
d ~Iil: IhIo tI"Iinc tfyo' - it nvlftl. optimi5m In Borfl in. ~ In LoocIon.oouW!
in 1'IriI., ffSislUICf 10 luI dil<:h In Cnopif [CansIWinc:J9lf~ dissfmioo in ulro. Ar~ III ~bblina
...arc ""'"-1m. As !ohKfSPH/4! IoiyI. l.intIft Thit IIrq iI!ld min: .....mt discord follows..-
Sir Mwt.: S,u.. dIiff 8<ill$h diplOlllllk nfSOtI- OIl tM Middle EIII, 10
Sir Arthur Nicolson. perlMllfnt unde<-W</"tUrr for f~," dhit!, Mlorch

Nullullibio. who we .... lhe mosllikely alternative. He ..100 n ..!ly refu.oo
tl> enter <tVen the ru ...1 CIouliuu I and w<plo ... tory of n"l!otiaUon. with .. ny
Jowi.h I.... den at every otep.
8y 1929, uoing tho in" ... of the Dom .. of the Rod. and al.Aqu In
1.,.,.....lem. Huoulnl had OIirred up oPpolition to lewllll u1l16"'6nl
throughout the Mwlim world. Viol"nl Arah rioll


broke out In 1929 when Jeo",," of lewl w......

killed around Pol""tlD8.
Finally. in 1\136. a popullr A... b ",volt brok..
out againOl the Jewish uUlem.,nt. Hu .... ini took
, ABook You'" Not
Supposed to R••d
/rtsdo rtPt AAP>-NOO lDbp.tth by EI~
advantag.. of thil revolt. which he h"d worked
~: Orloot Itoutl~ 1'l.tllMen.
bard 10 fOmenl, to u ... t6rror sangl II.. controlled
to ulIIl&Ilnote all hi, pot .. ntl~1 rival •. t·OI" the next
.lev.. n yean he wu the unrivalled ho"der of th~
Pal"tlnlan Arab commu n ity and the worsl th ..y eVer had. ~·i"" lI y. in
1939. the 8ritlsh ..,nt .. th .. n unknown g.. n..... I. 8ernard Montgom .. ry.
who d ..f""led lhe ",voll.
In World War II. Hu.."i ni took tho logiClol ultlmale "ep to becoming
an ""g~r ace ......ry_nd. very effective on~o lh .. moll mO""trou.
e,;me in hillory: he 8penllhe war ye ... in FaJell1 Italy and Nul Ger·
many. He..,as very active in urging I"" SS b""",uc ... u runnlng lhe fir...1
Solulion. Ihe methodically planned genocide of Ihe enlire 'e..,llh pe0-
ple In E"rope.to ma ke .umlhal children .... peei.lly from Ih" Sephardie
'e..,ilh cnmmnnlli ... oflhe Balkanl. were not spared from Ihe p. cham-
bo.. in AUKb..,iI2. He .ecrollOO SS regim.. nll for Ih" Null from lhe
BoInlln Muslim communily in Yug.,.I."Ia. They guarded the """u,ily
nf Ihe ... llwl Y HnCl CIorrylng cattle truek. fil led ..,ilh hundred. oflhou-
Hn dl o f Balkan 'e..,s for Ihe exle,mination chamba.. Ind cremation
o~elU of AuJchwitz. One oflh ..... forcoolook I loading role In lhe g8no-
dde of bundreds of Ihousandl of Serbo and Gypli .... as well .. }ow•. In

Husseinl wu also lel.- personAl frie.nd of AdoUEichnwm and Hein-
rich Himmler. He even viJiled Auocbwil1 on II 1....1 one OCCIIllon 10
mUel""'lb. job wu beins done rigbl .
Wlte .. Ihe greal sbowdown belw""n the J_I and An"" In PaIMI]"e
Ih81 he had lUlled for finlllycamein 1941. Hlj Amln . 1_Hu ..... ini·l un ....
lentlng pol icy of ..... killllio drivufIYery Jaw Into the _led in,l..d 10 Ihe
, b.tlering and """"tiering of Itll own people. r ...i"8 lOS tbelr greal.".1 clwn-
pIon. he "'.-tedly proved him ... I' to be thei' grealMI call1lllily.

Churchill in Cairo: 1921

He came. He wu I'holOST"phed aJongalde hll friendilittillll on 8 camel.
He painted Iha Pyramid.. He l ummoned hi' heroea T. E. lawrence and
Gertrude Bell to mlH!l w ilh him. When Wlrulon Churcllill vllited Cairo
in 11121 II Hil Majesty', ,ecretary of Itlle for the colon i.... he had the
kind of boliday Hnle boYI dnoam of. He .110 drew the map of the modem
Middle Eut.
Three modern Middle Eul nationl we .... creeled by the decllJOIU
Omrch!ll m8de Ind lhe lin.. he drew 1\ the epodlal Cairo Conference.
I'inl. It" upheld the .I......dy highly conlrovanW policy 10 ... tablilh I
Jewish nallon.1home In Pal",tl .... Ind 10 build ;t up w ith lTJ.UI.;ve Imml-
grIItlon from the Impove, i,hed and perteeuled Jewish communitl" o f
Europe. Thl l policy uillmately enaured the .,...,.tion oft he Stlte of 11....1,
Secood. o.uteh!ll unllal8ll11y recognlud u·S.yyld Abdull.h at tbe
_I p""",nOl'l 011 the ground ..II of the Jordan River. Abdullah, the eld·
...1 ..,n of thai old Brltilh favorite Sherif It"",,in of MIICt:I . w u lhe emir
(prince) of l'tan'lOrtlan
Ofallihu Huhemil" I I thlt tima. Abdulllh .... ' the one Brill,1t fill,,"
and policymakersUked 1....I-perluopo tw.caUM he wu the Imart...t ... d
wasn't p .... paf'ed 10 danoo I I their every won:L. But the British d ldn 'l noed
Ihe emboomoumen l of kicking him out ofTtan'lotdan. and they nM<led
10 set Up IIOme kind uf governmenl 10 htlp lhe pMce on lhe che.p. So
Abdulleh Itlyed.
Third. Churchill created Ihe modem "ltlu"-l\lle of II'M\ unde, Kiltg
~·liSllII. II lutd ReVer $>11$100 In hl.lory unl. . you counl the famou. bul
brief lIahyloni." Empif'fl of NftbuclutdRer.%ar 2.400 Y(!At1I $8J'1I0!". Hullhe
BriH.h we ... de\ennlneod to hold 00 10 Ihe f.bulou.ly oll-rich lerrilori ...
they hid finall y co"'lue red with such d iffi_
culty In the dOlloll ""riod of World WRr I.
And Ihe lI"""l I IIZO Shlile ,,"vol! in lIOulhern
Iraq had underlined Ihe urgenl n(!Ad 10
... Iabli.h IIOme kind of nilive Arah govern_ AQuestion of Numbers
menl .up~ly """"plahle to Ihe people of
w... f'oltslOllf ""I'lY ""'"' IIIf ~II<JO,I'
Mesopol4mia. A &iendly "Rlive.wernmenl
~I¥~,IOII w... ¥fICO,rI(frl itId IIIf Jew-
wu nlHKled beelU.. the Brilish l.eked the
ish 1IiI~ Iv:Irnc poIlC)' dedllfdl No. ~
linanelll nIIIOul"Cf!l or Ihe will 10 occupy the
,..,oinly w... not.
land mililArily. BelltJllhl., 10 produce FIIsa.I.
W"'I~' room IOf million! oIltwl$h
I .. olh", lIOn of Sheri f Hu ... in. u Ihe " kiltJl
mlsrw' 10 WItt. INn wimour dO$-
of Ihe Arabt " WII Ihul • poJiIiCiI m •• t .....
piX"", IIIf Mib inhIbilom~ ~ Ibm
stroke for ChllJ"cltill .
(..,.inly .,.~
In the .holt tnnn. the huge redrawing of
Ihe Middle Eal map Ihll ChurchHl decr&ed "Tho Zlonivs pkbftd hlfttino-

II Coiro proved .... pedilly from the llritl.h

ccw..ct1,,, ... _ kMw-...
<OWItr)' lflii caould support It tn.t
poinl of view. 8n oUISllndlltJl IUCCftU. For fi"IOI ... t _ _ ~m...
11>& nexl elghly y"", ultra_right Jewl&h and U..,j INn II tht tllnt; .. tt.II whit-
Zionist nllion.li.lIllI""klld 11>& "I~ery" _ di>pIKlnc...,. of tIw pom.p.
of cuUin8 off Joni!lJl-<D ...... than hllf the Ie .. 600.000 ....... I""""U"\!. tt.tr. .,,,
rilOry Brile,,, .,.,"ltOlied Ifter World WIr I. .-.. to btq In rNll;ons of )twIs/I

ButllmOOI no /ewlliv!!d. In Ihe TrRlujortlan ""~.

lerritories when Churchill gne Ihem to

Abdullah. and Ihe Brillih l.eked Ihe mill-
lory manpower 10 en force Jewish IftItlem'''1

Ib .... anyway. Tb".. W"...,.,'I even enou&h
W.I~ If It's "'wiob HIli,,", cominS f.... m Con",,1 and Eoal ·
Good for tbo <'1m E.. rope to dIMolop P.l..tlno al ..... llm • . In

British tb. urly 19200 Ihe Briti.1I CoIIMlII.I omce wa.

furio ... al the Zlonl.\ Organiulion for brlnl'
Empire ••.
Ing in too few "wlob MIll,,",.
In the _nl . Pel.'lne enjoyed one of I..
briar interl. . . of pMaI for eight y....... fler
the Co.Iro Conte ......,.. and tba Briliob Pe. ll._
tbt buI P-,1Ie!.1-. woth ""*" for thtft menl ..,m.wMI .. I.. clanlly accepted Ih"
ttIownd )'WS ~ " - bMllnIlII\i\.ty Lloyd George-Cburchlll-Balfour polley of
WId profOl.ndly 1UOC~ed1 Wf ItH: ~ .. ill ""oou...lng Jowl. h Immigration and buUdlng
be tood for the ....,.\d, tood for the Jtw1. up th" jewl.h n. tlonel home.
cood for the Irltish u...-. buI abo tood even In Iniq. the new.-..ad 10 ~ IlOI4ter;
for the ~ who dwoeU .. ~ (lor) the Sbille .. volt wu fln.oJly.:::ru.hed and Ib"
wt In{!fId N ~ !hili YIft ill the beo:R- Urillob .Iowly prepored Iniq for • form of III .. •
1• • lndependeroce .. ndor l'.iNl whU. keepl..,
Willst ... ClMdIill, tb" ..im of po_ firmly In Ihelr own h.n,I •.
Sfiti1h colonial $f(lt - But twanl y yMn . fler Churchill', hour of
'''Y.lPtuinl; 10 • 6e\. lriumph In CIotro. Ihe Arah ho ..... o f card .
'1lfion of Mullim .... h.d ... fI.mbo),.nily Cl'Hled came cruh .
ABIK In jeruyltrn on In8 down On hi. h... d. In !he 'prinl of 1\141.
MM(h JO, Wll with Cene... Erwin Rom m.l'. Afrika [(0'lK
che'1lI"3 KfOU Ih. W..lem Desen loward
Egypt, Brll.ln 0100<1 .Ione .nd ,..,I.ted
l8"in.t Ih. Nul conquerors " f !;umpe. .... 1 Ihl. moment . Ihe officer. of
the Iraqi .rmy Ih.,1 h.d t-n I"'lnll.l<lngl, c r.t'ted for Iwent)' )'Mfl to
do Britain'. wlllin the Middle EMI roM In .... ,,11. IJcl<ed Ih" Brltt.h ""I•
• n d dKIar.d that Iraq we. Iol n ln8 the .... "It. J>to..Nul fon:eo .1... look
OVer In "rtmch-oontrolled Syria IIHt door. AI thi. dark_I hour for
Britain'. l.mperial fortun .. In the Middle EMt ........ .m<»t ofth. f....ou.

lI.,.b Lesion o f funljordan. led by a Brillih officer. John Clubb. pu_
11... ly mullnled and ",fuoed 10 march . .Inst lbelr pnl-N.w 11.'" broIb-
en In 1""1 .
a ....rdliliin 1921 .. <:oI...,IaI_..,. had cr.ted Lro.q &lid 'ordan to
MCUl'II lhe Drll l.h Empl.. in Ihe Middle F....I. ""'"nty y..... lal" r...
8rU.ln·.embAttled Wat preml ..... b"found lb. arml. orbach ...Uono 1taD-
blng lltllii n in the bAck when It otlO!<l ... l them m".'. Only Ih o 'ow. of
Pal ... Un". who had no ....10" by Ih"" 10 10.. , Ih" Brltl.h. but who hid
nowhe ... " l... 10 ",. provided Iha luI JlrongIlold from which t";' IlriU.h
could docilively rlrlke t..d. &lid brieny ..... In Ihelr muler)' oflhe Mid·
die Ea,I.
But ln lbe lw .... 'y.n'" oen'ury. the li ... IMt Churchill dl9W., c:oa.fI.
dendyon a map In C.lro In 1921 contln ... 10 W"" the hlJlory of lhe
world. Th. mllIlari ly poweriullittla ".ta o f ImKII IMt I""w 0Il1 or hi.

"willi n.Uo ...1 homa policy conlin ..... 10 11"'111. for lu.-riYaI . . lnll
clo...t hand and. In !be OIM orl .. n. atlhe far .... d of Ibe ,.....,.
And lb •• nlncllilly o f tha unity b" ImpoNd on IAq now bedevil, U.S.
policyrtUlbtft .............. th. n II d id l:lril ioh ...... OlUn;hlll·IC.lro lugKy
Ih"",fo", romalllli mlxod on •. to pUI It mildly.

Emir A.bdullah or Transjordan

The BrllI.h .. perI.nc. with Midd la Eulem naUon-bulldl.., ... d "'let'-
plckl", could bu. I.upl th, WNt Ihil much: alJO<ld man II hard 10
find-end _imeo hard In """"",iu wben J'OU'w P him.
0utI". lbetr brief Imperial heyday in lbe Middla Eat. lbe Brilish dis-
played In unctlnny I.lenl fur cJ>ooo.lna and..,,~ Ih, blflllett I...
... !lIke Kin. FalAI of Iraq I nd Sherif 1l .. _ln of Mea;aj and \h. mOlIt
pollOnOllI . ....... I... II"'.n.mi. (like H. , Amln al· ll u_Lnl.th" mufti of
,eru"',,m) wh ll" d.pliins 0' oppolll""uCC81.ful ",I , .. of I'MI .blllly
lib M...".f. K'mal 1I.IIIurk In lUrk.y u. KI",lI.bdu lnl.r. Ibn s..u d In
Sludl Arabitl. The only Ii_they hit on • _I
wlnner. lhey did 10 IlIlplle oflhemJelvlI.
Even wh. n WlnllOn Churchill SOlve Emir
Abdullah . th, ,ld.1 IOn of Sh~,lf Ilu...ln .
"'Ilover~ 10 Ihut him up and keep
rJ the J)'$1~ic
the terrltlll}' quill In 1 1I2 1 . ~.. much WII
PI~1on d &wopnn Jewry Md ~ been
.,.J*:I.ed &001 hi.... In tIMo Ir- o f Churchill.
Abdullah wu tbe 1_ of the Huhemlt...
They ~iIl clullIlO tIM rldk:ul_ r.ntuy lluIl
thl whole ""''' MUllim world ,.anted. Of
runtly IntiItd him 10 K(~e the Plff'
would come 10 ,..nt. Sherif HUI..in In
minlTlon ~ 1hNrd him ~ tNt
MUCCI ... Ih' 1'" , IOf of Ih' O!ton>ln callpho
K~ 0,. £idvNM. ~ ~ Ykltfd
In Cottt\Afltlnople. And their haaru beoot rUler
lhlntltIJ of r.I ..1 U the d .. hjn, oew p ....
. . . . Wit'l ,. Mftior
SS offiaf nI. by
nteutioMf of the FInal
. 0_
Britioh, .... Jllbteaed NI« ...bo would ulher In
Golden At-uodlM' Brill.. b lutll....
OIlunlly-ln IM8bd.d. lEi&hly yean I"IM'.
8ul h admhlll,",11on pollcymU'" would flO
weu In th~ kn_ ov.r Inql Netlonal CO"IV"'"
I....... AhltMld Cb.eIabI thl lllme w.yl.

.poken-wII In Ih.l,
them all.
Abdulllh_mlll , Ih ..... d , nOi vM)' b.lndlom., Ind , 'wlY, 1011-
the ,_ of the t ....... BUI he would OUIWI

Tb,,"'11 no 011 In /OrdIu. 1I.nd lor __ than IuoU .century Iller lhe
eml ...." wu CI'eIted , _ the lourUt ttoIfIc to _ lu wonderful Intiqui.
tI ..... u nlllJlIlJlble. But Abdullah WII tOber, Int~lligeni . induilrioul. and
JtreeI·lmll1 . H. worked qUietly wllh the BrlII.h 10 keep order and with
only. hclion ofthl _ . budfeI ofnelfhborl.. 1rIiq ""'diM It with <:011'
Iplcuoully .,..1... ....",... Commerce boom.... end the lazy rill. . of
Ammon, white Abdullob aDd lib Bedouin bid encamped In 11120, ..... •
to become • _lor regkmoI dly.
A.lhl. book..- 10 p""', Abdunlh"!VMI"gnlnlUon .. "Ifill Abdlll ..
Ilh II , conllnll_ 10 rull OV_ I kingdom of Jordln tMlI .inlt III odd.

withool ben.n. ofeny oll

ontoofthfl .. f... t ond mOlt
_11_ .
ILIo ... /'Vivld hOl1l11 nl;p.bon on.....,. .Id. 10 '-oml and .......in-
llli.-.ly prOIperouI naIl"" ""d
"obi. In Ih •• nll .. Mlddl. Eall over the pul
Emir Abdul1oh'. hel .. oullqled Ih. Drill.h, the F..nch .. end thfl Soviet
Union, They .110 oullllled old Sheri f H"...,ln , humiliat ingly kicked oul
of MftOOI only. f(IW y..... ofter Ih . (AIm eon'... n"" by Abd"I ...lz Ibn
SllId, the ... 1 worrlor ben> and ,l.Ile""",, whom Ot"rchlll, llell, end T,
E. .... wr.ace"of AIabia" had 00 tim. for, AboadulW\', hel .. hI~.olrwdy
by 01_ hll'. ClIntury oult..led IhfI kincdom oflr.q-(ll .. rchllJ'. pride
and to,......nd F.I..l'. heln .. whom Ih.ln.q J.tmy .hot In cold blood III
the bonillc mlUtory IIOUp of I~..

The ~ and lonpvily of Abdllll.h end hi. heln conllMlOd with

the f.lIl1_ of Otun;blll'. handpicked rulen .lHIwh.... In Ibe region-
O\l3hlto 1No. h••. . , 10 Ibe West: in lb. Mlddlo EaII, OUt ld... of wbll.
lead...hoold lNo.re often wrong,

Herbert Dowbiggin: Unlikely prophet

Heriler1 IlDwblgln wq • CIreet colonlel pollOI IKlmlnl.l .. lor of Ihe
Brillah Empire wbo non lhe polioo foroo orc.ylon_odIy the n.lkm of
Sr1lMlb-wlth In Imo fill &un 1913 to 19l7, He hid honIly ""y 101_
WI In thfl Middle EIII and wao ..,nl ou1 10 report on why 1M p.leltine
palla fl,lltd 10 del... lhe bloody riotl of 11Il1I1","1 .... \llt..:!ln the mu-
IKrI of hll1l<lrldtl of lew., _.,.a.l1y In the town of Hebron .. Out .... ld 0011

th, vl.lonary IURltla.oo ambitlow, boa""'l .... two-faced Idminl.lnltOl'l

""d polltlcl.n. who SOl everythiflll wrong for h.lf. OInl"ry .nd then
ob..... lv.ly tried 10 ~OVer up Ihelr Incb, Oowbl8/lln .I.nd. out •••
blOIIIh of COmmOtl """e .nd ..,.. nd .dv\"",

n. "'UUeaU, I....rrea '014. t.tb. II t4dl. £Oil

Oowbiggin 'l 11130 report wu on. of the moot Importanl and valuable
lIudl". on maintaI n Ing law and order;n occupied or colonial nation.
""81' w riuen. He In.l.t.... tblt .very mInority communIty It poo.,bll rid,
from an attack. riot. 0< pogrom by the . lienal .... majority had to have ilf
own anned police deto.chment. He empha.il<ld the Importance of maIn·
talning ""cellent I'OI.ds and telephone communicatiolll hetWIHtD O\ltl~

police . tation. and the CII p lta l. and nf hav ing fut·reacting ...."'.. of
poliOll who could quickly be ... nl to IMUble.pou. Moot of all. heMllpha •
• il<ld the Importance of bavi'41 a very large. well ·tral " ed poliOll fO"'8
wbOle highly vbible pruence on the iV"und deterred vIolence from
hrMkI'4I out In the lint pI.., •.
There i.a """..kobly modem ring to Oowbi88in'II,,"ill8llOll that col".
nlll dltord • . -in Palestine lOS wen ... In C.eylon-nt!8ded to be IwId led
... pollclllg operation •. not military ones. 1....11 military historian Mar·
tin v." Creveld 1.. 1 Mid the """""" the Brl ti.h oecuri ty fo""," were 10
effective 19I1nst thelrl,b Republican Army In the Nortbem lrelud con·
flIct w8l that tbey dealt with it .. I polk;I"tI ope"II I"". DOl a mIlitary"...,.
U'ing arml81 al arml .... a utomatically CIIU_ I lot of coU.tenll damage.
including IoU o! clvlHan casualties. And the more Innocent dvlUan. ore
killed an d injurotl. tbe broader tbe popular IUpport for tbe guerrilll
movement becom...
But ... I, to often Ih. caM wilh true propbeu, .. oppoted to tbe more

common fll ... on.... Oowbl88ln'o wlmingo fell on d"" f ...... Si r Cha.l""
Tegllrt. who took over Ihe Pal ... line police In the 19300.lgnored Oowbill"
,in ', "'port and Inilltarl.wd tbe police. moylnglbem Inlo b_tht.kinS
moum.l nlop berracu Ihat wM1lt wellliftth..,.ntury versionl ofCru ..de. j

caft1".. They bad tbe same !ale. Aft er B Ilttl' more Ibln I decode in tb, f
Tesar! Forts. 's Ihey were called. tbe Dritl,b ware fon:ed 10 e .... cuate p
P.l""ti oe. Ely l!H1they hid loot .1l,ffllCtive politicallu ppor! &mons fl
Pal ...tinian A",1Jt, .nd Jewl . like. tJ

Bill 10 1111. day. Dowblgln ', repoft Nmlln.th. mottlmponlnt doc,,-
ment for any Western poIlcymller ,",pp1iIl3 with lhe IICtk:lt probleml
of mllnlllnln, II. I .. d order I.. I .. ocx:upl .... ....:IeIy.

How British Imperl.lls1 wukness

spuked the Ara b·lsraeli cODmcl
Thto Brilish did I lot for both lhe ..... t.. Ind lbe jew. dllrin, the thirty
y..... they "'I.... P,I..II" • . Th. populilion orthe COUDUJ' tripl ..... Proo_
perily unknown , 1Il0l Momln Ihn..
...... v ..... SWlm~ ..... d .. ln .... Ind mod.
e m "nllodo n. hOlp l"I• • ond IIChool.
we .. bli llt ror both commllnlliu. Th, Churchill on
only thin, t..ckl", WI. Law Ind order. HoIido,
On ... pril e . 1920. 1_ th.n I y.... Ind
'Hot stemS 10 11M cone to
Mlf .fter World W.. I had ""d..... In In ll·
Cilfo In W)I,lfIhio'll of ,hoi·
jewllh pogrom Iwepi lMoush the 11.-0
kIq mood. HI! ;..,;on ro:npilirwd tNt too
allha Old Cily 01 j<truN lem . ... n umber uf
would dNy bfief", IIimieIf with impoflMll
~ wel1l kill .... and hundred. wound .....
JW9ft1 whllt lit COO'ICtnlfllfd on 1M on:n ton-
In four hundred,.. .. orOttoman Thrkllh
~l l m of w,lT", J10f Wori:I CriIiI, MId tMy
rula. ouch I Ihl1l3 had not happened once.
Under the Mnd ur I kinder.•,nlle. crit,dlfd him for Sf11", ~IIO rnudllimt

empire . Ih' " .llh peopla were mure

thrMtened than Ihey ..... had '-n und ..
Ihe toU&h Mlillim empire IMI pl'llCldtd
for pIinI", EiJ'ptiln iIIld I"MliniIn lon6-

0. 1.. ,I 4 Spa in
It. Tha HriUlh were uMbl, 10 keep Ihe Crowoads to hnwI.
v-:e. ODd ouch IlDII ·lewlth vIoIenct bop- decribinc W'ftlton
0uchiI11I the CUo
pen......In and .,.In. with .... wl ...
remelty Ind .... po ... nU.lly ll.... cuuel- ""'~
liel on eKb occutoa.

The fint civililn governor tiwl BriU.1l HI ul' to rule 1'.1...11... aftor they
endood their brief, dioutrou. period of military occupation the .. wu ido-
.li,Iic libonol party I... dor Sir Herbert $o.m ....1. who w"lewilh,
In dusk libe",l fullion , Samuel tried to tum hi. country', "neml ...
into friend. by ,howing thorn mcn:y and kin d n...., Whal h, -J>ed
inltead wu an enli"'lI'lne",tloo of civil OIM fe and blood.Md .. I ... Ult.
Thousand. of innoamt. on both lid ... would I"'Y with Ihelr Ii ..... for Sir
Samuel'o lI""II""Nive high·mlndedn .....

The Hebrew Bible: A book of war

~WI"&,,le: the .. wu I mIn of8"nlo,. wbo could bave been I man of d ...·
liny, ~

Win_ton Chun:hill (IIIld that trlbu ta to Brlll_h briRadler Rene ..1 Orde
Wlnpte Ifter he was killed In I pllne cruh In Bum,a In 1944, Chun:hlU
wu right aboullhe genlul (It taket ona to know one), but he didn't ...).
I~a thlt In hI •• hort, exl>11o.dlnary life, WlnR-"te h.d al_dy decuively
..... b.e.ped Ihe futu .. of the world_pecially the Middl e East.
Wingate w.. a brilliant you"lI Brlti.h anny officer and biblical funda·
men\Jlist ChriSli8Jl zealot who was polled \0 IIllestlne a, a young cap-
tain In 11136 It the .tlrt of the A.. b Ravolt. Ha had . hown no especi.1
interest In either Jew, or Zionism befo.. gol"ll the .., bu\ quickly became
obsened with Iht potential oflht younS pIoneer Jewish community and
becama convinced It w•• God', will thlt a jewilh ,tala be ...tored in
PI1 ... lin8 after thouMnda of )''''''', He abo beUeved that h. was petIOlI·
.1Iy destined to "Ise Ita .nny and lead It In baule, Th.,... vie ws we ..
undenlandably received with lOme 'WPMH, nol 10 menUon ''''picion ,
by both Britilh military command .... ond jewi,h community leooden In
th. Mandala. ,
However, u a rew thoullnd ..... b suerrill .. continued to run ri"ll'
around whal.1 On .. point con.Ututed 25 percen t of the !>Ctive oombat ,

fo",," of Ib" Urllbb I rmy. bolb group.

becam" Inc ..... lniJIy d"'pllrat". Wlnpte Sounds Uk!
p tbe Ippro",,1 10 ral ... from ",..'I.b ",I·
""tNn " ' hal t.er:. ..... known .. bl, SpI!-
eI,1 Nigh! Squed. (SNS) 10 d"f"nd Ibe
or;ll.b 011 pi""line from Iraq 10 tbl
Pliesll,.. poll of IIl1f.. H. Imprinted on IImmt nan-wstmt., NritIwo' ~ _ NXIs
Ib"m hi' own hiShly unorthodo. Ind 11M "'" confoden ... Iht (Bfitllh) ~
IdiOllynaooUc c:ombJ,' doclrln.... prim.· IJH., fhr aicIff irNbiunIll'J tNt pubbc

rily In. plrod no! by Qorl von CI."..,wltl!. _It)' _ IIr bettft lNontWied unde the
.nd lhec..rm.n or !'l'IIncb .........1 atlff•. T.t.°
but by. ciON .... dlnS of lb. Old T...,.- 1IW fioton, ""'pst 10. J9l1
"''"'t. 'M lIebrew Bibl•. (.,..ot«l in Dmd fl'Oll'ti\
lVi npie drew l.:tlall......... and doc. Aftocf to Cttd AI ftocf)
trlneo from the CIlInpllianl and ylctori. of
ltoeh blhlinl h....- I. 1000b .... Cld..,.,.
Ind David. II .... mphllud tb. Im p0l1aru:. of .m.n. f80t·movlII3 COm·
maudo fO/'C8l who WOI'II lough. motlY.led. Ind I..lned 10 know Intimately
the ....... In which they ol""'"!ed. lie emph.. tzed nlgb! mlf1:b ... lhrough
difficult Ind mounl.lnoll. I" ... ln 10 teke tbe enemy by .urpri.... He I""ed
night "UIt;Q. Accordl, .. In "''''' tutl monl ... much I.'er. lVinpl" .lfO
odvOCIted exll'llllle rulhl .... n .... In the . hootl", of '"Ipeel, or random
victim. t.k"n from vIII ..... from which I.. rrorlil. hod launched lhelr

lIil SNS pJ.yed. cruclll role In ~"'IM ........ II oft .... p.l..... ln ·
LIn Arab suerrlll. boond. operotl", In lhe GoIlI .... reston of 1II1ICI during
tbo LuI year of tho Anb ~It_ role r.r 0\11 0 1 proportion to their own·
ben. Bul theyw""' I"" few 10 CfUJlh lhe ......11. Thai WH CIf1ied oul by
much 1.,.. Ind ""'.. wld ... pl'Md Brlll.b ron:. Ind openll ..... com·
manded. by I t""'" . .
w ..,Ior comtnllloW. Major c..-.J Beru.ard I.Iw
Monlll""""'J. In 1938. 8rililh ..... Ior com ..... nden. I'IICtIKDlzI". Wi.,,,',
1_lon81e Id<mllflcallon with the Jewish community. trarufumKI him oul
of P.I... Une. 11IMe weno olandi ... orden thol he never be allowed In..,,,,,,,
the ... ap;n.
DUI.thankfully for luael.lt ... ,..1011 Lote. lVinple had .I......!y provid<!d
Invaluable mi litary ..dueotlon to. crud. l number of tb. fin t. defining
generation of ... nior om"".. in wh81 wou ld 00.;0"" the I.n.l nere,,'"
Fo""". W, young ..,Idle.. and l lUde"u included me" who would
become the greo'''' "",81'&1. in lI.noe! '....... of . urviva l in th .. fin' twonty
yua .. o f ill ""i.lenee: MOIIhe o..y&n , YigII,,] Alion . and Yit r.h.ok Rabin.

>':'.:"",); :~»': :~~ .:.-::~::,.:::~~;;::,,>:: ::~~;.::

------ - -- - ------ ----

PC Myth: The Twice-Promised UncI

id the Bf~L~ qnio:.lly prOlllM ~ Holy lid 10 borh !hi' Arib. ..-d
D ~ Jews? Tlwfl tt.r pop,QI i'lbtQtY-.-.d /t'l f~\Of. In 1916. $i, MMI:
SyIo:e t..d cont~ • ~r~ "8'-' on pirtll~ thPl9OiI. of tht
Ottorn.o £mpor~ with mFrendl (oo.nl~pIrt. frMlCOi< ~.I'£ot. Con-
!.iOe<irc thit \he 8r~,sh iiiIII)' w",1IO!'Id wahin thr 8.m~ of tht ~ tNt
~ ond thr f,~ .. my w.., wff..... ""'"' harrif.: ruualtiH dtf-"nc
thr fortrns of 'k«bI. ~ Wi'! '"uny.., t'~M in wMfui tmkin&- HQ.
lory boob;nj~, l,""liti«n~ li~ 10 pom.,. m. Sytr.·f'i(OI ~
....,,1 ., m. ~ ~Irm ~I 01 Mudims.1nd tIwy !fief [0,1.."
mi$1ru:;1 01 E~ 10 1M 'C'-'. W in ",.Iity it ..., nriI.... rnon!.lKM
nor ~~lt~ in m. (ordlo 01 '101",-
1M Sytr.·PicOI All""'""" in m. tyH 01 1_. 1Ind Tlwd World (0II'l-
w., •<yniQI ~,~ 0I1Oierm prcmiw. 1M Ihf Brililfl hid

~ only IhI' y." ~cn 10 Shfrif !tn,..;., 01 MKu. .... ,diotl 01 m.

........... "' .....

MuIllnI hoIJ' pIKft. The SriWI *"""',
iOi IfIW'JI 01 the SucIIII. S. Hetwy
IrkMihon, hid offmd ... 01 hIHtirot to the ....._
McMIllon urlilnly ~ the Ifmrt.. wrIi:!ftlin ArIbIc, 1'ffII10 HusseIn.
But ttwy _in no W¥'f • UHI)' abli:&'tioll m. f. men to the poinI. I'IIn'
line 10M 00( ttmOtfly prcmiwd in them.
!.itff tmffllkons 01 B<ilbll wI.t.tib hlsll)'1¥5 poffd_ the Mc~
f+.ouM k11m, Ditf~ lIfithlt IO"ffI'WI'i'!!I buruucrMI( invtloll&IIion1 _
,,"led IIUt 10 llottnMrt wIIM ttwy ~Iy 1IkI..:I _ _ 10 UJ'..:I
could COIN "'" with no limo conctuslor4. AU Ihnf ~..:I iIlJiffll
~ the ~ hid beet drilted by ~'"' people ..:I
tNt its pInwi .... - . They didn't
HbloriIn (lit KtOcuIt ~tibliIIwd tNt IrkMihon, who did not spHt Cf
_ .wbIt: I'IwtodJ. hid trIIMIed the tf~ to" M$iStInt. ~
Slom. who did WfII• ..:I spHt .....~ Men ~. Slam dIcM.cIIf he did.
SlI)'B"'1 th.t f~ ficuoe-the ain..., io:Ci'...... tenl ~ who II
.w ct...rll'li"C..:I ~ ~It" Wfd!oC "'" ~ own W»Irophk:
(rdour~ t1tJblIIhtd 1hIt.1I dr.fled wi I,~td Into ""'Ibic. the
pt.MlIn~ wi SIom'I~ th.t ~yudrd
control oIl'aIntine 10 the Mbi ..:I Shro'if f+.ouM ""*
no lfilllllMouI Cf
......obI-.. Sloxl'llirnply could not WI~ ...... ptopM) The Cflei'
... (OfTtI4I(Ii'Idfnf dNrly _ nended to (~ (ontrol 01 ~tr.r 10
the o\tJbI. The (OI'IIb:t oIiI SriWI*""",,.,ItI. ~ _
the foItMio ..
)'91'1"*" ~ !Nt none 01 them"'" ttooo.cf!! for .1«OIId th.t ...,. tudo
.....'.'.biltl~ hid bem .... on ~~.
~~ liI .,wI bet~ trill) bf lituo... bur ~

~ for
II. mMe .1fUI ...·
meow, who wIIIIocI juIIify ....... """'~ttm OX "'HvMlIfftI""'"'~
WinS-Ie'. l;Iibl .... baJqd lactical doctrine al'~lud 10 the imagination of
a youll38'1ne"'tion of Jew, ",bed .. farm~ and d\.flped by thei. MCular.
violOTUll')'. ploneerill3 parent. 10 view the Blbl • • 0 • prectlcal guide to the
lend around th.", end 10 "'iM:t the old Jewish ","dition of aedenlary Inlel·
ledu.l ",Uglous acltol.nhlp. Ove, lhe nexl forty y....... l... dlng 1.",eU
gun_I. IiI." Doyan. YlII""I Y.din. and Chalm Herms would omphalize
the importance of tekinR practical. military ieuolll from the Bible.

Tbe true story of Israel's creation

Afl er World War II ended in 1945. lhe Brlli.h botlled lip IhouHnd. of
Hoiocausl l urvlvt)l1l behind barbed wu. In new campo. rrtO$!Jy In CypntJ.
10 pr1MIIll them emignotill3lo l'al"'line. whe", they fe&ntd lhelr preMnDII
would"'" off a ",volution by Ihe A",b majority.
From 1945 10 1941 a lIetee guerrlUa ",VOII
by two Pal ... linian Jewish groupo-the lrtIun
Zval Lellmi. Or National Military Organize·

He Screwed up the tlon. led by Menachem Be(jln: and Ihe Lehi.

or I'ighlert for the Fn!edom of 1,,,",1. led by
Middle Em, but He
Yit~hak Sh.mlr-fon:ed the Brillih 10 gI""
Mi&ht Still Sa.. tIM up lhelr Manda'e. Th. new Uniled N.tion.
World v04M1 to . pprov" the "",,,lion of Iwn new
ItllM In the P,I.,Un e Mandale ...... : one
n 2001. ~ body 01 Sir Milrt s~ W:II
I t.<hunwd from itl ~·Iintd (oifl'lin
I\lrl$ MId ~ pil~ 01 ~ 1919
Jewi. h. one "'",b. The lawllh <:ommunlly
lead"n KCefllMl the UN plen: Ih" Pal ... tin·
lin A",b IHden. followlll3 lhelMd of Mufti
Hal Amin .1·H ...... ln l. did not.
t .lrKl<'d. Sdtnlrm hopt ~ riM rN)'
Through Ihe 19301. HII ..... lnl hed IIIC'
htIp tIwm proriJ« I Q(cint ",I~' the
oeoded In makins the fighl «giIlnll the JCIW'
tMlt 01 .. Asiin Au ~
iob ... nlemenl In Pel... lln" en A",b I',iorily.
Afl er the Brit ioh wi lhd",wel from lo",el in

Ipri", IIMII. tIKI .......... of III tIKI oe!&bborl", Arab IUt.. ln~ed. dee ....
mined 10 IXti",ullb thto InfltD! lewiob It"'". 11M " ....11, _ ... lIzed
u..1 by drlvl", 001 Ih. Britilh ocx:upi ..... Ih.,. would I..y. u..m...l.....
....... to flJht" dftopent. war of 'UMVai.

EDler BeD-GurloD
Tbe 1...,,11. bid no '"nlul Of ,,1. fora. wortb th e nlme. lhey w..... m..-
.Ively outn umbered. end lhei. P.I""Uolln Areb rountrymen we ... pool_
tinned to <:OfItrol key Int""",tiORl I rood ••nd Un. of communlce\!on. BUI
Ihe 1.....11. did hi"" olle oecntl weepon none of thei r eneml .. could
1III1Ch: o.¥\d Ben-Gurion.
Bell-Gurion hid '-en the dominlOt ~ In Pflll!lllnlan polilico fur I
quart .. century. bul Britllb policymabn ao.d ... en prominent Brltlsh
"WI rompl",.I,. underesti"",,,.d him. They Car pnor..rro.t tho ,leek. 1"'-
eioua. Ilw"Y'lmpeocoobly dreNed OI.Iohn WelDDfonn .nd wrote off Ben-
Curlon . . . .Iopplly d.-l. llt- ............... l prof_Ion,,! politician.
But W"I""",nn hid no _ of govemmenl or 1ln1"IY. M I war Ieed....
b. would blv. been ute!,,", Ben-G."lon . unilk" W.I",,"nn, b.d COme
up In politico l he hlrd wly. Pi",1 he hed been In orpnl_ of the 1'.1...·
tlnl." Jewl.h llbor movement. Then he orgr,nlzed the mll n labo. 10ft..,f·
center polltl""l ""rty In Jewl.h Palutln •. lIy 1933, he w... I.... dy th.
prime mlnllllllr In ,II but nlme nfJewllh Plleotl_ poIltlon he would
hold fur mol' of lhe next thirty yean. In l IMO. he wu In London th""""
lhe wont of lhe t.uftworr.. biilZ. ... d .. .. dyl ... O\urchlU'I chammatlc wlr
l-'-sh lp.....ved him well.
In 1947, Ben-Gurion . Ione rocosnl* t"", , lie leWI needed 10 en,,"•
... d equip I full....,.l" mod"m army 10 fisht o/I llI .... loou frocn tbe nei&h-
borin, Arab III' ... HI. canoful pllnnl"ll proved crudilin I""""ldl ... hll
peopl" Ib" weeponl they ....eded to _po 'n n lhlllllon, Bul whll. he
w i. "llreat wlrtl me polltl",,] leeder, h. WI, I mll ltll)' .Inalou, " f the
WOllllOrt .

Llk .. hll hero Wlnlton Churchill In Britlln during World 1'1", II. Ben·
Gurion meddled in openlion.1 detaill .11 Ih .. ilmo. got loll of Ihem
wrong_ and on;l~red un ..... li.lie and unlua:eo.ful military openilon.
qBiml lhe advice of hu 00.1 milillry command ..... Wo ..1 of all. h.lil·
lened I" Ih ... upposed "uper1i..," "r American military .d~enturer

ColoRftI Mickey Mereu •. who. though I prof_Ionll. wu no mo ... glfted

• Ilnl"llill or IlCIleian Ihon Ben-Gurion. Marcul'l folli ... led 10 Ihe wo .. t
defe'l In IMael'l hil1ory: the third frontll .... ul! of the A... b Legion',
fortrMl of I.I.trun.


ow many American. know Ih" Iraq was a eonOli luliona! Guess what?

H mOMrchy fur IhIMy.III,...., yea .. U 92!>-19se) end an inde·

""ndent democracy f.... t wenly·.I~ )'''''''? Or Ihal durlna Ihal
time. democnoticlily eleeled govemmenll waged an [ntema! war of .. rr...:.
demottaq for
'...,nly- sll l"'"t1
live genocIde "",In'tlllei, own Auy,la" oo'"'"u"ili .... repealooly "",... And I, didn·'....-rri..
mined loo1lna and pogrom. "8"ln.1 tllelr anclenl jewi,h (o"'lllunlll .... • Tho ShUtes all~
and """,.Iud _ police foreet and lorture ellambers .inlultan""".!y h"1eo """" iocj •
fenoclous ..,10..1101
wltll f,..,., and f8i. ulectiOllAT
uprblr>g .g.>IMI In
The Briti,II rulu over Iraq after World War [w""n·t. gold~n aga ehl",r.
Th. Brili . II importoo Indian lrunps 10 erulh • wld ... p .... d ShU te·l.,.) superpo-orer ,bio,
ul"iaing In 1920: len. of Ihouund. died. They prnvenlcd 1110 Intom . · ...mod II> brt"!il
donal community from proluctina AnyrianJ frorn ,la uglLte, In Weslm",lyl.
d.mO<flCJ II> thel.
19J2-1933. And Ihe democrallc Ira'll governmMI bombed delen .... I....
women .nd children In Ihe viII",... 01 rebe!liou. A,.b troop"
• Tho .....11s helpod
I",,! a. ill own ""1"' .. lu counl,y wa. tile b",lnchUd of WinOlon
bIot:k .IIW
o,urchill when he wll Britain', colonial nverlnrd after World 1'0'.,. l. ukoowr 011'"'1
Churchill qukkly came 10 regret hi. c .... lion. ma,h. a' ,hu u'lling or bef... 'h .... _
romamic and menIally unbo laneed Bri, I,II At.bophll ... lite T. E. eYl'n In hnoL

I.o ...·... nc •. In World 1'0'., II, 'he IraqI .rmy,.,.., wIth eagemeu to lIab
gritaln In 'he bed."d loin Nul Gennany. II W,," ' ewl.h PII.,l1imt , later

luael. thaI proved the one loyal force 10 Oritain and the AIll ... In I"" MId·
dIe Easl. The rnronquesl of Iraq w.. launched wilh .ocratch fo""," boldly
striking .... t ItCI'Oa the desert from Jeruulem to B~dad. All thilisn't
"""'" or .upp""'''''] hlotory. If'luOl hlotory ",o.t people In Ihe IV. t a~

unaw"", of.

Just like today: A bad beginning

An invincible ~:nglioh .• peakin8 nation Iiberal ... the ancienl I."...itpri... o f
M~poIa",'a fro", a notoriouoly vicious and bnllBI dict.lH.rshlp. lu ...1·
diers am first we lcomed .. liberators and tm. .dminiltratOJ"O of the occu·
pyl"ll power con fidently set up ne w, enlightened .y.tem. of We.tern
oonotltutional an d democratic government. BUltbeir plBnl am derailed
by • f""",lou. popular mvolt that kill . thou .. "do of the lioo..ting power'.
toldi ..... , and ten. of thousand. of naUve Inhabitant. d ie tOO., th" v1o-
lenca mgeo.
Iraq afle. ZOO3? Of cou ..... But it WII a lto Iraq ullde. the Britilh in
1920. In H;l20. however, the l'9"Iolt asailUt l"" occupying power did not
come primarily from Sunlli MUllim. in the canter oftm. COU lltry but from
Shiite Muolimo in the ...... Ih.
'!"roopt of tbe B.itl,h-oontr<>lIed Indlon Army .."a8ely cru,hed the
upri.i"ll. The colli Will high. Willi"", L Oeveland, a ... riouo and bIolaneed
American authority, putl the d ... th loll at 400 Britllh ... Idi ......nd 10,000
Iraqis, ",ootly Shih .... I..ale. Iraqi "'11"'01'" PUI the death loll much
highe •.
B.moh policy wal to act ruthl8l1ly alld on a wide. p .... d IaIle a fle.
oueh ... rlouo ",volu, and the Shih ... w..,., Cftr1alnly cowed. In fact, lhe
Shlh81 of oouthem Iraq mmailled Ih. mool caullou. and politically qui·
u.ctInt of.1I Ihe communiti.. '" Iraq until Saddam HUMClln wu toppled
."d Ibe 8Cllvl.t In nue""" of lh" 1.lamle R8Volution in nelghhnrlns Iran
finally .lllrted to tHe hold .",0118 them.
-'" -."" . ,."""
.... .......
.~-;.. --:-.~-;..
~ ~ ..... .. . ' ...... " '... . ..
,., ~

PC Mytb: Dernocrocy Wililrini Puce

mtriunllilt to !honk III ~ f t the ~ rtpnIm of their ...
A tory, their pOlItiQI rirIo5.. ind ..tim they I/yt. The ArnericIn nperi-
fllCt of ~ . _ of in"ImoIrllltt from e¥e<)' _ of the word his
ltd them !O thInI: like tllil.l'diTblly ~ pOlotltlw ind fcuniI"tI will
ICCUH )'OU of borot!)' If you ~ tNt some PfO!>Ie art not quilt wirtd
for libtlil Otmrx:tlCJ' the ..~ Alllenum f t.
BuIlt lOOk me Allltl'lCl" ~ 210 ~ of de,tlopmt,~ ind 1 ~
!ionI!y _ luI! !O ttKII the point 01 ~ wtitf milt idIlt MImct In
the \IlO5. Nod not ~ futy ~ ~ m.. AmtIIan dell ...... ' spIi! In
two ind fo4toI: tilt IIICKt blood)' doriI_ the ~~...crId hid Mf ~ 1\

6 qIIW IlIrmh !O mo.mt tNt "*"

~ tilt ioOMnI:,. of Iu-cboh of
yon' l~tI)l pNCefIA Iepl ind conIIitufionIl de, llapnel. ar\ ~ ....
tilt _ ~ tNt took \/110 D"c. Some ~ oIlIdtIaAtI.-il'ltJ-Ot,
ilt_~ IOIIIt Ilri!In 01 ~~-Ib!O dlsm!u the in'9Ot.
!¥(t 01 &.I' 1nt~1ectuIl ind ~ htt~ .... 0..- ~ of ~
~ from ancien! Citt«t, ancItnI Rcml. ond Ei1:ln:l. 0..- mOtlhly n:I <uI.

lin o:OtI'Ie from Jud,losm ond cmst~. it ~ I r$liTht foil, !O (\tin! tNt
rhmhtt~cm~ IIIiIttf,

Otn\o(rKy, IS Wlnstc.l 0udW1f~ ~ Is the WOIU form of po

ti"'oe~ lmfCiNbIt- tctp( fOfIll the odIfI' antS tNt "- bHn IrItd. In
odItt WCIdl. if lIn't perlfCt. WI i6 1 101 prm.. . to the ilttmllivn. III:
)'OU ar\~ ~ it c.I odItt to\JIIl"ie$ fn;om the auuicIt. Democray netd$1
(ftUin fcuocIItlClll. TNt fcuocIItIo;on ~ not t,iII ln the ~u of
Mot<)j . _
The poallltm is not tNt Qq..:l it!. Mi60Jf wt 'j(4f'obor1n "'COW""
ibl.-It"1 tNt u.s. poI~ """ bodwtl!d to ItUdy the onl, It.tole Ii'Id

~ ... --
!.IKcelfui form of ~ ~ Middl~ £0..,

t~ ..fief IoI'IOthtf in IriOl' tlwy _

~ ~. ~ Ouonwn

&uIh Mlmlnilt,ilion poIocymutn fIIldr one II\4lid. ~Ihltic libtfll mol·

put f!lOUlI1 t,oop! in tilt country to
fI'Illn,,1n ~slc I¥w iIId orclr<. tilt)' distwded 1M one force tllK could ptKf-
full, hold IrIq to&flhrr-IU IU1"I'-iIId tilt)' put !Iltif !fIAt in an t.i~ chi,·
liIan poIiliciin iIld CorMcted crlminil lboul whom!lltif own diplorNtl iIld
intfl~ leMa h.Id cor«<ll, w",ned IIlo!m.
Whtn AIwned Chillbi PfO"ed I 0011. us. poIlcyINbn (felted I ridicu-
lou:! con!tiMlon th.It couI~'1 pouibIy worI:: and thit h.Id no COl""ctiOl,
with 1M '''il poIitiul f'pto'ienct of ordlniry ~iqis. Thty mt.rned thil fret
eItc~ would produce I rnodfrlt!. INSONbit P',Io_t thit would ict
quickly 10 Kt up 11 powerlullO"'t"rmtr,t. Thty illI.tIIed lilt IIrod)' powt'IfuI
iIId 1IfIt00'.... OI' ...... molm.s ~'t control tilt fI'Il"' poIital fictions in
the P¥1iirntnt. Thty iIIOOIed thit poIitiullfOUPl w;1to no tl9f'ience of
poI~ic.1 cooNn,,",.,, for forly-five)'Nll wool<! wdcIenIy sobt< up and

prKtice it. No le.I cOl'Mr"ilive would hi"" fll~ for ~ OeIUIions for I

Th" Shiite Revoh had 180linll cOIlMlqUftnCM OI' the way Ih" IItituh
Ih&)*'I Iraq. Ahhough the Shllt" were . l_dy by far the majorily popu-
lation in Ih. country. the Ilrili.h ..... 1'1 them oul In th e f'OlI llcal cold for
lhe nexl thil1 y... ight yean. up 10 1958. The polilia' e lile In Ihe COtrupl
and c"",ky but mc<JHniZllbly demQcJatlc polilical .ySlem In B"8hdad W1!nI

oJl Sunnl MWlIImI. mainly from Ihecenler.nd north of the country. Mono
im""",anl. 00 werelh. domlnanl officer IlOlpI of the new iraqi army
The Drill.h aloo enoou'"'8ed the new Sunn! Muslim ,,1110 th.y favontd
10 think In pan-Areh 1811111. Iraq evem ually iolnfld Ih@newAnhLel8ue.
Tbt Brid,h lhouahllhe-)' <:OIJld MIAbII,h I h _I...... lher.t.enda of lhe-
Antol and 10 undoonnine their tndilioMl rinil. the F.......:h. In lhe "'lion.
They never puped lhet A..t. IJuoo&hoolI I"" MlddJ. Eut hated the Brill
..-. than they did the ~ BriU,b bad liken conlrol of fir more
IImilary &.ad rlt lifter population •. In 1958, II w.. the Sunnl offiear
cotpI. n urtured Ind prolected b)' Ih, 1I,11I,h for 10 10nl. who f1n.o.lly
kicked them oul of [~. Sunlll Mu~lim control o!the ... lIon Ind lit 011
wM11h 1.lIed I notho. fony·five ,,,,, ..... ntH the U.S. Anny ,w,pt Ihro.,p.
tile country Ind a new lI,n"olion of Illnoranl W.tem pollcymah ...
d.::lded they knew how to ",make lile country In Ih.lr own 1mif!'.

Democracy In Iraq: 1925- 1958

Complet.l), ,!»enl from IhelUp.,..:.edlycom~IIfII.leuned . and IOphl ..
tlcIted u.s. media In Ih' &oleful montho before the U.S. Invulon ofiraq
in Mln:h 2003 wao any ",(.... nea,let olon, - ' - dllCUllion. o!wbat
lied happened when Iraq Lut tried denux:tlC)'.1lMnocnt:y wun 'l I polil'
lui Inllblollc IIU'rIl1t~ 10 cu .... Iraqi. of all Ih,l. woeo. Tbey hid
enjoyed whl' w..... IU ppoMd to be the bl,.. lnp of I oonllilullonol
democnocy. rr-Iom ohpeech. an Lndependcnl ludlcLary.I !_ p..... rr...
dernocntlc ,Iectlonl, ond an elected parliament for 11>0'" Ihan a qUlrter
of. otr\t~d the .... ulto bednl been pretl)'.
Whet happened In the 193001 when Britain proclaimed IrlIq [ndepend·
10' und. It. own .... Ien [with Britlsb troopt .... d IIlldonco nrmaInl"3- of
toll_It El<octly the ...... thi"8 thot bappened oft.... tile o.cember 2005
Lreql ,lectlOlllwt .Iected the wond<riuJ tr.ql ..... liuMnt and paru. we
_ loday; terrlbl, <:!'OM community m _ and clvll Wit. with tile
offlcl,1 ""'y ",Ihuolaolic:olly poorticl]HIth...
In 1933. rilJhl .fter IIrltlln gtonled Iraq titular independence. the iraqi
lltDy under Kurdl. b I"n,ral BUr Sldql Ilunched I tnllll~e pogrom
.Inll th' Ch.IIILa .. Allyn ... COnImu nlty In north.m Iraq. IllulJhl8rlnll
m.ny thousand. of th~m_ So frightful wernthe klllln81 that the ... wu a
... rlOUI mov" In th" LNgu. of Nation. to try to .-;ind f"Il I"'ql ind ...
pend""ce. but It wei blocked by lreq-. British protect.,...,
The politico! and milituy hiltory of lreqi "dem"""",y" under B,iti.h
"guidance" i. mind-numbing: it II • bewHdering ...,ietl of Inlfiguetl.
co"p" lreao:herletl, ..."oh •. a nd th~ cru.hlng of one Ifibe a fter anorher
with brulal military force.
On Cklober 29. 1936. the flnt mllir.ry coup In the Arab world took
plBee In I,.q when General Sldqi o"e"h ... w the [!O"ernment of the d.y.
In June 194 t. BrllI.h fo ... In lreq who h.,1 juAl foiled &l\OIher cou p p!&n-
ning to ally lreq with the Nul-A~I' Iide stood hAck powlvely while fru ..
t,.Ied young lraqi...",y om""... led their fo ... 10 kill hundred. of Iraqi
Jew. and dOlpoillheir community,
Repelled Anb tribel rebellion. were cnuhed by the Britl,h..upponed
regtmOl duriog thl'perlod with too utmMt .......,;ty. The British. it lhould
boo ... membered. ruled Iraq d irectly for fourteen yean. from their military
conquest In 1918 10 1932. And they rn"""o"" the f'fIIll pow"" in the coun-
try lNohlnd • l u"",,"ioo of puppet government. for the next tw~nty-Ib

yean un1l1 1958.

But In.U that time. the... wu .IAO. "",rnt police. The ... we ... tonure
ch.mbe .... The ... wu tbe cru.b ing .nd d ... poiling of minorlll .... And
there w..... the unpredict.ble \en'On of the llaghdad mob. It took thl, level
of brut.lily 10 "",lnl8ln in Iraq Ihe . .""mment the British fovored.

A Jewish bilse for the Allies

In IIH I . the Iraqi .""y. wbich the BrI!i.h had ,.1-' the"'""l" .... ,,"volled
aga;os' the Brilith and kided them out atth" height ofWnrld Wult. The
only 10yal aUy they cotIld lind ... ywbere In the Middle Eas, wei the lew-
lib community in Pal ...tine. nr Ihe Vi.huv.
General Erwin Romm"l waS running rings ""'UIId tbe Briti. h in thu
Ubyan d _ at Ihe Hme and Will threatening Egypt. ThilleO the IIrhi.h.
al","dy .1",lchQd thin, with almoot no forceo Loft to "",l.im Iraq, The
Arab Legion, which had OOen lovingly grown for IWO docadeo to """,e a.
the maill ",liBble Arah army loyal 10 the Britl.h HId 10 onforoo their wlll
throughout Ihe Middle £151, ..,ml,,,,belled an d announoo(\ they would
nOl march "lI"i nl t Ihoir own brethren,
Allhat mnmenl. Churchill', hinge of fote wu owinging wide. If Adolf
Hitler had not OOen "" Itul'id a. 10 ... nd hi. elite parall'OOpa and other air-
borne uni t. 10 be decimated during their conq .....t ofC",I<., he could , im_
ply have OO"'n en(Mlgh of them into Iraq 10 wipe Iho floor wllh what_
belated foreos the Brili.h coul d ",,",pe 100000her. At that momo"' . befo",
the Nul invuion of the Soviet Un ion, the Luftwaffe "".ily hid Ihe ClIp"-
bility 10 do Ihe job.
But what crudolly turned Ihetide 111100 British favor WM , .... thlt AnIb
Legion ofTran.jordan a nd the Sunlll-led Iraqi .rmy in which Ihey had

Political Scientists and Idealistic

Drtlmers Gone Wild
"1rJoq r«d!. to ~ libtr~t«l-liIlffOlt«l from bIa pIin1. E-,. lome people ~­
tione(l il In rhf ~ flW yNft. ~ w iU 10 <OMKt it 10 bIa idfiS: tIIf wli ,..i~!
WIIIJ. """""" tIIf .t.rltb-IVifli conflict, ~ ItCtntly llIf w" qoiml t ..""ism ¥ld 01 n'IOdtI of
dfmoo"oq. Thot's why ~11 tIwIo! millOibs I,e mide. Thfy'~ ....or bf<:_ IfJoq is .IWJ)"I inlOt""ln'!'1
mind tIIf (If\! " ' " 10 -t!linc O!iw."
Ghusu Sa....., l'OIitiI:.1 .clvisof to IIHlsirwoted Un~ed Nilionl t.p«i11
..wIlY ~io VOtira de Mfll0, quoted in The ASSOSSWlS' Gor, by ~,e
n . hUlicallyllOCOrnd G. ld.l. tbe Mld . 11 Ea. l

lavilohed .., much In""'tmf:nl and pride. It W"", half I million troublemak.
u" thoy bad grown heartily lick of: the Jewioh community of Palt!ftin~.
The flriHl h we .... Mble 10 mUlier a hulily ..... mblilld fo..,., nr Iheir nwn
....... rve lronp •. Areb Lesion force •. and jewl,h pal".llnlan voluntee ...
o..c.u ... ill 11rel"lllc ta'llBt w""' th" vlt,,1 Hl bbanly.h air booM nut.ld~

B"IIhdad. it w.. ""lIod Habf""",.

Th"lr column of only ,I.;< thou!-and
men Itruck out Kmol the d....,n from
How Irlq's Last
Pale.line as-inl! ap l'lren!ly impo..,ble
DemocriCY oddo. The hastily organl~od IIghl .rmorl
Ended mobil" infantry force wu enormoully
outnumbe.ed by the lre"i Irmy. now
"lhr rfttM~ Ifl wit firSt cut off. MId Itltn his
openly B. ilain·, enemy and Hltler·lllIy.
1111111 MId If&!.; fIlty _ thrown to IfIlUPS of
In b.ie' but heny fighting. H.bfnn::e
turood the tide. Th. British .--tabU.hed
the", ... ly". oye. Iraq. But It bid been I
cl.,.....run thing. II we. the n~a,....t tbe
sIcIt of lile ri"!!. the body wI! no n"IO:W Ilwll
Nidi ever got to ...[zing control of th" oil
bruosed MId mutllmd tnri. ... What Wi! Itft of
wealth oflhe Middle East
Aft..,. the Brill put down Ihe lIN 1 rebel·
Pflrol nllf! 00 fire. 1M brurlt rfmIlIlS bfInc
lion, Ihe ~ didn't 11.1\ much longer.
thrown ;,uo the Titrls.·
EYfIII the Brilioh Emp[re could nUl forevet
keep the Haohemlt". n" the fictional
throna [n Baghdad. On July 14. 1958. '
mililary cou p Inpplilld Ihe m",archy.
TW""ty·fo\.r-y ... ,...,ld King 1'1[ ..1 II . BI""lI with hi. grandmother. lunt.and
uncle. were ola.ushlemd [n """"pll"",lIy grioly circum.tances. ~·i ... t !bey ,
W,,", machin&-gl1nned by one of the nffian canyln,g out Ihe coup. who ,
Iller ... id he wal In I -"ale of madn .... - whun h. fired Ihe tlllllb<>ll.
Then Ih. body of the yoWl3 1<1"3 w...... h ... d<!<l. Th" body ofth" ,.nt, ,
Crown 1'Ii""" Abduillh. wu then mutililad by I lla&bdod mob.

Th, b.... I.1 m.uac......-on. pu with lhe Bol.hovlu' IJ."",lor of lhe
aar·lluallr-nded. IwMlly......·,.... eno 01 oonolLtullona1 democncy
III ... Independenl lrwI.
Vel In the monlbllm.n>adlatoly before ...d ,n.lhe ZOO] U.S. In .... lon
or lrwI. 1M NllOtIlkm of I Hashemite _rchy 10 Iraq wll aclu.oJ ly .-\.
oully propounded In Americon inlalltM;t...1 jotlmal....d w.. r.vorecI by
IOIntI 01 Iho moll Influentl,1 and powerful polk:ym,kllJlln Ih' U.S. 8Ov.
No one ,hed any I..... lOt lhe Iraqi U ..hemlt.. onco they wo .. deld
... d 80.... Colonel Abd .1·Ka.im Quim. who led the mlllliry coup Ihll
loppled flltel II . WM I widely pop .. J. .....'" beloved fl ..... wbo WM
kindly _bend Ioaa aft ...... _ depoaed in I ~ coup and u-.
ueculed hlmMIl'.

Where Americil went wrong

11M fovered .... n can ay .. loud Ind .. 10ftI .. It wilh ... bul no ...""iblo
penon will bell_ Iblilhe IIUlh edminill..llon Invaded Iraq 10 ""rich
lhe oil complnlu 0110 dill"':! AmeriClOIU from olho •• dmlnl" ..,lon
ohortcomlnp. U.S. polleym.":1IJI we .. onllmly Iineelllin Ihel. boollo'lhll
Ihey could Ind ",ould b'; ....lIbl •• pro-W.,tem democracy 10 Iraq fol.
Iowl ... ,be loppllnl of Sedd,m H_In In March 2003.
Ib,fOId 10 hell It In~ JHI>'ed wllb ""'" Inl""11on •. The roed to
11 011
8at,bdad _ ov_leld wltb • ner......d overly dwi lebl. wi.", 01 the
lnfl uonll&l poupi In Iraq. The But.b edmlnlllnlllon', pI ... III quickly
81W>1.\.sh demouw:y In Iraq J\umbled hMlly ......... Ibey .... t1y un ......
timIoleci 1M Inl,....lsetn ........ phiWc:aled. and ..,tI.W..I.." ... t.... oIlhe
c:om~il1ll communIU...

In 2003 Ih. United Stl'" pUI only. querter to one-lIf1h of Ihe l.nd
fore .. In to Iraq Ihll went .....ed 10 proM",. Itw.nd order and prevent
an Immedllle coll,pM Inlo Inarchy. Olsbo.n d l... S.ddlm·1 ,..red army

WUClIlnI w.. anoth..,. mi.tAb .... ultln3 from mlspllloC>!ld hllmAllharianlsm.
The", w.. no ot .... r force to fill thell"P on . hort notice. and m&IIy of S.d·
dam'. fonner officon became the .....11 of the new Sunnl hIIU'll"""y lhat
no pidly developed. w uhlngton policymabrs oboeued . boul rnflin3 an
'i dOlI " and "boJanced" constitution for tr.q and a polidoro ... machinery
of po" ula. "Iedion. and "arl iament"'Y "meedu.... ...·hile tltey ignOntd tlte
bulc i.. u... of prodllClng enough food. fuel. """"l ine • ..,d other economic
n"ce..iti... and gu.rantooing I lu fficien t climBte of llw and order. Thoy
thoughl the 60 pen:anl ShIIte communl ly could nopldly be <»opted ehh..,.
by ch.r1aIQllIli ke Ahmed a..labi. ",ho ...IV.... commandlld My lignifioonl
popul.,.IoIL",.,lng. or religiOlll Io•• de .. like G....nd Ayatollah Ali . l-Siltllni.
who played W.. hlnglon from the OIlrt. They neve. dreamed lhat h·aq·.
Shiit.... ~rh ... ded by rapidly organizing n.... mi liti .... could develop ..,
qenda of their ow"-(m,, oontral)' to U.S. interest •.

Why Western gOlfernonce doesa', work ,here

Th" an.we. to this questlon_hlch Hem. 10 Mve 85C1ped .uch proml·
nt'"t wrile.... Thorn.. Friedman and Chari.. Knlulhommer-wi. Ihll
lnoq l.n·1 the United Sl8t8l. Or .nything lib it. o..mocnocy oou ld work in
Cennany and lIaly .fter World 1'1.,. II bea "..... for th,..,. quarte .. of . cen·
tury from the tll60l on",.rd . lhen> h&d boon I 'ree p..... rme I"'rliamenlS
(oven If their PO" '"'' "'ere IOmewbat limited) .•"d free el edions in thOM
oo .. nlri.,. burore Ihe r ascl" luen"".. oflhe 1920. .nd 1930.. To. lesser
but rtlllllgn!floont degree. Ihe .. me ",.. true In Ja""n fullowlns the Meili
R...tort!lon of 1869 .n the WOly to the mllll8ry ....... Inatl ..... Ind effec·
live talr.oover of tho 1930..
B.. t I. we hlv. _ n . during the fony y...... of Brili.h p .... nc. from
1918 (and th" twe nty,o;l< yeo .. ef oon.W .. tio .... l dem<><n<:y from 1932 te
1958) the ,....lIly In lnoq wutribAl ri".l';81. ,nilitaty <DUp" _ police.
and tort .. re chombero. And In the thll1y·fi"" ye&rl of th" Second Do·.th
Republic from 1968 to 2003. lrlq w.. I totalitarian Itate of the mOlt
/; .
extnlme son. Before the British occlIl"'tlon
in 191 6. Iho", bad ne~ er '-n Ihe ollghl""t
"'mblance of modem polltlC/lI Cll itU"" In
Iraq-In s lrikillJl conl .... , I, for example. 10
- A look You're Not
Supposed to R.ad
TM Chatham I-locM VmIot! ood orflfr Mid-
. . [OSflm Sn.dfs t.,- Elit ~it:
The Iraqi concepllon of polillc. wu tbe
Chiu&o: I•., It De<r.l'OO4.
oaJ1le merei ]..... w;nne,...la k... Il. k ill~ .. b&-

killed . ~ero-Sum game Ibat Lenin .ummed

up u "Who/ Whom. " You won either "Wbo"-t ..... ubjecl of the verb, the
~r. Ihe v;climlur--<lr e l", you Iuod no choice bUI "Wbom "-the
objecl o f Ihe ~erb. Ihe .,... Ive vlctlm helple." 10 defun d h lm ...!f from
whalever tbe rul er did 10 him . The contempo .... ry u.-bon 8<]u l".llnl of
Lenin'sld_nd lraq's pollli~would be "gel 01" 8et got."
Thl . wasn' l 'n AmeriC/ln concepllon of polilia. It ceru.inly WU O'I •
liberal one. But it wu Ibe way min"" had . lways worked In Iraq.

After Saddam: "Beller TIberlus"

A " 'IM old Mllotl.n once N ld . "Belle. TIberius lb." • commlU..... "
TIberill, wu one oflbe worsllyranu in tbe biltoryof tbe RornIn Empire .
• od Sadd.m Hus... ln mad e Mm look llke Mother TereN. BUI rille In
8aghdad by tbe "commlUee " l)efunse Secretary Dona ld Rli llUf.ld
lru"lIf1d tutIlfId oullo be far wone.
Saddam bad been tbe grootest kJll er in modern Arah bi"ory. He had
unl_hed two major wars of "lIII"'"ion••1I..,kln8 Iran and swallowing
Kuwait, He had lnnlcled monlt"",. atroclU"" on his own people. The
on Ly tMn8 he wasn't 8u llly of w u Ihe c.lme tbat predphatfld Ihe 2003
U.S. Invasion IMI firuUy look blm down-funding or other involvemenl
In tbe plannl"ll or the September 11 . \I..,Ito. aull""1 end Ibe Middle "".,
we .... vastly man> dangerous p!a<)ef aller he fell than they were durina bi,
lut twelve years of powe •.

Tho original_mem by Prealdem George H. IV. Busb. Secretary of
Sla!e Jam_ A. BIlker, naUonal """'rily adv;oor Brent Scowcroft. and Ceo-
Mal Colin Powel'-->e oft .... Mol nAtional ~ily II"""" in mooem U.S.
hblo~o l&lve Soddam in power In IlIIghdad was sound. This became
very cI ..... a fter U.S. mllilBry fon;M finally mO"ed inlo Baghdad for an
extend .... Itay in Al',il 200J .
Saddam In power Iuod been an e fJe<:li,'" bhxk On the [ranlan,. Pretol.
doni Ronald Reapn. Secretary of Stat8 Geo'l!" Shultz. and the ir MlioM]
""""Uy team. had nocognlzed this cI ... rly. They""w that [ron wu incom-
parably Iho "",,10' long.term Ih"wu to Ih" United Statee--o.nd to \.anI"l for

....;:. ..;" :-i'••;>~;<'o;-~...........:;:0 :>~-'~7' No,~~::-:"-'.-;:-....'.--::

- __ ....... '- '.' '" _" - ... - '~. ' .. ',' .......
- ,:.r" •

PC Myth: Democracy
GUirantees Hu.... Ri&frts
"""J"'"N' ~ Jl'l(llWchy MId itt p¥I~! diO'l" pro6,o(e ~ moder·
l ilt. cmlizJo'C, iIld rHlrlIinfd lnflllfl1Cf CI:lmtitulionilll'lONldIiK irt
I<lppOIfd 10 -ilff-Inq', jfw!., (lWd., Shi~H, MId rNfI)' 5ImI Mull."
Iflbtull plid tilt price for '<!MurKy" iu lYtion !Nt f-..d t..d no mtOf}
of constitutioNl f¥OIu!ion Of I,.., ThI' s~ (oof'ICltion of Ilmoil III
tho! prO()frt)' oIlriQ'l _Ifnt jrMIh cOflYl'U'lily ( _ tNnlOO.OOO IfrIlI'lCl
....1 Ktuilly CilIifd out ac(ordinc 10 porlil""ruMy ond (omtiMianil pro-
priety on I lintl. day In Much ItSI.
Fir from bfln(inC peac •. dfmocracy In Irlel pinl<'fd ...iI. The CCJI'I'1If!-
lilt &rCt4lI in Irlel nOlll 1911 to m.s 1M tho! dtmocmi< proc~1 only ill I bi,-
lie TI'irouah which to wllf tho! InItlMions 01 powff n:I tlwn wield m.m
ruthleuly i&ilnlt f¥ffyOOf .b... In roNrly llilf I crntl.oy Iin<. tho! ~ 14. •
I9Sl cOl4'. oothtlt his d\intfd. J'

lhal "",Ut.-fte. IAq·' poIenlLoolly alutroplilc Duel.... poI,oliel had
!.en .w..1...,..,..t In I'" 1981 I_Ii air forot ..Id. That w.. why lhe Bu,h
I_m becked lAq 10 \be b.Ih in ill 198G-1988 war ...Jnll 1t1U\.
Saddam wu Ih, only Ihil\ll IloppinS l ..n from 'Ieadlly Ipl'Md l". hi
inflU(lOQl Inlo I...... wilh iI, 60 percent Shih ...... lot\ly popu l.I;"" . ... ,

lonsuthe I..... &Ille """'.Ined st.bl, ... d domlMted by h. Suno l minor·

Ity. Ihe lranlln 1.lem ic ~wolu ti o n'riu w.'" hlocked . So fn....,,,,, was
Saddam'olu'lly """,,,,,d llI1lu\.lldon dlar lhey were cru.hed In Ih~l, 1991
revoh thaI Ib, Shill' m'io,i ly of the ""ulh would ,,01 d.", defy him.
When old Gnnd "'yaloll.h Mohammed SIodlq .1-StId. w., murdered
.1..... DIIrI.lnlyon s.ddam·1 orden In 11199. there wu Il0l. whilper ont
of the 1.....1 Shill, .... jority. They knew whet would hepI'M 10 lhem.
Bul ontl\I s.ddam -110M. It WIll • very dlff_1 "Of)'. DoooIld Rullll'
'-Id froze lhe SUle aep.rtmenl .tbfl CA. end every oth.. pori of the U.S.
"",emment ont of runnlns Iraq. BUI lhen he ... d hillop ...It dldn'l
bother 10 do lb. lob tb,,,,,,I...,..
... "'" body of younS democncY·lontl"'llldeoIOS ..... non. of whom
,puke ..... blc." h.d ewe. li ved In. lei .Ionl Iludled. lhe hlolof)' of Ihe
Arab world. we.. nown OUI \0 Ih, G,.,.,n Zon.: the comfortable. SI....
bucu-equl pped encl,Ye In Ilaghd.d from wh ich U.S. lon:eo "'led..... t h~
QIo,ill lon Provl.lonal"'uthorily (CP"'I. lhey i""",ded 10.,...\". ,_con'
a1tution for tr.q . "d doo;:ld, how the cou nlf)' • ...,..Id be "'led. 1lIey made
1'- btI""i". 8 rhloh Em I,I,.. look competent.

Banking on a hank swindler

Rlunofeld', pollc:ymak,," bet '-vily on . "'Mllhy Shilt. lraqlld ..... lurer
..d "'ile who had '-n convicted years beftn of IIlMIlvl benk fnud in
/Orden. 11 • ..cape<! I lona jail HIlte""" on ly by neel". ,h, """nlf)'.
n.."re WAIl "'" th" .lIght"", -.on In belleYe Ihll ... hmed a..,lltbla"d
hlo l twll Nlllional Cot~ (INC) w"",. f""", In Iraq. The StaHl UI.'V"r1rn.,n1

and ....-IOUI aA a"..IYIII were .... trnmely sUl'lk..1 of hIm all along. Oul
Iheir aa:unolC Bue.. m"ntJ and wuningo w ...... ignored by Iheir gung·ho
politi",,1 m... te ... Yel Ihe allum plion Ih.1 Ch.lflbi w.. beloved by Ih.
Iraqi ~le. including large numbe .. ill the SUlllli..do",inaled Iraqi .""y.
&hand up U.S. w .. r pl.nnillJl from th" fi ....l. Kum.r.ld even wanted to pi'"
Ihe Inv.dlnK U.S. fon:. down from 150.006-180.000 t,oopllO a Ole",
~O.IJ()(Hj{\.ooo becoUM he was lOoonvillOl!d the Iraqi .nny wouldn'l fighl
and large "l.. m.. nt. of II would d .. fect 10 U.S. forces a' loon .. they
crouM Ihe borde •.
Of cou ...... thaI dldn'l happell. But th e delu.ion Ihat Chat.bi and hi'
INC would .. pldly become lhe cr-ed.lbl ... "fIe.l y pro-Ametlun govern ..
menl in Iraq died hard . Eventually Ibe CIA
IIIther-ed. compe lling evid"nce Ihat Chaillbi
rIUly b.... been an agenl for Ihe h-anlan. ,II
along. and. al Ihe very leall. wal a ... riOUI
That's the Wa,/ It Is
....:urily ri.k. They w ..... convlnC«i that he
hAd lea ked confldenlial cod". and Infonn ....
lion he Ihould nev... line bad to th .. [.. ni ..
am.. Kum.leld·, lIeulenants then CUI off their
linkll 10 him_llOUI fo . .. lime.
Even withoul Chalabi. the "aive U.S.
plannen in the G..... n Zone ... d lheir palm ..
(Ioe ~oe. "1ht~oI ~~ col ,nulen b8r:k bome we",n'l 100 pe ....
...~roope<1: in "" (haft-._
.......", and Otfwr SIt.dors twbed. They had Invaded ... d occuplod Iraq
10 rnau it lla f" for democracy. and make It
&.tIfe IbflY would. Through 2005. Ihe inlu,,,
8"nll inmeted .. hail of bomb BUKkl decL-
mOllng II." new Iraqi police and ....:",;Iy force-. Th" new pollee force.
w...... undertralned. po _"Nt dublow loyalty. and Wftf1t lncopoble of oper·
aling independently against in'U'll"fl1 ""'-.
Throufhout 1""1, reol pow .... I"n IntI) lhe IMndl of local mUitia. botb
Sunnllnd Shilt... Ourin« tb ll fIoleful tIme, theCPA plan.... In Bt,gbdad
b;wed 00 emU ...... Ide-I _ ilUlian ..... Jt.q. T1wy mlshl ....... n """"
counled lhe number of ....11 WI could dl,..,. on Ih, h_d of, pin.
Wlthou l Iny ..... 1 IJOYtIm"",nt worth tIM ".na. 1.....1. W""I hul\&fY.
_ 't poold, laded .I""rldly 1",IonS pan. of the dly .... d d idn't evon
h.... "no"3b pJOlLne In tb" counlry with Ihe lIICOn d I....... ' . nd m... t
ace",lble rete"'" of Ih e lIu fr on ea nh. Even Sld dlm Ill n ed to look
I!""'I .•nd th."ook 1011\1 doing.

Birth of the Iraqi Insurrection

Bl!Ih', IdeoolJ.tk edv~. dead _ on mUl... 1""Ilnlo. nte. IV.-Iern.
lIyt. deR\OCnCy. b.Ueved Ahmed Ch.allbi when he Mid b. wou.ld be
hllply popular..,d ,hat the U.S. Amly would be lI"""Ied .. Uben.lon.
II never Iwppened. Wilhln twenly·lb.... d.,. of !MIIU 01 Ik8hdld oa
April e, 2003, lhe.,-t Sunnl hllumoction . .Inat U.s. roo:.. w .. ~y
up Ind runol.... ]I ,lll1ed ... , May 1.2007. Ih ....... doy I'Iwldenl Ceorse
W. Il ulh dramallcally land ed on tbe nucleat .Irerall carne r USS "'bro-
/tom Linco/" ."d prodalmed "Miglon Accoml,lbhed.- On IIMt doy. U.S.
IOld len In the Sunnllown of ~" lLulah ,hOI Ind kmed ,"'Ieen vIolent
demon'lriton who were not Clny1na Ii......""'.
Tt.. dead p~"'I'" promptly became many ... From lrellnd 10 India.
OIOIhl ... 1OttI m ... emotion. ,lIlme Ind willI" up wld ... p.... d popuLar
... ppon Uke, d<wm '" men ..... 1).. f4''PI, whocu be p..... lbly p. .
.. nt"! .. Ih. IlI8ie vlctl .... ofthe evi l occupy!", power. Combl .... thete
I..... l'.hle lI_uIN with R.. mat.ld '. ;1lI1,tlltlCl on Iwvt", .lmoIl no vii-
[bl. p..... ne. on the 1""1' .. reel •• Ind I violent In' ..""nq ,h""ld be
Ul*=t..!. .... Machlev. llL "113'" , ml ki"ll people mid 1\ yo .. II fine a
IonS a lhey ·....., .. Id 01 yo ... But m.klns people mid II you wllhout
maid", them .&tld of)'OlJ Is liM WOQI ml ... ke In I"" book.. R...... r.ld '.
Penl ...... and IMlr _ CPA mMIto th.t IrII,t.ke In ,pad..
Th" l""'t .nU·Amencen In,ul"TllCtlon In Inq OVM the """I fou' )"IOIn
,~!Id ""h ...... Soddam Hu ..e io.nd th.e moot powerful lnd hlth.rto
rua:alf.. 1conwnUOII.o.Ienny In ,h" Mob world tu.d 10\.t lly f.o.lled twlee.
Th. S .. nDII.-.qllnl .. ""ntt "ymled. lWIutrall..,.;l, .... d betI.... lo .... h .....
the Us..".,..j fore:. th.et had _ily ""Ipild out liM rogular l..-.ql arm)' In
",. Sulllli Muollm LnsIlmlCtIon In Jr.q .....ltrllCllld .igniflcant lot...
national jlhadl,," to II. ranu, and 0"" ,h. yean tMy ceme 10 1Mb up.
,lgnlllaD' numbet of lh. , ..Idd. bombeT a d.... who Inflicted , h.. ""....1
mayhe", on Shllt. d .. man. and Ih. new Iraqi armed ' orcee.
Ou' It dldn', . tll1 tha, w.y. Al Qeeda and OIhe. luch group' did no,
lunch ,h. In,umocllon In [..-.q. """ra r>OI prlm.rlly ..... poDllbl. for [tt
arowth. and ....... ""O' up more than. omall mlncrily ofit.tlCt1... fl&ht-
.... By f.U 1005, Us. military In,,,UJ&enoI_mentt h.1teq had con-
cluded llull the " ..umlctlon had .....chod the Mlf..\l.tl.l.lnI", poInl. E....,
[f.U arm .... ppU.....d .. olunt ..... from oullJde theCOU1l1ry could beeut
off_nd. sl ....n the paucity of U.S. ground fore.. In Ihe counlry. ,h.!
"".... ', "Ih'otely JIOMlbl~h"lmu""ncy wouLd contlnu .. It _ I y the
...... le",,11t Iuod .-:hed.

The Insurgenls: Not just a rew troublemalr.en

[n AUguil 2003 lraqllmursentl killed ,he Unl,ed N.lionIenvoy 10 Iraq.
Serslo VI"I .. de Mello. and Iw.nty....,. memlMl .. of hi' UN .,,« with an
"",mnonl truck bomb tbot d"moll,hud th"Can.1 Hot"lln Baghdad . T he
widely ... peeted de Mello w., th, hl",..,·,.nklnll UN olfid.1 to be
killed In '''''QOUfMof duty in more than four da:ad .... "lbtol ...... "Il lack
AUjlult," Crand Af1IlnU.h Mohamed BlKJlr .l-H. klm. the mOil Mnlor

.. ,
PC Myth: Wt Don', Nttd the lie, lad la'athists
~ eo.li~ion ~I Auttlority W:.Jd n- ukn (omrol <i SIdd¥n's ~I-disclPined
L ....cI ju$lty fH,ed illlI'I)', MinI itl lrO'lflund ~irc iI OMI'uI ,erltlil from the old ~
to ~Id it. TNt IWIIhooId n- btf!l my; SoiddMn tH'illed 1'»$ ~.b I~ dirt, npeciilly if they
~ him well ¥d _~ rood ill Ihri/ jobl.
But in!.tNd, ~ hipIeu L PiuI &remer. ~'fIlIly on ~ from ~~ ...cI hI\ "",,·hind
mtn ......... ~ ~.., ill the Ijmf, diuohed the I!iqi ilrmy IOld ~ • de-&O'ilthofltillion
orde tlil'l'linilirc ~ who 11M! senoed in the &.I'1tt. ~ from "'1 pOIitlOll 01 offoO.l mpIn"
~bility. TNt wn'" iI <:OI"M\'""r.e yqy to do ~ it will ~1~oI idull$m ill its most ~.
OIlS ¥d 1t'4*i
'It.. de-a.'.lhiflWion OIdtr illso I&nOred The p<IoCIKt iIIld ~1Im 01 Gentrol Woi'Ct i. huoo,
"utH' of oil U.s. tomb.>! com'llillClrn. who JOI into ~ willff mff World 'NIl II b)' keeprc
forme. """ibfos of dw /Wi ""'1 ¥0I.fId to fMlH southem Gfmwoy didn't (oIl~ into f.,.;ne
iIIld eNol 1ft... 'N(orld W.. II.
Fo! Plouon ~Iood The IW~ oI1ht IOIilliliNn Stille:.wry qinHf. doctor. 01 tKln;>-
m t WOfth llil s.alt is forad 10 jo01 The rulirc piny jult 10 M .UO'IO'fd 10 do hi1 jab.
Dr-&.I'ilthifKiltiotI could ~~ btf!l door with discfimNtian IOld WCCf» [it vowId be hMd 10
ifNtInt it btinc (~ 1m wc:teWully) if po»t -occ~tion inOtiliJolton had fot\Md lOIeIy
on !.K~ poIict klilm MId top PoIIt1 offo:iiil ioYoI~ with enforcill !.iddMn's !nOlO! notorious
MId bloody initUt~
Inllriod. SO,OOO to 60,000 mtn who wm \tit bnl lrmed ¥d tint t.M'Ifd in Iroq wm illien-
Oiled from the til. forca. tho CPA. iIIld,vly ltiQIS who ttwrw tllri. lot ill with thml And ~ ent~
StnoI cotnmu'Iity ill Centro! Oq ~.lent ~ mt'IUte that Iftff fi&hty.tt.rft yw'1 <J bM& lop
doc. tt>m ..u PIC to Ill! rIC) hope (Of them -' ~ II¥odI of tllfo. 'ltrCfful5lliit~ bmhr~ ~
melm his J'OIII'( st~ffffi in ~ CPA dGI·, .. tend to .lend tt.tm thit mH~. kn thfoI. !he)'
dqit \row anyltlina abciut nc;.

ShIIte cleric in Iraq. and . " 'Iy of hl ••upporl .... '""' killed In lnoth",
devulalinll car bomb .nack.
N.' v. U.s. (:OnInlMllatQr1l dldn, pi II. ThOI)' op\""" thai the 11110(:'"
w.... clearly the work of. 1m.1I miAority IlnKlJ comprlMd ov_belm.
lnalr of '"",ignen to II'Ml (fib.). Whllth., dldn ', ...lim walbe' 11'8<1
_ npldly devoIvm, Into u.. "lIe,e of ""tll"'- d.crit.d by Brlll,1I polLt-

PC Myth: W. Don', M"d Troops

on tile Ground
Dor>IId ~eld.obIm«I w.mrhl' idN IllllIhe

Unolfd Slilft wAd _ rho worId'~ px..t.-p;IMf with ..

.,.".1ft¥lNIIy I¥r m.n North lorN\" ~ 10 ~ ll'f 01,1
IIOOp'l OI'-wrt!f t, ' __ -poIkt 10 ~ the «utt1J un. Wt. ¥d t...
~ ~ m. n.mJtUCM doll" .-.d Wftb 1ft.. ~'. '~l WIwn ..
orO' r;I 'iofirc pm:Iio:!obiy fR4IIfd KrOll L1p11d. Rumsftld Vwuged II elf
with m.now·' _ t _ l . "ShJf~.
WI" old Sir ~ OowblUlll, 1he loo.ch BfaiYl coloniAl poIic:_ wtIo
~ tho ~ 01 m. '919 Arib rioI. in 1'I~11I'It. «dd 11M told Rums-
reid wIW -...:I1wppfn 111'11.
f"nI. ~ ..... _ dcIfIt 10 "'10:1. (ritiuI i'lffam.oct\ft, npeoiIt,
irI ~ ~irC (,apkity.-.d 01 prooUtlCll'l fOil:on., orit!I men.-
rnem. ~onm. f'oMion, 1«O\iti) ~ for lilt foI..,...)'HB.
~ the!nqi Pf<I9Ie IoiI """'1 _ _ tIwy hid ol 1M u.5.. Mrrt.
{Tht us. AnrrJ. ~ Wdd be 'fj'ifJ.a,td. fIcIoodfd ItI OCCI4lIIion lCIII in
~ ~ ;nj ~I II ~ with IfOOfII Vttr ItI oIctotit1l1 the I!IId
01 World w.. I.j

Tho _ la II , ...!IIk

leal pbl!oooopber1'homN ~. "II. with·

A Lot of
out efhctl ... .,...,...,.,...t, wt- ..... U>d ......
""" IV""PI prolifented elld killed It will , I Hot Air
ltate, u HIIbbef; memonbly ~"I II. wh" .... llt..
w.. "poor. nuly. brutll h.... d lhort." Wi'.NnctonWllii
Th, SUIIII I ""U'P"tl"'_ culled primA. t:ulCh d debil!ffl. Thty'cI sit iIIOI.fId in the
rily from !he 20 pom:enl SUII III minority In Gtftn Z- iII'Id clfbiltf. Wei. I don'l!:now
Inq tbl t..d ruled the ......t _ . ILIICI Ib. ibou11hil.l.f1\ II)' rt.,. Ard~thefd
Brill'" CI'\Ilhed the 1920 ShUte .... volt. They
MW clee.ty they hed 110 .... U.tlc II.k. In I
"new" Inq wh ..... the Ameriaon . ... _
Ins up Ih' Shiil" 10 be lOp dog_ u...ca"",,
buHd- _.
dtbtif II '01 month!. iII'Id month!. iII'Id
IIlOI'ItM iII'Id montfti iII'Id no;odOrc '!ffQIAd

u.s. militilry COfl'lWI

R"mlfeld refuted 10 flood tr.q wlth American
Yftffatl and penoNl
1100.,. 10 k ....p II ... &lid order. IlIId becaUH
injury IiIwJtr .......
CPA bead I.. P.ul Bremer had dLobo.nded , ... 5-,"-,, 10 R.IojiY
old 1,..1 .....,.-which •• ely..... In t"'COUIi' ChIncIrnebran
try bed !.eo jUlliy ICOInod of_nlrclty ... d
UIn'OfI.m ru led. New local mlHtlM. Shiite .lId
Sunnl . tlk •• l lmed 10 00.1..,.10 &lwe. Mmblanoe of l>rutOlCllun tn thel.
1oc:e1 neighborhood..
The unde.manned ... d O'IIIlIlretcbed u .s . (ure. In lnoq we...... pld·
_ .... nl .Iite combet unil ....... h. bell In Ihe ... orld. They we .... no!
poIlmmen end they had 110( '-n t..lned .. count_lnJu,....,." u.,.....
They .... pollded to IItec:U end th ........ they hed been tntlled, witb
owerwh.l mlllll fil'llpower end aollln,ln . 1. Itrlk.. when th.y needed
them . Th.t wei tbe "'IY 10 win conventlo.nel wan. but not 10 win h....rtI
and mlndl In I count . ... lnlll 'll"ncy connlel. Innocent people Were
inewltlbly killed . od th.lr hom .. d.. troyed-not boaoUM our toldl ....
..... mllrde...... , bul becI.,... ,b.,. w• •• IOldi... n,h ... then .,..,...
be.,.... Enry lim. thet blPpened. It W.I. blip palltlal tift 10 Ih.

Thto u..w,..nt. ..... ~lopMI. IMI'W w.,.wlnnl", _po<> ""t Iln&I.
hand.clly tltlUfonn.d the .,.,...-tiofUol dynun IQ ofu.. wu: IlmpJ.. old·
fuhlon.cl. booby· trep born!,. thlt ... med the rlncy n. .... "Im pmvlo.cl
o~pIOlljv. devle•• " Or lED. Thoy .. mploy.cl.hlped chug... I .. d modem

e><pIOll... that rendlDnld lh .. Ammalll.· Brad ley I'I&hlin8 Vohlcl... highly

vulnonble. 51001 SeptflmbM 11. Rllnafold'. ''' \.Ji8O<I
hMl '-n Ihowend
wlth nnlnclel IUppcm by .ymJNIlh.c1c c:.o..g.....- like DO prevlou,
Deperunent ol OefenM or ...... In U.s. hlItory. but Rumsfeld ,....... ed moll
of II Into ~1.1onuy. Jdeoce. 6ctiorHype. hlah·tech WOIOder .)'tItMIUI orth.
futUl't. Theft Wit DO money II flrII to buy .lmpl... t....1 pllt_ 10 buckll
ooto thl .1<J.t . nd boltOlll' of U.S. coPl1M1 .. ohl.:l ... in Iraq. E~nl ually.
hund ...... of U.S. ...,ldle.. wou ld die or 10M Ihelr llmt.. befono Ihlt ov ......
• Ight wNlIborIou.ly noctifled.
Even Ifter III tb_ bu",IOI, however. the . II... uo.. could have t -..
nuned If well·in lentloned pollcymlbn Iuod been _ O:D. wlnol ..s.
guerrilla w., ... ther than InttUll"'. bMu!lfullod pure pa,II'menlary
....1IlOCrIC)' lo lnoq. 00 December 15. 2005. they .. o ... Ued thel, prldeend
jor-l'nulnely free ... d flir parli.""",tary election. throusJ>outlnoq.

Bombing the Golden Mosque: The point of no return

For n..., ly Ih,.. y..... Ifter ln",dlollnoq. U.S. pollcymaken lmpolled
l'Idicai. I'OIDIIItlc. li'-a!lIItioo..bul ldl", polldlll on \he hap ..... counlry,
elIlonl.. the pl.......... lither eon_I"" or _tiool ror ....ioMJ _ .
rity. In truth. lhe people who ceme .. p wi lh Ihe tJrisht ldeu I nd p.... hed
Ihem thmush w..... neltber COIlJeIVlllve In I ny mOlliinaful,..m.. nor
know ledgeebl e .bout Ihe "",Ion.
But It th", wu. ,Inale """"en' lha. could be called lhe Point of No
R.cum. It Will IIIITOf ..... Ier Abu MIUIb eJ'Zarqlwl'. filii] ...... _l'Ou .
00 Fehruaty 12. 2006 , Sunlll M.... lim 11lJ...... t. bomt..l "",afthe ......
... cnKI .hrlnol ;n Shiite 1.lam. the I I·Alka,;y" Mooque. Or the Colden
Mo.que. In Samarra.

PC Myth: Democracy C~n Solve Iraq's Problems

urnooJt in the IrIQi elections of OKembeI 2(X)S _ hJIIt 10 ptKfnt (I fit hoJher tl>'nOUl
T thon fOt ",on U.s. Mtlons~ The iraqi peopIt t.pmsed their flft. dfmcxratl( w~11oud MId
,Ie.!. ..-.d they >OIed for ... mort dIIOS..-.d cl¥~ "'M.
,,"'If nt¥ly1lnt )'fMS of f'SCllitin( terror. suffeo-in(. ..-.d chio!.. the OUI(OIIII' .t.oul6 ~
~ a prediu.t>it one: the three 11\1111 tItWIic Ot re\1JiOuS &fOI4lS in Iraq-the SI1iit~ of the -m.
the minot"ity Sumk of the Cfflteo-. ..-.d the Kurdl of the north-all..oted foo- thew- lf~tio;lr-.lloul
poIniYn ~ rm >Its the loiIIle poIttern Sftn in any lfriousIy dMdfd _itt)' Wt ~ suff~
r;MI_ 00- SOIfMM. I«lar~ wife {SlIIMb. Nonhtln RIW. 8o!.niI. ..-.d Lrb.Inon ~ I ftw
t~~ Many of the fKlions Mtt<! to the MW poIfliilTll'lll in ~ _ controlled by Of
hid !trons ~ to the ,..",1 ~~ t'lfrOt .roup! Of miHt~

$hiit~ IfI'tpl the bo¥d, wr.wtc 62 ptfCf!Il of the 'fOtt. Stmis, dtlpilf brirc ~fofttl of the
popo.tlliQn. won only 8 ptfcent 01 the Ifill in the MW poIflilml!n1. The -.th boosted the $hi.
IT~ MId X..ds t..ded by u.s. poI~~1 MId left the So.nIis fetlifJI 001 in the cold. r«lIlin(
the ~ WI <.IenlotrJcy is two wol-.e iIId a Wfp decidifJI wh.lt to hiI't foo- dime.. iIId liberty
1\, _1I·.rmed I¥nb. The Inwrcentl b«ome men popuIir thon rm in the 5InIl (OIII'IUIiTy. MId
tNt ~ them men bold. ~ ~t'" fill-"'! somd . ..-.d so did their M!iliTy to any out
more t'lfrOt IIt. n
u.s. poIicym»:... hid ~y believed the el«tions would wc~ the Ii, 001 01 popo.tM 5Inri
so.won for the ~. imttod. it only f¥tled the fl~ The "In" whid\ u.s.. sokIitn.,
I,aql I«..ity foru!., IIId inno(ent-,..",tly Sluitt-eiYil,,", _e ~lIled lOoI,ed In the month! fol·
lowin( the ~KtlOlll.

ShUte mmh .. around the country, e"peda lly In Baghdad, I'NCtod at
once with murderous fury. Hundl'1!d . of innOClllnt Sunni. we ... ,hal al
random or. even WMM, draaged off 10 be torlul'1!d. Sunnia ra&<:lod by raI·
lying buhlnd Ibe In.urgenl. And other militi. group. wilbln their own
Thef'll wu not .""n an independent Iraqi gnvernment yel functioning
in Baghdad to p.otend lt could t.ait Ih. m.yhem. More th&n IWO monlM
after Ib, parUIJn"ntary .Iection. America's C_n Zone bUl'lMlucrat. wef'll
10 proud of. tb. oquabbll"3 Iraqi polltkal pani_mool of tbem merely
fronll for murderow mliltia groupo-" 'ef'll,llll fir from ......menl.boul
• governmenl. And th...., wef'llsHll far too few U.S. troopo on the grotlnd
10 gUI",nl.... law and order and end tbe kllling.
Tens of thomand. d ied •• the WI'" of tit·for-III random klllln8"
nowed bM:k and fanh. Hundrlldl OflhouNncb of Iraq i. nod their hom ...
to find f'IIfuge In enclavee run by mlllliu of thei r own f'IIligiou. tradition.
The powe. of Ihe Sunniinsurgenloin thel. own com,nunily 8"'w, .IId in
Ihe following months. the IICIIle of terro..nI>Cu by Sunnl. IV"w by I... po
and bouncb,
But the biggoar bunefLciarleeoftheal·AIhr!ya bombing ... d Ibe blood·
botb. tb.1 followed were th' Shllle mlllllu, Mpecllily in Baghdad and
IOUthom Iraq. It wutbey, ... d not lb •• phem...,,] Shiile-llKlgovarumanu
Ihal U.S. d iplO/lUIII fnmUcally patched logetber, who lOOn came 10 be 1M
.....t power in Sbiite Iraq.
Shiite milili •• aoon yetberlld vutiy IDOf'll power t~ the Sunnlln.u ••
gonu over had. They h.d strong tI.,. to .lIlhe new Iraqi -=urily (orceo,
wblch In .....tlly w...., conlrolle<l end run by Shiile ... nlor omeen. lhey
also had a powe.ful innueoca 00 the ram.hoclJe new ]"''1l8"vemmenu,
induding Prime Ministe. Nourl .1· Mallkl',. At on.. time. five of Malild's I
cablnm mlnlst .... and . bl"" of Ihlny membe .. of lba new Iraqi 1'8fli.· [
ment w..... loyal 10 Moqlada al·Sed •. the cheri.ntltlc-<ond m",,1 entl·
American-5hiile mHili.l...Jcr who runS theMatld! Anny. Sad. end hi. n

Mahd! Anny re"",lned Ih" ......1 pow"r In the
Shih" stronghold of Sadr Cily within Bagh-
:L. -' A Boole You're Not
dad_They are allho heart of. lighl network
of ShUle mlllll •• ""..... Ihe ..,"Ihem h"lf of
t , Supposed to Read
.+.merit... ~rmm Nlloriottl. hM paid
Ihe country.
vl"....lly no ~I~ion 10 the .....k>-IfwM
~~ at W..q in J9,41. "'" tllCtplim i!o
II isn't a civil war; How¥d M. Sac;hir'~fllllpfl_
it's a splinter war It. MIdtf<p fDlf: /9J6../9S4. ~ Yott A11f'1'1
lMIt ~,!htfs..1914.
Fo • • n of 2006 and mool of 2007. Preaidonl
$KNr (~ tugh IChoLmhip ... th,
BUlh and hioopokomten l"'-ed 10 deny the
obvlou.:. full-fledged clvil WAr"'" .I......dy mid. ~ .. ril ire .tylt tNt tr'oIm

..g1"3 In Iraq. the -.11 lit dtIC.ibH (omt coolire 10

In OIle ... n .... all the p .... idenro men w"re l.ft. Hi. booI:: "I~ ..trl the diff.. ~ mill·

telli"3 the trulh. Followl"3 th" F~ 22. til.,. ~ip 0.... World w. II ond
2006. bombi"3 of the Golden Mooque in ,'W:i , ,1ft ond uctlltnt 00fI .if ...

Somam. It wun't I c ivil war tbtt w " rag.

1113 In [raq. It wu ... melhln8 far wo ....: •• pllntcr "'Ir.
A civil WI. pitll th" government .[not . faction trying to take pow"r
for it ... lf. Alpllnter war occu" when. centrtllOvemment coU.p ....
completely and lou of Hul" mililla. and [OCAI groupo immediately alart
lquBbbli"3 Ind killill3 uch oth"r.
Splint ... wan Ire the nonn In Thomu Hobbet'l ~I t.to of nature. ~ Thoy
ofl"n kill more innocenlllthl" ciyi l w.,.. do. beau ... killi"3 i. random
IDd done by lou of diff""",lgroul'" and beau ... public ... rvic .. like elec-
tricityand hoopitalo te nd to coll"pH.
In April 2006 I coined .noth.... phnt ... to descrihlt the kind of war the
U.S. armed fo""", W"'" fon:ed 10 d .... l witb In Iraq: a war according to
!Ie[!"t Ru[. Or lI<l[rul Rul ...
TIt_are th" rul .. thatlPply when national armi ... occu py["3 fo...,...
or [ntemational JMlI'C'lkoopon try to maintain order alld lCCurity and try

----------- ~

PC Myth: Kill Zvqawi .... W. Win

n )uno 7, 2006, .t.bu MuWlII-wq.awl '"is killed by I JUtision U.s.
O ,;, u,i~ on. "'JIPOIfd I.lt. house whm! he ~s plott,", fNYhtm
-' !he r...... Hi< till.,. w;a. I triu'nph for tilt '-I'p/me<! U.s. tnd ~1Qi leW-
ril1 fotcn MId tlimilvlN II Qitda', outm""drcluder in 1rJq. • """ mor~
rnpomibI. ~ M'Iy ottlff for the txlmnt Soi'WItfI)' of tho! So.rrI 1mrC"'Q'
~. Yf1thr)'NI I ltef hit dut~ Wool no r«Iuction in !he insI.r"rocf' <opI'
bil,tiH to elIlI)' out Idtwol bombiull iVins! Shoile dvilft Ther. wm
wily This ..is W.
importlfl! rN!.OftI
~ WillS I r..... eof lhe bnd ofIf!I fco.ro:l in .".i-<;oIonio! ord prill"

WoIB of !he poll! (tf1tury. He lOti 11 mrr<ilm. bfUl11 I""tic who WOo• .t", •
I.Cliul Jfflius n:I. ~ opttltioNl cOlMl¥lder. e...t m indil(riminile
kiIIlna MOd his bloodlust ''''''ltd Itliow Muslim. ~illty Wit ... fIvNt·
«oM to i50ble !he Ir6iI"IfIlC)' by "lObitil" tilt $hitl! .......111 in Iroq. wt.ch
~ tIYff lirnts tM popubtion of Ihf Storni$. w","wi .1", prioritizod "nom
00 U.s. loren;" I'~ .• ""'ep: polity !h.ot hist~ tin own Ormiw.
Z~QIWi·. dellh immfd~tly IIIide heldline!...,ound !he world. But !he
ItwI of .n,itOoo inflicted on U.s fotcnin Ifoq b)' x.m; ~t\ ' ..... inod
hi&iI. iIIld the ilmrCt"lI wm ~ to ~~ ~ thr (~ty ,.to!'
.....,..,. dod tilt lKtal U.s. WC(ftIe ipll'llill Q.edI witt.. nq fl~ to qtI"Il
tilt inIIqt<'qJ Pirt of !he _ i\ tIw 01 0-10 ord in oIliH hid oIrudy
SUCCHded in pIoi'<'triirc thr (~ allroq', rm. dtmacrillcilly "'KIM
Pf" ..... ,lS b)'!he linr u.s. form could ..... rul inroad!. itolins11hem.
The U.s. 00srnl0n witt. ~ nmbo1_ (OMliMioNl prO<HIf'S
d/urXled Amftiuto pliIMefl from ~.. .tole 10 focus 00 ~ pfirNry isSUH
w.," "' h.... MOtJ:CIt ffl~t U.s. ~
-"" -
of rHtofln& ~ricil1 " ' n.rYIirc

illltd IJOC$J II) ~ .... Ind order. As I ~_ 01 ~ tIwft cMIiIn
piWi"'IfI«j 01 Qq ~ .", &QWOOtS otditIolr!J Thry _1NbIt II)
dtllwr bmic ""OInt ..... ' 01 rellibk Sff"rito-s to I ~ portion 01 ~

E_ In ~y ptlceful Shi,tf lllijafity jOWO\'in(K KfOI.IloOU1"he<n
kaq. ~ lO"f"O'IfI~ 10ft" opo!Iltf In illiMKf "I!tt-o< -' 1IIf wfftflllCf
01- 1 pl\clM:ri: of Shi'lf miI~its lhM !hey do tIOI (OIUrd.
KlIIIo:1: ZMqnri~~ tome nut tomdirc 1IIf "Ii ~ iI 0IrdI_
II!\Ie TIw onIJ.01 "'" !hot IIIM\ arm of ~ Sum 0Ki\1IOI(t. a, TIw tlmf

ZMqnri _ kII~ he"IQI fnI--. eqJIk In I ~.. co.!'toon 01 ...1-

AmericIi; Stmi miilillfOUPl. And when brQMI wc~ In PfO'I'Okrc ill
~ Shiilf rNCtion Iftl!f ~ iI·AskMOJIO Ixooubo" he ~ Ion
lAl....lf ItrlttP: pi at ...... Qq ~ lhoooch ~ lU.-pdfd
dttnoc:m~ paIiIitII piO(m.ll_ IfII"4)I", 10 ttrilM TIw Qqi people

-auld be "at~ W IYd ffftd TIwm 01 thfi< brutil dictator Indlhat

democ'K)' ind The pn:otr"Iiw at . brichll!f fut\n wooId _!\tim "'"" bit ·

lemm ind l,lbaHsm. b.ot wch hopeful Orums "II"IIIocM!Ktm.tl'd" I~ hql

Ul. crJIld u.-'~ In kiq. In itJ ~ wItIt llfqllri ind AI ~

II!\IecoroIlOiIlfd The rnruy relCW ind fttwoIc paI.1icii Ind PIOIiMJI.-y
tNllllrsoltlwCOlrtIJ ~ Gtor,e w 8usII. Vlcf~ (lid:
0-,. Ind DtfenM! SKfttIiJ DonoId Ro.msfeId remained conrincfd rtwI
COl"« ~ ....8 Ivotfd down Ind killed Ind II o.tda·1 operaIionai com-
fiIItId 1\J\ICt\Or'f _1II'IIIhfd. ...... ~ So.nII inlY"JeICY..auId to I 'If Ind
~efIoI. dttnoc:mIc poIiticiI pnx::~ ..auld 11181 ~ In ka!4
lui: ~ dkI 111M IIIppfn tho! - t

no. I'IIII!Leally 110 _ GuIde t. t~. Wlddl . Eut

t., p ... vent the mas~ ofth ..... aando ofl'M'ple when the centralgovem .
ment has totally broken down. Beirut and Belf.,t rul ... apply when sec·
tarian·hued mHlllol h.,ld powe. in naHon.that have .l ...... dy I pllntered
0< frtIgmented InlO conditionl of ci"il "'... They Ire whit U.S. soldle,.
now fow;e in Bogbdod.

Why th e surge couldn't tam e Baghdad

The... we ... many ......,n, why the much h ..... lded 2007 "'"rge- of U.S.
tl"OOP' In Iraq. foc!Ioed on Baghdad, could neyet hi"" wo. ked.
Owing the firat few month, of the,urge. mllllll l<illingo in IJa&hdad fell
lignifico.ntly. aul l i tho ...... time. Baghdad £.til eve. m<>re lightly under
the oonlml of 0 web of "iolenl ShiHe mlliUas while Ihe Shlil....oomlnaled
natlonalgo"emment w ," .Im" ltaneou.ly powe.l ..... to ,lop it Ind INI-
l ively compHcit In Ihe p~. "nd In Ihe lummeT 0( 2007, eyen., ,,10-
lence Will dropplOJl ro pidly in "nbar Pro"lnce. il waf rili"ll ogoin to ilJl
old levelo in Baghdad.
Th. , utge I I", demon.tra ted lhe fu illity of IhOM armchair llrategllli
."d " worrior'" p" ndilJllnd politicians back In the Uniled SIIII ... who hod
IIlked 10 glibly about "unleashing" the U.S. ormed r,.,..,.. to bring MCU·
rlly to a ,gIIdad.
for neithe. the Amerlcln armed fon:etl not the ram.h..,lcle Iraqi
parliomcnlaly-democraUc .yotem that U.S. lutho. ili ... Impoled On Iraq
could btlna pMOII. P""pllrlty. oecurily. or basic 1JUl11',,",ed d.o.lly ",...iem
to the Iraqi capUal. f or th_ 1fII'VIcct, Ihe I'M'ple ofBeghdad In 200II and
2007 came to ...ly on their I>I!lgItborhood militiu. Like the mafia in crimo-
ridden dUM of old . the SlUile milit ... boca ..... the .....1go-;<ltI1OIent of the
iraqi capitol.
" nd whan militia fD""" Irn d .... ply m<>ted In th.lr own ]OQ] commu·
nlty .tro",hold, and .... _n by enough oflhe ir inh.abltanUl IlIlhe oom-

mu n!!,... defenden . ..... .,In.t them I. _n ....... ,...Inll Ihe .nll ...
n..t II 1M I1i&btmare ..-ario U.s. .........t """* ......fad .... In &,gh.
did In I"" 0.-;.... monlho of 2007 wb.i fon:.d to light • <:ampalp 01 anni·
hllatlon or ~1or1 .intl the do:ntlnanl Shille militilotlin &,ghdfd.
In theory. by buttl .... up militlu. U.S. ",ldlM'll ... ould "" canyl"3 oul
I'" ... or~ of the demOCfftic IJOvemment of llllq. and Ihul 1101"3 the peo-
ple'l will. In Ihe people" eYII. howeve •.• '01'1111" occu pying fOrQ! WU
w.nil\jj ,...Intl Ihe only In",!UlioM holding their oommunltlN logether.
Tba more U.S. llrepower .nd mil1l ...y ron:. "..... ,,&"I nlt the mllili_
and the mont clvUl.n u.".hleo COl1<;C)mllfntly Inlllctfd-the more the
Shille pop"iallon ofBafhdad wlHlld t.:ome bitterly op.-ed 10 lhe u.s.
p.... nce. AI tb, conflict etefllled. U.s mlillary '0"- would !.:ome
....""111. . .nd bell. . .. Thelnoql SOvemmelll_ .........""nt In little
more th.n n.m_1 beol ...lHIld Iry to help Ineffect".lIy.• nd" ... onl
could _Ily become. <;C)nd"U for InlelU.,_ ",d .. bot ... on ""...1, of
lhe SbUle mi lilllll.
The U.S. Anny hllto,lully h.. h.d little ""perl.nce of Ii.,. CIOmpl""i·
tI ... vlcloliinou .• nd ononno" . aosualTI .. Ih't fuLl ._Ie II""" lighting
In .n ,,!'bin envlronmenl can 8"nerole. AmoricenllhlHl ld pnly Ihey_
ha .... ' o leArn.


he MlI.llm n.tlon, of th. Midd l. EDt look an itnvonbl, lum Guess wbat?

T IOW.rd ..dlClllllam no! in the tenlh .,.nlul)'. not ane. Ihe fan
of Bochdld to lhe Moncols In the Ihlneentb .,..,IW)', bul In 1979.
n.. ~II)' .".."
w.. A)'1IlOnab Ruhullab Khomelnl'l I.Lamic Ilevolutloo
• I\l0l01 bIo_
II dJ tItk1J )'ND
In Iran and bl, .lICCeUfuI d.na".,. of the Un lt.-d 51 . . .... Two oIh ....
....ml. fu.ledlhe IMnd. 51...,. 1973. tbe Saudi mOlUlrchy hid beau onak.
• .......,.Caneri
I", .uch hup 011 pmn"lhat It could alford to uPOI'I radlClI V... IOM
of It, own fundamenlelill Wd.habl v...lon of .. lam Ihroushoul Soulh
,- ......
l\illdllnlj • lilt

crhillitled tilt rIM

and SoulhNJI A.le. And aloo in 19 79.1h~ Sovl"l InvB.lon of Afglanl. of rodl<a1 bIo ....
•tan Inspired """,n.l"" U.S. edm in i,lnllonl. OemOO:"II~ and Repub-
lican .lI k• • 10 fund I,lemlll mujabedln luerrill.. In Ih.l. d.n." .,. of th.

The wisdom or Prince lurid

The new. radlco.l. and un-islamic ...ture of tIM modero w.... of .. Laml ..
tenur _ ."plalned In Augwt 2005 by PriDOO Thrir.l aI-Fal..l. It.. r.::nr-
'-Ior Saudllnlllllpnco.
TUrli. who hod ........-d foralmool four yea ... Ih<e k.Inadom· ..... baaador
10 Brltlln. told I worQhop In London tbal the ."ll'IIm" 111.ml.1 lerrori...
WUI'II IM p lied by non.lslamlc cult p.ychoIO!lY. lie "sued Ihal th " _I
Tbe I'Dlltlully lftClN'K1 G~l d .l. lb • •" ddl. u ll

nalure of terrorist organizations like al ~ was nol lolunlc. bull'llthM

• cult Jnychology thai had borrowed IslAmic Iinguag@ 10 propagala
d ..",ng"d m_1I'" and luotify 110 actloru.
-rbl.lerrori,m IIIKII buod on IsI.m. but i. a p"rverted cult Id""I"I)'.
Itl followe,. haw~ .bst:nlud IhemselVf!Ol from nonn,1 society ... d from the
family. and placed IhemselwftS oUllide of ..... lily 10 fulfill fa"IviOl t .... t
hawe nothing 10 do with th .. rual world." Thrkl ... Id. "It I. I l.......nst cult.
",thar ltoon a c1anic terrori'l ""'8Anlullon like Ihe IRA or I:,,.A."
Hi. oommenu wem nO! original 0 ..... Many pundits and Islamic schol·
an have made l imita. lKIinlS. Th"y have not&(! thai. far from being I ny
ki nd of logic.l exlen.lon nf tradhlnn,llolam, the kind nf ni h ili.tlc vi.,.
lence Il1\d mvnlutlon Qd vocaloo by o...ma bin Lad~n ond oth.,. I•• kln
to , he ",wollitinn",), ulnpi.nl.m nf IIobhevbm I nd Ihe Muulon Ind Chi·
n_ mvolution •. £><cepl Ihl. t!me.lt II wrapped in Ihe im'ge,), nfon .. of
the world', 8""'1, ... cient, monOllleil lic mligionl. Ind .~ Ito 801010 are
the evel1hrow of secul,r and mode,.te traditional Mu.li m 8""emmenll
and tile eot.lbll,hmenl of an Idealized ,up""'lKIwerful caliphate ""er Ih.
em im Muolim world.
The kind of people In. acted by Ih i. m ......H". 81 "'61 Ihe ca ... wilb
Manel,m. are nOI Ihe ."I\IIIIIOOII"d ,uffering. who Ire overwhelmingly
p"""""'pioo wilh maki"ll end. meet and securing betlcr liv ... for Ihem- \
.elv,," and thel. familleo. They .." the .I i. placed, rootl .... intellectu,I.. ~

the -,uperl1unu. men- described by the 8""'1 nineteenth..:entu,), Run· I:

Ian 1I0velist Fyodor Do.t""".l:y at being Ihe drl~lng f,,"'" "r the "",olu'
!ionary movement. II
Hri, ish """'"' y .ervl... MI5 certainly Ih ..... Prince Thrld·.a_mollt t1
Their In)u,ologlcol prom.. Mve prodlClod IMI dangot'OUA. oIien""" "",. E
"lution.dOll WenJ mOre like ly In be recru ited from middl ...d .... unive... s;
. i,y backgroullm IIwl from m...n . Ium.. pi
But v ' he July 7. lOO5. au iel d" tl(IInbingo In London .howed. the ..,
Brlli.h _urity "''''I..... unlike Iheir Fmnch, RlLHlan , ... d ,......U ooun· "8
leopana, t.d.ly IInd_Il .... led the poI:enlL.1 _Ie ohIM probLem, After
lhe dl.CCh8l)' IbM lI,hlth·bom Mlllli .... of Paki,wll d..,.,nl h.-d set off
the bombilMI killed IIfty...tx P-'!'leand ...... nded ..... hundrfJd--.
the llrillsb NCUrily terVices tDIIllipJied their ..l1 .... le of Ibe Dllmber of
P-'!'Ie In lI,i,eln coopllble of coonyi"ll oul ,uch allso;Q by. fOlClOT of one
h.. ndtfil: from Ihlrty 10 IhrM tboIuand.
Prince TU,kl', _menl "",_led th •• lhe Soudlll""C"'rnent c:orroctly
underslood Ihe compl"" Ind serious nal ..... of 1ho " roblo .... Tho)' no<!<l!I-
nlzed IMI for lhe war qlinsl the ltl_lsu to be won, Ihey must Ilrot be
IIOLaIed from .he 'nl.lns~ of the 1,lamlc world.

The cycles or Arab blstory

I.ooki", I ' m. Middle E1Jtln the finI decide of the IW1Inly.llrs' cenl .. ry,
11'1_), In 1.....1... IM I I... sr- drivi", foroo tldk:lltd"lllhe";oo end
turni"llit IfI&lnst u.. 1'0'... ltlild l 'wI,.. wu Ih • ..,ll&Ion of lsi.".,. II I.
cerl.lnl), Ih' CIa, II ,b, tD.-teno,iol IUacU of Sept.mbe, II 10
. wfully IlOO.llnned. Ihli l f.natk:lle"Ii·Ameri<;an, anll, W",Iem . and ."Ii·
IIl'MIi dylllnlic _ hed through the I'9810n, .nd Ih...... tre"'. bl.m hod
become lis driving force. II UI,hl. wu an ucepllonaJ ly 1.1. d.\-elopmenl.
\YMI II ulrlordln.ry aboul Middle EI .. hi,,,,,), Ihmush tIM IIrsl th.-
qUlrten oflhe Iwenlieth century It not lhe dY1llnl1c power of IIllm bul
1.1_ _ ........1.....1.. 1 motiYlltin& forca r",!be M... llm P-'!'I. of
the Middle E.II throutb boIh world WIrS. The ...ltan.....lpho InCaallla·
lloopl....11ed upon M.... i.... af the world to ri. . . .11U1 lhe B,ltlsh
£rap .... , None of them d id. The British i..... ined lbel If tbey could pi
Shfl'ri' It .....ln of MICCI, the,uudlln of lh. moot MCree! "Iemle holy
plac:eo. WhOM line of deteenl wenl bed: In the ptophe1 Moha"",,'" him.
Mlf, on Ih.l r .Id e•• hey wuu ld be ,ble 10 pl.y lb. MUIUm Of II hld .... d
.".llUllh.Ouoman•. Thl! dldn ', work elthu.,

The only Arab I... der who Itood otrollJl and indel"'ndont through

World War I will Abdulniz ibn Saud. And while he championed a m,,",
tradi.io .... Lform of d_rt lllam ...... ppoollied only.o bl. Own
tnt-men .od 10 I"" population of thu Huju waltal roglon of A",bla "'110
h.d had .hei. fill of old Sheri f HllIHin . Ibn Sa.. d never d_med of
playlllJl.oy Ilbad holy war CArd ag.oin.' tbe Brit;lh and the F....""h. He
wan" ,bat , 'upld.
Aft ... World War I. lbe parillmentary d~mocrac i ... of Bri..!n and
France. the IUIUon. that bad won the G..... t Wa •. _moo 10 the peopl ... of
Ibe Middle Ea,llo offer Ih" besl palh 10 Ihe _ Ioration of Ihel. nallonll
Indep"nden<:e. """,,1...1 p ..... pmily. and n.tlonal dlgnily. The charbtn.llilc
example and 11Ict:el1 of Mustafa Komal Ateturk in neighbori ng lUrkey
,Ifo '''88'''led thl. wu th" way 10 SO. BUI theo, In the 1930.. th" riM of
FucllJl Italy II1d NazI GennII1y teemed 10 h .. mble Ibe ""b..... ed parlli'
mentlry democraci .... Al1Ib politlcol l.... de .. we ... far from unlqu" in
being Impnoued by lhe Fud.\f; and Ih" Nub. The mlH\lry leaden In
tn.IIDy Lalin Americo.n co .. ntri .... in jlpart. II1d even Chiana Kai •• b"k in
Ch;nI mad.lh, ... me mi••• k. . I
Co.tn.IIl Abd,,1 Nauer"....cee ... 10 defying Brhlln and ~·ranc. with c
SovIet I .. pport In Ih" 1956 Su"z crl.i. con vinced mlllloni of poopl" '.
_ . th •• eghm th.t Arab IOCllli.m modeled on Ind bKked by th" 1
Soviet Union wu lhe way 10 80. Naue.·. re~led flllu," and hllmlll.. S
lIon with Syril. in Yem" ... and rel'... tedly It Ih" h.lndo of the 11.... lil in Ol
Ihe 19601 helped dena'e Ihalldeot. StobIe Sa'lIh IOCl.1l11 reglmee weren't
...tabU,hod in Iraq Rnd Syria until 1968 and 1970, Rl'Il"""lve ly. BUllhey w
proved 1_ than attract;ve to neighboringcountn.... A,
Thl' Arab lOCillist cycle bKked by lhe $uvielf 1.,1I.d .bout Ihlrty til
y... ..-from Ihe f1Slabll.hmenl of Ibe SIll" of 1.....1 10 Ih" alart of Ihe till
lsllmlc Revol .. tlon In Iran In 1978. Since then. the mlln focli. for the fIX"

frull .... Uon., upiraUoDl .• nd .mbltlODl oflhu Arab world hu been fun· bu
damentali .. r.lami.m. Thll bun'l h.ld a ItNdy """nrd of failure 0. ,~ Hi
Tho Truth .bout ..10m

C<IM elth .... The ea.ly p .... llge of "'yalollah Khomelnl and hll followers
In Iran was denied profoundly by their reJMHIled military def... tl II tho
handl of Ihe Iraqi anny during Ihe lran-I",q Wn. AI I.... " hIIlf. millien
I... nlan SClldiers. many of Ihem iuOl I... nage .. or even young8l". died In
c ... zed and fuille luiclde aUacu. The ltcIu. 1 rlgure may even be 'ar
higher. But at the ... me time. I new gene",tion of young 1.laml.t. was
wlnnlllJl credit IlCfOII the Arab world. eopedally In tnlditionai lOCiet.l...
like Saudi ...... bi •. for their bra very and effoctiven... in fighti ng th ..
Soviet Red ... nny in ... (shaniltan. Ironically. Ih. government of P_ldent
Ronald R"'8"n Will their moot Imponantlupponer Ilnd lup pli .....
When Saddam H"H<lin conquered Kuwai t Ind for lix month, derled
the United States and III allies in 1990-1991. h" briefly anloyed Ih" kJnd
of aa:llim II I pop"l .. wlnior-h"", thlt
N....... had enjoyed in the y ..... a ft ... Suez.
But II dldn', last. Saddam will neve •• ble to
undermine or d ... tabilize "'l1Ib 8""""'menu
Whit's a wahhabil
around ,h.. NlSion t .... wly Na~ hIId man·
aged to do after Suez. Un Ibe coni,..". not
only Saudi ..... bia and Egypt. but even Syria
.. Wed to the United Stat ... to con tlin him. ~I lo .id I~ loOCiftif!. of SI.WO'\'
lb8y had (IOOd .......n to be .........J of him. So filly la. culturlll prKtkH Ind
s.ddBm·1 pan· ... l1Ib and quui·Muolim rhe!·
oric.lIke that of SCI ""'ny before him. feU rlat.
Ooama bin Lad .. n did a 101 bette. than tbat
when hil lucceu in killing tlmle thoulllld
... merlca ... In I ' ingle day. maulins tho r .. n-
r.gon .• nd d8ltroyln8 tlwl Worl d "thode Cen'
ler mlde him I populv hero KfOI.I tbe "'rab world. "'U of. ludden.
extnm>e 1.lamilm looked Ii..... I>OTO;c ouo::us. ftory .;n. Since lben . u.s.
Ilunsl'" In Iraq and Israeli miMtepoo with !be Pal8llinlllli baWl _n HIlIllU
... Ize pow .... in GRZa Ind 1.lunllt gueni llu continue 10 terrorize 1nIq.

Ttl. I'olltlcan, IIKWTKI Geldellth Itlddl. EIII

The th ...... t 1.....00 by ""t",mist Islam and It, prolifomoting group" II "err
,.....1 and shouldn't be dilMXJunted. Our plenet" lu t hundred y""" .how
... claarly that "","ceful notion, lOmedmeo d loeounl fringe nd lul"1
Ih"i. own "".11. Nobody baldeo Ihe CIIMI look .eriou,ly the oI»cU/'1l.
f..... ding. nlYolutionary .db..... n", of KArl Morx In R.... I. hefono World W....
I. But then the Sovio1 Union wa. c""'ted and the Communill fringe COn·
lrolled the larH"'l llItion on earth. In 1920. i"' .... mi ... ,wept weiland
untillbey wel'llitopped by tbe Poles in the Bailie of the Viltul. Rive.
looked.....dy to tum Germaoy Communilllnd Iheo dominale Ih" ... t of
Euro"". Similar ly. In t923 ... d for y..... 1.10•. Adolf Hitle ...... med li ke
nothing m""" th.n • INod joke to the govern ments ofthe world . includi"3
lhat ef hi' Own country. No one d,.....med he would become Ihe gmalesl
contlnenuJ conquero • • 1noo Napoleon ... d the mOIl mercil .... kilier.inoo ,
G8ngh l. Kh.n. I
Bin t.&den ·••1 Qaeda and It. related group •• houl d be 1ee0 10 Ihb a
light. Ihhey can be COrtllined. ond ihbe nllionoigoYemmenlll commi t· n
led to e....Jicatillll them Ire not undennined. the prolpeCl' for margin.l· 1<
ld"3lhem remllo ""cellenl. BUII~I . hUltlon 010 npldly chaoga. AJ il
il. Ihe gu.h . dminillnliion '. f.teful enthu.i •• m 10 • • p ..... ding Western· II
rtyle democracy U nlpidly Ind com pletely," pouible ICJ'OI.I the Middle Li
Efost wa •• rguably. hUlIlIlo II lout a. fateful III I::if(lnbower moeuln. m
N...... in 1~ or Jimmy Con e. undenninilllll .... shah in 1977. of
The bottom lin .. II that th .. Arab Middle Eal! went through two full da
polltlcal cycles efter lhe fall of lh e Otloman I(mpi/'1l. The fi ..l. lrom 1917 ou
lo ....... nd 1950. lOW il l1)' on lit-.l pIIlliamentary democracy. Wb .... th.t 00.
d idn't fit .... d when th .. main Mmi'parlilmentlry ,tat .. of EflyP!. Syril. WI
and 1""1111100 10 6.... dicale t....... l ln the 1947- 1948 war. Ihe -.nod Ihiny· co.
year cycle beg.on. Th ol w u tbe cycle of myolutionary A .. b 1OC1,lIlm Th,
backed by the Sovl.! Union. The Illamle Revolution In Inn and the ""~

Soyiel inY •• ion of Afih.niJlan PUI pooid 10 Ih.1 and launched Ihe Ihin:! . lt e
cycl ..: the period of exll'IIme 1.lomk fundamentalilm. Thi' "pptlO&M<l to mIl

n..nuth ....... t l ......

be .. ery much on thot _ I .. ntH Sept...... II. 2001 ..... Ill btn l.adttO'1
-'Iacu Ind Am.nc.·,loo" painful occupation of II'M! reiu""",led. il.

The Middl e East gets religion: 1977- 1980

II you .,..",In. tJllhot conDIcu the Middle EaII end .. red. In I.... ,ixly ,.....
lollowlna the f,JI of I.... 011.,.....11 Emplf'll, you would be Jttuck by tit. how
• ..,.11 • role f'IIUglOII pllyed. In motl of them. in only tluee.hort )'MI'I du ...
in3 the Carter I dmlnl"..tlon. Ihil ehanp<! rund'rrH'Int~lly. I nd lhe con·
Mq~nc. Int wllb ..110 Ihil dly.
FI .... In !ale 11118. lhe 1I11mk: bYoIutioa loppled. tIM ,bib In l1IIn. The
form of Shlfllll.." that A)'1IloIlah Ruhull..h Kl>omelnl cnfled.1n tit. bOUt
of his .. k1ory ... GOt rert'IOIIly """,um to trl.:l-aDd·tru...ll&IOUI pn<>
" , * , . be ~ted. II. Ub tho..-... aDd _ lomlidabJ,e ......tution·
...... thrGUlhout hillory. "homel..1 pl'O>'ed. 10 be. mul .... I I preMnll",
r.dlcally new wey •• ulually lhe very OPl""'lt. of the old on. h. daimed
10 I'1IItont. In lhe camouO"" of old . comfortlna I."....
Th. Nul. eh.mploned. the wholetOme vII ... of palriotllm .nd rem·
Ily life whll. p.. parillg genocidal w.,.. of hitherto unllltA8lnable horror.
U kewill. "homel nl turned ShI, IsI,m. fo, morelh.n. millennium Ih.
mOlt qul...:enl I nd polltleally pull'' . form of l,l.m. Into the prototype
of . Here:. new ..... olutlonlt}' linati<;iom. He claimed lhot .... ntl. of fun-
damenttJlam . bulln _Hty WII benily inOuenc.d by the _ murder·
0111 to~lltarlln ..cuIII' ldeolOS* ol ille CftIlury. TIll. would oot h....
been poulbl. If. will or COIIlpMenl pnooiMnl kid been occupyi", the
While tiouII, PnNldllll Ilmmy Carl .... dllplly«! con.llIlIl' lanononce.
COIJIp~I(:' .• nd ineptitude In n.Ii", wllb .he moun"", crbilin Iren.
The end l'1IIull wlI the worot bumm.Uon the United Su,.. bed ev ....
",pe,lenced In lhot region end III "'Pul.lon from [I'M!. 1_ than. deo::.d.
' fler " "",Ident RiCherd Nb on h.d deci ded. b. would buil d It .. p II I
majo' ,.10fl.1 p<I",e. I"d U.S. IUlJOI!Ite In the ,.10".
Th.. 1.IRmic 1t..."]U![",, WIlS ...... Jly IWillhe slart of thl"g" to con'8. In
November lIHII.• ye.r li t..... [BniM extremi.t l inden," b.cked by
I(homuini'. ",vo[utionBry g<lvemm.,n l .In""od Ih .. U.S... mba • • y in
Teluan and oeized fifty-two American. I . ...,.' 808.... They w~ ... held ClIp-
tive, ab,,-', and in many coteS tortured rOt 444 dl)"'.

Poisonous Prophet
iJYid Qutb. or.e eI tilt fOOJnCiets of modern '~illsl¥n. \Io.died in !he
5 United ~Iit~ iIId ~_ C<)INfII(td .t.meric:, WjI\ , ~ 01 depI';wed
wlualllllq.."ty. He diOO', come to ,101 conclwon ifter '!lit"" Ys 'kIiS.
Mrilaltjl\, Of los Mcetn. but 'fler iltf"drc PYotOl'lUnt chu<ch lOtiioll in
~f)'. (0101100. from I'M3 10 19SO. Qo.otb W'I ,bo "l'P'lItd by !he Amtri-
un pMUon for ~U. l'IPf'Ciilly bol:,... ¥Id 101 im. wlIich lit once
<!tK,ibfd l'I '(~tfd by Netron IQ s.usfy their ~ of noM .1Id to whet
their \f'!JlO1 dnim: He c~orwd. too, tholt ~iun!. wfle 100 rntrir;t;.,...
ibout di'olOlCf (w!Iich in Islilll ~ not , bil de.l~ He ,~ • lifflorc b¥;It-
eIot 1IinMIf.
Outb WitS !he dri • .., tOfU ol the Mull'" &r~ in the e¥1y I9SIh
MOle rldicil thin E(ypt~ pt~ G¥nII AbOeI ~UfI-....t.J wouIdn)
NIl .kohol. ¥Id whom the 8<o1htrhood t~ 10 '~""'t~..d

OIhtr ~ 1e.oe.I welt iUmlfd in J9SoI. Qutb ~I • ~
be/Iind t>;"s, whetf ~ W'Olf lit! boot Mi/n10tW<. In it lit ....ced the ",,;","wI

~k~ion oIlhu/Q (I~ Ww~ f¥ .......KUlO'd in 1966. but hi. writm,.
I'JicIPd tIw ,odM:~ ,eo;'.1 01 Sumi klom in Iiw t.t. 197O!.. wi impftod Owmo .,•
... •

The lhotb about III.",

Can.. uMni"'y IMde I"-Ctbit worM ..... t . of pttblicly downplay.

I.., II ... d lll.nclll8 hl ...... lf from il. wbil. worlJlI3 privately 10 el,her
thrMlen 1"- 1m>!.... or brina ruth .... mLl11IIy force '0 1...-0001hem. he
p-IJIdl __ ly pror:Ielmed hl. penonal ded ication 10 ptl;1I3 Ihe hnltUiAfll
freed. WTOn&ly Iml3lnl ll3 he could ride '0 ..lecllon on .suo;;esaful .....·
olulloa of lh • • 1Wr. All be d id wa bot! down the mot. powerful nRH"n
In Ihe world In.n aPP"renlly unendl"8 810b00l humill.tlon.
MunwhLla, Kllomelnl '. poI...,n.l p,....tllI" .nd thaI of hi. rovolutlon
_red ICfON Iha Middle Eut. I,'"mie fund..",nlolllm.lOOn 10 halch In
Ih' Sunnl wo, ld II .... 11. .uddenly replK«l thl dllCredlled model or
NaH' ·' 1.... IOd,Il,m and alignment witll So"lel Communl.m. Thl
'o..p, ruthl_. wIII_t.bli.hed did., ..... I1I"" of .I.,.,~ . .....d In Syria
..wi s.ddun H..-in In Inq .... DOl ~ ... Ih .... t....... aut they bed
DO Ippllli beyond thel. own borden. Khomeinl d id.
In Oeoeml.- 111711. Soviet prMldenl Leonid BI"Mhntrv poured psoUne
oa thtt aJJ.dy bumlllS fundame.ualiot fIameo. ""dina lhe Ited Army inlo
"'fBban l.lln to pI'" So,,1eI favoritl becL Into po ...... I. pmved to boo the
moth .... of , II Soviet m. .·up'.
For 1M rurs ... fHM.<II ..... ha beotn .... y to co",!"ur bul l",,,,,..ible to
bold . Th. lin ' l,h Empl .... conquered il Ih,,,,, ' i",.. bo,lw",n 1840 .nd
11120. n.. 8n. ILm. Ih.y ....de the mlotake of 'ryln,'o hold I•. 1.i,.".,lIy
... tban. handful-tew. . han Iiv ........ r tlMt 10.000 men _Ie It beck to
n.. Red ... nay luffend. very similar ..p.......,oa. They .oollCabul
Wilhln houri , and tbetribel...- ...inollh.m. H wa widely _n a .
jibed ...1",. sod- athttlota. n.. Sovieto .... n,,,..Uy ..... 15.000 dead III
...... ,ha, did much 10 dltcredlt ,lIeU "'&Imeand P"'paM tbe w.y for III
f.U. For Preslden' R...... and bis adviwn . It _med a lI ... v.n·... n'
oppo ..,."tlly 10 p"Y the Sovietl bad:: for bleedlng . he Ullltad SI.I... 00
t..dly In Villi ...... . lull a, M ..,.,... lIad",,1 ,h .. North VIe1nam_ oll.h ..
annl th"y needed. Reagan I nd hil "nerplle dll'1lCtor of Central Intelli·
gence, William Cuer. did th" ... me thing for the mujBbedln.
It wu claule Rug.on-«:tlng Ih""wd ly...,d lubtly wi lh . louch Ih.1
8ilmal'd: II hil bell oould nOI "'Iual. Rut in the Inng run Ihere wa ••
totany unanllclpaled Ind Cllulrophle "blnwboct" effGCI. Tholl5lnds of
ldealisllc young MUlw... from IU'OUIId the Middle East flocked to IUPport
the mujahedin. Whollh$ U.S .... w ... I strike . Irul Out rival fot global
power, younS Arab Muslims ... w ... I baule .In.1 ROdl_ Infidel occu·
pi..... The mujahedin t-:.me radicalized by the experience whil"settinS
In ncellenl smundl",ln modem Suerrilla warm.. One of thrun ClJl]e
from one of the wlllllthl,,"l. moot pl'llltiglous liunili... In Saudi Arabia. Hil
nlme wal ONml bin Laden.
Saudi Arabia, wllb Ib" full appmvll Of lhe Unlled SIOlet, uMod IIlI VIl$I
011 wMllb 10 fund Ihe mul-bedin. Nelthe'lI""emm"nt dmllDed ofth"
tru" nalU"" of Ihe fo..,.,. th"y w""" unl"".hi",. Iron hId IU<XeU fully
defled...,d humlll'led one of Ibe 110'0 \hennonud ..... ,uperpowe... In th"
hO(lIaJ![e crills and lived 10 leillhe lale. Now Ihe "mui" in Afghani"an
were withstonding th" Red Army, Ihe mOIl powerful military ground
fon::e on oarth,.n anoy lhal had nor known def""'l in war for mo"" lhan
oixly years.
The revolution drew blood in E8YPlln 1981 , Presldenl NauerofEgypt,
In 1966. bId hanged Sayyld Qulb, tbe visionary prophel of Ihe Sunnl
Ithwan (M ull im llrotbe,hoodj, wilh Impunity. rlft""n y..... 1ft ... Qulb
Wa' hang&d, fOldl .... In Ib, Egyptian .noy broke renkt dun",1 parede
10 "",leb..l.,tbe 1973 Yom Kipput War Ind Sunnoo down N....,t'"uc.
ceuor, Anw .. SadaL They 10' ..... mol!v.t8d by QUlb', 11....,. dl'MlDA.
Nauer'. brutal . Iale .upp..... lon of rellgloll w", Ibe norm in Ibe region.
The blowboct would hove boon OOJILllned 10 SadaI',UIIAI.inlUon-.nd
~Ib·. idea would not bav.t caushl flJ'll-if not for the bun&l... of the SovI-
eu in Afshanutan in 1979, Ind Ib. - of jimmy Cel1er in undennlning the
'hab Ind luumi",lhRI democracy woul d oUlomRIICllly.ucceed h im.
("",,,Id, nt c-p w. Bw.h. nefen.. Se!nt.lly Donald Rumoreld. and their
poUcym.~.....a. ....aI, the Mml mWili about Iraq Ifter Saddara.
quarter century later.)
Donrr OUl .... W Id_ .... on the m.ucb.
Chapter S


n II I COtlntry m.ny Amerio:an. th ink th.,. know .1I thout. but in Guess what?

E ,.]Ity lhey don't ha.... the Illghteot clu ... Tbat I. hM:au ...... r me<! ..
out t.,uhooU IJI .... uo. couple oIc1lch6o ... d then.nov. on..
• The dNI " " " -

191) ,. .olau

..... '_111....·•
The PerS\iilD Empire: Wheo Iran was good
Th'''''' thl ...... )' O " btWl or ,ew ..I..... "" the IIlbl, know. .bout Iran ....,
gIoNI lllllnl ev1

Illh,llb .. Penl ... Empl .... Cl'Mte<! z.~ rMn...., unde, Cyrut ...d o.r. • Who! hlppeM whrrI
iu. th.e ..... t. w.. IIJOOd Ihing. 11 .llowed the ""ned ,_. 10 ro1urn hon •• the u.s. lMddles In
from Btbylon ... d rebuild Ih.l, lempl. In '.N..lom . I....•• poiMkll

In the ..... nlh century. however. the Penl.n Empl.. ""U.pMd .... d Ih, AJotcllih IOIomeIlll
lind tlut II now Inn became • ShUte M..... lim domal .......... nd It h..
...",.Ined thUi for Ihh1een ...d • half c:enluri... Unllklt S.udl Arabia.
which did 001.,.1 ... uoliiAbdululz Ibn S.ud cnted h aft. w orld W.,1.
Iran hu bMn. c;:obennt ",UOO-lUlte lor man Ih ... av, hund,,", y.......
U...s. the S.... vtd dyrwty from ISO I ID 1736. ruled by _I""""'" known
_ .bah•• Pen!Io w_ one of the doztm or 10 .mpl.... thai ItJIOIljIlhem """.
trolled noarly lhe .. nU ... hum.ltl ....::e. Under 1.1.... dynutl• • ft ... the
S.or.vl.... the PenI.".n,.nltJu w.... I.... formldabl •. bul they ....Inl.lnod
Ihel r IndependenOl proudly Ihrou,glloul. They '""" OM of only I h.and ful

of net ion. in the Middle EIII and lui. to do 10 in Ihe face of the global
_weep oflhelV'*'l hillh·t...:h empi ..... of the W... tem world.

Clash of empires: U.S. ¥s. Britain

Iren wu a backwaler through Ihe nlnellHln lh CMltury. In 1903 it. cen_
lurieo of quietude ended with Ihe dllCOvery of li(!Olficanl _rv ... of " II.
Within f"", yean. the dynamic and rislonary young Wimlon OIU",hlll.
then fin" Ion:! or th. adm;nolty. had se1 up the Anglo-lAnlen Oi l Company
10 -=...... and develop Iran'. 0 11 ................ a ...Uable Itn.loglc fuel _rve
fOl hi. novy, IMn rlill lhellJ'ongNl in the world. Anglo-iranian 011 1. _till
amund tod.y. h.vlng c hans ed it. name to Brili.1t Pelrol eum (and now
lim ply BP). And Churchill', bold move, done 10 teCIl ... th, 0111 0 power
the t .."i:Jine e nSi ..... of Britain '. ",volutlonary Qu""" Elizabetl\-dua bf,t.
tleohlpI , became one of the handf.. ( of government In ltl.tiveo that .... M
turned a fal profil for Ihe tupoye •.
for the next forty y....... 1M Brili.h luPOy'" and Anglo-lranian'llh....
hold .... ma de .",mendOUI money from thei r Iran ian openotion •. lAO

Ayatollah Khomeini's 'Jhouchts on the White

, 11M I~iltd(y poit1t«l out tNt .... ~t ~I ~W intentions ¥Id iI
CJ9PO!o«IIO .... nrdi'Ioncft of kIom. ... ~ MOIl/lily of juna hII....ot tlUI its ,
OWOSiTion to tile ~H of IIWn by firm """"""H (i~ tile iIboIrtion 01 tile ~emem tNt
JudtH be Muslim iIOd rNl~ htnctforth. inn. Or-illiMI\. iIOd TIle ~ 0I1Ibm ¥Id tile Muslim! ,
~ 10 eire. 00 I ffM (Qr'lCffI'IinI .... hera nI Pft'OIl 01 tho: Muslim\.' o
",atoIlItI ..... lItI n _i00i, ~ "" MueI1l2. 196). ill Qnm. Irln
,..Ined IU poIlllclllndependenc:. and tIM Britioh pretty much Iponod
.w.....1c developman~ .. Ions" tIMy c:ould ~Iop and hlBCt the oiL
Warid War U boU ........ tr.n .. importanQl booca .... the country provided
• Mfe .nd HCUrlllnd bri<l8e ' o ferry Lend/ t.. .. IUPPU", fmm llritalo
.od A....nc.. 10 Ih' SovIet Union 10 help keep II In the WIlr .!<I&I N.u:I
Germany. When [he oh.tlll thet""". Rnoo Shob . I pouanl lurned ",Idier
[urned senCfllI who hid Him Ih'lhrooe In 1921. .howed p.... Nul.Y"'·
ptllhl.... he wu quickly Ind offici,nlly fon:ed InlO hili. HI'lOn. Milhorn·
mid lieu P.hlovl. wu "'!lbl!.hed 1.1 h.nnl .... nguft!heod. So ~ful

wu Il1In lbol the ... 111... ChON IIJ eoplul, Tehrln. for tho fin! lila Thnoot
..nunl. In 11M3 betw..,., U.s. p. .ldenl F~ln Roc».vell, llrill.h prime
mln!ll. Chun:bill. ""d SovIet diCl.1Or ....fS..Un .
Until lhellliy 10so., lranionl knew liull"""t the Uolled Stal... ""d
o;aNd 1_. and Amerkana r,lt lhe ...... wly .bout them. Thot c:honaed
duri,.. the rlt , ful P""ldeocy ofDwJabt D. EiMnhow...
Mob.amrned MOMddeq, ' conlemporary of £&ypliin p. .ldent Go ....1
"bd,1 N• ....-.nd Uk, him I romantic, Id.. UIlIc, I,fl·wlng. onU·
Wutem dem'SOIIu~ook po.... In Il1In In 19~ 1
ond n.llonlUm Ihe
1I.III.h ollindullry th_. The Brltl'h (Churchill , lronleolly. WII prime
ml n ill ..... In) we .. furlou •. but hAvln, lull IIquld l llKi thei r Indlon
en1plrl .nd t-n fon:ed out of lbe!r Plllllllln, Mandlt,. tbey w..... In no
. -Itlon to do Inytlll", aboUI It.
FIIliDa an antl· ... mari""" Iran. EiMnhow.. "VI the a ... the ween
U"'I to otpnlM I military coup tn lappl. M..addeq ond a1Ye ,ff..alve
power b.;k til Pahllvt. wboon the Britioh hid In.otIlled b.;k duri"8 World
W.. IL II worbd liked 0 chorm.
II", the n Ihe W..tem .m.. fell out. Irln ', 011 wu worth hla bucks.
rivoll.., lreq .. the holder of the _d·lugetl l'MI,..... of lhe Iluff. The
oll WII altu_lIy ."..,1bl, ""d of hl&h quality. EI.. nhower mad. 'Uft!
the U.S. 011 m.olol1l (!lit favored I>CCeII to it . Th, 8rill'h w'"' foroed out of
the prlmlry I""lIlon Ih~y had enjoyed In Iron for more thin forty yMl1I.

and Churchill. who had made il all po.. ible ...... forced 10 110'.110'" Ihe
The Brill.h ........ furio., •. b." th ...... wu nothing Ihey could do about
it. From Wuhington'l poinl of view il .1I ..... med hunky-dory. But EI... n_
hower iuod planlOO Ihe 0Ded1 for futu ... deolruction.

Uberal busybodies s park the Islamic Revolution

EI... nhower thun p.,.hed ahMd and got the you"3,hah 10lpprove Inln',
part icipalion ...·ilh I.... Thrkey. end Pakiltan;n the Oonlral Truly Orga.
niudon (CENTO). Inlended to be a Middle Ea.'em and South Alian
extonllon of NATO (I.e .. a tool for blocking the SoY lel Union from
expanding to the 1O"lh intn Ihe Middle Eul and ita oil fieldl).
Although Shah P.hlnl remai n ed pro-Weltem lhe had a lule for
beau lifulW""tem woman. Wollorn nlghlHfn. and pBrtl .. on tha Riv_
Ie,.). hls people did not. Th e hal"'" ond "",.noia lhey had felt toward
Britain for fony }...... wallhen Ihl ftoo loward the United Slat ... for lop-
p iing MOOIIddeq. Thet mighl not hive mine"'" 10 Ihe long la rm If the
Ihah h.d left ... ell enough Ilone and limply .Uowed f...... marke t fICO-
nomi"" and hi. hulging 011 reYen " aI to "",,rlUy rai ... living Itn darda.
Or if h. look uno to ....""'" hil peop le', t,.d illon_1 way,. a, Ih. far
wiser rulers ofS." dl Arabll and Kuw ai l we", doing..,..... the Gulf. But
he dld n·t.
For Iha Ih.h hid t-o in fected by other W... , em pu.lono. He Wal.
1t1le,.1. IOCI,I-", fo""lng do-goodar. Ha Imbibed the domi nant poli lical
fa.hion of Ihe lime In Hritoln and America for IOClalism. bill government.
naUonal planning. and IOCI.I engin"";ng. He called II hi. Whila Revolu-
tion. MilllOJUl of lranllllll we ... uprooted from the land and forced 11110 tIwo
lo ... nl and cili... While IMir "andard of IIvl"3 ro .... they mluod their
old, ,low-moving. cherilhed ... ay of lif•.

American liberals. 8Ipecl.lly In tb mfHiia.
loved II. and Ib, ,bab was played up", mix·
lure of Winston ChurcbllL. Fnnklln ROOHveh. At Least Somtlhinl Good
and Moth.r TIl ..... He wa.launcblng bl, own Came Out of It
New Deal and curing tb. beckward folL< of th.1r
'"J""he (,!lin 0I1he «II!'fNI'do ,,0:1 on
.. p.... lv. ttadltlotlland ..liglOtl. 11me magll-
Eine was. particularly enlhu,lutlc and wid ...
L Tdnn to I,", rlIt t.o.t~ rml.cl
"1hr 09I1on 01 u.s.~~ Optrilions
LK-Ier. Only tb, lrenlom peopll dlugrMd.
Corr'tr¥d ¥Id !he Armis I60th ~iil
Th. Ihah'l dependence on Ih, Un ited SU.'8I
Opewions AvWion Rq:imenI: 1hr "Ni&ltl
and bl, honeymoon with braelln the 19S01 ""d
19601 deluded lea<l... 1n boIhcountri. that [.. n
was inh...ntly mod, .. t., anti-A ... b. and pro-
W.tern, They couldn't have t.e.n more wrona. Anti-American and antl-
[mell popular Hntlment grew dnmallcolly In [... n during !hOM yeAn.
M"""wbU •• U.S. rt.t .....I·!h.ert IlrcrefI:. '-"Q, ""d .utomatic -JIOIlI
nowed to Ih' shah In anlll\llnding Itream, with Prelldent Nixon', bIen·
Ing. BUI withIn two years, tb. , hah b.d turned upon and bluen th. hand
tbat fed him . H'lOllled forcet with S.udl Arabi., hil nation'l historic
rlvallnd enemy on thl oth ... side of the Cull. and su pported Ktlli r abal
In impllmentilli an unp""",,",nted quadrupllll3 of the g]obAI prl ... of oil
In the winter of 1913-1974thro\l&h Ihe Orpnlutlon oftbe Petroleum
£Xportlll3 Countrl.. (OPEC). The U.S. dom8llic economy dropped .. if
polo-ned. Fal ..] an d the lbah overnlllht cauted more dam'8e 10 the
United St,t81 thin Ih' Soviet Union, Communi" China, and th, Korean
and Vietnam ...an combined.
Amulngly, futu .. p...ld,ntl would men up the [rln lituition .v.n
more. In In eerl, fOl'Uhadowllli of di .... troul U.S. policl... 01 the ...Iy
t ... enty·f\rat century. D&mOClllti<: preoident Jimmy was toO o~ i8l100
with f,,"I""IIi dem<><ney ""d humen rlfIh~ In Ittn tha, he fau.lly und ....
mIned and distracted the ,bah.
ne h lltkally 110 _ GoJ •• It tb. " toldJ. bol

Uk, .., many olh e. blgi!Ovem menl. I'IIfonn ·mlnded tlberll. befoI'll
him. Po.hlavt did nO! reatl:te that by deltroyll18 th. old tradltlon. of aocl.
ely, he w . . . looru..lroyil18lh, foundation hi. Own ,..tme _ led on, The
1D00t cOlUeTVaUv" backward (In Ihe very bett . en ... of Ihe word ). and
peaceful aoclety In the Midd le Rut was Irlnofonned and modernized.
pitched InlO _II ... motion . Iran wa. cui off from III own IlIhle paS! ,
101181 118 for II and yat ripe for rldic.oJ c;hange.
Enter Grind Ayatollah Ruhul1ah Kbome\nl. 1M Man In Black.

Ayatollah Khomelnl: The fruit of American meddling

In 1917_1978, popular prest,,_ on Iha .h.h .n d prol..l. ~ablll him
' INdily grew. Preaidenl Coner was In'Ullenllhal lhe .hah div"l hl"""l f
of m"ch of h i. power end . Iart 10 demOl7lli:te Iran. At Ihe very INlI, he
had 10 min In hi. own ellte .pec:ill fOn::el and bi. _ poli.,..
Meanwblle, Iran wu t ... nofonnad by. ,udden w.... of extreme Sblile
iJlaml.u, 1I1rred. up hy Ihe endl .... recorded MmIOfUI of an emlnenl bUI
hith_ ob.c""" cleric, one Ay.lolllh RuhuU.h Kbomeinl. already in hi'
lole .. venti.. and livil18 in exile in Pari •. Khomelnl wu becl::ed by Irln·
Ian extreme lefti. It .upported by motley .....""'" rangina from th, Soriat
KGD 10 the PII..llne Libolrliion Organlullon_lI of Ibem biUer enemi...
of the UnUed Stat.... Yet IU Con.. ......"ad 10 care .boUI WU lecturing the
.hah 10 Improva hll human rightl...:ont.
The U.S. government .,.rtaln ly d ldn 'l wanllh, Ih.h to f,ll, and if he
d id .•enln. U,S. pollcymah .. hopad Ih&1 1 I llble, democtttlc, pro-
American cOIollllon could be Ihep h. rd ad 10 power in hi' place. Thl.
fanlalY wu, . trlki"ll oontruito whit. more confident. compet enl (lA
.ervll18 I vUlly mo ... colDpeteo t p .... id.o t- Dwighl EiJeI\hower-h.d
ma n~ed 10 pull off In loppling lhe democrath:aUy alllCtad Mobammed
M<ltaddeq to ....10l'II the .b.ah 10 full power .. q"artor-<:entury befo .... It

w" al", mmarubly Ilmlll.1 to the fanla.l.. Ib.al U.S. policymak'rI On
the Nltlonal Secu rity Council and wilhlnlho 1'0nl"3on harbo~d for
Iheir f.n tllly o f a democralic and pro-American Iraq a qUIl1<>1'-C<Ontury
Carter bumbled. microllJ.lnag.,.\, ignonld , petllf"88f1<1. HId ledunod tho
.b.oh-&Dd then he 1000t I",n. The shah fell and wao fo...",.j to n"" in ,an·
"ary 1979. The ... w.. c h_ on Ihe l lrooti. Khomoini came home 10 be
"....,.ed &1 tho nalion'lg"",I""I hero. A beaming VUler Arafat new in
from lOu them I....n.non. Khomeini a imOlI never .miled , hul h.. wu all
(VIn. and bugo for the Pal""tinian rovolUlionary l...m",. Amanca'. humll·
iaUon w .. only jult baginning.
While .1I thi. will going on. Incredibly. Carior dnliv....oo far mo ..... ffort
to b,okenng. fina l pea"" I"""y bmw ... n 1. ",uJ .nd Egypt (wblch we ...
al"",dy;n. II." uf de fecto peace. and both
oounlries we ... al"",dy In Ihe U.S. oroil l.
Cuta"l ... nding In Ih .. op inion poll. Ahlnidinejad's
Iteadily declined. It dldn't halp Ihal Ihe
dl1l8on of Inn.lion. b,ieny defeated by Preli-
Fi&:htin&: Words
dent Gerald Ford. WI. riling "pin. And In "If )'011 wookll~ 10
Ihat "me f8leful )...., of 1979 Ihe OPEC fIM &ood rNllons wirtl
nation. pu.hed th rough another maolive oil lho! " . . . flilion in lho! fl.rnn, ~I~
price hike with newly ndicaJlMd I,..,. eagerly tho! """'" flilioni ""'t. ~op-oiu ~
""Pporiing [I. A. It hod done.ix y....... ""fore. Io'lni¥ll"lltion', I'Ulnrss, And bow down
Ihe U.S. lIIOOoomy ...... Ied. bei"Ofe t!\f ~~IItS, cI ~ ~.,;.., N1ion
.-.d so.orrerode<. If)'Oll don" Ke.p!. t!\f 1.-.
lin I"lllion willl"e< fOlu )'011 10 ~
Carter and the bostage crisis
On lop of aU Ihal . [nnion -" u.J~nl' ·

wera 1>I:1"811y ... volullonary paramili tary

.-.d bow down."
fore ... KUng w ilh the full IUppori of t heir on AusulllS, lOO6
gOV8fDmOnt) .t"rmed Ih. U.S. anlba .. y in
Tohran and beld fif'y.lwo diplomall and
n. "'lmClltll~cerrecl Geld. I. I~. Wlddl . Ell'

olher Americo.n cillten. ho.IIIlIe. For 444 dl,l Ihe ... America,,. were
pri..,ners. regulerl,'ortured .nd ahu.ed. Carter couldn'l gul Ihem oul.
Alone point . be IpproVed I plan for U.S. Spede l Fore.. 10 leunch 0
commllldo reId In Ihe b..n of Tebren to r1M tbem.
It wu an excepUonall, dllling. dongeroUA. Ind ..uk, concept 10 lion
with. U.S. lroofn w ..'" being ... nl lnl" Ihe h ... rt " f . ""[lilal cil, "r elghl
million people. I1mOlt.ol.1 of wbom holed them. We bid ne"", tried thl.
IOrt " f Ibing bef......
Tn meh th Ing. even wO ..... Caner micromen.ged ogoln. AI Ihe Ilfl
minute. be Iluhed the numberof heUcopt ..... for the million. For twenty
, ...... Ihe fOCI'" of U.S. mHi tlry operellon. hod been In Ihe dam p nln
fOrel~ of South&aft A.II. American force' bod done no Jerio", desert
r~ting Ii""", lh" Itllian end Nul fore. hId 'UJTen dered 10 EI ... nhOW1ll".
Plllon. Ind Bnldley In Thnilil thir1 y .. ix y ..... before. So Ihe ... nd of the
d_n tbollan>med key bellcopter mecbanl,m, and coUJOd one of Ihem
I.. cn sb come .. I .urpri .... n.. miaion wu lborted. Detai l. of it were
lOOn dlilCOvared and reVelled 10 Iha world . The U.S. nalional humI1l.·
lion Will complete.
To odd I.. Cart.... •• w.... and 10 underscore thecomplete contem pt lbol
Kremlin pollcym.a ka.. nOw hid for him, In December 1919 Soviel p ....l·
detll Leonid Bruhnev approvad Ihe lnvali .. n .nd e ffective takeove. of
Afghani.tan. In 1... lhan nIne mon lluo.lhe .blningochlevemem of Camp
o.vld (ill il lOOmed IIlhe Ume) hid been enU ..ly OV8n1h.dowed. The
U.S. ond Weotero position io the Middle East ..... mad 10 be crumbling by
the hour.

Post-revolution Iran ,•
The hlOlot)' of Ihe 1,1.",1<: RflpubHc In th. twenty. nine ,......Ince AYI' ,
\"Uah Kbomeioi ... izad power fill into four gene..1 perioW: ,

1. The . . of war Uld <XIIlfrontation

4. Tb.... ofnmewed""l1~

Khomeini wu"'"8" for war and confront.HOIl. UkelO .... ny 1....'1""1

...-olutlonarllll befun him. from RobeI!,iemlln Ihe French RevoluUon to
lenin In the Iklllluwlk Revolution. Khomelnl wu oonvlnced thaI the per_
fwc:IJon of hll revolutionary Idea and t...c:bI"81 wouLd '_pup milllont.
of people In In ItTellfllble tid,. And Ute Robelp' ..... end IAnln. he w U

for I0I0_1..1. Cart ... •• folly ... u en ea •• Uc vlc:lory over the United
5"" .., ~hlna like It h.d been _ linot N _.. dfly _I,. quel1_
conlury b.f..... lIut tbe ti d, wu about 10 c b.n .... thank.t to A1moico',
_ ....poa In tlMo Middle Eat. H~ name wu Saddam H..... ln.
In Seplembef 1980, SIoddam Inv.ded Khu_'en , en oil-rich coulli
province of Inn. H. thought I"" iranian .... olutLonary rwgIme ... u totter-
ll\ll and HI.t the lnmta,,' would fallepart. Jt wU lhe Ame mi.t,k. AdoLf
liltler had mede Wbfll h. Inv.ded Ihe Soviet Union end Nt off .....,. to
the <iNtI! with Saddam'. ~.I hero !<»erSt.lIn.
What uppwec! next Ihould Slve any IunIricanI and ....liI..,lhUJi».
tlc: ..",." In.-.d\.nt tr.n p" ..... The iranian peoplfl ...tIled behind ~

Inl . end .. han', popuL.tion _ ....... tbaa four U_ lnoq·•. all ... a few
monl'" lhe lide 1\II'1Md Md \.he lraqia wa-e ~ bIck Inlo \hItIr CXIWI\ry.
SMld.om Mflflbly ~I ~. bul ~lnJ Wat hnpllabl . ... ben
..,.,..Md. It. w" detennlned to CI'UIb the iraqi at.la and thea...--p on
..,..,..the Middle Eut. He«ll_ or thecort 10 bl. own JMOPLe. he puabed
lorw.,d. TlMn... boy •. Incl"dioS many •• YO""I at t .... lv •. went

nICnll!ed Inlo fanallcal.uIcld. a\leek "'1,,111 •. BellO''"'" kill. million .lId

• million iranians w .... Idlled In the war, and ~Ibly U Inany a,
100,000 [raq[1 dlod, Al101ll! III Khomeinl lived., any armistice or r:omp,..,.
ml ... wu o .. t of the q .....tlon and the ... icide atllOl;b Ind ma.NC ... of
innocent. con linued , The lreqillhowed no lI ... it.lion in ,,"ing pol..,n
sa-ImOOlt unknown In w~rfa ... ,inee World War l-sain.l t .... lreniaJu
and Idlled ""rhap. 100,000 iranian lO)dien with 11,
FllU.lly, in 1988, even Kho"",i n i wM Ioroed to recogn i:r.e th" inevi tahle
and accept I compmml•• CU,.f1 ... , Th.1CI 01 pea<:l-m. klns prohebly
pmV8d too much for him; he died the followi"ll)'8ll' at the ripe nld.
of e13luy·tix.

Moderation (relatively speaking) In Iran

For the next eisht y ....... Iran film_I ned very much [n the International
dasho ...... Kho",eini'. ne ...... i •. Saddom, emboldened by what he lmos'

The Roots of Persian 8elliprlnct1

"'For these rnsons.lbet eloof. , iIm bent upoo this w¥. ind , 1ft liI:""'i'<! thm--
wim umtd no I"", IdvintiCtS- Onef It1 US lIMIt this peopIt, ind !hose flfith-
bOIl d theill ... ind wor l1li11 f Jlmd tilt Ptmin Imilory is 1M IS God'I hn_
rne"'" ~ l1li will Thtn !/WIt on no lind btycnd our borden; !Of I will pm Il'Iroush £uropf from
ont md 10 tilt OIher, ind w~ h )'OUI' ~ mike of ilil tilt lind! which ~ contilln! ont CCiUIlTI)'. fof
thu!., II wNI I htM tit lrut. ilffilirl SfiloDd: tilt lliltion! whrr«lf IIIrwt spobn. oncf IwtpllW'1. tlwrt
is no city, no CCiUIlTI)' left in ill Iht world, which ..,11_turf 10 much is 10 withslMlid US In WIll. By
this eoo.rw Thtn we l1li11 br~ ,II ...."u.j I.WIdeI OUI )'IlQ, i/ikt IheM who 1ft JUilty ilIAd !host who I
" f imo<;~1 of dIOinc US WI"",," ,
rwniM kiIIa X....IH, fililrinl his people 10 illYMie ATiwnI ind SpilrU . iI\
r.porttd II)' Hft'odoM In 11w H/stotln

IDed wU ~ II bad COf\ b.ls IXIWlUy _ _ of bill ..... of dol·
Ian and ....... 100.000 U......rolJowed u...., by In....tlfll K"WlIilonly
lWO ".....1.01. and brlngI", u.. wnoth ofllHo United sell.. 011 b.ls bead..
Sadri'm" bu.m.Lllatlao and u.. rift ..... d.tJw:tIoa of b1.o.,.. army. lhe
fourtb IIfP'IIn the world 1\ u.. timto, In tha IIKII C,,!fW., w.. _1come
"ew, 10 Ih. lyelolillui rul1n.1 In TBhnn. Bul now !he U"lted Silt.. WII
IlfOn&II' In lbe region thin ever... pedally foliowl"3 the coilipee of the
Soviet Un ion Ill he end of IIMII . Th. [... nlln. Nlmllned IJOIlted ,,"til
11197. when. TlI.II .... mod . ... I•• PrMldeol Mohammld Kheleml. WII
.llCIed U pnoldenl of lbe lllamk Rap"bl.k:.
J(h.a,taml·1 two lenni of leedenhip &om 11197 10 W05",..rked 11M third
. . oftbe blrtoeyolthe islamic R.pubIIc. The United Stet........ Ioed the
lavlnclbl, ...... poWflr.aod Saddlm tbougb blUllbled. continued 10 rule
I" Boshd..t amid mill)' !DId;" repor1l of hb .. nlWMl pl"D8JUU 10
d.... lop powetful W_poDl of ....... d.. uucd..... IrInlln.-botb In the
leeden.hlp and ..nen] populalioo-w,,", ftilllerrlfl..t of the .... who
bad Inflicted 10 mIlCh .utJeri"3 on them. 10 irlnl ... leedenconlloued 10
I.... d uTlfully between Bl,8hdld Ind Wllhl"3lon. They pngerly
Improved Ih,lr d lplonutlc Ind lrad. Ii.. wltb Ihe nilloni of A.I I Ind
W..llm europe. China .nd india both bad srowt... d.",.."d. for th.lr oil.
And KMt.amJ """" 1OII&h1 10 mend hb country'. Iong.deluoyed Ii.. with
lhe United Stet... He offered 10 both the OlnlOll and Bu.h edmlnlsl"',
Ilona 10 ICrlp IrIn', nucl .... P......... In T111,U1I for I IUI",nl.. that I....
Unlled Stet.. would I'IoCOI"Iu the lal....1c Republic and _poet III lOY .
With lhe beIIefll of bincbi&hl. Ibe d ..1 could be ... w",led. It wD<lld
ha... been oubjec:t 10 verif\c:Mioo.. Pr.id""l Georae W. Buah would.....,·
I.... lly ...... 10 I fat monllm.llMl and prob)enwk: ... _".nl with North
Ko ... on .... ulct .... Itl nuel•• ~elopmoml.
Such I dIM) woul d hlv. been of cruelll benefilio linei. In the flnt

~ of the Iwenly·1Int century. It became eI.... lhal the [nnl ... nuel ....
program posed probably the gravost threol 10 the existence of the Jewilh
Iiale l ince!ll aeolion. Bul ironIcI.l ly. pro-Ilntel adivllil in Washington
we ... Ihe 10UMIIn u>gins H. ",;..:tlon. KhllJunl hod humbled lit. COun·
Iry ond bessed for~. but wu Mnl '~y from the I,ble.

Democracy's blUer girt: Mahmoud Ahmadloejad

Unlbl. 10 d.H .... c Impcoved II. wIth lb. United Sill•. [",nlln vole"
look, new dIrection In 2005. elocll lljlj I p..... ldenl fond of I mock lurtle-
neck ond bl.Uf. Mahmoud Ahm.dlneied broo.s.h1ln the fourth ... of th.
islamic Republic' ",n.wed helllge",nce and confr.onlltlon with Ihe
Uniled 511181 Ind 1.,...,1.
Ourlng Khallmr. elghl yean ... preoldenl of I,..". Ih, u,,,"1 hebbHn8
pundl" .nd Il1IlChllr .tnolegl." In the United 5111.. endl_Iy _rted
lluil il did not ItI.IUer who wu ch ief eJlIOCUU"" of I,.." and thaI .11 1,.."i. n
I..den wer. _ lIy Idenllal hvd·Une a:cb_vm.ln.s who should never he
Bul when Allm.dinejad "'placed Khol.mi. It lOOn became eI.., Ihat
who the I..del" wu m, uered. ~I d..l. Ahnuodlnejad wu open In b;'
determination 10 d .... elop Duel ..... W Nporu and .... dy 10 defy Ihe whole
world If nece .... ry. He toughl to delOfjiUmiu Ilful·, exillenee Ind

bouled .boul obHle"tlng II In 1'lI3uage not beard . Inee lhe hoydayo of
and Saddam. lie pursed the iranian sovemmeni of ... llIive mod·
erate' .nd put hi. ha,d-Hne .1Ii.. Into .very key naUon.1 _urily Ind
military posl he could. H, al!lO mlde no _ of b1. pas,lo""le loyalty
10 the vanlilled Twelfth Imam of Shlhelolam. MId ..... n orde.-.d mlnul ..
of every [,..nlan ahlnet meot1na to he dropped down the well whe ... the
Twelfth Imam wu ..id 10 hive v... loh8<l..
Ahrnadinejad WII Ibl, 10 881 IWlY with thll outnogeou. behlvior
because ooe enormou. ml_lculatlon had ",vened lwenty-fou. Y"" of

contlnuol mllLtary dereal. mu.ln cuuaJ tl... diplomatic ltollllon .... d
~"Iegle lear. the Unhed SII"'. hid Invaded Inoq .nd loppled Saddam
lluuein In 2003. By doi"8'" the Bush .dmlnlltnllion IbI.".. ' " both eM-
mi. Ihe ,y.lollahl mool f....-ed II • li"llie lirok-saddam ud lhe
Unhed SUI_ hMlf.
For In lhe ,...... rollowins the loppli", of $odd,m . the 130.000 10
180.000 U.S. lroopo In Inoq were lied dnwn. lufferl"ll .low bullt ... dy
CQu.lll_ from S""nl M., l lIm Im"flJMlS. Following Ihelml'lMriMll.llion
or new 11"""8I~1 by Gen@nl(}ovidPol .....,lln 2007. whleb lOugbl lo
ooopon" with .~lltlng locol Sunol IN<l... hlplln An .... I'rowln.:.. Ih,
Su onllnl u'l"ncy Ii loll began 10 run oUl or I'.m. BUI by Ihen .•11 or
IOUlbem Iraq w.. run by local Shiite miUtlulympalhetlc 10 and becked
by u.n. • "d Ih' Shli l&-<lomi".,ed sowemme"l of PrIme Mini"... Nouri
ol.Mollld In "'&It.... w.. -kiD& worm I;" with Tell ...... I I well.
far from boI..... 1h....t 10 lnuo by bori,.buod dco-.
10 ,l1rortIuly.-t
the U.s. pouPd b . - In Inq , with thelroommunlcollonlo 11,..10 K"woIt
and lhe Gulf runnlfll,hmugh Shii\l mlllti....:onimllod lomilOry. w ......
Increuln&lY'1 the men:y of Sblile SfOUpllympelbetk: 10 Inn. No woo·
d... Ahmadlne\o.d WNIO bold and conlld@nl.
The U.S . Invllion and oox:upotioo of Ir.q Ihenron...........oo • highly
luceenfu] proceo. of Ittrition. ",hlul llon. an d conl.lnme nl Ihll h.d
IiIndl<;ap.,.d Ih, l,l.",le Kevnlullon In I.... n lor u.. pnovIoUl lw@nly.rour
)'811"&. N_Wlloonlan ILt-.J IIIlion·bulldl.,. bod f.lled y..t ...In .

Iran on borrowed lime

BUI by 2008 Ih .... WU UIOther r.:tor driwlfllihe hvtl.iIIlO mono hard·
liM pollcloo: lhe 111om1c Republic w.. runnl", <MIl of oll-..d ' ....... r....
oull>ftim • .
I...... ·' 011 field, hid ~n d"",lnped .tll.,. .nd more v\tOt"O",ly lhon
I....... of .ny Gulf n.Uon. They wen en''1,U<;alLy pumping 011 for IIi@
Anglo· l .. nl.n 011 Comp.ny end Brlleln'l Royll N.wy for twenly,....n

bef..... Ibn Saud even ligned hil e poch"lllfl.l""'mem with St""dard Oil of
C.lifornl" 10 "ulhori,... Ihe pl'OIpecting Ihal led 10 Ihe diocove'1' of Saudi
A ... bl"·11'M1 Dhah ... n olllleldi. By Ihe M rly y.... ," of the twenly.fil'll
cenlu'1', Ihe [... nianl w,,'" already Importing n81ural g.u In pump p_.
101... Intn their dep leled field •. r .. from Ih ....lenlng In becnme •• wlng
producer. It will cI ..... that .ft... " few mono y<MIl'I of ~k production. 1I1In
wnuld be lucky 10 be. dangling producer. holding onlO IU m.,ket shu<!
in OPEC by the oldn of iu t_h.
[f Iran'l oil ............. had ' - " d i.."lVered Bnd developed in Ihe 19JOo.
lib Saudi ...... bl.·•. th"" tooey Ihe b l.mlc Republic would Jlill be Iltting
pmtty. enjooyilljj enormow firww:ial. ""d mine ... l .-...r.- for d8Clde. 10
come. bul Winoton o,un:hill'.ene'1!Y and vi.ion in getting the oil pump-
InS by World W., I m$Al\t Ihet by 200111he .y.loll."" went livin3 on bor.
rowoo lime. That meant t ....y had 10 pooh for maximum globoJ priceo in
the OPEC corlel to ~ the """,,Imum profiu Ihey could from their remain-
inS oil. And il m$Al\t they had. f.. o,ora preuing motive to try to ..,iUl
the I till enormoul oil..,..".,.. oflraq..,d Saudi Arabi" fo r thelIlHlv81 by
exporting Ihe Jllamtc Revolution to them lf thll)' 801 lhe chance. NNrly .
cenlwy aft .... he made the d .... l. O!urch ill 'l epochal Angl ... lranw. oil """.
tura wu . till drivinS daliny in Ih. Middl. Eut.

Chip'" ,


O. th. fI ..1 qUllter-century of it. extstence, the State of 1......1 WII Guess what?

F locked in I con tinu.1 Slrosgt. for , UNI".I "lI-linlt III hOlHle Arab
neighbon. In twenty.fi"" y....... 1.....1 fought five m.jor war"'_'llld
Won.n of lhem. How di d the J.... elil do It?
• bnd'. ~rutnl
geMnII ..,ned key
tactlUl lnsom 'ro",
1M Bible and from
t."",I ....... '" oft .... told. LI either I puppet Itel_ the puppet malt_
of the Untied Stat.... and demol;.bed it. Mb neighbon on Ihe ""'ngth of POl1m' 9"~1
an American-crelltoo military l uperiority.
• F~ne.. 0(1\ Ihe
You uMd to h.., thl' only from A.. t.. bm the myth .... now_pad UnllOd SUta, _
Illto the writings of anti· Zioni.t jewilh In, elleclual. and Amori""n I,ft · Isner. best friend
winy polem idlt.. Any evtdenot--end th_l&. IOfof lI-th.1 dil pro". for lbe nrsl !wonly
their thaill •• upp..aed or .Imply tgn.ored. Th. I._II. won thelt WI"
hecluse Ihey hod l<>-IInd Ih,l. mtlll..,. thl nktng Ind execul;n" wu of --
, " " of lIS

• Gold" IItlr _ I

... _'"
Iho high ...1 ""tihoo •.
bo.mgllDoj poU\JcIin

do$Iroyed her own

Death almost at birth aruntry In lho 1913
15..... 1·. fint war we. by far lb. wo .. t When th. I...... U' drovelh, Bril;'h Vo .. Klppu' Wu.
"ut In 11147. Ihey foolilbly thought th"ir troubles w.... nVet. They w....
now an Independont country. BUllhe Briti.b II..!. been th,l. protecl".....
well II occuple.. of p.l... line. H.ppy to be rid of that. troublesome
UnIted Netl""" mand.te In P, lllltlne. Ihe flriU. h were confident that the

/\rab Legion ofTno",jo<d.,,- fOrall...!, "'luipped, t",lned, .nd offiCM1ld
by the Brilish-would dMlroy the Jewl. h Itala al birth. They .110
.""mOO that Iba remainl~ Jews wnuld bacnme dhlmmi-= .. 101e",100
minority Infurio. In polilical, human. end ,ellglo,," .Ighe.,o Ihe M".lim
rnojority. Fiel d M..... hal Bernard Montgomary. the great<l5t Brit15h World
W.,. II genenl. w" chlefoflha Imperial Genenl Sieff al the tlma. and thl.
w •• hil view.
11 d idn', work out that way. The A",bo laWlCt.od a multi·pronsod attad
on 10"",1. Mlllt Impor1ant. perhaps, w" when the Areh Legion ~ Ihe
Jordan River. 11 w.. welcomoo by rapturous crowds In the hill I'8810nl
nonh and south of Ja"'Nlem [now known .. the w...t Bank). In )crm.o_
18m, it w . . . different ItOt)'. The Legion co"ldn', make .. direct move
as.in.t tha Of8IIniUK! Jewish majority in W..., Jerm.olem. but did, receive
IUpport from tha A",b majority Inlo th •• ndent Old City, whleh iJ ,ur_
round...! by a formidable, 'furklab·bulh wall nearly four hundred Y""'"
old. The Jewi.h Quarter of the Old City w.. '-iege<!. and tbfI jewi.h para-
mililary groupo In W..I jeruNI8m couldn',

:L, :.> A Book You'.. Not
b .... k throtlgh to relieve l!>em.
El ...where . the mein th .....! to the

I Supposed to Read I,,,,,,n. came from Pal.. tinian Arab i""8'

ul.", lad by Abd .I-Qa.dlr ,].Huuelnl.
Thomu ( im\in .ou no kMI of litH! or tM nephew of Haj Aminal·Huuelni. lha pro-
ll<n11S, whitII!NkH hi! boocr~ AnJfar: Nul mu fti of the P.lellinian M".IIIm.
1hr A.b'IlnJ ~ MyItI (fWw YOO: W. w. Li ke all S""'t military ]""der" Abd al·
Notton.I976) . 11 1M molt cit'wtilili1&- Qod ir lrnew tile .InIng,bl and w..n., ........
~....,.. "'ifit'11NIl)' (ind UlUilly of the P"""nl irresu1.", ha led. He knew
f....-.rcJ biosr~ KitI ...... qutlliooed thlt while brave. feroclo .....nd del .....
m. oIflCitl \IffsionI ~1c~ly and 0Jt mined to fight for tbelr homel.nd. they
~,"!~.~"ir .. ~ people who I>id lact ed military difCiplina and could not
Ia-. """'i! ill I boy. be orsanlzod to carry o .. t .mbltl""., com-
plex mlli ' .ry operationl. He knew that
u..,. abo Iacbd. u.. t....... _pont WI .....U boN bM:I, thanb 10 the
!onIl&lu olluMl.. DI>'Id 8eft-.Gurion. who bM:Illockpl*l...d! _pons
knowtnt that .ud! • w.. w.. InevltabI.. Abd .1~,lIr ...Hud thai hi•
.-ant \mIsU .... wen.t their belt In cutt1na off u..land communM:.
doni that w.... thclleWi' _ "",lnenble point.
Tb. wllldina. twlJtlna. ocm:Uc....d lip 10 ).,....I. m ooon lMcam. , ...
• tn1'llc pl. of Ih . ... .. The p.lealln l",. CUI off the 100.000 je..1 In
..,.....1.'" from nol Aviv .nd flfIll OMllemomll.round tbecounlry._·
Ina the .... ppl)' Une. The Infant jewlah provl.lono.llJ<>"""lffi"t In Ta\Avlv
hullJ)' o .....lud tnlkeahll'llfIllond """,voy' (riv .. l", ImKW pIli. on
U\Id<I) 10 _ uppl)' }IruNlem.
1111 OII\01ll1ea ..en blah. In • .........u~ Mud! 11KH • .-:I\ s1 .... n In
WMhl"l'OIIIo theI American brMl PubUc AfJUn Conunln... 1'- w..1L
prima mloilt.. YlWllk RIbIn "hidly "-:rIbed 1M .,....... of hll dfl"l
JUII"I PaIINd> &I ...d.---mIle ami female ... Idl ... burnt .11.... In the
tnICb thai hid been.mbu.dled while cnwU", ... p 10 ..,.....Iem.

The tide turns

Event ... U)'. 'e..lIh oommanden.lncludlll8 ylt:r.hc!k Rabin. denllded other
fronll to brlnJ. fonnldlbl. force 10 clear the bill. on .lth...Ide of the
....d 10 ""'MI_ TlM Il&htina ..M ferociouI. TlM key hcIltbtl .tJoye c..
tel c:IwIfIed hando .......1 lima. Bllt dllcl pllne ... d moUv.llon .....
mud! hlJbllt 1mO"I 1M ..... U .nidi... theln 1M ...1_1""'" Anb _ .
Mlny of 1M Al'Il» ...., ........ 10 their 1'ImI1_ wlthoul Iaillna """lor offI·
- . An IIIGI'MIIntly apenl. Abd tl-Qo.dlr .... killed 1\ the fronL Hill
d..lb ..... d ..... "t1'" blow 10 the P.I..tlniln., .. ho ....... ""Vllt h.d
.....u- IMder to ..... tch bim for milituy Iklll ...d cl>ar\......
M...... hn •. ,.wI.b ""11, menll held nlf II... numbe .. of ..... b mill·
!lry fol'Olll. botb conv,ntlonal . nd Irresll iit. Surprl.lngly. lhe Arab
IfIIllu d"bd from the Fertile er.cent wd openUII8 from S)'rI. hid I

negligible impKt on the WIl. in fact. the p"rformanoe of the i.-.q!. Syr.
ian. and Egyptian vml_. aU of them conoc:riptod. peuanl fore ... that had
been ml..... bl y t ..inod.. equipped , and Iod. ...."," very di ... ppolnUng. Only
the prof""'on.1 A..b !.eg'on o fTnn. jordan acqui tted it... lf well . Nol
only d id the LegIon conquer and hold the We.t flank (a walk-oyer].nd
Jecu ...!em (a comlde .. bl. achleyement In term. of th, fierce f1ghtlnJ
th_ l, built alfO he ld the key fo<1 .... of LAI"",n. a monut"'Y lookingoul
OVM rolHna wb .... t field, In the Judean hlliJ. The 1....11 fo,,*, foughl and
lOll th .... I>otd81 tryina to take LAtrun. Dr.v1d Ben-Gurlon and hll fll too
lnfluenllal Amer/c.n . d "l,or, Mic key M• ...::u.. ... ere ObHUed wilh It.
Hundred. of young 4raelifOidiers died Ihere fo. no .u.leglc purpoMl.
oy the end of Ihe ... ar. large IUPPU", of "'... ponl primarily from an
Iltm deal wjth~OIloy.kj. w""'Jlvlna thels...n f_superior Ii..
power and moblilly at long Iae\. Ylpel A1lon. the oulltandlng Israell com·
I>ol ll"neni of the "'"' .• wepl inlo the Negev and oecUJ1Kl [1 .....1·. claim 10
It. He outmaneuyered and tnpped, large Egyptian force .nd WIS hl 1
pooitlon loconquer Ihe Si nal Penh,. ula a, well. The Anb f1at8l.ued for
an annllUoe, and 1115tins One ... u fi nally concluded on Ih. C.... k Iliand
of Rhod... In 1949.
The war ended in victory for the new Ilate of urae!. bul the coot wu
enon'JlOUlly high. Of the populaUon of !he infant lIal......&XI.ooo Indudi"ll
men. women , and chlldren-«""e 6.000 died In the Wit.• full I pen:ent.
In the Iwenty-fint..,.nlury Uniled SI.II8I. that would boo the equivalent of
• war In which three mHllon fH'Ople died.

Who's a Palestinian?
If you u ked anyolltl in Pal...tin_Arab or Jew-from 1920 to 1947. "Who
, ... Ihe Pal...ti nien.!" Ibe Inl"'8.... oul d boo unequiyoc:o.l: Pal8ltin lanl
w""' Jewl. not Anbo. The quickly growlns ,. wlab community in PI I.
Une during thll lime alwl)'l deocrlhed IIMU u Po/minion. Th l, u'""8e
The ...... 11·Arob w.,.

',,' ........... ' .......... .

~......... ~'~".' -:<~;;;.':-' ' .... ,":'.~:-, ~7'.'"':".':-'.';
~ ---- -- ~

.. ~~..,.,-,~ ~outi'llllll'(lryd~ __ thr

F ~ forty '""' and _ d the oNt ~ F 10 GrIt ..... 1tOd,
I(QIWlIIIII' M.I)'OO' Win d,"""",,",,, HI- bto:..-.: fII¥)r i'l196S, '"" .,
iI~ dlsl~ poIitiaI CMftI'. MOlt' II1II' 1967 _1hM lI'IiI@dthecity,

~ WlII dMcIed hkt ~i\ loot'otli'iH ~ !.OIdilol 0Md _1tId chiI·

drtIi In the pCIQ' I!.rMlI ,wJtlibooloood, (INdr '41 of ~ j@wst.i!tdfrom

Alib COUlIrIo!!) far lIoIfI: ptKta--and they 1I'00I10 kill The)oldinllnl far·
bade I!.rMII ~ fn:wn CJOISir1: into II1II' Old City (If 'rilil0I\I ~ cr- Oi'i
lilt McunI of 0Ii0e.. Samt Mb5 0Md lilt iI'iOMIplWllonft alOilft INtI.
lilt II1II' !oa-o., Wit ~ the or,. -01\1 ROi'i III-'i Ifm'II..
I:aIrio ~)fruIMn with ~ fn:wn _1okIiIII ccn:", hAIl!. thr-
lien. pMb. and -... ~ IMrir'II!:I. HI- _ tilt ClftlnI IUIdef in
Jen.uIem\ h,,,ory WlCt ~ SoIamon and HoIOd the GIftI"l)oI. chtm.1w
_ "II 'Y'IIOI or ., fICli'NIi"WC. but mtrt'IywwO!d I bNu\ifui. pN«foA cl1y;

mod!ltd iI bit Oi'i hi!. nil.... and beIowed V"oertOiI" 10 lilt poInI of ..,...,~C
.ltMil1em .. ~h Rower diIpIrys. HI- illlO '"iIS drtermlned 10 p<lM! IIIiIT I\IH'I
--.old bt., ope!l and fM CUltodiin d Owiltliln and Mull" hDI1 pIKe. Lh
the old MlrIin "'"9ft fn:wn whIcIo he !p"iIf"C. he hoooooed Ihr idN of Ihr
moIoIOC and ccuId bt.., II f"o'tI')' cNbmIon (If fel"'. of Ihr d!y\ III)'Nd
me- and tttri: commo:.m.OH. HI- obsessed _ thr linint cletilih d his
meti\"....k KoIItk Will touch Oi'i ..... and order"....<OWC\td dt~ and
INIIIIMned iI hIah leoti d p.IbIoc: ~ cIl1lcl4.CIn INtIre upn!I
~iOIII ill hosjliuh iII'd Idoooh 10 Iottp thr bureiutrJtl Oi'i ~ 10ft.
.IeMiI1ftn ...,In ~., ilSlcrisIWc hMn fA ptlCf for ItWty-Ihret
'""' !.I!I~ 1M I«OIId I'1letriin intifldl btpI in filII XIOO. woen )'I!MI
ifl" loll" hid left the Il\I0)'0I", off"oc:t" Ont tiIIi"1 help but tNnI: IhI!
.ItMiIltm" l'1Ielinliln NJb! dGl"' WKLillf how rood !toe)' hid ~"
T1uo ""UIeIII, I..arrect Geld. t. tb. II:lddl. £I0Il1.

wu rlill recognlZlld In '960 whom the hil movie U OOII. wu modft. Pal ... •
Ii"ian Arabi invariably mfel"Tfloti 10 'hemselv ... u Arut..
The war of'947-1948'o eliminate the Iewlsh OII'e "' blrlh wu foughl
by lhe Pal ... Un l. n Arah communlly nOI .. PIIlellinU",. bul .. Arab.. A
dl .. inct Pal ...lini_" Arab Identi ly mnolnly emerged.,. reaclion 10 the
tnaQive jewlu. Immigoalion Inlo Pa l... tI ..... bul il wu nOla mlll8nnll~ld
aHachmenl 10 Ihe COUI\IJ)' or the name.
Paleetinlon identilychanged dramatically dl1rin3lhe 1950s. The P. I.....
\inion Jew. who had ca lled Iherruoel_ I'o11<51;n;"lI. for ......ly tbJny y.....
now dropped 'hal label and called themNlvee luuell. inll ... d . MNn·
while. the bundnl<h of IhOUMlld. of Pal""Union mfugeeo db pL",*, by the
war we ... bouilld up In mIN,.b le ... fugee ca mpo. p,imarily In Egypt.
controlled c. ... Ihe West Ban t . and to a Ie,", deg>" In Mu lhern
~on. The 80vernmunll of £gyp!. Jordan .•"d t.abanon did not wanl
10 rilt d ...tabiliring Ihelr fOCleU ... by glvin81he "'(uS- fu ll cltize".hlp.
ond to ,h_ Arabi had no home bu t the mfugee CI.IlIp$-whlch, Lnt_l-

W Il«I U'!>. pmiIifnt 8il1 dinton embrKed P\.O (Nimlin YH!.tf

ArMot on ~ White HooH llwn in Septernbfll9\ll w!ltn !tit 0.10
f'fKe A«ooIs -1iIned. did ~ know. Of ~. tNt ..... M.. Nd pmoNlty
orde-red lhe "KIllion of U5. amb.HWoIb" C~ Not! in J9711
We know thn ~ the CIA, whod1 N<t!., )'tt bftro ","ed by /ltnn1)'
C.'tI. '''is lolflIlinc ArIII!"1 phono .cd m:orded him I'vFc !tit ordtr. Prei·
dtl\I RkNrd Ni.lOn·1 rHCIion WlI. to ...tty in(fene (ooptrJIlon bt~
the OA itld lilt! 11I"~1 MoUld 10 f'!ht ,..lfSI ...... If<rorl!m.
lnaly. p..,..ldId "01111""1 ed uCOOlion for the youth. n.. well.funded
Ullhed N.II"". Reli.f end WOfU ArDCJ ....Int.lned lhe _ I .--lble
bNlc ..enderdl of'-llh care In u..- <:aIDpt'. GondltLnnI wen .:IuaUy
belt ... lh.n endu.....! by the runl ~uy In Syri. and !:Crpt unlillhe
19so. . nd .ft..... And wil"ln I decade the Pal .... inlan A.....
beirne Ib,
beol...tucooled etbnlc group in the ArIob world. If lb, Un ited N.llon. of
Ibe 19M11i w." lhe benilln hnd of poJIWI. W... lem ImperlllLom. the
1'.I... tlnl." A.. bo benefiled "'"tly from III emphatl, Oil Improvlll3 ed,,·
COtlOllIlId heallh can.
Dy the mId 10 I.te 19601. wMIlby nation. Uk. Slmdl Anbll and Ib,
Gulf 011 ...1........... Importl.nc I.,... 01 tbouIIn<k of Palealnlanl for ",Illad
1Ibor. ....:b " Ieechl",. plumbi .... electrto::el ..... In'_ ........ and OI\3i ......·
I.... The ".I_lnlan AIIbt became the "am..!o" upper work!. . dut and
profeulonal middle clut of the ArIob world. Bul "Ill. the vat .... jorily
of them c:onUn...ed 10 faa... in the """pt'.
The old ........... UOni of Pal_inLan ABbI who hid f<ltJlblthe ZIon·
III 101""".1... and fVOwlnll Jewi. .. ... n lemenl 10 lonll ibrougboul Ibe
Brill . .. Mind... period hid ' - " overwbe lml",l)' ru,,1 peuanll. EvlO
wblle Ih' oy ..... lI l l. nd.rd o f liYinll In P,I"'llne .nd oppoo1unlll ... for
mo.., pl'OIperou.ll yet In lownlilid dUM gre .... durins Drillill ru le. Ibe
n....,.1CIfII .... of Op~!UOII to Ihe I_lob "'!lIIm",,1erupled 111 rwKIion
10 \egIolZlonllt Jew1'" oopnbJllions purchuhtll ulUllly ..In,,,,,l), low.
p e Lend. like I'" . w.... pt' of !he ",,.....,1 V.lley Of on lhe coati." the
.... ill CIfII.... for buJld.i.,. k!bbul:rim [collectl... firm.) and othet Mltl..
menr.. Thul Arab oppolillon IIMDJD.t from the peNADtry.1Dd lool: the
form oI ... I.U .... I)' "n<lom .ttKU opinst IewIab dvlltan. tn .... lI.,. alone
or caughl II vulnenble mo","",l$..
11111 ",lIem continued. though in mucb Inlemlf\ed form . In lhe Ilnl
....,.... Uon of IIUerr!II •• uocU dun", the 19su.. AI n .. t. the lnfanl l..... U
. mlY pruved lneffllClu.l.t deu...i ", 01' _pGIIdln8 10 theM .UocU•• lId
w", u n,bl" 10 knock oul the boo... they came from. Du.lnll hi. cruel_I

n. Pomlcloll' lec..... ct Geld. II Ibl Middl e £alit

y...... u lhe I.,nli ermy chlehf staff (l9~J 10 19 ~7). WeuI"n.nl Cenenol
MDOhII Dayan reshaped the mililary 10 combol such aU""u . In 1956. in
COOrd iR8lion witb Ibe AnsJo- F... nch mov. agaIn •• F.f!yp". 111. .1 ... Iion_
alization of the Suez Canal. [,rael Mhed the Gua Strip and Slnll tn
.... pon ... to crou·border tMmri,m and Egypt's dosing of the Sue... Cuul
10 [..... Ii . hippilljl. Afte, thai campa ign Rnd Ibe dem ilituiulion of the
Sin.l Penin,u l•. guerrilla auacu we,e dramatically reduced Ind .b,
Pa l... tinian Anlb gu.",.illa movement appeared to be over.
That c hanged In 1964 when a young Pal ... tinian Arab ... Ieted to
Hille,'. old . Il y. Haj Amln .l- Hu .... ln!. created tbe ~'•• ah O'llanl:utlon.
He wou ld lale, m8ke it the domi nant faction nfthe P. I... 'ine Liberation
Oraanl ...!!on. Hi. ruome wi. Y.. _ A",r" . A... fat·. fint tactical victory
in 1964 was • purnly yerbol one, but in.pire<i. He appropriated 'he name
PaI... Unjol>-wh ich h.d!Men UMdexclu,iYely by Pal ... 'inian Jew_fo,
th. PII.,.tlnlan A... b poople. Jt has heen uchulvely .pplied and uoed In
thi' wly ever ,tnca.
AdopUng .he term Polttl/injon ,barpened and l"IIitimized Ihe nat u ...
of 'he I'al ... tinl ... Arab o pposition '0 Ihe very ul"ence of 'h. Sla.e of
lfnIel. It .100 oerved 10 , hroud t .... _nlw underlyinll ... Iiglou, ""d axl,.
tenil.1 nature of the con mct. It wa. cert.lnly true Ib.t tb. P.I""Unla ..
Arab people from Ih. very beginning overwhelmingly oppoMd. lb. Jew-
tlh return to the anceotraJ Land ofbolh peoplM.
The 1948 1,,,,,,. lon ofP.IMtine by the Arab anni .. was ... p ....... llted 10
the WMI a.1 cam""I,,, '0 ,.....,ue P&I""I;nl&n Anr,," from Jew;.h oPP"'-
son. III Arab countrieo it WI. preo.lllted un"m blsuou.ly .. & war '0
d""troy Ihe Zlonl. 1 . I&to. In Ih. WMI. Arafal downpl.yed the underl y-
IIIjI ... ligi ...u and potent ially genocidal upee .. ur bl. an.I·Zlonl .. cam·
""igo. If Iho PaI Blli"i.n Arabo we ... Ihe P.leotlnl all peopl • . ,hell they
were obvloully eligibl e for natioll81 'ighlsnf ~ ... lf·delo""in"tioll.~ AI
varlou. We.tern·built empireo crumbled . Ihe United Nation. and the

Uall'" Stlt... botb prof......! to .uppDl1 ... Uonll " ..Jf-dotennln.otloo"
around tbe sJobe.
I!edefInl..,!he ..... I>-bnell otruaIJ.kIM I nillonal conOid .......... twa
diff... nt nltlonlli..... changed the debooto from MIl.lIm..... JeWL It
became dlplomallcally respectlble. It put lhe I'1.D and ~'Iteh flnnly in the
ClOmp " I countl..,.. other n.otionellibentlon m<MI11Ien'" .uppo<led by left·
II", In tho Ubenll democntic W...L It .1", h...J the con.lde.. ble edVl.llug<l
a f IMina trlLe I, ",., It W,",I.
The.. h. d been na p.I ... Ilnlln Arab nltlanlli.m dun.., Iholonl cen·
turi ... of th Ottoman Empl ... aul Ihe <:ondltla ... of llvlnaunder a riU.b
rule I fl.r World W.,.1. whllo I n_ Jewllh ...110...1 ....:lety WM beinl
built up II brMkned """" ....... nd Ihem. h.ed _Inly sI- the P, I•.
tinien AnIbIo vet)' dllfereol uperience from lbel oIpeop"'ln any 0Iber
pert oHhe Arab world. And the ex,-i1DOl of lhe hund .... of tt.ou.nds
wbo Red lbelr bam.. or w.... expelled by ",. .II Ion:eI in tbe I Q-Ie w.,.
Lnto the ml ..... bL • ..,fusee cam~. with their bUamI bul llJnlRcant com-
bLn.otlon of """,lIenl b.lle ....11h care .• uperil edUl;lltlon. Ind otherwl..
IWfll1 cond ltlon •• mad, tbet nlUo",1 experienoe more dl, ' lnCllve 11111. If
'he Pllutl ola" .....h I*-'ple were nOl' cohellve nlllonal sroup In 1948.
they oertllnly W<!f1I twenty YIIf'IIRte •.

The real Vasser Ararat

y........... fll domloll\ed Ihe rll.linlan nillonil movement lor forty
yare. w]Ib din .... ulu lor his owa people. in many Important .... pocU.
be WM not II ,II wbet he IPpeared to be.
ArlI.t cl.lmed 10 have '-" born ill }eruAlem. bul W. Klually horn
In J:.aypt .nd ,",W up In Gnl. II. PI'MIDtad Ih' Pl.O u . fuhlOlllhly
M."dlt.....:lell.t ...... olutlonary mOV'MIlelll_1tancI thet won hIm I qu ...·
ler-conlury of )oy.1 ,up port from tho Kremlin. Hut thor. Is convlnc\na

ev\dMlal thai he rimed hi. und""S""'nd carooer. and made hll firsl p<>w\!r
ba ... ln revolutionary A",b p<>lhlel. wilh Ihe Ikhwan. Ih.. Mu.1im Bmth·
.. ,hood in c;" ... Ind Egypt.
He presenled 10 Ihe world an im. of beins an incorruptible .... m .....
",volutlonary, bul he Ilubed oway billionl of doHan during hli long
domination of Ihe PI I...linian nalional mnvemenl. an d hll Falah wII
.olwoYI mirt!d in <x>rrupllon and in<x>mpelenOll,
Arafal p.-nled 10 Ihe wnrld Ihe f""" nf .n A",b reginn unified in ill
op~hlOll 10 1."",1. bul he killed many A...b. during hillOllg ""ree,. In
hil heyday, every A... b COUlIlry thai g"ve ... fugllio him and the PLO wu
ruined and plunged Inln civil war ......,u lt. King Huuein nf Jordan
drove !he PLO 0tJ1 efhl. country In September 1970. Lebonon tben took
Ihem In, Tbey etlUblbb .... a powerful enclave In soulhern L.ebanon
knnwn lOS "fat.bland." But unlike lhe much more furmidable Hezbollah.
which eventuIlIy .ucceeded them.tbey proved mililarily u ... l_ 19a1n"
Is""",1 ucepl for a handful nf raldl lhal Ilaughlflt8d Isme ll civ ilian •.
Including mo ... than twenly children In at ..:hool in Ma 'llot in 1914.
Starting in 1975. Ih' PLO plunged L..b,mnn inln fifteen Y"I'''' of civil Wlf

and .narchlc vlolellCtlthal eventually took 150.000 lIv ....

Many Alab I_den haled A",fal or dlstru'ted him ferociOUlly--<lOlably
King Hu .... in of Jordan. President Anwar s.d.t of Egypt •• nd mu.! ufo n ,
Presldenl Hefez Assad uf Syria.
Arafat wal a very poor "'lI'nl.er and ""'m ini.tratur but an extremely
.ru..wd politiullloClidan and unerly ru!hl_gang loader and rovulutlun-
ary, He WIOS' mlOSt ... of the .hakO<!own, Tho Saudi. Bnd Gulf Alab lettd-
e", pold A", fol pmtection money. knowing that if they d idn·l . the PLO',
.......101 Ind polltlul l ubveni ..... would be . iCOJ<! on th."n. EuropNn
lcede", during and ofl ... the 0.10 Pe&ca ~ gave evan 1nO"'. hut for
all the;r tllk. they never ",iood. finger to ",ake luno the molMlY w .. heine
lpenl I'rope.ly. (In f..,t . It wu being l iphoned off Into Swlu bonk
acco"nl, 8nd uoed to creale the terror __ ... 1 that 18t8r kliled more Ihan
a IhouMnd I_II clvm .... dw'i"ll Ih. Second Intlfad..) Th. Clinton
Mitttln iltntlon &DC! It. ..:delmed ~ dlplomet. wen tOlally"lMp a'
tIM ,witch .. well.
Anfl! w...1m.... I diplomat of p Rill', but be "'I"larly oV"'l'lay.d
hll bend. II, won pen,Anb .nd !Jloo.l reoogIl.hlon b hie ...lIonal.nov.
n",nt. only to provob rerodou' I...... U nteUatlon . He rero-l to<:Ompro-
miN .. ntll he WI' forced to. wh ich doomed him ,tid Ihe movement he
led 10 IlmOlt th ...... dllClld" of endJ eu mllltary ... d .. ltlmately poUtlCf,1
def.a". An.. tha •. however. th. 0010 I'...:e Proc... nnally I"n him
political po_. which heoq ..... dered _ the ...... detade.leovl"ll fatab.
and . he Pill uha ...ted , d~hed. and ...... krupt In lbe faao of a new.
far men ImpIlClbLe. and Ionnid8bIe I"IIlisiowo nrvol .. ,!onery orpnLatiou:
H.mu. tbe I,lamlc Rell.tance Movement. Ho w....... throuihOlit hi.

':-'-"'-~ "",-'.'.;.' .',;-' -..' .

.... ~ ....... -.~
"" ,.

_ Did Romanion Intellipnct

Know about Artlatl

~-' Gtne!iI DI MihII P)c~ tilt ~ '-I of me~
Intt'll~f MMcf. 'MitfS oftffl *"" NfI:rt In Ilk ulfTt. . book. ~
Hor/l(JnJ. HIe meod~1I how tilt Corrm..nu-m ~ '-i'ilri~ ~
an NII:rt and lipid .... U¥OfI"
in a ~ dMlWnce ""'" lin bodJ·
f*d. Thr RorNnin 'ho ~ .... \nfIplI"ptfd ". an Nil.. -...ch
dox\rnenIfd alit"."of I.qIfd oritnliI poIItnl ~ of lift. d
tmbtultd flO !wICk ~ in s..,.. b.nb, and of homoitWII rNi:ion-
~ bti~'.' wit!I lin \ftdIer and rnotw.lfI'iIII Ilk ~ bocIycu¥ds.
Aft .. rHdirIC thit ttpnrt. 1ft'It ~ ~101Ktalhowt! . , , ' " I
hid been killed by Nif.., Of"'"' jul.! Wi:fI'I his Nnd."

ct. ...... , . Ant.t could alwaYI count on hll political chann and guile to
carry him Bnd the pU) from one de,...1 and exile inlo anothur.

nBtional rep.....,to tlvM of the PolMtiniftn (IOOple, In 1964

A",fat. Fatah. Ind the PU) did not hold national dernocnt lc aloction.
In the CI.JJl p . (0' anyw he", el..) to confirm themselvM
Ihe named
in the y...,..
thot foll owed. They couldn't. The r alMtinlan ",fug" CI.JJlpt "'mained
un do. foreign contMI: Egyptian and Jordan ian unt il lQ61 . and I. n eli
Ih. _fter.
Araf.t and hil Falah we .... hy no m •• nllhe only gMUp daim;ng the
manti. of revolutionary rep ....... nt.liv ... of Ih e Pal.fllnl.n people. The
Populo, FMnl tor Ih. Liben'ion of Pal •• dna. Ihe P.lull n. l.iben l ion
Army. and olher Im.lI.r grOUPI ....,n "P"'lIA up. Ir",! a nd Syria hoth
.i lher MIl up or pvo .holter Bnd lim;Ie<llupport 10 di fferent group'.

Egypt's fight to destroy Is rael

Gamal Abdel NBlser took Egypt'.,..ln. of powe, publlcJy in 1954 and
quic kly ICCl'\Led one triumph after another. H.. boldly natlonallud the
Sun Canal and defi ed Ihe AllAIn- French mlUtary f1KlCCUp8t1on of the
Canal Zon. in 1956. Within a few weeki. Soviet and American pJ'Bl,lure
for<:ed Ihe DriUth and ~'",nch 10 I... ve the CBn,II and foreed the 11"",11. to
pu ll ou t of Sinai. Thi. d iplomatic "victory" . r.sed. in 1he eyM of the
Egyptian peopl •. Egypt'. obvioul military de,...1 and IOlidifiad NasH,'1
sIBtU. " a hero. NalHr llood in Itn king contrut to Iho lo.de, he hHi
depoeod: the fal, OOTTUpl. and . alflsh KIng r OM .. q. Na ..er Inaugunlad
ambiliolUlOCi.1 pnliciM to bring education and Mile h ...11b care 10 the
Egyptlan (IBOpla, 10cl.lIzad the economy, a nd lreated political crilico
wil h ",latlVfllenlency, wm~ t" later regiona\lyr&ntlliu Hafez A_d
and Saddam H..... in.
Still , NR$M!' was , Soviet-Ilyle lOCialifl . nd pMud of It. While wreck-
ing hi. counlry'llKlOnomy, he lOughl to conqner hil neighbors. H, pu,..

.ued IhI .....1""""'..,.1 policy of dMlAblllti"ll and Ihen ...""Hnlthe
NfDIIlnlna pro-W..tem. lDOd..... t. monardll.. of Ih. A.. b world . .. pe-
c!.lIy I t - In Iteoq. Ubytl, Saudi A..bia, and Jordan.
At flnt, .ll _ed 10IJO In h!. fnot, The roy>ll f.mlly of Ir.q w..
• I.qhtef'ld In the bOrriflc military coup of 19.se. An .I.nned Syria
.,.....<Ito 101m. United ARb Republic under N..ser', IMden.hlp. K111J1l
Huueln', d.y. on Ihl.Mnh .,,~ numbered I I N_"lpnll.nd
'ym polhlu.. unleuhed one ......1""Uon plot . I'Ie, Inoth., I&Ilnll him.
(lie l urvlyed m...... th.n Iw.n ly·fi~of I Mm.1 And en ...... Soyiet Union
t. Illiu Middle Ea.1 chip" on N......., concludlna eIIOrmOWl am. dMlo
wltb hi .... On Ih' .... of the 1967 Slx·Doy War, .yen field Marohll
8emerd Montpn.ry. thl d _ conqu ....... of Erwin Romm.lln World
W... U, concluded aft ..... vilil 10 £cypI thoIlhI ImIeU arm,.
wnuld he,,,,
no dlanoI..,lrul E&rJ>t'. new legiona.
N.- .... I FcYptIID ~ 10 IfIIbIWl and IUppon. puppet ~me
In ""moIl Vl mln , II lhe oppooite lod oflbe Red s.., while hi...enl.
malnl.lned I ClJnpolgn of lem:rism In the 8riTloh-controlLed Prated"",tl
of Aden IMt ~nlu.Uy .ucceeded In drlylnlllhl B.1U.h oul .
Becked by hi. mlllhly Soyilt IUy, N..... ' lookOld well on the WlY 10
oonquerinllh, ,n il,... Mlddl. Ea.\. The w..k, .t.ott" lghtOld HriUlh goy.
"nmlnll of H.rold WII..." lod Edw..d H.llh , who w...... det.rmlned
.... Iy 10 pull out of thl region . offlred Unll oppooili on. Thl United
5111_, ....... whll. , WII c.e..p.t up In lhe Vlet""m Wir Ind dom ..lic
UphM""1. h _med thlt no onl WOIJld or could 1101' N _. E.. IIO the
Saud!. trembled.
In 1l1li7, how . . ., N.- p,,",eeI lanel 100 far, ... d all hi. pteleru.1on.
.... lpectfCU!.rly and cnNIJJ,. IUlpr...t. The !i&Yptlln. d........ ded , .""•

51",,1_ el... proYOCIliun IIId pn:tlude 10 war.

and 100,(01)
.-.fully. lhal United Nltlonl v-;ekeepinJ Il'OOpi be withd .. wn from
moved 1 ,(01) tant.o
!i&YpUln IOldlen 10 th ...len 1....1. In d In. 1IMn1''''pl,y of
the Suezcrlill of 19M!, doted Ih. SInoI,. of Than 10 lanell . hlpo. H •• bo

knew thai Syria (which Will p<II"iodically lbelling northern 1InIel) and )or-
dan (which Iwbo...d the PW ). both of which hod ligned defente treati_
with him, we ........ dy to Ill.., .. Ih~ lewilh ....1".
Nuoer Wlll,, 't jUit grandotallding Or IIQ1Ipping for """e Ilirf. HII aim
Wlo lo wipe out Israel. His qu.qI1!'l"ocldal almA agalDlt lMHllhould lIot
be doubted.. HII 'p"""h ... Ind the overall rhetoric of hil "'8iml w....
unreltollllng ill their detenni""Hon 10 annlhtl.le the Jewish l tale. His mil·
1I1ry buildup, lupplled. by Ih. Sovieta. WI. focuoed I"ti ... ly 011 li rael
from the ~ i><1IinninR MOIl of IU. N_r·. d.r..... ' and m<»t IlIIIbido,,"
milit.ry program had literally R'lnocldlilmbitlolll. He "",ployed III
meny Gennan former Nul o<;lenllll. II be could on twin program. to
develop belll.d c milll1 ... """"ble of ......:hillR Israel .nd blolOSlcal w....
hllldo for tllem.
Tb. [Iraell ae<:rel te",ICOl. the Ml)Mld. managed to kill " couple of tbe
odend lll Invol'ffl<i III NRSler·. bioloslcal w.rf.... plan. ICIJing off the _L
A key 11...11 [nt"ULgenCOl officer In directing thi. crucial ope.. tion Will
y itUtok Sham [r. lhe rormer h ... d of lhe F..... dom Figh".. for I"HI. 0,
Lebi. in Ihe 1 1H~1 1H7 lIuaniUa war "II'ln.1 th. a rill.h.
The ... will no.....,n why N _ could not hove curled out. ",," \lou.
~mmodltlon with Israel. Illhe very 1....1. throUJh the 19so. and
19601. For mOlt of th.t tim •• J(ing HUlte!n of ,oMon, fmm I vlllIl,
weaker pooillon, hod .ucceeded [II doinR iUII thai.
FcYpl'. huge and .. pid ly R""w[ng population Ind iUl1\IIIlve po"""
..oou ld have been Nuter·. m.[n ItN of concern. Had he opeMd. Egypt'.
borden wllh Ihe Pl lcllini.n ... hlp nml" In Goza. he would b .....
helped Ihe plighl of th_ Arab ...fuJ- and enriched hIs country with
""ceUenl younR Pel_tin ian prof_Ional. Ih,," 'tartlllg 10 be mined III
lhe w"lI.fun ded. well ·run ... hlp nmp o<;hool •. If be had truly been
.ookl llg a fter hi. """pie'. w elf.... Nailer would have welcomed. from
thole CoIm!» the doct ...... teache.. , plumbe... aulo m«:hanlca. CINlI!ruc'
lion enRin ....... ond electriciano FcYpt"" d ... ~tely needed,

Inst ... d , N..- opt",1 fur a""8"nC1I. ambi.lon. and Wllf'I of conques. and
e><1 ....... ;na!lon. He doomOld his people.o. cycle of three more wan. the
d""ul.ltion of many ofthe 11&.;011'1 laJ'lI"It and pnovioulLy moot prulper-
OUi citi .... and the w_t mili.ary humillatloru;n their modem history.

The Soviet Union vs. Israel

In Ihe Six.Do.y W.... the Israelio mew they couLdrI'. wait to be attltCked.
They I'n,ck fint . d ... troying ...... dy th'-""]uanen of the I':gyptllnli'
fOrQI. routing the EaYptlln army of Sinal. ",,,,,lIIng!he Jordanian att""k
and capturing !he W.... Bank. and hurlilql bock the Syrianl and takilql the
Colan H u~htl.

All thll 10 well mown. What I, I.... well mowlI II tho. the Soviet
Union colIsldenod . nlCking 1......1 i_If. The Soviets hod warned N......
lhat the I... ell. mighl launch I preempUve flrlh. hut .he Soviet role
wenl fRr beyolld .upplyl1l8 ormland illtelligence 10 the A....b.. A book
publi.bOld in 2007. Fox.bot. 0 ...' Dimono. document..! how Soviet MiG-
25 flghten had n own r1IConnalllance ml,"
Ilonl over .he Is raeli nuelMr plan. a.
Dimon •. The Sovl",. mew the 1...... li. W1I",
developlngnuclM' wlNlplln. and wan •..! to
,top .hem. The Sovl",. w"'" """n pnlJllring
Y ••
-, Boob You're Not
Suppased to ReId
Sit t:loyl of WGr.~ I96l 0tWJ ~ ~
for. major om p hibioul I.nding and p ....
oI~Modtm~&>I1 byM~ B-
emptlve ,trik.,. of their owo 10 d .... roy the
Oren; New ¥oR; Prnidoo I'rrn. 2(0),
Dimona ....."or. In the end. the '-...... Iio won
the WIlIO quickly the Soviet. never 3"t a Nooo fctto!ten In MlffiCI but W!f'f rftellifC

clutnce.o lump In. Xoout lilt proI"ftSIonIl fKf4~ TIIf

Li ke hl l Soviet mut."... Na ... r Wal not lsIiWlb wOOted SO hird 10 c/Ult In tIoeIr
fearful of the lor.oU ..my a nd g.... vely ¥my In Ihf I960s II rM TontJ ~ Tommw
und ...... t;meu'd It. lie .nd hi •• op con,' by SNb{,,1 T~ New York: v.... 1969.
mOllden .110 completely unde .... tim.ted

Tbe Polmalty lac..-red h id•• llh Wlddl. EoM

11"",1', II. ,.ri ke "",,,"bUhy. They MpeclalJy had n" c"nctlpli"n " r Imw
the I...ell, could multip ly Iheir .ir . Irikins p"wer by ",pldly refuelins
. nd ....... m;"3 tbelr pion ... Ind ..." dl"3 them "". r" r ...,.,nd Ind third
.trik.. "n Iha nme day. Nuser·. bh:,,)d -curdll"3 threau " f 8Xtarminatins
1.""'llum.... inl" , '"rk A.. b humiliatl"n.

Wo s isroel (11(111, In donger In 19671

II loa. bec"me r•• h i"n.bl. am,,"3 1.....11 lefti.l. and Jibe..l. in rocenl
dflCl.dM I" acclaim 1...el·.lhon prime mlnilier Levi Eshk,,1 I •• wi ...
"aIMnum. resl ..ined IIld mod_taln peIIOIIlIld brilliontly lu.,.,..full n
wlr. Th, Imth WI •. u Ihe I...ol i public woll rocosniu<l 01 Ihe lim •.
Eshkol wu lllOITU pl old app.... lchik 10'10" hid put [."",Ilnt" I """""",jc

....-.I"n. 'pirlt ... 1 dep..... lon. Ind . ull... I"3 from m"re emigrant. than
ImmigranU. H•• 1", fol ded undor presIU.... Whon 110o Egyptiln ..... y
flooded 1m" Sin.ai. Eshkol ..Jd n.JJed the naUon. It WU' dl ... OIo •. He
trembled and fluuered and look.... Ilko whal ha wo_bumed ""I. lnef·
fectual. and very frls/lten .... lIttle old mon.
AI .hol momenl. Ihe mOIl [mpo".nl fisure In keopinS Iha 1... 01
Defense fo~ mnnlns Ind on 010" wu the chief " r ol"'",lion' .nd f0r-
mer II. force com .... nder. Gene .. 1 Ezer Welzm.n. the nephew of the
nation". finl p...ldenl. OIolm WelUlllnn. IE,..". . ""11 .... bil nome wilb
on. n In.t" d oflwo 10 Indll;lta hl l dinpprovol " r hi. uncle. whom he
resarded alloo dovi.h ond ..... dy t" rely on Ihe Brlli, h). He knew tbat
IInl .... he acled. 11"",1 coul d e>CJHlCI len. " r thotl ... nd. d ... d from Egypt.
I... ai r .Uackt Ind 8'fMlnd ....... ulL In d.esperotion. Eohk,,1 c"r>Ceded tb,
n-a to c...... te. new n.UonaJ unity II"vemmun l. Longtime chler "ppool.
lion lOIder Monachem lIoSin of the Heml Party. whom the ruli"3l11Cie1-
I,ll "'8"rd"" u. UNla ... melod.. m.tic bl"wh.rd. wa. broughl in •••
mlniola. wlthoul JID"folio and proved I" be a hawkilh but OOMlmCII,...
..,d "ablli:r:I"3 p....... ru:e. Hut the key , pJIDlntmenl wenl ln Mo.ba Doy.n. ,
lull .. Neville Chamberl.in In 193910'11 forced I" bring back Winllon ,
o.urchlll u poliUCOII h.... 01 Britaln·.1loy101 N.'i)'. Eahkol_ r...::.d 10
band 0..... hi. mlllW)i' portfolio& aod appoint o.yan aoInUt ... of defenJll.
o.yan'. im.,.c:t wu Immedi.t. and e lectri fy'''', H. t ...nIfOl'med
nMl.....J moral' ,rid pI'(Wided • dooc:W .... 8dl..!.I. poIltlcal.. l1fIlop: direc-
lion to the Mltlon tn.1 Eahlr.ol. Abb. Ebron. Golda M,I •. and Rlbin had
uHeriy f.lIed 10 provide.
11'111'" •prill conference .u~~he ,...1 ,,,,,,,,,,b of the
......11 Imled fof'C<N. H. lodiaued tbat tb, crili. WI, IIk"ly to be...,:.
fully tflWl .. ed Ind tb .. reby lulled lhe EeYptlln•• nd thel. ,III.. Inlo
...umllll thll 1....1 would conlinue 10 KI u putl .."ly u It had under
Eobkoland hli coli ......... lie u.o won lhe ......1aJt1... ""Illude or U.S.
~Id"nl 4rndon johnKIn for ml kln, quit. cI .... Ibll \r. ...1 would not

n.....:i the U.S. armed ""'* 10 prolKl It. (0.)'l1li had .. lilted V... nam aod
IXII'..::tly ...If.' I how AIII«iCOI', polillCOll and mill',,), l...denhlp __
btl",Un, the war.1TIle American public bre.tbed. ,'''' of ,.Ilef thel
Amerk.an troop' would not be nM<Ied In the Middle Eul"m crioll. They
brMthed In e".rI b..... one • week II,e. when o.yan unl ... hed the
1....11 II. fon:e on th" EcYptlan. I nd Im..hed fore ..". N.._ ·, dark

The miraculous 'flctory

The 1.....11 military ¥idOl')' hi Ib, S\.O;-Ooy Wlf wu ...... mON .uddln
and overwhelm l", than Ib, brilliant U.S. victory In the f1 .... Gulf W.......
and ..u do ... wltbotIt III the time for Pl'IJMfliloa the, Ameriao aod I..
1111.. had. The 1.....11 ddOl')' WU I tribut" 10 lhe.-v. 'yJlem Ihl'
Gan....1 Yl. . .1 Vldln bod deolped .I...o.t t ..o deaodlf before. aDd II
.... eltlCll,ed with. brilU,nce ..Idom _ n In tb, cb_ of "If.
Itlfpondl"llio d.,... t. N_. P"'P'8'leci Ih" blSIle: 1.....11 military lur:-
e....... y.t .noth,. Briti.1i . nd American plot . H" m.y " ... n b....
belle .. ed It. BeaouH Eayptian .il'Cnlft couldn ', ny multl pl . IOrli.. pel'

dlY. Ihe E&)'pU.nl never dT1Hlmed tbe lorull. could. They Iherefore
... umed Ihallh Wlvef of plan ... that h.d wiped out theIr . Ir fMal and
their .Ili...· .I r fore .. cou ld nOl poulbly IU hu .. com .. from 1. ...1. Th.
U.S. Sixth FI_ In Ihe Medltenan""n mUl t have provided It •• in:noft car-
rie .. and plan .... and probabl y Ibe Brill.h b.d 100. Wild anll-American
riOlI"3 immedia tel y broke oul .n over lhe Arab world. whlcb U I r$lldy
markel for conspiracy Iheoriu 10 CO".r up Anlb ignominy. feilure. end
NaMe' W.I dilhon ...1 eyen with hi. Anlb .m.... He called KI"3 HUI_
... in of Jonlanand lold him thellonleli, hlWi 1a.1 the fI .. t dlIy of air fight-
1"3 and therefore were now doomed 10 be d ... trn~. Be urged Hu ...ln
10 enler the war Immediately. The king. ironically. owed billurvl".l10
11.....1for IIBring down Syria In 195-8. wben Ihe Syri8JU Ilad thrMlened to
Invade Jordo.n. He el.., owed hu own inlelUsen"" ...,..1"", wblch luod pro-
IGCled blm from numerou. Nuse,...m.stennlnded _ination luempU.
But King Hu .... ln .1"" \:new hli public baled Is ..el and b. could be top-
pled by popular rage If h. I tayed out of the war. So be lemporlUld by
.Ilowing bi. mllitary fon::" In and around Jm.lAlem to bombud the Jew-
Ilh hll f of the cily.
Th' bombardment WI' relatiyely lishl .• nd boIcauoe unlel', civilian
Iheher m..... u..... In loru..lem were good . casuahl" we .... negligible . But
for . country Ib.t had .ppeared 10 be .urrounded by Implac.ble enemi"
and on the brink of being extlngui.bed by Ihem. it proved 10 be Ibe iql
IInIW. Dly.n approved I _ponle •• ltbough he hid Ini tially opposed
invading and oc:cupytng the W... t Bank.. 8 ul .. the Egypti..., army In Sinal
du inlag .... led aftor only th ...... deYI of moppIng up ol"'.... lio" . folluwl.,.
the initi.l hreU.11lrotisJu. be allowed 1s.....11 fon:" to .trike _ u well_
The c.ompaign on th. W... t Bank wlltb. eXACt oppnohe of Ihe rero-
dou. and h... r1b"",king.truggl ... there in 1947-19 48 . Theo the Arab
LegIon h.d proven m"", thIn I milch for Bnyrhlns the Jrnaleuri.h and
ne ...·ly cobbled t"!luther lor...li fol'Cel could throw . ttbem . Every 1......1i

"c ,"",
"".' -',,'
, . , ' .'
, .. ,.
'~,.""""7', ...,~7"
~ .
Too Good to .. T....?
n!hIT tint. trtI'lOfdNoy dor d the m7 _ . MIdIMI £btl. the CIS
O ~Htws~"~ flied lI\~wnutoanal
MKnI'lIf I«CIl.tW d the "'~ of kfMf\ inltLiI viet.,..,." ~ 10
IudkrooA 1o ttw win .. ~ifI tNi ItIf)' ftfUHd 1o ,i II. TN IriTIih
rwo.<k~IirC CorpoIJlIon. 101' whom likinl 1110 WOfUd. ~ _ seM!-
ble. ".,. broIdult hi! ~ which is how the &<itllh ~rntd ibout ",1eI'1
n)Ut at ttw E&1PtLlnl ~ the NnffIc_ did.
TN 0l'Il)' ~ miIit.y.trib in histOl')' ow thr lMitOIMian at ttw
Sorift Ak foo:t t, lilt ~ on);.w 2l. ~~ II tht be,. •• ,
at Opft• .
loon a.rtNnls1l. HiTItr's iTasIon of RIaw. Mel j \ lIijOijit<otd on 111M OWl'
tIon. onct ttw E(ypIia'lS' .. ~ _ w\p@dout."," .... paonl
r.xus p!O'I'l'd 10 be WIt... ducb for ttw IO.IptfbIy ~td IIrMii
blittblt& IKTIt\ N til ~

offen.lv.. operltlon aSllnlt the I.etIlon fore" In 1948 Illlood. In 1967.

''''''1 on. of them ,"~ed. The Arlb I.etIlon ...1•• Ull uceUently
t ... lned and led.. Of III Ihe Arab forcg, they fOll&hI the InnS... t. ham.l.
IJId b...t In lhat W it Ind lnnlcted tbe mOllt ulu.I!I" nn , ... t. ....U llttIy.
Bul they .. _outnumbarood. oul-«[ulpped, OUI·U'Il...!. and al In opMI'
tlonII t.e¥.i ..tirely oul«>ld~ 11M Old aly of ~ rell to !sneli
ron- and Ih. _loft"," w_ Banlr. did II well.
Fi... Uy. 0.)'1" wu elMenni...! \0 end n1.... _ ,...... of bomt.rd..-.u
of Iataoll .... Ilement. In the rar oonh from the Syrian Joto. oa the ..ppoo-
edly lmpregntobt. Colan Ilel&hu. in 1948 I nd ""In In t1l61 . the Syrian
army prov.d totilly lnao""bl. ofany -'olIO .UICO whl~ ... Thnugh
Syrian ooldlerl folJ&b! hard in theirdefenol ... pwhlOlll. they hid no.,.-.
Itional or IlCtlal..,IIItIOlll 10 the 1......11 I rrnored !ugenlllll. 1_"",1 took

!he Golan Heigh!•. lUI! at il look Ihe Wal Bank and Sln,,1. In IU d"YI.
lsnoel', eneml. Iud '-n IU\Ited on th"" major banle !run",. larHli forca
Iud Iwept to the Sun c:en.!. and the Old City of ' eruMiem w.. ruddftnly
In jewlsh ..... df Fot th. Ii ,..t !Ime in mora than two Ihousand yeal'S.
The wlr we." stunning humiliation nOI on ly for No.ne. but for the
SoYIe\ Union. which Iud poured 00 much mllUasy hardware Into EKYPt
and Syria. The point w.. not 100t on Ihe American pubUc and on poHcy_
mabfl in Washington.

Results or the Si.I-Day War

The SI~-DIIy Wilt did not """,Ie todoy'l Middle EllS" The nogion h .. ' -n
through plenty mOnt chanaet-Wme of them far bloodl ........ lnc. then.
8ul the war O$l1al nly tflnlformed the region. lonel luddenJy appeared
not ...n Id&llll.uod Ilnle"ale t.... tering On th" brink of dat",cUon but ..
.. regional mllitllt)' 'UperpoWM . • kosher Y.... lon of SJ*UI. The JlJ,t.ltMlf
w.. ,,100 Innofonned by Ih" Wilt. I", citizenlgrew proud end far mono
macho. While ","tly plOud of lhelr cltlzen-anny and Itt .mulng prow_,
they Ilerted d"yeloplng .. wl dlllp .... d contempt for Arab ml!ltasy ()liP"_
billti... Th"t altitud" would coot Ih"m d ... rly in "nother WAr only IU
yaan later.
For the fint time lonoel had conquered t,triton ... 10 administer and
develop. Levi Eohkol, Gold" Melr, end YiIzh.eJ:. Rebin, the three Lebor party
prime mln;"ten who Inherited wbatlJJeeli .uthor Shabtal Thvet ""lied the
"cuneo:l bl.... ing." tried 10 preYenl llgniflCllRt !ewi.h oettlementln t"'-
lerrl ton .... They wanted 10 nolain OOlItrol. pnmuily for JeCurity......,.,..
bulas far .. ~lbIe 10 I", the PaJeollni.ruo the ........ dl" their ownl!r.l,..
Th, war ,,100 tnln.fonned Ih, ""lol'ntl,,1 n"IUffI of [.rael. Throup.out
tb.twIlIIUe\b cenlUI)\ Ih./ewish community In r al ... li"" had grown_ The
IOCI.lI,t democracy Ben-Gurion had """'ted and led p". a 101 of lopl
protection and I p,d,,1 righ", to tb, origin"lly ,m"ll Orthodox )awi,h

minority. but thlt had ' - " grantfMi on 1hto comtort.bl. 1MIC\l1., ... umpo
tlon that the unworldly "Iigiow would .t.y In th.lr own com.. and
probobly quietly ...Imil.t. Into the sen .....1 popu lltlon. In ..-.d. they
Bourbhed end ...- It I rapid pece.
Ira the Arab world .......,. melor Arab IMlier ...hoM counuy foupt In
tb ..... _r.,ypl . 'ortlMn. Syrie. and lnoq-w •• loppled ... lthln Ib ..... yea ....
with thlt nceptlon of Jordln" KIIIR lI u.... ln . Syrll Ind Ir.q becIome
ItrollRc, So"Ie1 IIU ... und... tb, rnoro Itlbl, (Ind brulll) 1Ie'llh Arab
"odIU'1 dlclll ...... bl~. with tOTl,,_ Ind hit man Sadd.m lIu...in corn·
iD& to ,ffilctl ... power In s.ghdad in 19611 ..w. former elf fotce chl,f Hefez
AJ.Nd \.lUna power In o.muc:ul in t 1170.
AI n...l. N _ thoushl he could contln ... 10 l..d the Arab world by
1~1 .... lu bOIItlllty toward iarHI... b, bed before. Heorpnimd I
m_I". JMln.Arab. Inll·Zioni" conr..... nee In Khlt'IOIIm . Ib, capillli of
Sudan. 1M rapidly /"IIbuUI hi • ..",y end aI. ron;. ...11b bl, Soriet INIcken..
By 1969, h' ,.11 .tmn, ,nOlJth 10 Itar1 bomberd ln, the d.f,n_ th,
1_110 had built to hold the eulem benk oftbe S ..... ean.1. In 10 doins.
h, Ilunched tb, War o f Attrition. It proved 10 be the 1••1 end In o-om,
_pect. 11"11 "'011 OOftly of .1I hi. bunsl ....
The 10,"110 b.d now I 101 more power 10 _pond 10 N.......·• pfOYOCOI'
Uono then lhey had had bo.ck In 11"11195-00. II,"UIln:.. /\ d.....llte<! the
dtl .. on th'Qlnll". _ Iem Ihont.1he mo.t IOphlJtJa,te<! Ind IDOl! proo-
perou.lo f.cypc. ln. few monthe, the poontt country In the Mlddl. East
w .. carryl .. the Idditlonal burden of b.elt a million .. rua-. N _ ..
• politician ..... finished Iona before he di<ld oil lIMn It tad II the . .
of fll'ly-two. He looked and lCIed .. If he w.... lwenty r-ro older.

NiJ:on: Israel's best friend

In 196&, levi Eohkol ... nt LI,ulenl~ Gen ....1 Vlezh.k ltebln \0 Wuhl ns·
Ion al 1....1·. I mbuudOlln ordor to sot him oul of the wly. II, wu I

PC Myth: The U.s. locked 1....1from lirtll
'""J""M IkIilfd Sln~ Ills rIOt ill,qys ~ IIlH'l's ptOIKiOI ond lI1if.1d. In
1 loct. IoUCCH~ us. ~1~'It, whll~ pmi¥tlYll"'l"lthflio: 10 til.
JrMst. Itn~.lf&olrdrd it JftltfilUY is ill ~~ rod ~ it 11 Mm',
IffIIt!l fat 1M first Iwe!I{y )'ellS 01 '" e, illonf.
DrmoClitic prtsldent twf)' S T' ........ priQt~1 the """, .in.oI..,! Int i·
lofmolf t'<ft to !oil In the ()Yill OffO:!. 101.. ci.Hnfd 10 boo i WoIlm. iIIpprK .....
1M r.;md of bliotl but in off"r ~ wu"t. T....... ·• ,...., >«rftM~ of mlf.
Groo-,.1oWIN1l and DoNn "'hew:wI. Ul'lilny _oen'!. Truman dod 00I1if1 iI
fOllCfltO provide I/l)' ~ off".., Us. milnuy Of c;'il ... ilK! to mH!.
The skies of The fMly )ewilh lIilt wm PfOI«Ifd by ~i-dH;s:nrd Mm«-
Wvnitt 8H09s built in iIIld sold by ~HW. • ~ wtrll~. f..-r.
noI the UlIl!fd SWft, w.s The W~tem d.moolq tNt fmt CiIITIO! 10 ISIMfs
iId MId sold it tilt .1It.." .nd I.nu it ~trl, r'ftdfd.
Mtilrr.ofoOle, lilt COlt 01 ~ f~ one! clothirc the I'uIdredI of
lhovsinck 01 Jewish m~....xlrnly kkkfd <lilt of tllilfOI Alib lIItions like
Ir~ Er1PC. iIId ~ WiS crWWnc. mi tho $tilf 01 "'HI. with only \.S
milliofo people, il"""ll\iIlf 01 rMm <irn,Mr ,r/"u&ffi, hid no ~ to buy
the modern wnpons it ....~Iy ~ 10 dtftnd itwIf. RHrur for thr
infMII Jewish Ililt ume from The t..l o;~ian lIrfOt't ....auld ~
At rwn. ~ Dwism O. [Mo."IO"" hi IIh WC'flirY oI,llle, Jo/ln
fo\tfl' 0uI1t1. _If''ll~i frim:h ritlwf. Thry CI;ockN down hird on !!.rift
In The I9S6 Suel tiM. But ..m.n litH! dmf,fd S,1iI from IIMcIinc lofdio In
I9S8 ill U.s. "-'Mine!. _~ lind." in l~ to prIMM I hOfrl!fldous civil

-.- . _-
, -,..--
WII, Elw;J .. tI'.-.d DuflHlNliHd Ihr bllelislOCl onyadd lib.:. 01
1tioemIeI_ bur add NndII om.r. poIentiIIl'""*""'" illhr ..,., ~ well.
Re!lli0r5 beumt , 101 WIImtf Ifm tNt,
The IftdI 01 """"'-t ..auld become illIIiI/OI' ~ IH~ beI_ AIne'-
0\ CIA lAd tilt I~~I MOSl~_1IIcI1n the "",~ The ~ fil\ftS In
(~JlIrc ~ __ )omf:I jHuI An&lflon. lhe ~, lAd MtlIl.lAl~ p111!101d
CIA (O\jflIIIf'In1~li~f thief, lAd leddy KoIItl iI (\oM' ffifncl of D..-Id &en-

~>CI'4 I"$iMd ~ when John f KeMfdJ fI'\I:~ the WNft
HolM, r.tMtdy\ fJlhrf, JcMpIII:fmedy.IIid bftn., <ampobn .w!,Sem/w
... the 19JOl lAd tM:ll lAd btame lOCIorIcM ~ ~ to Iril:tIn ... 1hr
fW\I )'NO 01 Worid w. I. The e& ~ ~ WiMtcIft CIucMI
w<1tI COI'IIempi lAd ~ Nlli ~ 0I00Uid ~ the '''Ilitlil ~,
lui .. son ~ 10 be I "IIf)' different krod 01 mill.
fllOid ~...hntl,ilitcrilft IIIbsIIts-1hr bnI_' j II 1)'Ilem of IH ~
In tilt worid ill the lilM-fO bltri. And 1ft" louch oIdrllfloell ~I GIIf,
...., d'l¥l(~!o< Konrid .+.dtr'IiUtI rfI«d In 1963. ~ Ifill p<e~f on
~'I f. -.!Rf IUCtmOI', Ludwi& ErhIId. 10 honor AdeNuto\ pifdfr
10 lofII Ul.~1 hnon 1m fO "'-L '!'how 1m ~ oIpM ~­
l¥I(f 10 IIrioeIIn """"*'C In ~ Su:-o.,- W. 'Iictory.
~ 1UCUISOf, lyndon Jg/rGQn, __ ..,., I~ 10 I!IieI, bur
ht _IOOpre«C F'ld with Ihr~W.1O beKthotil tlltMidllt
t.I-~hfanlinly ulico.oedlhr ~ for Sorift ~ iI tilt
rq;an f.cm blitfl SI. -o.,- w. '+'IttUJ. !ut it __ ony II'IC!er P'mIdtnI
Rod'IIrd Nhon dIM tilt I.nt!d SUln tKt~ dtciWwly iI f_ 01 wpjiOiliC

war hero and Ihorefore. polillQlIIhreol10 Eahkol alld 10 Golda Meir. who
would JUCCOod Eshkol •• prim~ miniOlM. Th~ poll of envoy 10 Washllll!'
ton In rhOlMl dayo was lI.ilI_n as IOmllthllll! of . t.ckwale •. france had
t-n Is ... ul·. "",in . upportar and lupplier of armo .... peclaUy tircrdl.
oince Ihe Cl'1llIt!on of 1M OIala. The Unil"! SI.I.. was HUll .. Impo"&nl
more for the private fund· .. ioilll! from It. Jewish communlly. Ih"largetl
and w$llhhiUI In Ih@world.than for IlIltnlegic ..,Ialion.hip.
Thllll!' ehan~ ... pldly oA.... Rabin arrived In Washington. FI .... t. """-,
iden' Chari .. de Gaull. of France. who had always had IOmething of "
latenl eontempl for Jaws (he had ... rved clOlMlly with Ganeral Phlll pl'"
Peu.ln after 1V0rld War IJ became furiou, at [,rael for going 10 war to ..""
1I...1( in 1967 rather than heed hi, QOII for ....tralnl, 0.. Gaulle fint mBde
lOme nOloriOUJ public Ilurl agalnl l Jewlat" p.... ldenU.l ptUt< confer.
anQl. and then he followed up his words wHh acllon by Impooing an
ann, emb'''lIo on [,,"I. Tha artnII embargo came lull. as the Sovi81 Union.
pouting good monay aft.r bod. was ... nding even more new arm •• etpe-
dally .tat..... r·th ...." .lrcraA. 10 Egypt, Iraq .• nd Syria. And Iln.l was
runn ing oul or .pare paru lor III proclouo D.... ult Minge 1111. To add
IlIIull 10 Injury. wilh d. Gaulle', bl_lng. the Duuuh company began
... lIi"8 Mingeo to A.. b nltion' like Iraq .nd Libya. Britain under Harold
WillOn w.. gene..lIy ,ymp,"h8lic 10 .....1 but un w;Ili"ll to Incur Arab
anger by ... lIin8 II advanced anno. And betide.. the Brills h althal lime
h.ad no fighter-bomber to compare with Ihe Mirage. The Un lled Stat..
did, In I" .uperb McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom.
In J.nuary 1969. Lyndon john...., stepped down u p.... ldenl. worn oul
by rhe Vietnam WI1. race riOll. end IhechaOlic antlwl11"88f1 on AmeriQO'1
coli. Qlmp" ..... liillllCalUOl". Richard Nixon. wu al.-dy • friend end
Bdmimr of Rahin·o.
When Nixon vilit..! Ilrat,] in Ih. 19601, hll political career _mad 10
be 0....,.. d l"r hll defeot In C.lifoml.·lgubematori.1 race. Rabin w.. IhM
chief of l1aff of ,b. [...,,1 Defen" Fore... and hG 8a~e Ihe form.r U.S.
w\ce prwldent tb, ...,;!-carpet u..tmellL A ..,.... hed NbOft ...... ined f......
....r sr-ttful.
N Nbon bM:ame prwident of the Unlled SI.I... .., Gold. t.fe; • ....,..,..,

prime mlniJterof I _I. Wilb EcYPt a>nUnulll3 to w. . IU W.. of AItrl·

Uon 110113 the Sun Canal. and wilb lIrIeli .1,
.u perlorily In Inc:rouill8
dou~,....,.., Mol . ... Uzed bow Importanl ...11011011. wltb lhe Unlled SUI ...

hid become, Belld",lh, .. nelblng Melr. ... II«! In Mll .... uk.... , ... u good
. 1 wU l,lklng 10 Amerl.:.n•. She hit U off wllh Nl~on from Ihe wnm go-
IHtn"lh h", lov.ble Wlndmoth'" ven ...... of courH,.he w.... 10ua,h.
IlDCOmprom\Ilna. hard·headed. 1IIeUI . . . Iruh, . nd vi<:lotu .. b"wH. He
liked 1"'1.
WhiLe billorianllnd lhe medla \lite 10 ",Inl Richard NI~OII'" hal ..
fulanll·Semlleiand he emanly bad hg prefudlCMI. II', un"""lIble IMI
be ...... ' - ' In 1973. The a-uo:Ml C5A c....Luy airlift thai Ni.UJn .uthor·
Imd. ... d Dlfente 5ecI'etIry Jam.. Schle.i.npr brillianlly lm plemenled I I
tn.kneck .~ "nd brael durl"llihe Yom Klppu. W••. II .110 broughl
home 10 1_11 pollcymllke.. how crucl&1 the United. 51.1.. bad become
10 , n. urlna Ihe very 'Ul'Ylv.1 of their 1t&1•. Thil1 y·fjve r-n laler. thai I...
IOn IIIll hold. good.

1973: The Israelis mess up big

The 1173 Yom Kippur W... or w.. of Ramedl ". beatn II • direct conltUt
10 Ih. 1961 SIlI·Dly W... And ...uch. It ..... ,lObtrllllll....,.. of how
quickly ~lion&I fII ... can chanp, win.,.... becomtt I...... and dupll«!
hw;:ompet""UI""'fonn tbftmMlv .. InlO fonnldobl,th ... u .
After th, 11le1 ...... the bnell anny becIm, compllOlllll and ""'Pili,
I'tlnl~ by the fact thai II e r.cti.:.I I""I.lb, 1, ....11. won every , ki,..
ml.h. bett i" . nd com m. ndo op'''lion III the WI. IIf Attrilion from 1969
to 1910. III 1870. they .vell i lol•• n entlr. Sovlll·bu lit ..d" . lllIon
from lhe Efyptlloll •. DUI Egypt.:.me OUI of lhe W" of AII.itlon wllh one
TIle hIlUcIU, 1MW1'Kt '014. tl Ike 1i114dll bel

101lJ!·Ierm Itnl"llic .dvanl"P. The loraeli air foroe had not been .ble 10
di,lodge. new gene..,lon of Soviet·made 8'Oulld·to-.i. ml .. l1811 . Iong
the WMt Iide of the Suez c.nal. Mono Important w.. the evol ution In
Egyptian equipment .nd combot tactics that took ploao ofter the 1967 war.
Egypt'. new p .... ld.nt, Allwar Sod,t. who came 1o power In 1970. tnn.-
fOl'Tlled EsYPl'l military Ind.tlh ip. includi'41 elev.tillg AI. Matlbl
H ... nl Mubotll< to chief of Itaff of the air force. Mubanok and Gelleral
Ahmad I£mall Ali (appoinled war mln i.ler) and Gene",1 Soad II·Shuli
III/pointed army commander in chief) CAnOfully ..... Ir-l the Cllutrophlc
def... t of 1967. They tool< .....tou.ly Ih. oathlng ;ntem ll ailid.1III from
... nlor o fflcen In t .... Egyptian I rmy. They cl .... rly recogni~ the need to
neutraUze the I't.ell f"poerlority In pliOll .lId W1lr. "",wl ... d to equip
large lIumbetl o f their ground ~ wi th Ihe Sov;"'.· ch88p new mIll'
produced .. ntl·t.nk millil .... They we ... nD\ political plott.tI .nd
Illtriguer1 like N""'-, f.ovoritee and <:rOnlee. llmo.lI Ali and Sh.uI.; In par.
ticular later fell afoul of Sadat. oPl""'llIg hi. mo ... moden" ponCiN
toward Ilnel. They .nd oth .... officen were e.:pelled fro", poWet, lolled.
o.e:dled. Mub&nolr.. who remained qulM[y 10YII.luoo::eMed Sod.I .. P' "
Idelll i nd ru led Egypt &0 well .. I nyone could for mo... th.n I quarter of
• ""ntury. AU th .... men w.... Intelligent, energetic •• n.lytlcal, and 1"""
-.ad ofgmot profeulonallntegrity. They we ... ligllt y........ w.y from tho
arrosant. ~turing Field Man-hal Abdel Halr.im Amer. who h.d led the
EfIyplian Irmy to shameful huml1laUon twice In the 19S6and 1967 w....
And unli ke A",er. they learned wellth. 10lI001 or der... t and put them
to good u ...... the [0.....1;. lOOn I... med to the[, COlt.
Shu n t ..ined Ihe Egyptian army to "ndertake careful. IImlted·",n""
ofr.llol""" under the p..,.ection ofthe IItIW lurfoce-l<HIlr IllU..aJmaft ml ..
olle ICJ'Nn from the Sovlel•. He end hl •• taff paln".l<llIJ!ly de"eloped
defell.lve \.aCtIo ",illS thei, new ",1..11.,. agalnlt II",eU mused t ...1<
I1tacb. He did not blindly nood the Egyptian army with showy blgb·!ecb
So"i'" w... pono and then lIeglect 10 t",in h[llOld ietl ill effecti ve combol

'.' .... ';".':-'~:-' '7-":--~ ...',..... ,"' '.' . - ' ..... ,- ."~
---,"'," .. ,

Ismli Cyclops
'""T"I- hrJrIl.....,. didn~ ItJfl lIS thf Wrrin(ibIe ~ iI: wcdd

L ~, Ont..J., INdt thf difftlt"U,' thf "MM.OOot tyt d IontI'

MosIlt ~ whom I'time MIMlfI o.'fid ~ liked 10 chitf rI mff
cI!he "'wil ..,-,y. P ... 1tI"b ~·worc offlcen in !lot lOp Iudtr~
Dlyil\ IqIrt !lot infilll I,",y 1 tidiully _ cambit ethoI. ~ InW>ttd 00
!lot rud'IIN IItlllYlltflt cI corrt>.t ~iYft. rqloldlm cI ClI~tlt1; m il·
IIfory mKb acml Aljj) ItirorGn ~ hooifitd dooriIh I\rIelI pall!\-
dn~ shott mlCb midt II ncht ¥Id viii irdtKt ~ jInot
otfocen..d oodNr)' sdditIl ~ Iht irotiItnoe in !lot f\rId; ¥Id (ombII
tt. . . thM "'" fiflfllC/otr thin iI hid bftn. DIpn\ cw",...J ItyIt C7Md
1 lot. ~ 10 IhM 0I1'i11let Gentlil ~ GucIrNn. ..t.o dt.elcptd
!he . . 01 !he IIMlinfI. TM ~ imIp 01 !he blwil sdditI lIS InfonNL
I!ropnt ¥Id \l'bHtibie come fmm CloyM'I.

t.ella wlih Ih.m, I I Amet had. Shazll mftde ,,'re hi. ooldlen were
equipped on ly wllh weapon. ,h., were well whh lo Ihelr lechnological
ca""bIl IU... lie s-ve ,hem a new senentlo" of ...... U wl,...u lded 0011·
la .. k 1111..11.. a nd [VOUnd'la-ei, IOtl ... ircnh ml..I1... H. ,110 worked
b.ud 011 plennl,. bow 10""" lb, S ..... C. ....11n _helmlna form and
.... k. lhe _ , benk. wb ... I_ I h.Jd ........ed Ipparenlly ImPNtIJIlble
new def....., lhe Ilu-LeY Urut.
o.YIO objecled ,0 ,he Dew lin •. end 0 _ ...10 hll Intl lncu were
oound. 8 1.1, he bocame In IllCt"eQlngly pa»lve ft81.1" II min Iller of
deren .. In ,he nv ... y..... buildup ,0 Ih. Yom Kippur War. OrlpnaUy,
llIya .. hed rIO! WI",ed th. I_II army 10 . w""'p aU lh. wly ,0 ,be Suez
<An.l. And th.n h" cwUlnly bed no, w.",ed 10 m.lnlilo 1.....1·. front
lin. of dof" n.. on Ii. (If the .'ori...bou\ Day.n ""nld""Ung 10 th.

Dnieper CJtJAi"8. the greet ...! amphibio"" operation in b;'tory against a
hoatil" defendl!d .ho... in tennl of combat IrooJn Involved . ..,., cornK:t,
be had """" Ih ..... defen_ vastly nl"'" irn pmMlve than tho ua ... t...v Line
Hut o..YIII Will outnankOO. He oouLd nOl 8"\ hll own way wilh Goldl
Mal •. end he hed .l .... dy "",,!uieoced in the din.lron. "I'pointment of
LIeutenant (An"",] OI.lm Oar.Lev, • Labo. Pany 10yallOl, as chief of ,Ialf
in 1968.
Bltr-Lev ... a. far m..... rigid , """8""' ,."d doct.;,..i", tha" the in fonnal
o.yan or tb. I hy. low-key. but fIX"" ptlonaUy Intelligent and analytical
woruholic yltzhak Rebln. He wal convinced he had tb .. anl woro 10
~lng. iii, family originated In the Yuplav Jew;lb com munity. at

did thaI of hll prot'g6 and .uoxe.w. LI"ute"ant General David Ille U!'.
Bar-lev and EI ....... unlike Dayan . Ariel Siwno, and Rabin. put their faith
In .Ulle deren-. Tl>ey di d nOl t>e«I Ih, w .. ml"!! "r Geo'll" S. PoUon t hot
Italic defon_..,.,. laltlng monument In Ihe "upldhy of man. They
Ihn .. ght the An bl we ........1"... that Israel cn .. Jd lit back in ita mighty
D{lW defen_ and mUSK ... ttt enemies at wilL The I.raell Inny h.d
fallen Into the ha .. doofrn ..... ll who WUlted tn ... vlve the Mo.glnnt Unto
HUllhe Bar-Lev Une w... lK>lIow . hell. H ..I... nlike Ihe far mOf'll for-
midable Slegfried.and Me.gInot Un", during World Wu U. it wasn·' . 11...
• t .11. It w....... rleo nr "'p8I1Ile llrongholdl conJlructed . Inns Ihe Sue~

CIo ...1. HCh .upp<>HdJy .o.ble tn live the nth .... covering fi ..... Second. lhe
whnle Ideo of the line wuth&\11 required aoldte... nd 'Ignlficant mobl·
lized ......"'" forceo 10 man II.
But before the Ecpti.an . !tack fi ... Jlycam" on Oclober 6. 1973. Prime
Mi .. ioler Melr. deoplte mauy wamlnlll. hed natly refuMHi to call up any
........... eo. She w.. convinced the . ttack wo .. ld neve, com e. [n tbe event .
• few hundred 1'1"&0111 anny IIOIdlen. mottly regular conscrIpII lining thel.
tw--Y8lltour nr dUly. we ... hil hllld-on by.an Ecptlan anny of 60.000
men. The "","ive .... phibio ... opention 10 emu the canal had !Men p ....
pared melLc:uloll.ly ud il we.1I off lib • drMm. Mel. ""d Bar-Le>o ',
itntagic COOM»pIlon .... ponted in .....n. of boun-
E..... WortOl Ia)' La .Iore for the 1....11,. The mobilized 1....11 ..",y
rolled Into 11M SIMI ~nhu,,1a In lCIIn.lbe £cypll.ru .. they had done
th_ U_ be'-"-in 18411. 11156. and 1967. aul thl. _ . V1II}' differ-
ent ElYpll ......... , . It had been e!<OII11ently Inl....! . nd drilled end thl.
tI",. It ... u p..-pand for tb, Und of .tt..:blt ..... 80'''1\0 f.... The n_
cheap, ... Ily produced .•nl;·te.. k end enli .• lrcnfi mluU... thet It
dftpLuyetlch,npdthef_ofw ... Thepl'1tVloUilylnvlnclbleiJrMllWlka
we •• kDoclr.ed out by tb, 1COJ'1I, eventually by tbe hundred •. The fin,
bnell count_It..:'" were l.WIChed fv 100 ~ wllhooJl .-,Iy . .. r.
flel"". pl.nnl,.. The ~l cbolcM of Bar-Lev and Eluar ......lor
front commander. poo....d uniformly di ... trou_ JlriU"I conI.... 10
o.yan and IUobln. who .. chie& of . .1f had both ' - " .... utandl"l ju .
of IIMID. The IarMlilln th,lr fi,.,
eUacb ...... ....0. 1M _ . I..... otuy
...un that hM! COlt u.. Briliih and Soviet ennl. to ......ily . .1,,11 the
Wehrm..:hl In IIMI end 1942 . They ooun" ... u..:ked with ten'" In
me.'" fum,Uon wllhoul fin, doarinl the wly wilh In femry ..... ult
troopl. AI I relu ll . lh8 llnu W8re ,'lIillll d ueu for h"lVy .nll-ll .. k
w,,"ponJ .nd Inf.ntry .rmed wilh handheld Intl.W\k WHporu.
A wlNlk InlO Ihe WIU. wlth 4 .....1·. finl counleHllacU .m..
hod Ind
ommunillon Ind ..... pono ......... ronnlns dlllll""O\'.ly 10.... the JewI.h
Itote ...u III ...., .. cIanpr ofbel"" 0\'ImIII by tho Efyptlllll thin II hid
beom In 11MI 00' 11107. In the t956111d tl107 ........ the "",",II .It force hid
--.; .. nyl"" .....1I!.ry oft... quickly lIIdopponnlly _lIy wlnnLns COla>-
mo.nd of the akl. . eor.-.uently. the '-11 ...... y hid ........ In"OIted 10
heavy ol1l1lery. It 0»1100 ",ucb IIId .Iowed down lhe (q1·1IKWint InDy.
And who needed it wlNon the oir force could do the job betl"'IIIY"".y1
!:Iut 10 11173. the l...... n .1. fOlUcould no IDrlll"" do lhe job. "'elicYp'
U.n.' new . urf-.tQo.I. ml.. HOIu ... 10 Ihll . There ..... I turkey .hoot of
1. ,.eI·lelite pllou .nd expenJlV8llrcnft.
n . hllUnlly l_rTOd GoJ •• t. th IIJ4dJ. F..o ..

With Syria and Iraq . ttacklng from the nnrth and Egypt moving rip-
idly aero .. Sinai. [onel looked 10 be imperiled. Supportina the Arab
st.llel we.. the Soviet Union. S.udi A",bie. Kuwait. MorDlXO . Whya.
Algmi •. Thnl.io. SudlJl. th Pol ... Unians. ""d enn P&k.iJlIJI and Cube.
two thl"81 IVlllltuaily And [0""'] from diSllSlor. The fI ... t ..... lhoe gtGAl
O·A Coluy airlift. d ubbed OperatIon Ni ckel Crus. It wu 0 .... of Ihe
lorgMt. qulck..t. most IUllOOllllful .lfMW88ncy .....upply ope",tionl lhe U.S.
Air FoTOl! bad ev.r carried out. Many of America', NATO 0111.,. "lfu""
to lei the ot",nfl l.nd for ... fuellng. but the PonUJllu ..... gov.rnment
helped. .. VI the Jewi sh ,t.lte hyollow;ng the U,S. to uN lhe Lo~ lir baM
on the Aw ..... i,l.nds in the western Atlontlc.
The second factor Ihlltumed de""'! Into viet...,. In Ib.oouth WHIM
man who Inherited [}oYln', old mantle .. [1... 1', gr&at ... t combet com,
ITIIIlder. c..n."" Ariel Sharon. Ue had oo.n lK[ueoned out of the .....y Into
early I'9llremant and hId Immedlat. ly turned hIs boundl_ energi.. into
traruform illfl dom ...tic polit lct.. convincing Ih e nOlorlolllly .m.lI.thlnk_
illfl M.. n..chem Ilegin 10 e><V-nd hi! "'-market. righl.wlllfl coalltion Inlo
a fer brooder III1l0nalist coalillon-the U kud bloc. Now .... tore<! to mil-
itary command. h. worked 0 .imi le, t ... n.fonn.Uon on the bIoltl.f1.1d .
l•• ding [.... eli tanb to thwlrt the Egyptian Ihm" and turn the tId.
"'8-"lnll whal could hlv. beom a di .." .". for 1,,,,,,1.
R... upplied and und.". reinvigo",ted l... de ... hlp. Ihe [1...Il. drove the
Anbl back to the polnl Ihat the Syrlon and Egypllan reglm ... felt thaI
they-no 10n8"r the 1o"'.1i_w...... in dllll8er of colllpH.

Results of the 1973 war

[n 1967.0 mlraculoul, ov.rwh.lmillfll.....li vIctory ot low coslled to
more wer. [n 1913.0 fa. mOM fmoclous war .,.,.tlllflolmOOI fom lim.. I I
mony liv... led to more thon thirty y ..... of peace wilb the two Arab


Both bneI and tb ..... jot ArM> combool , '"1. wen P'Mtly lObe,ed by
Ih' war. The la..,II. j.uned that they could nOi underestimate Ib, mUl-
.ary c.o.pooblllll.. of nelshborlng ARb stat... Once tb. boord.h ......... Ind
nthe. bnlnt.. Golda Mel, wu fon:::.d oul of po ....... . yoo"ll"'". m"cb
_ pnISIMUc ........Uon o, ...... U l...den.....:ly \0 make polhlcal com-
prom l_ wllh Ih' Anhl took over. 111.'.W"IIlh.llh" .......... , ,,,,,.1100.1
O'mc...lonl wM1I liven by the l .. p~ly mOIU rt,.h,-wlng and lntranll-
genl J•••• IIIMdM o f them oil. Men.ach"", Besln. when ho m1u.n.,d th"
In lln Sln,1 Penln.ul. 10 Egypt by 191!1 . Th , ml..,.. ARb .. I tlonl had
I..mld I IfIUOn .. wIlL Eu"pt Ind Syril had caught tb, linen I nny
.(Ull), by • ...-prIM. lbel. _poruolnd """,bol t..:llea, ... peclally thoM of
the FeY","n Infantl')' In.he nn. _ I. of Ih. war, "en yutly ... paior.
Fot IhoIllnI II .... lo ... y war. they had _inDicted. \KIical der.... on
the '-11.1, ron:. and prevented it from proYidi,. der;i.lvl t.or;tlooJ .up.
port to 1.... U"""od ton:.. y~ detpire ,II HI_lMIv.nt. . .. the Anb
Innl.. JllU 1011. Ind lhe CMM-fires In the nonh Ind fOIlth Qrne wilh
1..... lI oombllt fon:.t On both frvnto poi..! to toke OoomU<;1JI _nd Qolro.
Senior lNod ..... ln f:aypuJld Syri_ ",,,,,,lned In power forth ..... d""""'-
.net the WU, and In both wtlnlri81 the~ look th.- 1_ , . very much to
h... n . Syri.n 1,. .lde"1 H.ofu A...d .... Id POWft. for.n.,. ..... I...... ly......,.,
yMr1 unlil hI.. d .. th In 2000. HII defente mlnl.ler M,,,I.f. TlUlII.~

In power unI1l2004 . Deoplte their openly u~ FerocIou •• nll·Seml·

lilm ond utl1 t-.cOrd of tor1 .. ri"8 .nd kllU"II ...... U prioon .... of Wlf In
1913, neither of them ........ doted risk btooakln8 I.... Cc>Ian Helahll INmloticr
by kllIi ......1...... lJrMIl..,jdler on \hot &ont "100& .. they llved.
And In f:aypt ••1t rore. chief of ItIIf M .. barU. who peofcwa..d ... ""I,
'lIndlnaly before U1d dllrine the WIt. """,I,.. pretldent ofEgpl In 2007
.ner tul"8 power In 1981. And 10 lor ho hili".... ri,ked brookl .... the
1979 ...... I.EgpI peoce t",..y.

Chi p,,,,


The enemy of my enemy Is my fri end Guess what?

.... ..,.- ...

''11". thl! lbe

lchlel Moon', FoloNnlo.ir _Ill swm, to

• III tho JoIill,,1t ItIddlt
Sooudl royal Wally .... tlM .... I bIKI JUr-ln Ih. Anb Wi)l'ld .
When you COMlder Sooudl ~bI. ·. hutQt)'. 11M1_mI add. ..u;rdJ' "
Of all the "nob .... lIonl . s..udl Arabi. bas the .... t.t dum". ofbringl".
JIMOIlnd ItIblllly 10 thl "'IlIon. Hlltorlc.lly. the s..udl, h .... been on • The Saudis hIwe tho
~ t1ItfII!n: at
our .Id. mGf'I often Ih.n Iny other "nob nit Ion. But when you 100k .1
000U .nd Wlclud
them IhroUih the I,,,. of I.fty pollllClll corroctn.... It mlk. NOH: .......
o El.menll of the s..udl roy.1 f.mll y have. dlplom.llc. per- • ~.mboor II _ .
001111 .• nd prof_lon.1 ...1.llon.hlp with Ih e HUlh f.mlly. pIoj.l.... tho
Saudis _
Thl.lJ proof enoUih to many that \bey ... evil.
o s..udl ~bl.·,

know. I, evi l.
..:anomy I, hi"'" on aU. which . u we.1I

o s..udl AnbIlo·'18Iden .... devoutly nollaloul. but theydon'I

hole Americ:.I.
• We

could", hIwe
...... .. .........

The 011 coooectloo

The ki ......... of Saudi ArIbII hoi been the IIfptIIDd _ luaMive put-
... of ....jar U.s. oIl_P"'* In the world lor .......Iy·6ve ywn. [)ur-
I". thot time. U.s. aU ggmpan_IM ... proapared &om the pertnenhlp. u
h8v8 u.s. national lnl .. resll. Since 1967. Saudl I\l1Ihlo hu been the
wo.ld·. crucial "awlns" produce. of oil. nu,t mean. It il the <)1Ie cnunuy
wllh l uch "normoua and MIlly accfIflihle nJ! I"1!IIerv... Ihat it can offllCt
g1obol oil pnce. mo", than ony other nation by Inc ...... lng o. decreulng
production and oo.l ....
From 193 3 I" 1973. Saudi oil flowed the United Slot... II bargain.
boo ... ment prioes. Afie. the t973 Yom Kippur War, Ihe Saud i. joined
r"""", with Ih" Ihah or Iran (Rickard Nixon·, favorit. d ... pol) to quadru·
pleglnbloJ oil p",*,oHul evoo then. the Saudi' d id not ..... thel. hup new
",""nuIII to undermine o. oppn ... the United Stat...; they Invesled Ih e
lion ·, . hare of lhe mOll6Y in America.
In the 1980s. U.S.·S.udi relalionl '-:01 ..... mont impon anl Iban eYfll".
K1IIjj " .hd ,oo k Ihe Ihrone In 1982 . fte. Ihe d ... lb or hll brolhe. King
Khaled . but he had been Ihe ...... l powe.ln the ldlljjdom ,Ince Ih' ........
alnation of KlnS faisa! in 1975. "ehd loved Americl. and Will cnnvtnc.d
the Saudi. n.....ted U.S. pf(Jlectlon from Ihe 5o"let Union, 11110. end other
poIenti.1 Ih ...... 16ni"8 poW..... Fahd Ilepped up Ihe already dote cooper-

Local loy Done Good

"In orclrr 10 be II Iudef of m«I.' tnII"Ii"IlS to rf<;~ on ~;jIion in his own
coonIry. ifTIOO& his own p«IpIt. ond 10 VOW up in surn:o.nI~ slffped with
tht lOOl~ ond ~ of his coonIrymtn. Not only did Wnlem ~iI·
lion no! futfil tNt condrtian. but it Itnded 10 _ iI )'W'IC tnII"I from tht CIIIlorns iIId I!iditloos

ofllis clUll!)':
_ . . AWIIIaIiI .... Satod, ill ~ted by ChI,ln Cflnt.19)1. inc! IS cited by
RoniIld 1.iIc~ in T1wKintdom: Atobtaoodfhe HorMofSoud

The Soudll A,. Pan ohM Solution. No! ,he """'I...a
1.lon ..lIh Ihe R...., Idminl.tnotlon 10 fund thl mulloiMdln ,uerTiUII
.. ho weft flthtl ... the Red /Unly 10 I ..... dIUllln Afsb-nut .... Stoud;
wlmna-'o keep,JoboJ oil pr;.c. \OW .....11O .....1or _ for 1M
IlM1IIin.1 crllli IMt .oppled the Soviet U.IlOllln 1M llN101.. The SovIetl
IMn (Ilk. lI.ulIlI no.. ' ...1 dependenl 00 proflll from III oil Mnd ...
nporu 10 .,oy .n""t. The Stoudi role In toppUna communllnl _. Ih_
m o'llUibly IfNter \MIll thon lhuH of mllor U.S. alii. like llriul n. Cor-
tnIIIy. Ind l'pIon. "'"y we... friend. when WI n~ed Ih~I" 10 be.
In 2002. Kin, Abdullah Ibn AbdulozlK chanll<ld Ihe noUon ·, enMgY
pricl", policy: the Stoudi. became committed 10 Itoble hither 011 prioooo
..I.... IMn .uble lower 00 .... They needed the IXln mooney 10 buy p«>t-
perily tand tb ul pMCe ... d MCUril y) 01 hom •. Thl rill ... thrtlllt of I....
acrou the Gulf ~ tbem. And ..llh Chino'. thlnt 100: 011.,....1 ...
by l.,.pI Ind bound.. and japln, South K.,.... and Ind .. not r.r !.bind.
lhe ptMI!uN IObep slobool pries bitb and outpul low .... powt .... But
\MIll then. the Stoudl .......... d ... ermlned not 10 kill the 100M IMtlald I....

",Iden.,.: ,.... h... lth oflhe,lobool economy.

The blJlKflll bottlened In slobool oIl."ppli. 1.lhe d...... h 01011 refln ....
I.. around Ih" wo.ld. "p"dally In 'h e United St.t.... Succ...I"" Amer!·
call ~dmlnlllnlion •• Republican and Democnl .1Ik•. ha"" blithely
ignond 'hil flC! . M a'l major internatiooal 011 COnlponl.. ha" conc;en·
trII,ed 00 pIoyl ... lhel. b.,.lthy profit mNgl", '0 their w ...holden: lhey
ha¥",,·1 In ....ted In new refinery In'-trUCIuN. The only ..... ior Hap"
'Ion to ,hi. rul. In I"IQIInl y..... has been Stoudl-ow...d Anmco.. Once
.,...tn 1M s.."db turned oul 10 be the retponllible...,o ...".. lhoouJh you
wouldn" kftow It by Ibleni ... 10 the ....1If'IMi IAn. who - " In thInk the
Stoudl..... the ooly I.-d Ant..
Stoudl A...bIII h... In ab.Ilul" numbert, the Wrel.nd ....,.lthllllt mid·
dl.cl... 10 Ihe Anh world. A !atge.lllble. pf"DlM'llld ",Idlil. d ... II lhe
01I0Il1 1&1 P""'"'lul.lle roo: any country·"ucceuful ,",n.ltion 10. hMlthy
democncy In the Ionjj term. That wu .. true for England In the elah!eenth
&rid nineteentb centurl ... u it was for South KG ..... and Mal.pll. In the
tWflllllfltb """tury.
It was o!wlou.Jy better for ... meric. when TUN wu Our chIef lOurQI
of oil, but our own endl .... thl,..t for"TexaI t ... • d ... nk the Texu gush....
dry. SUppoH Sludi ...... bi.·' well. ..... dry or the k1~ WU 10m .pan.
Who could ... pla.ce II &l lhe world', nexl dominant ·.wlns· produo:et?
Th ........ only Iwo ......1cand ldol ...: Iraq end Ruule. 1raq h.u IlveMHll"'
mou. flel d.lOuth of Degbd.d that heven't even begun 10 be developed
yet. R... ul, under "'-Idenl Vlad Imir Pulln I, 'lt$lldy the world', num·
beNwo exporter o f crude oil after the Sludl. end the number-one
expone.ofnat ...... l gao .nd oil combined. "' nd If you thin k Ihe American
people .nd the n.lIon.1 lute_It of Ihe Uuiled St"N would be bel1er
... ~ by .wttchl"3 from th, Sludl'IO the ~mlln or Degbded , Mlch..l
M.,..,..., .... y love you. bul nobody el .. will.

Michael Moore's mania:

The Saudis were behind September 11
TIIi, "BiS We · wo"hy of Jote ph Coebbel, ha, probably been the mOil
. ua:.oful end d..truc:ti"" myth to come out of Ihe September I I elroc:i·
UN. The .lmple end obvioUl truth li lhet ClAm. bin lAden,' nlllegid.
from one of Siudl ...... ble·. wee!thlesl .nd moot . .peeted famlll•. deUb-
..... tely ... Iected II meny Slud l netion,l, II he could to bii""k the four
.lrllne... nd Cflrry out the . ttacu becaUM he w.nted to dNtroy Saudi
......bI.·. dote II. whh the United SlAt•. He CIIOe. 101 clote. \0 .uox:eed.
Ins then mo.t people .... Uze.
II W&I!lue that up 10 5eplember I I , the Saudi. had complacently 101·
..... Ied the moot """'e me .ntl·... merican .nd 1IIt1·IJ..... II ...ntlmenu bel""
t.ught In their mooqu .... IIId they look no e£JorU to cnck down on them.
Even afler the eUacu. thl"t&te of .£J.1n continued for enother y..... The
S.udl. HlU"*' lmol 01 QMdo ond .Imll.. SfOUplwOIIld nOl .Ud lhem
If u..r ..,.. no offe .....
I ......

Th .. policy .... not unlquoo 10 al Qoedo.1IJId It did not ...... lhe S.udis
In ony w.y f)'llIpothlzeci with.1 QMdo" .imA. Aft ... 011 ••1 QIado·••hns
w... very upllcitly Ih. d.lrucdon of lb. S.udl monorchy ond Its
repl_ .... nl wllh .n ul ..... I.1 ""Uphlle Ihol I;OfItrolled S. ... dl oi l
_ .......nd Ihe IWO mOIl holy pi",*, In the M ... llm world. MOIIXlI ond
Medl .... bolh of which lie In S. ... di Ierrltory.
Kul the S.udll wOnled. quiet kingdom ."d Wtl .. prefN'red 10 pey or
look the nthtl. way In order 10 get II . s.ptember 11 ."'-'uld h.... been I
wab-up coolilO the S.udl ~11o cred; down on III own Wren>·
lit predNn and on u.. cII..rI(Ier r:A al Qoedo NllbUobln& 1l1li1 In lhe "-<1
klnadom. 8uI for 1.....ly IDOnIM 011... the oltKU. the S.udl. w.... rell·
lI .... y bIuf oboul the threel bin t-\MI p<..d to h .. own borne counlfy.
Thol d ... o.... on Mey 12. :HI03. whet! nine al QMd.o IUldde bomben
o\locked. Klyo.dh ...tderilill compot.md where W.t ........ w.... livl""
klllil\lllw,oly ..l. people. Al Qqda bad obown III ~ .....I...tlon to lop-
pi, S.udl A.. bll. Jt proved 10 be • bill ...1,1Ib

Why separation of mosque and state Is folly

To Ibelr credll. the S.udl •. under the .ble ene,..lc dlrec:tlon of King
Ab,h.lllh, wob up loot. The ...y thtIy hlndled lhe Irnmediote thrett from
.1 QMdII 0\'1If Ihe .....1 four r-n bu beta.!moM Jc:Dored In tM Ameri·
can medII. 81,1111 "on object Ieuon In the _Ibl, and .-ofulwor-
In whldl Middle EMI ARb p""""""'u can deftoIl ,uch mumerou. ODd
nlhlHatLc: lfOuJ».
Yint. the S.udl • ....,....Ized the ne..t 10 toclt.l, Ih' problem 01 its
IOUn:t. They ".l1 ed monitoring ... rmon. glv.n In m'*lu. throughout
Ih. kln,dom by q<>dl •• locol ..Ii&\ou. INd ... ond p...ch.... Ext .......
1.1010111. who e.pouoed . 1 Qled.·. wild "",I. Or p...ched oed ilioo

"3"lno' th~ RiyAdh gtWMTlmftnt w_ Identified And ... moved from tb~l.

"""Itlonl. Th~ wo ..' on ... we", u""lIed from th~ countl")'. Th~ Saudi •
• 1... inltitllted • grldll"1 but Ina..oingly effective pollcy of impoolns
ltate control over ",lislOIlI inltltutiODJ IlIId tucbe .. of 1.lam to """1Iln·
.tim IlIId diJCJed.it 1.lami,1 I.... do ... Thi. policy wa' lIudied and Ctlpled
wilh greal ,"cceo. hy RUNian p_ldent Vlldlml. Pudn. lndMd. Britlln
wu th~ only .... jo. country thaI allowed I"IHllcal Islaml,t, 10 p""",h thei.
""troml,m unmol",ted. Th~ Saudi' found thomMlve.ln Ibe Ironic poIIl-
tion of privalely Mh"3. In vJln. Prime M1nloter Tony Blair IlIId the British
oecurily M. vic ... to muzzle lhe radiCII1 •. On luly 7. ZOO~. Ihft B.it l,h
l... mOO I h~ I'noo of not h-tinS Ihe Soudi.· warn I"".
The aritl,b w""l<0... ",.ulted from Ibe wl.h to apply Western tlllII '
dud. to lhe Mllslim world_ wid"'j>fMd folly ai""" Sep4~mber 11. and
,h~ aam~ one the B.ilish hed committed in Ihel. empire doy •. In Illdeo-
Chtlltlln connt.le., cbuteb.llIId ".te O'4lbt to I...."" one another IloIM.
After hundred. o f yean of w'lnsllns. lbat I••t.ndar<! pnleli« In tbe
elln,liln Wo' l. Ind il thoro'4lhly In KCO.d witb wbal le'II' tallght In
Ibe 8"",,,,1., render IInlo Caesar Ibat wbkb II Caesar'. and IlnlnGod that
which il God' •. Bul I_lam d"""n'l I... ve the lIale Iione. Ind 00 the . 1111
con'l I.... v. it .Ione. In fact. Ihe control of rellsloll' leaden. down 10
mnaque level. hal Ilway, been a ,nditlon.1 function o f ""81")' Mil_li m
The Otloman Empi", 'pecilli zed in controlling lhe mOlque., which II
wby tbey hel d on ... well for 00 long. When the nllve Britioh dldn't l llt
or ""ile the mufti of lemMlem . Hlj Amln II· HIISHln l. In th~ 19Z00 Ind
19301, they allowed him 10 Iprearl hli doctrine of mll.doroll' violence.
All the mufti wu Illowed 10 preach. the PII ... tlni ... Anlb populltion """.
eluded (not Ilnreaoond . lyl thaI the B.iII.h .pproved of him. Afte. lhe
Zoo3 bombi"". lhe s..udi. didn'l make Ihe aame mill.le.
The Slu dll 1100 unl .... bed Ihel. own domestic securi ty ..",Ie... In
Wlyl th.t mlde the Bllih Idmllllslnlloo 'l dom ... llc ",spon.. 10 Sep·

tembe. I I _m Ilbe .. l.n d wim py. And f.r from belnJI corrupl.lym",,-
Ihelic 10 the torro.ill •. or InCl""ble. Ihe Saudi fore .....'ponded

How 10 fight Muslim terrorists:

Build walls and monitor the mosques
!snored by vh1u.olly Ih. enti.. American do"","1ic modi •. I"" Sa.,di teC\L-
.Uy ClmjH13n ,&,-Iml al Qaed.o from 2002 through 2006 proved to be.
IQtal.U.,..... in marked conlraft lO the R _ wUoIding nexl door in Iraq.
In th.- yeo ... to be promoted to the pooilion of.1 Qaeda commander
or direclor of optlratlonl In Saudi Arabie wu. guuanlM!i dealb oen·
te""". The Saudi. killed h,lf. doten of them In. row.
By 2005. th, Saudi. w," buUdlnJI IIat....,f·th .....". hiJIh-lecb NCu.ily
berrie.. along thel. bard ..... with Yomen 10 I"" ..,.,Ih and Iraq In the nnnh·
!lUI. These ly.tem. were inspired by the IU~ offom •• r b ....1i prime
mini.te. Ariel Sh.ron·1 NC .. rfty fftlll;Ol. whicb proved to be the decl.lve
w.. pon In be'linJI the bloody .ukid. bomber onll.ughl of Ibe """ond
p.lealini.n Inlifad •.
AI ..... lbeU belatedly, Ibe Saudi. II."ed to monitor and rewtUe their
own lradltlol\ll..,hool 1."l boob 10 remove jHlI . . lh" w(Mlld gi"".l d .
com fort .• nd l"8itlm..:y 10.1 Qa.edI.ymjHthizetl.
II al.., helped Ihal _ring 011 pticeo In the flnl dtcr.de oflhe twenly-
fI",t century c.",ne ... new windfall for Saudi Ar.bla. King Abdullah'l
1999 IOOOrd wUh [raIl to bootl g10bel oU prieM h.d worked exlnlmely

The Saudlg and Ararat: From appeasement to realism

The orig[n.l S.ndi policy of IOOOmmodalion 10ward.1 Qoeda was nol
.dm[.. ble. but It wu. far cry from "'8o"[Y luppo"lng thalerror group.

let alo .... coop"",ting In it. September 11 en..:b on the United Stlt ... It
WI. con,btent with the d_des·old Saudi po!lciet of ..:commodetlon
loward Vuoer Arataland bls Palestln" Uberallon Orpnlutlon.
For more Ibln • quarter of I century. th" Saudi. plld Ihe PLO hull"
'"/Ill of prolllCtion money 10 A",fal and hi. guemllu would leov" them
.lone. But even thAt policy didn't lut forever.
10 11190. efte. Saddam HII'Hin conqllered Kllwait .nd looked poiled
to a;mquer Saudi A",bia. A",fRt ""8"'iy illmred on Saddom', bandwogon
... d offer.<! hi, . uppor1. The Saudi. we<e furiou •• and they fI .... lly cut tho
PLO off lod cracked down on it. operation, .nd fund-",i.ing. B_u..
Arafat WVIO cuh-.t.rved ... d weolr. .. ned by thll Saudi rMCtlon. h" put
on I more mod_I" face and ~ to u ..."ll forelJII mini".,. Shimon
P....... ·• protx-I'ID enle. Ihe 1993 0.10 P"",," Proceso.

Understanding the Saudis

In Ihon, whil" IOmeUmeo Ihort-lighted, the Saudll have neverthele ..
Ii ded with the West mnre often then nnt. 10 fully undent... d the Saudi
l'Iycbe ""lui ...... of cou ...... delvillfl into th"lr billOJ)'. For our p~.
w e need only go t.cl; to World War I. when Saudi Anobla and the Wlllt
became fully Intertwined.

A lJIlle Saudi hlslaT]": The myth of Lawrence of Arabia

T. E. Lawrence. lr.nown I. Lawrence of Arabi., Itod ,n ennrmo ... 1m,*"
on W... lern concel'tion, o f the A",b world. He even edvioed Wimtoa
o.un:hlll in d",willfl up wltot became the map of the modem Middle Rut
IIlhe Cairo ConFerence of 1921. 8uI he we. neve, the 8..... t beneF...,..",
... d libe",to. oftb" A",b penpl .. bl, .dml....... m.de blm 0111 10 be. He
we. I potentially talented arch...,IDgilt .• wri ter and ..If·drlmaUze. of
gtreordinary 8enlul ....d' wi ldly IIIIItlbl" Individual with. bewilder.
ing variety of highly "merllinillfl fetish .... He wu. however. fll from t'"

The Soud!. A.. PO" of tile SoJUUOfI. ~ .he l'roblem

proph'" of the Arab Awakening he imagined hlnuelfto be •• nd he was a

military geniu. only In hi. own d ..... ms.
In hla wonderful book Seven PilloR of Wisdom (besl ..... d as. highly
coloNd work of pure fiction! ..... wrence pMM!nta Ihe Arab .... volt In the
desert as. natio",,1 uptblng Ignored by Ih8 poodamic Brili.h .uthorities
In Calm bul fanned by him. In his t811lng. it W81 the crucial epi.ode of
World W8t lin the Middl e Easl, destroyln8.11 Ottoman po_through·
out th" Arabl.n penln,ula.
In rulity. the """,h W81 mid .. ~ibl" only by ""onnOu, Briti,b suI>-
li di ". ond btiholo paid to th" Huhemlta family. led by Sherif Hu .... in.
who wAS th" hf!>WIlwy Ruan:il"" of the Mwrlim hol y pi...,. in MOICQ. lIul
Shetif Hun.. in Will despiood . nd di.tnrlled by th" general popul.tlon of
the lIejaz. Ihe Red Sea co.SI region of ArabIa. I nd hi. writ n.. ver .. n
In.lde Ibe desert V"Slne.. of the Arahian
penln,uta. wh" .... the dynam ic youlI3
Ahdululz Ihn Slrud wa. Ihen .lready
mUlet of .1I he ,urveyed. The triholomen Pet.r O'Tool.
..... w"' .."" WI • • ble to bribe Or buy, who COUldM....
agNed 10 work with hlm on behalf of the Any«WLook
.herl f .nd hl, fOn •. did ""rry oul Ihelr
fernous raid on Aqab.. Bull hll wu. tiny
lideshow miHlarlly Imlev,nl lO the buge "l.iw'e!I(f.! .ecOld. then. ~ ~ In_.
duh of the Btitl.h and Otloma .. imperial iI 1'91 UjlICity for phYliol ~_~. ~
umi ... of mo", than 70.000 men NCb tn ity ~ ill'Je"'~liI Ietdt<, rd lit.. ~ l~ff"Y
th" 1917-19 18 beulct for Palctll.. ". tllent &utlt ibo ~ t~ he WoIII'eIf·
In 1920. al the urglnR of IItitilh poliU· CI!OI~ melcur~ lnd .iohenlly UfI'Iu/M:
""I officiall. Briti.b miliWY commanden llle ~, "(oIonti
quielly wilhdrew their fo~ wm tha La"'tt1lCf mel His aiosrl·
Syri. n upi lll of DAmlseul. In order to ~l,. in Warn.., 1M

d .... th" way for Itl flctio .. al UberaUon by M«k." World

Huhomlte Arab forc". Thl. w.s •

dum,y ' !tempi 1<> undennlne the r ... nch .u lh....;Ii ... from occupyIng
Syria In ItCWrd wilh Ihel. pf'llYlOll' ","",enu wilh Brllaln, . nd 10 rOf-
If" Ihe myth Ihal lhe Btld , h w e ... Ihe chlmplon, of A... b n.llon.lI,m
while Ih, ~'... ncl! W&Nlta crue l eOftm! .... The r ... nch InIoIled Ihe Brlti.h
ploy wllh ronlempt. A Pan-A .. bcongr"llll did meet in Oemascull n 1920
unlil theoocupying rrench expellOld II. Lewreru:e.ln ........ n PiJkJrso/Wil-
dom, did mono than any other 'In&le penon 10 ,,",abli,h lhe myth Ihllt Ih,
Dri llsb h.d evlcled Ib, Otlom.n. Ilh.nk. 1<> Ih' Areblo) .nd hIId then
bool .. yed the nation,li, 1 movemenllhey l.unched_ T hl. Inlerpf'llt.lion
wllS "!I'fly adoptlld by ,.........,t1onl of Britil h en ti..:ol<>niallntellectu.lo
and wI. I leilmotlf of the ROYI I lnltilute for In\el"l1lllo","1 Afflln .1
Chathllm Hou.. in London fot around hIIlf . cenlury . ."....111111 whllt I'"
late hillorl&n Elle Kedourle ""lied In , famou • ..... y "The Chatham
Hou .. Venlon " of modem Middl. Eallem hillory.
In ..... lily. A.. b natlonallom grew In Ihe 8"""1 cltl... ofCairo.llajjbdad .
I nd I)am...,lU. and it w •• fueled by • pe.feclly undentand.ble and

lin Laden on Saudi Arabia

WiS !fw s...di ~ behind ~ember mIn (ontl"l)t , OWN bil Udrn kIt.ndfd
II Qiedi is a reKlion qainn Sludl ArJbil"s ptO-Amfrb ~ Hfflo'! UI
eo(fI'pl from iII lnlen1ew bin l.mI did with CNN'! ""Iff Arnett In March 1997:

The SIutIi rrpne b but I brlD(h Of .. . . - of tho U.s. 11 btirc to,-ol to tho Ill...p.... tho SIutIi
rrpne .... ,,...,,ined .. act apinR bI-......, thio, blood 0tI1I'It ....... of """,*" am II'It
...... 0UhicI0 rho fWlip>uI ,............,. !O"I1 •• ~ '""'IJo, tIw..p... .....\Op9td ....... P"PIt
o«ordinIIlO whit Alloh ,e.e,I.", prol$c ond llory be 10 Him, iIOI to _Ion "*'1 on... aonm-
diet"')' om. .,.".,.,. tIIiI ....In IoundIIIon _ oio4owd. torrupt 1(1$ fd~ In w«y MpKI
cI tho _ y, tho ............ tho _ill. ....... '.'.'" ...-ricn ODd >0 .....
no. 50....10 AnI Pari '" the S<>Iutlon. NoI lhe _

.... IAbtf.......... ....,tment "'British ... d French OC:CUl"tlon ofthe IV""'t

I-"Ioriel of £sypc U1d wt..l bec.me modtrm Syria ... d Ir.q.
F., from bei ..... villonuy prop/let for the AnlhI.. 1.1 _ _ ...... c .....
lie o.mpl. of an .11t... ted yoW13 .dVIOIU,.,.. who projected hio own
flnlul .. onlO. fonlgo people h, did noC und.nl,nd end who "nd.,·
oland,bly had UIIle time for him. H, had aro ,ffllCl on th' hillOl)' . nd
1VO" 'lh of Arab ....tI"""Ulm.
E~erythlll3 he d id. for Ille moot bium! Ind ..lfIlh ......,nl. _rued 10
flMld hll lesand . li e .t.ndoned hi. f.me to Ie""e AI I humhle .Innen In
Ihl BrllI.h Royal AIr Foroe llOder.n _umed name. I~ "" uned1,W;llled
youna Ilrlllen to whip him IIld to otherwlle physlcelly .h".. him. He
.v.... had them write ..porto.boul hi' .-:tlon.o 10 bei.... lorl"red.., thet
he could ..... them "'_&rd. He ..... uUed In I lDOIOI'C)'C1e IOCident 10
1935. CIYCl the wey bot rode hie bib I I hiah 1pM<! throu&h Ih, DIfI'OW
EncIllh country llnM. the only,..."rI""," It had noC heppened yean
...Ii.... NlMIdl-.o 10 .. y. COftIIpirecy Ihenrl ......... I... lly .wlfled uound
hi, dem l... HMI he lived. he might well be ... """"""I man mlocblttf",d
chlOl wllh Ih, teh,m..... would IuIv, whbperwd Inlo Churchill ', ...
du.lna World IV" II. In Ih, 1!1601. e I ..ptlrb movl. l1eni,.. Vete. O"Toole
..... I~"d IAwtence', .11"... OTool, WII 1111 . lmu.lnaly h,ndlOme. Ind
1..... lllIbl . to tbe l.dIM. I.Iwrenee wi, non. of thOM thlnSt. H, WII
. horl . ooyly lnlellect ... I·loouna with e I. , . !>lIM In 10 0....1 f _ .•od
fwnd the female form ",pllloiv • .
HI, Indurl",tep"tetlon confirme th' Id.. ,luIt old leaend., lib ol d
",ldi _ _ dl .. BUlliolib old eoIdlere, ....... cb lib Le"'ella'e don't
fide IWI)'; they juIt _ beck with IDlII'I ell.... end ""IMy then .v....

Tbe Arab revolt tbat worked

The ...1 A'" revoIl ..... led by Abd"IuI~ Ibn lNud. Th' oontrvtl betwwn
Ibn Slud end LeWJ'llOCl. end with l.eWJ'llno.', loooe Shtlrlf Bu.... ln of

Mecca and hi. younger ..... Fat.. 1. we ... I'rofound. Ibn s..ud ... u. !"HI
prir>C8 •• IDIIII of.ctlon and a wurior hem. With hi, family he ned K')'lIdh
and went into ""He when he ..... only I loti"", In the Arabian he&rt·
land, he .bowed ""Imeal ......en .. mil itary geolu.ln mnrgl"i hl' loyal
Bedouin tribes whh the W_IIb.bi pUrll!1 of the ItLamic faith. He led what
amount"" to both an Anlb nationalitl and Ittamk: fundamen t,U. t .-eRon·
Unn movement. HI B... torily. integri ty. and ... 0 ... of justice m.od"U pop-
ular. ond hy 1914 he ... at lhe m.,'.ro f the Arabian h.... rtland .• deMrt
.lm,,"! I. LIlf8'I III Indl •.
Ouring world War I. Ibn Saud pru dent ly Iteenld cI ..... of botb 1M
British and the OtIOllUlns. H, did not Ilk' Or trust the teeu)" You"lI Thri:;
I1IdiCiI. who had Hiu<! C(lnlmi of the ,"",' empire In 1908. and though
.dvl ..d and lubll d ized by th .. DrUid•. h. took hll own 00 ....... In 1M
1920., he completed hi. """'IU8J' of A",-
bla by ..... dina hll fOreef 10 capt"..., tl>e
two holi ... t cltlel in Is lam. Mecctl lod
A Pilluof Medin •.
Wisdom M"""" Ind Medina we ... run hy Sl>eti f
Huueln . the Britllh idol Si r Henry
McM. hon .nd Sir Ronlld SIOITI hid 10
I rdently wooed In their In fl mo ... Ind
hu"llied 19U McM.hon· H ....... in leu .....
T. I. u--.
And i.awrenOl and Gertrude Bell hid
worklKl 10 hard ond 10 well to pretenl
HUI ... in'llOn Fli..1 •• I great WlrriO"
prinOlllld IlIt",,,,"n 10 (lo,Yld Woyd Goo;np .nd Winston O:nrn:hili.
But In rNlIly, Sh.. rif Hu .... ln wu d ... p loed an d _nled.1 I ...1'.....
IIY8.iJr8tdy bumbler by hillo"ll'lu fferlng lubfec1l, Not only could tb.
Hub"",lt ... not ... t lbe Arab M... llm world an.me .salnl t H.8 OttOIIlllll,
but tltey coul d not .Y1In protect tltelr own b.ckyord, Sb"';! Hu ..... in w...
Mnl I*=king by Ibn Mud in 1!'~~ ... his ,"""'" . .. bje<:t. Mgefly OII<!brated

nOilhel. conq.... bul Iheir Hhentioo.. By theo. Churchill." Lawrence
IlIId Bell'. WJiI!&, bad a .led. the I<i.qdom of l,......,. lor Hu.Min·._
rei..... 1\ did DOl ~ 10 be I heppy or ...i .. dec:Hlon. Meln ... hUe, tbe
_I power In A.. bia ... Ibn Saud'•.

Tbe founding fatber

Ibn Saud buIlt Ihe KlDljdom of Sau d i A.. bl •• nd u nlOed It. Irlbet
throny. Ihe Impooillon of pur it Inia.l W.h h.hi ",Lim II. rHC1lon 10 the
Illepd.ly co.mopoLh.n, COrrupl .• nd dllClyl"ll Ouom.n a.Hphete io
Coruotlllltlnople. BUI It '" • wild distortioa to USUe liull tndlUDniI Saudi
WlhhIbUm I. ",ulnlent to the lllamic radlcal"'m thet .wept the Mu.
11m ... orld iD the \9801. n.. ........,. orthetl.t.. radlceil ........ u A}'1Itol-
Ieh Rubull.h II:homelnl', I.Lemic Revolution In I..n. Bolli Ibn Saud'.
W.II""bl. t .......1I IIId Khomelnr. Shme...-.oll QUI be _ n li the «Iulv-
Ilenl of ,'''' Prot"tllll Reformllion. but th, Iluer"'N far ....... radia.l
lluin the lonner.
Ibn Saud ,,' out both ... orld ...... bul """er.ho... ed the partiality lor
Ih, Nul. Ih.t otller " .. b I..d...... (like " '1 Amln .1· Hu ..... lnl. the com·
manden of the Drll;.b.Irl.IDed tr.ql .nny, end ~en An ...... Sadatl nOlO-
rloully did. And II. "'1.lmplllClble In hl.Mtred olCommun l.m II.

dl.hollaol ",volnt lonuy I""",. He felt tb, ....... "'IY lbooJt ZionJIm . for
thel milt•• But M ... N at.o throu&boul hla life I I""t IlIId ,ppnocllth-,
friend 01 the U.. Ued ~. tie IoetlwI ........ but he "'11 IPPIUed and die-
lulted. by the UOloclUIIL
Ibn Saud buill hi. ki n"'"", DOl by d.troyl.... old n l... end WI~ but
by ....,orlnl I nd chrl.h i"l Ihem. H, ..... the ",.mpl,. of I d ...1e
Bedouin Ihelkb. Many 01 the (!rUe) It...... told iboul him would fit cIuo.r-
.cle.. llb lethro . nd Abrehlm in the I:I lble. o r Ih' fi ... lene.. tlon of
A.. b l...d ....... fle. Muh.ommad. Unlike Gamel "bde' Ne_ln f".cyp1.1bn
Saud never tri ed to d"lIhlliu or . ubvert nelghborlnl nllioni. W.tem

Ityl_ ofparUamentary dcmoa..:y were IHen a nd I.. dleroul tn hIm . bUI
he carefully practlCfld the Inditinnal d~ Anb fomu nf mediation and
colUululinn within hiA trihlll and .ociety. It iA becaUH hillOnl III have
continued Ihat practIce n\'8r Ihe fly. and I balf decad ... II""" hll d ... ,h
Ihal Saudi Anbl •. agol.,.11O many p....dictinnl nf doom In Ih. conlnry.
hu romained al lIable and ,uCCIIIJful u II hu.

King Falsal and Ihe 011 weapon

FalMllbn AbdulllllE becam. ki"i nf Saudi Arebia in 19fH . Hil8lO!lnlln
th.lhro .... hlKi not ~n enlUJ"ed-..cepl by h~ Illenl. He '"'*' nnenObn
Saud', nlder ION. bUI nOllhe heIr . pparenlln theUne nf 'UCOIIISlon. lIul
It was cl .... long befnm Ihe d .... th nfhll fllber In 195Z that h, was tb. nld
man'. foynril8. AI We Suam.s In 11H7. the young Prince F,IM[ hid led
lhe Anb .... liom· fierce oppot.lIlon to the UN', partltlnn pLon 10 """,Ie the
SUle nf In..,!. Of III the dlllen kinadom', "'I...... OVM the next , lxty yean.
he wnuld proye by far the mOIl Implacable In hi' nppot.iUnn In the YOl')'
exlllenee nf tbe ,ewll h lIate.
lIul when Fli..1 came In power. Saudi ArabI. appeared In be In lrou·
ble. llil u..,I ...1 brolber KillJl Saud ibn Abdulnlz hid squandered Ihe
killJldom '. growing nil rev.n ..... while 1.... llng lhe COIUOn lum nf U.S. nil
companl ... In Anomco enloy a free hand . Saudi Arabla appeared under
1h....1 from novolulinnary Communlll and Arab ooclaliit . ubve ... lnn. 11>0
ehvbmatlc CIom&1 Abdel Nu"", wal riding high ..,...,.. th8 entire ragion
after defying lhe IIrililh and the Fmneh In 1958.
ConH",atlve mnnarchi ... _med tn be Inpplin8 I e""" the Middl,
East, Revol .. linOllry "'8lmM Ihal wanlOO In nyenhrow the SaudllllOllll"
ehy now exiAled nn th8 country', northern and _tam boni....... Tb, 1""11
mnnarchy hid been moreileo.ly m • .....,red hy. mililary coup in 19S8.
N..... r W&I mlklng Egypllh8 ~In"·. mllilary mlnl-Iuperpow" with
Soviet w .... poru. and Syril w.. It. ally. Fai..!. deyoutly MUIl im .nd pM'
Th~ Soudl. ,,'" Po., of II.. SoJ~,Ioo>. Not ,he Problem

. ionRtc1y 10YRllnihe d"""", Ir.dliion. of

hi. lJ.etlouln .-.ple IlIId 10 the memory of Un-PC History:
hi. lale f.lh ......... med • ri d iculou. Great Men
Bn""hron i.m in Ihe modern " ... b world. Chlnsothe
InSlead. he wa. about 10 Iransform it In
hi. Image.
o.o..,r,I" ... lib ~·.lsa l·1 OlUlled bmther "It ~ not f~ today to construct ~tor)'
KlnM Saud. Ihe obe.e pl.yboy King 0ItIU"Id ~ ~~. wciolocY.
rorouk of EArPI .• nd King r .i..l lofl-t. ond ~anamKl of NMlii In the .... Iy ~ilrl of
the darling ofT. E. l.aw~nce. OturcltHl. this ( ..... tury 1houId. In throty. flpQin how the
and ea.,ruoo llell , had led many W""lem '
...... nd Commu ni.t. to ... ume a U hered·
ilary Arab monarcltJ could be wril1en off
a, weal< .nd decadent. lIutlho ....14Iiou.1y only loIti,fKtory ___ rfIide! In the unique
devout 1"01 ...1 w .. nol. He wu • quiet, mion MId !kill! of .o.tdJIuil hirnstIf,"
methodlClOI. and even , hy workaholic Roald LK.,. IMKq-
who _ about cleaning up the wnocked dam; AtlIbicr and rhf
finance. of hi. country .nd lIudylnglhe HotMofSoud
lerml of III .... IBtlonsh ip with the Ameri,
CIOn oil com""n i.... He w.. not given 10
"",n d iOM. emply lpeech"" like Na ..e r. He haled Communi.", with .,
I_loS much pousion .. he did Zlonl.m. He proved. formid.ble enemy
,u boI h.
FaI ...1 realized Ih" the Hashemite line no lon8er pooed .ny Ibreat to
oll.rich Sa .. dl Arabi., The Hashemite ro)'lll hou ... had t -n oxlingul.hed
in l-t, . nd Killflllu ...in·, Jord.n wall"" Imalllo wDlT}' about. [nd~,

Fai.. 1 ...... Iind the .... v.nt.se of k""l'lng Jordan I" KlnS lIu .."in'l CIOU-
tlu .. 8 an d J'ftIpon.lhl e hondl. Th.. w.y 1".1..1 could IU pport ya .... r
Araf.t and hll young PW agaln.II ......1. bul.lso u .... Jordan ... buffer.
p",ven lillfl II from being anolher ~volutlonory bridseh ... d li ke Iraq.
Syrl •. and f.&ypt.

faiNI wu helped by wl)rld even! •. In 1967_!he nme epochll y...,.
!ba! l.ra.,1 Im.,bed N......".·. dl"1l&DU -..nd conquared the Weol Bank. Gau..
Uld !he holy cily of raruNlem-tbe greel 011 JWe""'" of TUN .'.. r1 ed II)
f.1I MOn. F.INI b,,,,.. lIled from hi. vut experlen.ce a I diploma! IerYl"(l
hi. lal .. fatherand a the RKJIt ,wpeeled ..... Ior IIgute In the k1"l1dom dill'
ing the ... ign of h15 worthl_ brotber. In ...!um for richly fundinR the PW
In III guerrilla auacb &pin.1 1....... I.nd 1""",li and Jew\lh 1'~lIa"'und
the world. he won Immunity for hi. country
from PIO troublmn.klng and .uhYe... ion th.t
Imlcted Jordan and Lebanon. He IUlborlEGd
Sound hi. oil ndnlllen!O liar! negotltdinR with Shah
R...... !,ohlavl.lhe IU!OCTIlic dldator of Shiite
Iran acroa Ihe p_lln Gulf•• boul coordl"..!.
Ing !helr policlea on fU;1"lI 011 price..
iIbouIli '''limo! is not
After Ihe d ... !b of N....., In 1970. FIINI
wNt II isClil1ed buT how II xu.. Thmm
found hil.uccetlOr. Anwar Sadiol •• welcome
'0i"iW\ ~ic.. ftSlmH iOd SIUId
change. Sadal dId not have N........ grandl...
mot"Ii<ChiH. iOd r1« W!Sli. ••• Tht qtJIlity
Imbltlon. to WfHk ... volul;on Ind hlvoc
of I '~Ime IhooId bt ~ by ~s d«ds
throughout the Arlb wl)rld. L1lr.e ~·aINI. h ..
iOd !hi! InltSflty of its ruItn..
w .. ready II) work <:oope...!lvely wllh tbe
lIRa ,alsaIiIMI Americlnl an d WI • • nU-Sovl.t. And h ..
Al~""Ir. ~ In
I)ffered lheonly reall.lle Arlb mlillary option
Ronild licey. Thr
agaln.1 [.nel. Tbe IWO men e .... led • new
Km,dom: Nubia and
Saudl'EAYpllan axll thaI remalM. key faclor
1M /l(IIM' of Saud
for IlIb!lily in the Arlb world today.
In 1973. when Sadal threw 80.000 Eflyptl ...
IOldl .... ,..Inll [In.I·1 hollow .hell of •
defunalveILne "'" Ihe _I lide of Ihe Sue", Canal. FIINI'truck roo. o.er
the foll owi"(l woeu. II) !he ,hock an d then borror oftbe world. Saudi
Anbla Ind Inn led Iraq. Indon ... ' •. Ven .. ~u .. I•• Ind the other main 011.
TIM Solid .. A", I'M! ollh, SoIulloa. No! tho PmbIftn

produd.,. .... tlonlln .mtIrViJy ",111.,.lhe prlco of oll. In a r- monlhs.

they ..... quadrupled It.
Driliin . nd fr.nc. had fully wHlldrawn from III, Middl, Ea.I. Tho
Un ited SI.". wuuh.a ...,ed ond domonllz.od &om the WI. In Vi"'nam .
NoIII ohbe .... tor W..tem pow .... bid .llber lho mIIHI.,. Cloul or lbe
IIIrvl 10 I.,. 10 mo'" ...Inll th' uy oll-pl'Oducl.,. nollon • . ,ltb'r by
tn ....1on or by """"II",. ODU p. s-Id.. Sooudl Anbll and Inn w..--
."ppoMKlly-th Unltltd Silt..' main .111. In lhe rIIlon. Nixon .nd
Hen.,. KI"'nser b.ad .....1)' wil l .. p 1M , h.b of Iron u their ..... anal
poliDBmLa 10 k.ep the 5<wieto and ........ rnoI ..ILnnuy ..... m_ nul oft'"
Soo .. di .nd KuWIIII oU n.ldI. Th' Soo"dl" how ....... bad rl3hlly j\ld8ed
thlt the ,hlb wu.n " ....tol)l, ond "npredlct.bl, ",..,Iomanlee wbom
lb. Americanl ""uld DOl 1....1. and 1".1111 orr...... Ihe .h.h • deal hi
couldn't ",fu..: vutl)' Incno.1MKI oil ",.... n u... Th. "oLl wHpon " wu
born .
F.i..1 did nOl .... ltlle to ... II on I aJobol..:ole. Th...te,,1td wilh lbe
blllltick of _.till! 011 pnceo, or h.vl"l crucl.1 oU, .. ppU .. withheld .
dOlan. of nol lo". endo-d th,l ' dlplomallc rel.llo". with 1......1. Third
Wo,ld co"nln.. u""Ued I. rlell deyelopment tllml who were part of
Prime Minl.IM Gold. Mel,'1 falunu•• Hempt to mike 1......1the loader of
I new Third World pow ... bloc. .... o Ihe AfrlClln .... tlOOI fell obediently in
line behind the Sooudll. tho United N.Ii.,.,. wu lranlfonned oY1lfJllghl
into. ",Ientl_ sloboJ m"ll-lphone of ..lectlo" Ind "'" lpinlt larMl ."d
tb. United St..... F.INJ made .... _ of hll dirk .Id.. H. wu not j,,",
ImpJlClbl)' ."U·Zlonll' a"d devoted 10 IMlonnlh llllion of IJ.rHJ. bul
l'Iu.Uy .nU-Som il ie. He belle .. ed Ihllnel,n l. 10na-dIJCfldlted "blood
Libel" thai II'" kill" MuolLm IlId CIorllllln chILdren IDd \l1Id thoi.
blood 10 bake PI_,._ ....t-. He belleYed TIHI Protocol. oflhe Eltkn
of Ziott. th forged Io...I,h
plot 10 conqu ... Ib, world coOOXlCled by lbe
Okhrona. thocurlll Kuoo.Iao _ police. IUtLor bod uIMKI the ?leA,"""",
•• on .. of hi. jUl Iifi""Uono fo, th .. Hol"""u. I. and hlltori." N""""" Cohn
.lghlly called lI. "warranl for g~nodde.· ~·.I .. I e nlhu.lUllcally gave
copl... of It 10 his vlllIon u gift..
1'11..1 10'11. II It lurned 01,11. fl •• h... d of hi. lime In champlonlll3 I
revived JHln-Arah movement bated on religiou. exll'9ml.m. He drem.ati-
aolly Itepped up fundl"3 of ....,dmuo'. Illamlc religioulocbooil. acmu
the b!amic world. He wu not t)'plal ofhl ...,cceolOri. but he .... Seudl
policy along fat .. ful path. that hi"uo:ellOri did l\Ol d.re to change.
There I, no t81l1"3 how much further FIlsaJ mlghl have gone. Would
he have made common caUM with Ronald RHgl n 10 hri"3 lb. Soviet
Union down. II hil luCcellIOri did? He might b.v......o. he might b.....
refuNd hecaUle of Keagan'l "tOII3 IUPpott for Is...,l. He might well h,o""
made common atu ... Inll""d wllh Ay.tollah Khomelnl .1\..,. th. 111.mlt
Revolution In Iron. The pm.peel of Saudi Arabi •• nd [ran united In
Irnplacf,ble Oppoll ition to the Unlted Stlto.. and 1...... 1COtlld have tre,,.
formed I.... world in the .... Iy 19801. and nOl for Ihe better.
But on MlI'Cb 2S. 1975, at a mapil. I tradltlOlUlI gathert"3 of Seudl roy.
• 11. whe ... even the moot ot..cure and lunlor m.. mbeR were g.. nted
ICC1IIN and allowed 10 P"'"""t their gr!evanC1lllnd concernl, King l'aisal
w u tho! dNd. He fell victim not to. Communist, NUllerile. o.extreme
IsII,nl.t revolutionary, hut to hi. own nep .... w. I "",,,lIlly de"II3ed dN«
add ict who hId hung oul In California. The killer was convicted of regi-
cide and behOlded throe month.lale •.

Saudi Arabia's Ihree threats

KlnS 1'.1..1 wu followed by King Kh.led (I97~1982)_ Klns fohd
(1982-2005), Ind King Abdullah (1<:lill3 •• crown prince and regent,
1 99~200~), Ourill3 th_ )"'111"1, Seud; ANbia resard"" th .. thNMt ""'"tM!
thrMu to lu existence I. I ftlvolutlonlry Inn,'" . . . . .iv.. or un.table
Iraq, and 1.lamle rediatlilm.

The Soudio An Port ohho Solution. Not the Problem

Saudi allltudM toward 11'1111 had fluctuated wUdly .Inee the t979
lalllIIlic Revolution, Ilnally cu lmlnAtll13 In r...... of the nld icel ShUtes,
which pushed the kingdom Into the Bnnl or Ronald Reapn. U ke the
Unlt8d StBtM. the Saudil under King Fshd
financed Satldlm Hu .... in in hi' War . inlt
lrml until 1983. When, however. Satldamow.ol-
Iow8d Kuwait in July 1990. the lemlled Saudi
Saudi Arabia
leadon ..... Had they oould very eASily"" nftXt. ... dIo
Relatio ... with the Unlt8d St.too became even Terrorists
d .....r. Bnd Saudi ABbia hecame the mar_
',1,1 QHdIlIlde!ntimi1!(] tilt efricK)' of
ohallillJl yard for th' U.s,lod 700.000 llrong
s..udl inlrlli&«Kt iWld seal!it)' jOltn IIId
allied army-the gnII.tMt ever p thered in the
1M, ibiIit)' 10 idipt to fItW typn d
Middle Eut~hlt .muhed Saddant'. mlHtary
t!YNt lind IItiKk. Whol t ordiNry polite
power In Ihe 1991 CulrWar.
~ not ~ipptd 10 dtiI .. im the new
Relation. with the United StllM .lowly
det8rior&led d urillJl Ihe Clinlon Y"", how_
thrNt!iMdi intrlll&«Kt "'I .tile to K<\I"
"Irlr ido!ntifr thosoi! miI~""1 ""'" com-
ever. 1\ dldn'l hel p when ClutiOll' and lactful
prised the twtnty-sl. most-..",,!(] IItt ..
W.""n Christopher WI' ",placed .. _ary
~~I 0( II QHdI ,Ntlvtly quickly. lind
or , t.te in Cli nton'INCond term by In_your-
the seaI!lty stfVim _t ,bit to lull
r.ce. pro-democracy MadeleIne Albright.
do..n iWld dltn4lI mosl 0( the CtU\ mey
Aho. KIng Fahd wal,lowly dying. and by the
Ille 11'1901. e ff&Clive power In Ihe kingdom """'.-
bad pUlled 10 hi. brother Cmwn Prince AntItoft, Cot" ....
Abdullah Ibn Abdulazi ~. While coutioully
W.~('''I (fflltf
pro-American. Abdu llah WlIS much mo", tB_
for Strllqic Inc! Inter-
ditionol.nd incarrul>tlhle than Fahd. He lOll
nltioNl Studies, "AI
conllden"" in Clinton IIId Albrlghl Ind ......
QHdf, in Sioudl Aribll :
concerned aboul lhe Ilnandal elfect of plum-
Myrrrnt1ric Thrml
meting global 011 pri""" on tha klllJldom·. flo- ..no:t Islmil1 Exlftm-
""I Itahillly. Ha .110 no1ed Ihat 1"'0 hed ;111: lOGS
.Ieeted ill mo.l mod .... te Iellde' l ine. bemr&
the 111111 fflvolutl" .. , Mohammad KhatamL So In tlllXl Saud I AbdulL.h
concluded an 011 production lI mili"ll and prioH:onlrol-sr-menl with
I..... The two giant. quicldy .how"" they Ilill tuod the cLou' within OPEC.

Harry St. j .... Pllilby: Tho Anti-L~wrence

T' t Uw"",e ""'" i rorn.oIk drum•• who KIf<! QUI hi! ( ..,f<! f..,·
min. But the 1ImI1II1i.>nt dIlle Middle [;1\1 of ~e', lime ~
HuI)' ")Kt" "'iib)'. Phllby wu ¥!Other EncIlsIm¥lror>f ~. but o.rIIh
Uwl!flCe. who ~ the ~ ¥Id ineff~ Holhernlte Iomily. he
~iended .t.bduIuil ibn Siud .-.d beurnr the hichly infIuem~1 tcMso< to
the fNl p<7We< In the Ar,bIin ~t. In tIlu¥ly I9JO!, to lib _'1$1 peoorwoI
p'" he helped nqot~te bttwftn Ibn Siud .-.:I $I;nj",d Oil d UI"orrU.
pl"'( the <:OIIlp¥l)' the ptOSf)«tirc conmJ.ion lot oil in the u,t~ PO"
d the kiI'Cdom- pt"lby nmed hi!. t>.ck on Encland and (~fd 10 hi..,
[.-.d O«(~f<I ill ~t 01 (in:Lm(i'olQflj in middle., Hi. _ K.Om.
who ~ 'Of the Btitilh ~r" ~e. beuorne ~ _ inf_ thon
hi!. f;nhtr, ~ n i spy fOIl the SoIriflUnion fOf • ",,",,"-<:",,\0')' o,m,1 he
de/"I!(tfd t~ in 1961
If notIWII fllOe.1Id Phllb)' WiI$ • fNli\t fif did noI try to iInpo;:M h" own
.il.IOn 01\ the Middle £.HI but clNtly ~ocni~ in wir"ner$ and 1CMf' MId
the U\It~1 ~_e 01 oil fW ~ h" .....1" Ibn Siud koy.illy ft.I ~l
Inc! in the proem ~ the ",00nII int"em d the I,ftled Stirn
~y. ~ died • ~~thy ....... in hiI own bfd. 1\ , f~ old ,..

~ ~Id lK'Y notn in hr$ book 11If'~' NoboQ t:nd the ~ 01

SQc.od, ~ ""'" m,o;h ttw! WiIS ~. lnl~ rtwt wu pioM. obcIo.rt fW,,1)'
!It. JaM ""I~. Tho! w", pr~y why M &<>I on 1(1 ~I woth lh10 AribL·

'Tho Soudlo AN I'lln of the 501,,1100 . No! the Problem

AlVitO the r\tht cltcuom_. to make I diffM1lnDI. Over the ou' I" ....
yeol'l. oil pn.::.. •....,Ied from UI:Iund Ie", doll ... I IM ... l 10 ..-. lban
thirty. II Memed like. 101 of 'DOOM)' I ' th. lime.
"'-I<konl KIuI'lml ...... ed two 'erm.I In pow... but hi, "W:' I ,or In
2005 wu. very ditfeter,t kind of milO. KIna Abdullah met with Prost ......,
Mahmood AhmadlnejMI and, K:ODrdina 10 S.udllOUf'C". quickly became
alermll(! a. hu... 1.... '1" ... 1 end unpredictabl. h. could I.. II wu 111"""1
R'lIum"n l for ••• bnldng .... lalloo. wilh Ih, Unhed S'ltlll.
Unfol1unl'ely for th. Siu d l•. from the ir poIn t of vlo.... Ih" United
5,"." watn', -.;tIn, caullo ..... , Or _poo,l bly In th. Mlddl. Eul ..Ither,
. A... th. 200linoq 1'1.. and Ib GlUtl ... of Saddam H Ulllllln. They went
prh·.tely IuIppy 10 _ s.dd.m .,..... but they ~ from n.......nd ""p&-
n.....,.'h.' 1'1...,.... 11'*"1 dernoc:ncy dOlton', work In their pan of tbe
The Saudi. W,,", .110 ....1}' wary o f I..... '. Sunol ·Shllt, hud .pillin,
IniO !hel, own COtlDUY. Popular Ophlion amoaa SuMI ~h..llma 10 S.udl
ArIbi. wall ttrongLyenppd on \bulde ofthe Sun nl,ln I.... Hut oil-rich
Ohaltra .. I, hom, to mlny ShUt .... po!.h.po ...... n ,malo.hy. The Soudl'
relponded by building. mUlive. OOItly security bam .... Ofl lh,ir nonh-
em bordo •.
Th, Soud l. h.d on even mOR Immed il i. ooncem. By 2006. lhe U.S.
Inlillary wu noll", III II>CI'eNI", number of rouna Siudl. octi .... In lIMo
Sunnl IMUIJFICJ In tr.q. puticularly in I.... rankt of t .......1ckIe bomben.
Thl. IdentlfialtiOfl wu predlct.bI,. bul II fri&bt.ned the Soudis. Soudl
IUppoI"'I forthe ... tl~unlll mujahedin In Afghoniolon hod produmd
bin 1...den ••1Qoeda. SeplfIItI'- II .and the 2003 bombl,.. In SiudJ Na-
bla. Tb.o Iraq dvU war IhrMtened to prod""". far ......... number of ....1·
aollmd Soudl. commlued 10 toppli n, th,i, own I!'>.... rnm.nl. So the
Soudl. cnckMi down on the radial relis""'- lINCh," within their own
borden. While 11')1111310 _I their northern bord ...... they . 110 lried 10_1
their lOu lhem bord .... with Vern"" . wh""c.' n estlmoted 400 .000 people
n . hlltlCcloU1 1. ~_ G"ld. t. u.. .... ddl. Ellt

• Y"'" we", trekking IIMh for I bett""lIfe. The Salld iA.IIlIp«:tlng...Jk:o.I

elementoln ImpoV1ll"ilhlKl Yem"" we", Infiltn tillS their kingdom . ...:t1Kl
to shut them down by buil ding InoIh.". -:urity f"n<:fI.
The Saudi monarchy wllll iway. hllle Its OWII IUIllo ... llm ....... ts. but
the ioto ..... t. of . COIIH ...... t;V. monarchy are much mo .... likely to align in
the futu ....... they hove III the pall. wi th A.....rlu·. d""i", for. II.ble,
non-Commullirt. 1I01l·ndlcal Middle Eatt. And If we wilL lab the Saudi.·
advice. oo....".....tl ..., trod.hlon·mloded monarchi.. are. better bet for the
fu t~ofl p ..... W... tem Middle EMt thon ..... lllamiC democrocl... and the
Illaml.t. they might elect.

Chl pt" •

1975- 2007

t', pop ... l., 10 _thatlh, MIddle Ea.1 hli .IwlY' '-n I blood· Guess what?

I !Moth. INt 11". not lrue. Indeed. when the 11173 YOIII Klpp ... , W.,
....Iood, • ,.nod 01,-00 MIt ;n lintem>pt.,;!, of COWM, wllh bou.llI of

~ a.'1Ib !'any _

wiol_l. II "'I.,;! _Iy thirty yeon.
latMJ 'l nlollonl wilh IIlI n'~ Anb lUll. w_ dominol.,;! by
dy ...... iao of.-. no! war. Anwar s.dil mode,...::. wllh I_ l In tIM
H111-U1711 period. A - . . mteoitheorel.laoJ .... ' thot ..... -.lly . -

)oIIh aM_1Iot

• s,-m" po HId III


operated on Ih. Golon U'!&hlll betw""n 11....1 Ind Syri • . Lebanon 001. Horn AsSI4 I\II~
II~ Intoo homtndouo eMI war largely 1",lllI'u";! by V _ A",fol ."d IsfK'I bul ~I~
hI. PLO. llld n..t Syrlo ",d Ihen 1.1.... 11'" IhemlMl~. set ,ud..! Inlo the YhzIIok IIIbln. 1M
In f~mel brew, w ll h Syrio fKll "ll by r... the betlor of U. SO ... dl ArIIb1" Jot •
M ""'" ""lostIne
don. EtiYpl , Ind lbe A",b Culf 1111. III enjoyed ~. Ind III of Ib .....
except f:CypI p .... pond. Ewen In Egypt. th .... w .... welcome dllCldeo of '""
...,. . ....
,...::. Ind ....elOJlPlIII' In Itrikinjj c:onUUI 10 tbt bernie INI hyllori<:al po !1tlll willi Dc
ODd ru;nout ..!....., ..... of N_·. era.
Arabs can nght
Amerk:onl ond 1.",,11. In po.rtlcul ... In lbe d.cad...10000Ih, d",mol;e

"", ...
t. ...11 wiclo.-l .. ln Ib, 11M!7 Six·D1y Wa, My. wld'ly embraold the myth
thol A... bI un'l win w..... 11Ii. I tl il ... d, 'PP"'"" 10 MYI been ,hued. by
Vice J'r.>lldenl Di ck Cheney. Defen'" Secnolny Donald Rumsfcld. nd
their handpicked IdvilO" when they..,nt Ihe U.S . ....,ed fo,,*, ow,,",!>"
ins inlO 1""1 in March 2003 and thoushl they cnuld redraw the political
map of Ihe counlry II wlll .
In r""•. Ihe milit.ry his lory of Ihe twentieth century .howl that nol
only can A .. b8 flghl. but Ihey can do SO vtlry well.
The A.. b Middle wI w.. one of lhe 1. .1 " ' - of the world 10 _lit
conquett .nd colOnlulion by Ih" I'"""t [ uro!""'n powe ... Bri tain .nd
F.ance SOIlhel. !!.and. on It only when the Oltonuon Empi ... fln.lly col-
IopMd aft", . Iong.loush. biUer f4lhl in late IIlt8. II .houJd be noted that
mOIl of lhe soldie.. " 'ho lurrounded. IrlPped . and ultimalely Clplured
1M Anglo-Indlan....,y .. Kut in 1915 w~ AtlIb8r9Cn1lted by Ihe Ouo-
manl from wilhin Ihe nogion. And Ihey w...... mOflJllhe v..,.r. .. t 10 dri ....
oUllhe Brilis h ond French. By 11MB """'Y mato. Arlb nBUon eJlcepl AI.-
ria WII Indeptlndent. and by 1958 everyone of them h.d luccetdully
ejected.1I B.itis h .nd F... nch Influ ...."" ov'" I....i •• ff"i ... Thi. w.. not
the record of n.llom of cowuw. IncomptlleJll •• 0. defeoatlJlI.
1111 true that 11....1 h81 won 811 the major conventional military waro
~al"'llti Anlb nel&hbon.. often apinJl formidable odds. BUllhe [• ...,jis
were .Imosc JJw.ys flghtlng for Ihel •• urvlval. MaD conllCripl Arab ....,illl
we ... ..,01 InlO WI .. fi r from home, Uke Ihe luckl,," Egyplian .rmlet
Nasserlelll In lo Y"",en In the 19600 and Ih ..... d ... troyed by Ihe 1...e1ls
in 1948, 1956. and 1967.
But the perfonna""" of the Iraqi a rmy agalnll Vlltly nUlneriCilly
superior [rlni." fon:eo during Ihe e!&hl-yar iBn-iraq WIlT w.. """"llent
The 1'''''Ii. hId b ..... e and ucellcnl flold comm8"d"..-untll S.ddllD
HUI..,ln, murderoul and wille.... eve., killed the bell of Ihem h im·
..,If_"d ordinary Iraql lOl dieTI foughl 10lLjj and brlvely with IP"""I dis·
clpllne. MOlt Impo"anl of Ill. they won .
In conventlon.1 w .... whenever An.b soldl".. hove bee .. equipped.
I.ained . and armed 10 fIgh l modem Wellern armi ... on . nythlng li k.

Middle &.or w.,. oM PMot

.quil tenn .... pecLtlly in defenH of tm. homeland . they Iuo ......... lly
foo&hr tn ...lyand ....11, Th. IJtMllltOOpIl who fooght lhe Iofd,anlan ... d
Syrian .nn_1n 19117 ... d tbt SyrlanI and fcyptLtnl in tll73 ba... !Mi,
fled to the 10ugh_ of lheir opponent ...
It _ true IMI U.S. forcet qulclJy .,,,llhIJ.led Ihe 1'*11 COfIVMlI10l'll1
""'- In the 1l1li1 .nd 2003 Culf W.,... But th.ot wun't ""","u.. they w.....
f1shlln, AralK. 1\ ..... be<:1 .. M w ... k . .. nderd.¥.loped nillon. u,uIUy
c.o.n·I.t.Jnd up 10 m.)or IndUlirlalllll... let lion. '''l'''rpowan. In quick.
1ln.l&btforw..d co.mpa!gn •.
Out ... hen It orne 10 , .. em UI ....T. M.. sH m Anb /IIollom proved 10 be
fORWt of tlul toua,heot m.. In the world In Ih. oecond h.I' of the twe1ll1eth
DIIIt ury. n.. NIH"""I Ubention ~'ront of AJseriI po""ed for tDOf1I fen>.
clOUli Ind rulhi ... Ih......en the Vletn._ "Ilhel •• Iabt.,.... ...... of
Indepen~ . .I......'rano:;e from 11IS4 10 19IU. n.. IJtMU ....... yet 10

dMlroy HuboU.b. wlw»e f _ ..... nluo.lly drove tbem oul of_u-..

LebaOOl1. n.. mu!alledln ,...",;11.. In Afsh.nmln ... enl .... Uy drove out
the SovietJ "t.,.. another .Ishl.year war. And Ib, Sunnl M...lim ,ueml,
I.. In OIntnl 1'*1. I t Ih. poweot tim •. hoy. yet to be operaliolUllly
defHled or dellroyed ~y U.S.•nd OOII llIlon fon:eo.
Thll I, . pl'1llly Im l''''";''' re<;nrd by .nrbody·, ".ndlrd•. Ove. th.
pul wty y..... Ih. niliom of Contln.ntll Europ., Lell n Amerk:oo. """
,ub-SaII... n Afrlo co.nnOl begin 10 compete wit h It.

The Ba'alh Party's socialis t roots

Even opponenu of tbt Ireq W... ..:Imlt tMI SooddJom HII-'n _ I brulll
dletOlor. end hit HI' ltb Puty .at I totiliter/in opp.-->r. w hat YOIl
won't fi nd the lIfi IIimlnl", I. tbl,: B!I ·.tbl,m hu IUlUu",,"In tbe Ide-
.1I.lie pipe dNlm& of ,lite. ed"Clled M."d.LI.
Throughoul Ih. pul fO\lr d"""dCl. Syril Ind l.-.q. lhe Iwo great Am.
nation, of the Fe.tll.~nt. h.o,·e '-" ruled by Ihe BII·.l h R.ul'nIdlon

(Arab Sod.alIA Party). s.'Mb rull brou&bt end l... ...::onomk: ItIpItlon.
WlIB 01 forelgl.v-Ion. IUPpon for ",urdt!taua to!ff"Drilt orpniUlIonJ.
'ppr... ntl, Indl_ dlctatonhlpr.. _ poilu tynonni ... ........,.... 01
luna 01 Ihou.. ndl of dvlli.JU in rebeliioul popul.tlonl .• nd thou .. ndl
of halr-,.I.lnSUllffipl... ol MdI.Uc torture In underground dungeon •.
YeI: tbe Ib '~ h P'rly wu founded by ",1'ly~. rolUOtlc revolution·
ari.. (one ",Isht ... en coli them InnOOlntl) who I....... w IKMhlna but.
btl"'t SOIMn . . o f petIU. protperity. Ind undlnt.end ina 10.- tbe ArIb
world under Ihll. enHpleruw:!. ",II. Pmvldtld no 0 ....... In I'" wly. 01
COWN. Jt wll the It Of)' of the Youna Thru and tbeil Commltt", of Union
and J>rosrw. ,II over 'pin. L1k, the VounS Thru . the Idulil" 01 the
o..·.th Perty pl"'OVfH! the wlldom of Brlll.h polltiCli phll'*'PMr Sir I..,
i.h Berlin: ...ery.u .....pI to cre.... perlect ulopl. on ..rth il guIIUl,1I'MI
10 cr-e... bell on ..rth 11\tWOIId.
Two o.m..cw oo;bool'-"'e.. Mlebel An.q . e 0lrist.Ian.1Ild Soollh
ad,Din ,I·BI,..., . MUlllm--co-founded the 1II'lth Pari)' In 1$40. Tbey
wanted In end blind and dlItnat belw_ Qllutllnlltld MUlIirM. They
wlnted 10 c.... te. Iinsle. unified ..... b _Ion ICJ'OU Ihe Middle ENI
foun ded on JlUCI and toela) jUltiCI. They w.nted to .bolllh povert y.
TIKIy Wfl . . III In flvo. 01 freedom Ind dlmocracy Ind, 01 CO<U"M, ,II for
lOCI.."",. They hl ted tynmny in.....,. f~ Ih""shllbey did.
au' far from unllla& the Arab world, .... OII'ath movement .... ttered it
F.. &om ..uoblWllna r.--:bD and democncy. 11 ..uoblWled 1... 10..... ·
luti"ll . ....... Itabl •. and hloody tyrann ... In mod............ b hiliOf)'. n.-
cont ..... willt IClns Abdull.h and ICh"ljj HUIMln In Jordan . or with ICI...
Abdulub and hi. O'OCC'",," In Saudi Arabia, could 001 be JVOI'Iter. Fill"
&om 10101"8 losetb ..... the Iwo ""Ionl wit ...... 1II'.th pani.. took and held
power--SyrLti end Irtoq-w ... the mOollI hltte. rival. and """ml.. for 11""
...llono . ...:h of Ihem cI,lmlna 10 be the onl, bei. end embodiment 01
true 1II'lthl,m wlUletheother _ ... U ' - y. In the,... 11184.1.......

MiddLe East w ... on<! "-'"

.io... of 8 iH 8ro111er th.t George o.w..11 would b.ve """"IP'lzed o .. ly 100

well w"re ali ve .nd tulill3 in I1omaocu. ... d Baghdad. Thoy w..... ld ot.y
th ..... for decod ... 10 come.

Arab tyrants: Assad and Saddam

Aft .. r II. humlli.ti llll de r...1 .1 [I ..el·. ha..d. I .. Ih .. 1947-t948 war.
through 1970, Sytb e b a . Hovernm" .. I. f..t ... Iha .. a revolving door
I wlngo. Th ..... w..... tl .... llw .... ty.fiv.. dl """,nlHovemments in twenty·
two y.,.. Th. Syrl,n rel'ubliC bectom .. . laugh[ngstock throughout Ih ..
MIdd le Rul .• nd Its armed fore .. w.."' .. byword fo, I"'"ive incoml"'""
te .. ce. Th .. Syrl ... army pl .yed .. o role wbat_verln tb" 1956 b .....n.
Egyptl.n Sinai wn. [.. \967. aft .. r Ih"i • • i. force Wft. d ... troyed on Ih ..
ground In Ihe n..1 houn or Iha war. Ihey ....1 p-IIUiv .. ly until Is .....1i
d..r.. n.., mlniller MOIlle o.yan wu .ble loam,," overwhelming fOl"O!lt 10
tUo Ibe Col.n Halghll from Ih .. m.
But i.. th"lhlny-elghl years .Inca 1970 , Ih .. Syrian governmenl h .. 001
fallen once. Th .. only ch""8" i.. ill I.,.d ... hl p came In 2000. when tough
ol d !'resIdent Hafe! .... Ad dIed In hll bed.1 Ih .. "8" of .i~ ty·nin .. . n....
thirty yean of unoon te5led .upreme power. Hi, rnrvIvi.. S ..... Bashar took
Over Immediately .. p .... id .... ' ... d nol . wh l. pe. of dl ....n' WRI h.,.rd
.hUI It.
Auad.1oo left behind .. hl,l"ling legocy Ihe l..... gh ...1 military force
In Ih. Arlb world . one th.1 h"d fKed Ihe lo.....li army In full I.nd com·
bot more ofton and performed more .. ffoctlvely .inll il th" .. any other.
A,Ad·. achiev.. m.. n, conUU," no' Dnly with Syri.·, pul. buI .110 with
the fa'e of hll fellDw . .. d rival lJ.o ·.th dictalor. Preoid .... ' Saddam Hussein .
I.. IlfIlghborina l.-.q.
IIot.b men came 10 power .t olmoo"he .. me ' imo. A_d ..,ized IX'we,
I.. Oo. .... ocu. In 1970 . dolonnlned to ........ the humlllllio .. ond shAme hi"

nalion. u. armed fOr<:M, and mos\ of III hll air force lutd .uff.......1 .,
I,rael', hand. In 1M 11167 Six·Dooy War. In 1968 S.dda,n lw:Im. tlut num-
beN"'D m an and ......1 power huhind th. Ihm" .. In th. Second BI"th
R,,!,ubllc h,d by Prelldcn! Ahmed tt.".." al·Bah.
AMlld and Sadd8m we", both mere;l ..... tyrant. who rou'inely
employed tortu", on an unprecedented ..,.,1... Both of them w~ w....
of "",,,,"Iioll and conquest ~.lnS! th.l. nelghbo ... And neither of Ihem
heoila".d to .Iaullhler many Iho .... nd. of Ihel r own d1izen. whenever
Ih.y f.1I il naoc"uat)' or " xpedlentlo do 00. BOlh of \h~m looted 10 Ibe
Soviet Union for _pon. and .o ppon . and both of them h8tod the .ule
of 1."",lli k. pol..,n.
lroniCOoHy. Ihro .. gh Ih. 19800. II was $addam who w ......... In Amo ...
ICOon ")'111 (•• p"cI.lly th ...... of R"8An adminislrallon policym.k... ) ..
by far Ihe mora mooe.". of Ihe Iwo. $add.m w •• boulill3 the ShHte
1.lamic fanallco of Ay&loJl.h Kh""",inl". Iran from .we<>plll3 acrou Ih.
Middl e E.,I. A_d. by oonlrast. waS fOrfll"8
• 10"8·1.rm .1Ii.""" between Syria and Iran .
Am.ricon pollcymak... &.O w Syri •. nnl Iraq .
.. dlrectln, and pro\!ldlnll the mOlt danger.
Intentions 0011 lerrorist fOl"CM in the region Ihro .. gh 11>0

19300. In 1983. Shih" Hezboll.h ... Iclde

bombe.. blocked by both Il'IIn an d Syria killed
come to ill end with _ ~ts5Or\ mo .... than 250 U.S. Marinu and mo ... tho"
.-norc ~ poIiticiM'l$ltId tNt we _ the 00 FI'II"ch pIIl'llttoOl"'.. .. they .Iepl in thoh
IIOIW bqmrc <:II nfW dviliution, t.>a,.",cu on th" out.klm of Detrot
when ~ _ ... foc;t the 10" t . mlpIin of lIut It wao A...d who died In hi. bad . with
b«kw~ltId. ~ "Jprmion hi' SOn ."""Ivlna to rule .. hi. h.i. and hi.
otiC ""Sime Rnd fannidabl ...... y """,,,,Iy in 1'1_
Saddam. who had inherit ..d " fM' II'S"'" and
monI populo... n.otlon wilh the oecond·]arpI
011 reoerveA on Mlth and a far lalJl'l' and more

powwful_r-tbe fourth larw-t in tlMo world by 19l1O--tquandertld.U
of .hoIe ...... before dylll8 on Oec:ernbat lO. woe. _ ."" end 01 ........

Auad', luti"l'uc::c.u remai ... txnored Or Und ..... N by U.S . ..,d

l'rHU pollcyml ker1 to thl. doy. nu' .here an toberl"ll ......... 10 he
leuned fmm wby be.U<:Oeeded w"",", Saddam . nd N _ did not.
The f<tenom. Sphinx of DImucu. wa •• 'Iudy In con' ... III. H" com·
minded Ih' Syrian li r fo..:, in \11, WO ..I d,f, •• In I.. hl. Iory. yel used
thl' der...I .. I .pring'-td 10 power. H" Inheri.ed III Inny reprded u
• bid lOb throu&houl It, own region Illd wilhln thrM y..... mode It for..
mldobla. II I'IImlln. to 10 Ibt. day.
AUld I..! III Arab ILIItlonollH . .I..... r-t b. 11'u&J!11I'1MI b .....ic
bell............ fu ndomen ..ltH. more rulhl ...ly and oa Ir.r wider ~
Ihln Sedd.m " ' . dored 10. H, b,ld po_ lot Ihltly)'M" IbrG!.J3b the
.... of lOtI .......... I....... and be came from • tiny etlutlc Uld NllfIouo -=t
lradltlonally dlotruo\..! by hi. nalioa'. o .. _belm lnaly Sunnl MII.lim
mojorily. Vet he 'p~ .o hi .. , enloyed ....1.uppOtllJld _pect,lJId hlJ
...., hu fill..! reillively -=urely lince hll d ..th.
A...d WI' the mOil dlngerou. enemy the 51'1' 01 IlrMl hid .!ler Ille
d""'lh ofGamaJ Abdel NINer. V"" b, lorged . lutlnl bond of_pect with
one 01 1....1·......tlll IMd, .., Yltmok Robin. whom he "".... m"" In per-
1IOtI. Hechlmploned \be PIl.. tlnlln ao .... plWlonalely. bul he hlIN IJId
wbo w.. lbe U.. I", embodlmenl olthal ClU..' V.. _
d .. plMd the IDIJI

The lint _ of Hafez MM(\', • ....:cM* ..... Ihll be filled eox:ordi"l

to Niocolo MOIlo...IU. not Ja- MldIM>n. He would "'"............. !be
IICOnd lIud> odmlnlotrel\oo', . . . .lon wi lh C>'MII", I",t,nt full-lCIl,
W"'em rePreMn ..II .. , dOl"J>()(;NC)' , nd freedom 'hroufLbout Ihe Middle
EIII not only .. '"",,,"nina hil own power. but . . . f;OIIlemptlbl'loke
fur Ignotlng the power ....11Ii.. of the "'Sion. It, hiliOf)'. IJId polltlcal and
military ... Ihl...

LD lbelale 19901. fulure Bu,b admlnl11tl.1lon pollcym.aken and intel·
lectual •. led by [}ovid WunIlHl. VIce Prsldent Dick Cheney'_ chief Mid·
die EM, Mivio&or. of'8"ly deM:ri'-l ""lionl like Iraq Uld Syria II "f.lled
.ta' .... " Ignoring the feet the' Ihey had been around a, dlllind national
antltl" Iinee Ih. N-rly 1920.. And Sadd,m in Iraq and A.... d in Syria
both IOlvad 'he problenu of cbronlc In.,. bIU,y Ihat h.d plagued both
nallon. for 'he twenty y...." before .. ither ofl b .. m took power.
A.... d. heed ing MlIChlavelli·. counsel ..... rdad bei"ll rN-red .I vlltly
more imponanllhln bei"llloved. 11111 tho"3h ha killed widely. he did
not, .. Saddam did. kill contimUllly or ind ilCriminately. [n Iraq the wi"..
Uld even children of those who crotHd Saddem, .... n by cont ...diding
him oro .... of hI_ murderoullOnl In. con_lion. W"",, lortured, "perl.
muUI&ted. and mu.deNKI, An.d did IhOMl lhi"lll on ly 10 hi, eneml",.
although there W<l18 .nough ofthem.
In 1932. AMIMI crulhed I popu Lar up. i_Ing on behalf oflha lilamb'
MUlllm llroth•• hood In lhe WMlem Syrian city of Hame by annihilati"ll
Ihe entire city. TRnu and h"vy , n lllary w.... sent In to pulverize Ih,
... maln" w ben U.S. inlelllpnce anllYl1I compared bef"", ... d . fter pho-
lograph' of Ih. city from ,u""lllance .. teillt" they could nOI believa
Iheir own er-. The death loll o f c1vman. I, generally Mth""Ied at
20.CMlO. end it may even have been much hlJlher. Rifaal A.... d. H.faz'l
brothor and longtime secret police chief. late. cialmed 10 U.S. lnumelil t
n.om... Friedman thai the oo.lh loll w.. ,...lly 38.000, Not even Saddam
""a. authoriud k111illjj apIn,t hi, own people with luch inlenoily.
Bul where Saddem killed endl_ly, and appeafl to hIve had I JnY'
chotle need 10 do It. A»ad killed on ly whIm i, ci .... rlY MIrved hi. inl.,·
"'", The domMlic nature of th. two ragi ..... Wli wry dlff..",nL Saddlm
ran I grim . una.ly 101.lila';' ...tate lhat .urvlvan of IoMf Stalin', 19301
lerror would have """"8"lud all 100 _ II. Every public ullOlranCO!l OIl In)"

Ihl"ll h.d 10 be In total conformily with the d~ of the C,...I Nallonal

Leader, othorwiae the ' ol1u", chamber. th .. firi"ll oquad. or the hangman
Mlddloo EMl W.,. ond ""'""*

beckooed. 1n Syria. by COIIUUl. u..- wbe> -)""d. 0111 of poIIID aNI put..
lie dJ.;:oune _Id upeel 10 liva Ihai' own Ii". Ind ....'0 modMlly
""joy lhei,own private propor1y.
The IonIsn poIleIe. and pMl"",,, oI .....lon of the IWO I'8IiIl18l W,,",
..., d lfferenl ....... d cnved loconlrol Lebanon. U "'..". 1""lJectual Syr-
lin rul .... befON him hld.lu$! u Sadd.m wu detannlnod 10 relncorpo.
IIle Kuwell u Iha nlnel ... nth province 01 111'1.. u I,." ,..110",1" 1' before
hi m had.
Bot h of lh.m d id h. bu t Sotddam open ly .nd brul.ll y Invaded Kuw. 11
In July liDO and bro .. ghl Ih. e nll ... military might of lhe United 51. 181
and Itl eUI. down on hi. hNd only .ix montht I. ' ..........d cnl'lily
ancourlfled dl.wnt. dvll war, and ch.ooo In LAblDOn bef..". ....,lina III
h is arm~PP*dly 10 .-10l'Il ... dot in 11176. H, _ obi. 10 JUly t.hent
for Ilx,...... unlillhe Is ...II. d...... him out.
Sotdd,m wu IIIercll. .ly invinr;lbhl In ' ..... for Iblrty·fln yean from
tbe ..lIbllsh .......1 orlbe MCoIId o.·llh Republic: In I "". wh_ ba beld
1M ...1pow •• for elav"" )'MfS bef..... oulUna Ih, lneffeo;lual flg.....h_d
I I.Bab. tHa had n. b mllrdered by being pun,pad f.. 11 of Inluli n lh.....
y.," llIer.1
Bill Sadd. m kMw nOlhlna aboul Ih. worl d oUllldalraq. and h, mls·
Qllcu ll tad COIlu lroph k:oolly "'MY tlma be proyokad It . .-.....d naver did.
He relalnad Ih' ~I'OIl3IUppori of lhe Soviet Union .nd I.Iler Ru ..... from
bestnolnllO ""d. The Spblnx of DamUCUI defied the Ullited St". and
undermined III Inn ....... I....,..r.. lly for dec:.Mltta, then _ 1 0 . kind
01 aocommodallon with Wu.hloglOll durina tha Clinton admlnlll"lioo
wben ha had 10.. Ha .... n h .... ed l wo u,s. p...ldentl on viii,,: II.k:han:I
Nixon .nd 9111 Cllnloll,
......,j'1 ftlllllOOI with b,.,1 W,,", utr.ordlnary In thalr .cl>1....,."enu
.nd compla.lty. Within th .... yea,. o f ,aking powar. h' unl .... hed tba
Syri ln army to Ilk. the 'awllh It"a by lurpri M In Ih. n,.1 I\ou,. of lhe
11173 Vom Ki ppur War.

n.. .....11............ Uy .umed .... llde ...h... ovwwbftlmi.nt ron:. In
thoe GoI.n fLghtlna ...,Inat Syril and drovi b.ck 10 within .nillery ......
of Do.m.ucu. when I _fire.at fI ... lLy 1m.,.,.... But Ihh.oullh Ih,
l.reeU. could prob.bly hive tlken th. Syrlln u pl ••1Ind could .,.nllnly
hlv, level~ It h.d 110...... contInued, IMYn _ • ....xeeded In rou!Lng
lb. Syrllna nr In .urroundl"4llbem. II Arlel Shlron w.. Ible In do
...llIItlhe £ayplian Th ird Army on Ih' WII' benk ofl'" SuuC.... I.
AI ,..-ri)III1r.cb. llpedally from HnboLllh, pew In 19112 ,II« lhe
..... i milltlryamq.-al_tbem 1Abuxm• .-.-I_ ..... lOwill bee"-
through ,..-rill' ...... ."d diplOlTlll1c JklU what bft hid Ioet In dlNe!_.
lIy llM14 Iinel w.. fOtted OUI of mOlt of JOUlh"" t...IMonon .xce~ fOf.
buff... '""IlIon north of III border. Some .IxltHm Y""" 101er. I...... ll prim.
mInister lihud Berek pulled OUI of there 100. H.. Won.h wu .b11 10 ... Iob-
lish ....te within I ..... In the JOUlbftm poll oflbft country, and Syrien
military ron:. and In,"I1''''
orpniDllont ........... bM:Ir. in In domln... e
m\ldl oIlhe counlry for II_the 111>(1 q...l1eraonhuy. Soddam, ." COlI-
1rIIt. had .... n UfIIbIe 10 hln&on 10 KuwIll1nr _Ihan ,Ix monlha.
Bul-.. while he ........ pportlna I.,..t.. ruth ..... and finnly 1/JedIYi
lIuerrlll. fOtC .. flllhllnlllhi ',,-.ell. u Syrl'n land 'nniln) "ro~ l .. In
JOUllwm t..b&non. Auld. nn .... rllk.o with provoking them (HI Ih, Golan
Heigh ... where I....,.,. ofboth IIItioDscontlnued.o!.co..:b oth.. In the
Iwenly,flYI y.... from the '!Fill8 of Ih' .....II-Syrt.n dlM11flltlnllnt
..... _nlln 1175 10ANad', dMth 10 2000,Il0l I ,Ingle ~U or S)'riaa
... Idi... died In Iny Inddenl on I'" Golon front, The 10"« pili» ......
Ihmuch lbe flrst _ YMn Ifter hi. d""lb, lhougb then I .... now mlny
IndlcatlOlUl It ~y not lui for much 10113".

Ford'! Middle East successes

If you bell_)'OW" PC blalOl)' boob, there hen been only I....... kind al

RltpliblLcaa p ..... ldenll since Uncoln : ,vII 0 ... (Nillon .nd HOOYIrI.
Mlddl, Eut W... ODd _

dumb on. (ReIpD ..... CooU.). and Teddy R_elt . ~'or th' med"
.t t .... time and IMII1ftI'll.m historimuo u... cIIoy •• there WII no cbok:e but
to 1IIk:k Cenold fon:! Into t.... dul>Ce c:.t"ll"l}'.
He WU .up~ to be. bnlnl_. muddUIII- old fooIbroll p..,.... . nd
polilic:.llud; who MIl l'1IOOiveci ooe blOW' to the tte.d 100 many. Genld
ford .ank. w ith hi. rellow mod_Ie Rep .. bllClon W.rren C . Hudi"ll U
the mOil .. nde.uUm.led American p_ldent of the Iwentle1h CIont .. f}'.
And hi. Middle t:.ut record w •• pOIIlbl y the bul of eny prfIIldenl.
Dwight EIMnhower "lOll" EsJ'~ to tbe R..... I.n .....d I'o.d . by hI •
• ppmv.J of H""". KI_I.....·• moot COOlpllcloted....bt... patIent . and._
.-.ful dlplome1lc ""'''''''....... brou&htlt bect Into tIM Arnericul orbit ..
_er bero.... H• .J"'l"lded Ih, Americon ICXlnomy Ih........ the w.... t
"pec!I of the 19'3-1974 quedruplm, o'&lobe! 011 priceo and otabIllled
tho ICXlDOrtly with ........ of the ItJ'Onpst. mOlt cou.....,ouo • • nd moot
unpopuler l-.dorohlp II bd ..... hI dec:odeo.
On boIh the home ond fonolJn .fr.l" frontl. Ih' q.. let. herdwOltlng
ford provld«l decl.lve •• ucx-oful I...d""hlp that w ... Inc ..... lnaly
.... pecu,d .rou nd tho wo.ld. Only th' American peopl,. led by 11 ....... 1
p .. ndlt. foamIng" the mo .. th 0".... ford ', pardun rOt NIxon 10 en d Ihe
lona national nlghlm .... or the Watergate ocandlJ. oouldn', _ il.
KboJ ....... curlou,ly. dId for bet,er runni"ll around the region .. f ord',
- . . , . of IIII' e!.han .... hod _ Nixoo ·. ri&hl·hond /MIl. It m..,t ha"" beer!
that Nixoo kept KI ..lnpr on • much light'" I.... h Ih.n .n)'Ontl .... limd
whIle Ford too.. ... tlMo rei .... II mlght aloo Iwo", bMo !hot !be a1rnott CIII·
.d)'RII1c contequ_ of !be Yom Kippur \v...-..IM th ...,1fMId dMtruc-
tlon of ......1 IIId tho rilt of. tbermoaucloer ..... wdown beI_ 'he
United Stot. and the So¥Mt Union-follo-.l by tlMo OI'!-X: IlUlbatgo hod
conoen,,,,ed U.S. pollcymat....• focu. on Ih, region. for lIMo 8M time.
KI ..ln"" ...... not dealing primarily wi th 'M Soviet Un ion. OlIn • • PU-
Irian. Iran. or the Vietnam Wer. The MIddle ~:Ut _. the bllRl""l !hue on
h1IIf1!OOWo. In any cue, with Ford t.ckl"ll hIm 10 lhe hIlt ..... dId v"'Y well.

Fi.. t. KiMlnger ell8"8'l'1 11I monl"" of end l.... nflgOlloliono. charmill8.
lieo. flanery. brit-y, and Iru...U with 10......1and Egypt to brill8 about the
1915 SllIalli Disell&"8f'"",m ~nt. Thll proved to be on. oft"" .....
• u(:o:<.",ful . far.ftIoIICbl"3. and oVMLooked diplom.tic a.;h1(t1.·_U In mod_
em hmerican Imtory. It ended tile 8Pl"'rently ill<lvilabl@.ndendl .... cyde
of w.... OOtwoon 1.......1 and Egypt_fivo w.... In Iwenty·r."" yeo .. 10 thot
point. It go"" 1......1a vlul bmothlng "I"""" for nooovery aftill' Its heavy <:as\I.
altl ... of the t913 wa. but without pjIIyillg anything like th" price lMaeli
prime mini.ter MenllCh"m IlegIn hId 10 I"'Y for I full ~ t .... ty wilh
Egypt. Prim" Minlllt'" Yi tu.ak Rtlbin won the far.l'(!IOChl"3 Matmon C""""
pjIIcbgq from the Un ited Stol ... that forevq. changed the eo..,ntial cOn'
. trudion oflh, I _Ii anny. In pjIIvlll8 the wly for Mot""'" C. the d iHSl-
garment agreemenl 1110 lai d the !No.1. for Ih, nut thirty yean of
unqueotlooed I.......li OM:Urity and military predomlnanc:e In the region.
Sinal [I ,110 prepjllred the way fo. KI ..;nge, ', triumph of nflgOllaUIIII a
.lmHo, annlltioll "8"""ment be1w",," 1.......1.nd Syria, which proved tuM
u lu~.rul and long-luting, It ,ven pjIIved th" way for In un likely
ISraGlI·Syrlan.lralcgic undemlndillJ! Ihal I.,ted for twenty·five yean.
Finally. Ford g"'.ped the oppol1 unlty with Anwar S.d_llhal Nixon
hId ignored afle. the expul.lon of th" Sovl"t diplomals in 1911: h.
11.1100 .lonS·wnlllll U.S. ItnllegIc relalionship wilh~ , Sad.1quldly
knfIW the United SI"leo could gi"" him fa. m,,", tluln I"" Sovleu had ........
provided. And unlike Nuse •. Sad.t .110 .eaH:t.ed Ihat Soviet economic
wltdom was lhe fas, road 10 """" worse po""l1y and deotituUon. U.s. eco-
nonlie aid and Waslem tourism were sel to flood In 10 l:oep Hgyp' lIabl.
and IflOII for I t I.....t Ulolher th_ d..cod .... Given the huge ral. of pop-
ulailnn Inc ......... during Ihe 0&rII" lime. it w... Im",,"lhle to hoI'" for. let
lion" achieve. anylhing more.
Skill ful ~nd , u"",,"fu l in Ih"ir deaHngo with Egypl and Syril. Ford
.nd Klulnse' w....... loo lucky In th"ir experience. with Sau d i Arahia. In

19n. King Flhll. the moo rucceufuland rorrnid~blo nJ le. lin"" old Ibn

Saud hhuelf, wu ~nated by, _11011), dlft ..ro.d nepMw. lIiI....,.
C8U0.lnd half·brother, King "haled. wu , di"-nt kind of man-
d_t. Clutloul. ""d Low.by. He in t .. m boq_thed affective po_ to
hil 0 .... hell" tlIld half brother. CrowD Prince Fabd. And Fed. while bril.
IIlnt ..... Iomorul Ilk. fll ..l. _ profoundl)' pro-American. IIU tabover
oI,lflCllve po_ In R1)'11dh eased ... IIUoruo with the United St.t.... tool<
mUlt • .,. confrontliion with 11.....1 off the front bume., Ind p... pared the
WI)' for the .t... t.11; pattnerlhlp betw""n Saudi ..... bl. Ind the United
Stlt. under Ronald ~ that would plly ouch. II..... role In b.inging
doW'll thl Soviet Union.
011 prt.:. ....... IDed high , ti m. In the Uniu,d St.t ..... m,lned ... 1,·
livel)' tou&Jt , Ind Khaled and Fabd weno not dllpoaad to Nd_ the oil
pricIoo and cutotflba Ilnancia1 ..... DU Falal had Pf"O"lded bthom. For
that mati•• INII_ did the Wh of Iraa. But when Gertlld F..-d left off..,.
In J.n .....,. 11I77--<iuIMly. v-tull)'. wllh sood h......... Ind hMd held
high. the w')' 00 ... merlun p...ideol Iutd l.. fI tha Ov,1 om"" liDOl
Owlght Eltenhower', depll"lwtlln 1961--t.. lefl beblnd a.ublllzed Mid-
dl, Ea.t. full of opportunity lod hope for hi....COBIIO •. Jlmm)' Coner
would .... p the ... ward. of Ille good.....d. Fo.d h.d IOwfld. but 11 .. ,110
wrecked n..... ly ,II of It.

lCInlllger's realpolitik
Th .. key to Ford ', lue<:eN. Mimilledly. wu lI .. nry KIMlnger. " Gfiman
Jew w'- famll), lied the NazU In World W... II , K_I ...... w ... hrilll.ani
Hatvard pror..- of dlplomatk: hiotory with. reonatbble"fI for politi·
callntrltue. So IliliM w.. he lhal duri"ll the 1961 pr..ldentlal U rn·
I"lgo he w... front·runner to bacom.. n.tlonll MlCUrity adyilOr with
boIh mIIln candldat.. 'I lha 11m. tim_Republican Richard M. Nbcon
and DemOCflt Hubert. II. Humphrey. When Nixon edtfId Oul Hurnl'h .... y
In I oquMk,r , lectlon, Kiuloger got the job. In 11173, II. rOH lUll high.,..
to II",. II ..,...,tl.,. of .-.Ie undlll Nixon and then under Ford.

Tbe hilUcall, IDCtfTKt '014. ,.th, WtddJ. totl

Killinger I ped.lized In rea/poIftfA: polich.. lluo. l<X:omplidJed moral

pl. while &P~ng IIneny cyn;c.oi .nd confounding 'ppat'M ! common
Mn ... Befo", he eR!et<!d the Middle &.., Htln., It we. unlve rnlly
... um"" Iha. you had to bold:. one ltd. or the other In the uraeli-I\nb
confl ict, u d If \b, Unlled Silt ... booked [. ...1. il would continue 10
"," dily I"", pow .... and Influence K..,.. the Arab world.

umf. ,",IS Wts SI"if,', ~!~ 01 def...... (Of thirty-hoO ~in

M (from I9n to 2004~ So it ~ ufe 10 '>If !hot hi. IIMnp ~ on ItIo!
country. WhlI does IfIillllNlll Well 11m p,t,Iidy bo",NI.bout Iorturir\f:
ind c.m.h''C IIIMI pr~. ,hI!< ~ 1973 Yom Kippu" WM. In tilt 1980s M
_e iOd pOOIMoed I book proo.mirc tilt truth 01 !tit _ifni .ntl-Sfmi\k:
blood [jbtl tlwl Jews kill (ly~Ii¥l ind MuIlim child!"" Jnd 1M thtJr blood
He r'PO'T~Y kf.pt • l.I,1" pin"", 0( the fMllOlA
10 bike f'lI,lO'O'fI mlfZQ!,.
~lli¥l """,Ie Klft'lOl Girw loIlobripio in his oifOCf few many )'Hr1. BKMM

of his 10M fOf ne.. M 1iIk!. he fNde .an tho 11.1 .... pHC8~ foru om
splIred from lilt dtmtMirc I9Bl ,••J.w mrl bomb iltKU Ihot kIlled more
m.n tIYft h.Irocnd Amtriun and F~ ..,/dim in ~
It ""'lIUId I>f U'Y 10 ' .. bl ....
ht WJS the ..."" ~uI
no" II I t.ut..ric sw. Of •

SImi Mu<l im In tilt ~ 01 J'n!osIdmt Hirtz

btIfootI. But

AMId. ind hr 100000IIy ~ped '"~ ~ IU(~ d ~s UII'I BuNt. fir lisa
. . . Sl"io • f., rnr:n fonnidlbl~ m,lrllry pcwfl in ~ Middle Last (model·
Irclri! fcrtu on Soviet ~ drxtrirv~ In Ilrf futIn ....,'- S)'fIi ..;11ct!·
lilnIy no\" fi"" b)' M¥qr.ri$ d ~ or Gtr"rM c:arr-iolt ruin.
m,,*, (0 n.u.

Kluln.,. confounded Ih ~ ",u"'plion. By .... Inla/nlna Ind llrength·
enilll the U.S. rol. u !arMI'1 chief ... ppnrter. he mad. lVuhln.I .... lhe
pllOO Anb l...:Ien had til II" if they wanted any 001'l0III1 ..... &om Ibl
luoeU •. A. 1..-1 wu depend""t only on the Unil .... Stlt... It followood
that .... Iy lhe Unll-.l SIII... CIItIld btl... pnullN 10 !.or. 11.11 _med to
obv!OUlonot you IIlrt-.l to thin k .bout h.
Klulnger wenl on to dl.ploce .nd nlp l""" So~lel In nllenCilln EsJ'pl
with American. Helloo brouabt nll.tlve pMOIlnd ,,"blilly to Ihe "'lIon
by ..,lIl", Inn. In b"lh ,Id.. in the 1...... I·Anb connlct. Tnll wu toad
_ for mator U.s. companl ... hurting from lhequadrupll"l of 011 pri<*
III 11M 1970.. It ,110 d ....... lJ.cally ..... Ived 1.....· lulI ... U.S. ln n uence In
tho rwsJon.
KiHl .....nd Nlxoo won by no meant Inr.Uib!. w~ 11_ to deal·
1"1 with t/wl Middle F.ut. Tbey _ up with lhe NIxon Doarl... to maln·
lain MCUrlly In the oll·rich ....... ian Gulfby .... lIdl ....... p tt.. ..... h of Inn
u I real_I mililuy pow... oompuable to 1......1. But 11M obIh proved 10
be Ii .. t "" un&rfItefulllld btcbtlbt!ing I ll y. and lhen •• lInt with ftet of
elly, He pl.yed. crucl.ll..dl", role In theClll,1 with Soudl A.. bl.and
oth ... Anb Ilftll ..... In qu.drupllngllnIMloll prl.:... IVlthln another five
y....... 1M wugone enlll'llly. toppled by. fu,loutold Shill. M ... llm cleric
he bid banllbed to Pult.
Kluln,... .110 mi.alculated In dellyl ... cruel.1 ,Id to 1t..,1 during
tho 1973 Yom Klppu, IV... Ite wlnted ]...... I IO.u"'l ... lhe Wlf bul 10
he chulened by h. to I.. I..den would 1M mon wlllln,locompromi..,
with tho motor Am 111,.. .,11 bi.lenn .. 8uI tho Wlf mO\..d III fut Ibtl
the 1o..... I1..,.,y rllUd runni,,&""1 of"""","n ll!oa and W"PO'" "",11IIt
tbe E,yptl ..... 0..."...., 1...... li .p~I.lo PNoldent N],,;on fin.Uy coo·
Ylneed Klulo8er 10 "'''pply. Bu. Defe..... Secretory Jo.m ... Sebl...!n....
pl.yed tho k.y role In pUlhlng1hro"lb tb. 0'1"nl .. tlon o f lhe f.m .....
C5A Gtluy olrlln Ihlt lot Ihu cruci.lluppll ... 10 the 1.,1111 troov- In

n. ,.IIUc.II, lanrred Gul •• I. I" 1114d1. E..I

StiLI. Klaolnger·. ",blJ~. cynicool. m~. hyper-.ctl ..... and ...If~

rifyi"ll diplomacy woRed. Laundllng the first reaI»MOI! P""-' boIWWII
L..-I and ItA AnI> neI&!tb:nand _ i s . The 1 97~ Sln.1 II d~1
agroomenl he Ilbor\"",ly brokMtld bMw .... n 1."",1 and F.gy~ l..d, In liUle
m<lr9lhan lwo yeua. IO Egyptian ~idenl Anwa, Sedaf . remarkable visil
10 )eruooJem and then 10 lhe 19791."",I-EgypI»MOI! trftaly. And the.men·
pgom8l11 ~menl he hrotertd boIWfIMl .......1and Haf"" Assad ke~ lhe
~ on the Golan Heights fat the """I th ..... and • half deo:adel.
I'M mof'll Ih"n th ..... d"""d.... KI.. ln8..·• record of Kh i....ement in
mlnlgins the Middle Rul ",mlim one that none of hilluccetton ....e'
neered . When It came 10 bandlin8th~ f1I8ion . he wrote the book.

yltzhak Rahln: The dove who armed Israel

Yilrllak Rabln'l fi .. tth .... year tenn u prime mlnLaI'" of La"",1 wu vutly
und"uled. HiJ l$lXlnd. far mof'll fimoul on •. wII vastly overraled.
Rabln'l fi ..1 prnmie.. hip Ilunched. peoce proc... with Egypt. Hi • ..,·
ond launched. peace proce.. with the PI I"'lin llnl. Thel, outcome wu
very different. lafllely boooUM v ....., Arofat will not Anwar Sadal.
In 1974 Rabin inheriled the ...... t ominoUll8CUrity .llualion any 1.......11
prime mlni.ter had faced l ince the fi ..1 hloody llrusgje 10 ... ,.bH.h Ih.
1I0te. When Mosh, ORyln became minl.'6' of demnN in 1967. he knew
he Inhe,lt"" Ihe mOIl powerful,noy and Ii, force In the Middle Rail.
fresh and poloed 10 .trlke. BUI MY"" y...... 18Ie•. Rabin inheril"" an 11"",1i
..-my thai hid 1000t mono lban four lim ..... many toldl ..... in the Yom KIp-
pu' war U had died in Ibe Six·ilIy War. T1uva IhOUllnd 1...... li toldJ ....
had died out of. lotool population of onl y Ib ..... million. ThLa \Val pmpor-
II0JUI 10 Ibu U.S. 1000Ina 300.000 dead In 0 war of only throe wee"": Ih"",
Ilm ... lhe d ... lh loll of the KonIIJI and Vietnam w.,. combin8d.
Abo. the prewllJu.ly Inw!nclble I,,,,el! onoy found thllthe lank ond
cl"""alr .u pport slri ke fo""," Ib.il b.id ... rved il 10 well in 19:5-6 and 1961
we", oo.oleto. The h.ndheld, wil'01luided. Rn!l".n k miMU", .. nd IuInd·
hold lurf...,. ..... I. ml ..l1 ... supplied by.be Sovlet Union to £syp. and
Syria b.d IDflicted cutI"8" on 1......1·. elite. Imlpl..,..,bl. pilot. ... d tonk
C",WI. StHI m ... lvely outnumbered [n m.npower. I,",el had 10,n the
long.tono tactiCAl ,u""rlority It needod to .urvlv • .
!tobln'l IOlutloo wu to look.o .h. nation h.b.d ad ml"'" ever .inee
••udying .nd Jen'ing there as. young lI..... n olfLQl1' In the 1950.. Pra.1.
dent Gerald Ford ."d Secreury of Slit. Killinger weno putli"3 enonnoUi
p .... IU ... 00 1. ......1 10 withd .. w from .h. w8llem oectiOJUt of th" Suez
ean.l. Doya n had been ...dy 10 conlemplote ouch. move .fler the Six·
Doy War. "lIulDg [D voiD 10 Gold. Mel. ,h • • 1....llhould not k""p III
front line on the canal in any ce .... !tobin cern" to the ... m. con<:lulion.
bu' he decided 10 ~ """.thlng for lhe conc .... lon.
!tobin', price for 11",lnlllhe 1975 Sinai II dl..,ngagemenl all""'m8DI
wu .. U.S..!...... li .nol deal quit" unli ke any ..... n before.

formed Ihe Dalu,," of tbe .......Ii armed fon:ea. The I... uli .i.
More Ihan."y arnu d.,.l I.oroel had '[gnod befOl"e.lh. 1975 d.,.l I.....·
force had

"You Will Me"r UnderstMd"

"l'lwy Mfltlf'd f« 1M ICrnfI of 1M • .«<uIion to bo! fKordlod: 1M priKlntf IN
from 1M (~I to 1M pi..:;, of , •.wtion, ~ blindfold"", 1M orcltr to r~, 1M
blood pcuirc gut of IM......m. ~ u-.. foklontllFder 1M viet"" hi!. body
Inni,.,. forwMd II ~ cor<ll_, ~ hll n'IOIItt! op«I 10 kill 1M Nrth hi!. molhrf. I yid noth·
if1&. I-,I gut nj.., oirO:;ff ~ ..... S.ny. 'How did )'O'J l,ke ii, Doctorr I yid. 'h thiI 1M a."thr
fW ...id. 1 donof ."';mund.'I\Iid. 'Ycu will ~ lFder>'ond.-
SMII a/ ...... by thtn Syriill minister of infOnt'llltion. de!c.ibil'll tht tie-
cution of lIIpportflS of EuPtiin pl'nident wlNl Abele! NiSHI' .ft!'! tht
UMU(cnlful coup m~1 of July 11, 1%).111 o.mlKUS

oe",ed u flylnS""m@ryforlheero'y.provldinglheklnd ofd,*,,*=Ucal
ground luppon Ihlt proved 00 d..,lliye for the U.S .. Britl.h. 5<wi8l. Ind
German arm lu In Ih. IV""t land boltlu of World 1'0'• • II. Rutl h. helVY
I _ t o limpl. lurt.c.to-ooir guided millile:o from poorly trained Egypt·
lin and Syrian combot ool d len during the 19'3 WI. proved th.1 thON
dara we", over. to_I would he"e 10 rely on .....1 hea"y e.tlilery now Ihel
II. flhlOKl "flying I nill@ry" Inn hed boon brokon . Ford . Kiu ingor. and
Sehl ... Ing",. provided Ihal anillory-lhe heovl ... lthere w",. They ' "P_
plied every co.llbf,. of artillery h .... vy gun !he lirael;' needed. Includinl
maulvo 15~ mm """". Before the 1973 wa •. 1...,...1'. oonvantional II1111ery
ann hed boon nont.~ill enl . Afterlhe d ...1 in 1975. il had Ihe m",,1 POWfll'
ful anlllery In Iho Middle Eall_
n... giftl In the gigantic $900 million package (mono than 53.S billion
In loday·. dollanlaloo Included. new (jen_lion or main bIIttie "nu. In
follow_up ~e n", U.S. funding flowed 10 finanOlO deveLopment..,d
produdlnn of the MeritavI (Hebrew fOt "ch.riot "l. br..,I·. own hom.prI'>-
duced mlln beu le lank. Ford aloo "8J""d 10 suppLy Israel wllh the flnest
comlMll aircraft in Ihe U.S. arsenal. Ihe McDonnell Douglu 1'-15 Eagle.
n.. 1975emut deollranlformed tholuaeLi lrtny in way. tbat conlinue
to thil dey. It would nO longer be Ihe lightning-fall fon:e of llgluly armed
ulilu lroopo an""lclng boldly by nlghl ... unvloloned by Orde Wingate end
tbe bl itzkrieg-influenced mllitlry commande." of tho 19505. It would
now be. huge ma.M de rMlenel. mono ,low-mOVing bul overwhelmll18
In Ihe firepower il could hriny 10 beer. Rabin Ame.icanlzMl Ihe [.raeli
army. and II remlln" 00 to thll dey.
I_Ii pundit ••1 the time and hillon,n, II""" have fOO1l Rabln'l flnl
premlenllip u I "Iudy in w..u.n .... end ineff..,lualn851. They could not
b ..... been mont wrong A. u...lenJlHJl~m Poi,'. Philip Gillon p.-..ciontly
noted 81111e time. Rabin , howed . delurmlnation and ..... din_ 10 make
herd. crucill d..,l.lnn. worthy oflloYid Ben-Gunon hlm ... lf_
[ronlc.loll),. It wU lhe P- I S~ .. he.., COveled for hli country 1b.1
brouJhl Rabin down. In 1917. he held. ptOUd _0lI>0II), 1\ IaM['1 Ben·
G.llion Airport 1o we!co .... I... lim of the f -1S. from 1M United St.let;.
BUi ll w... friday afteruoon ...d Iloe Iin:nft _ flrt.. behind ocbed·
uJ.. The _ ) ' Itmcbed into the early bou.n of Ibe ,lewlob s.bb.th.
jew[.h ..IW ..... patti.. Rabin depended on lor h i. """Iillon ....;.. ..lIy in
I'" 1(0 1 _ pulled OUI of Ihe Rovem monl In prolal Ih..... nl runnlnR
10110 lhe Slbbe lh. Their I... de ... expected the u.u.lJy mil d 'mlnnered
Rabin 10 limply practice buolnet4lu ulUlllnd pl ... d wltb th"'n tn nom.
heck. wt..c!. the Infuri.ted prime min iller -l&ned .nd aLied '1I"1>8fII1
.!edion. Thto led to the r.1I of hilll""8f1UJl'lfl In.d the end orthe lAbor
Plrty'llhrll ........ 1"'" OOOlttol of In. ' ....11 Nt • • Robin hod *-Ied
In the weI_In, ceremony for Iloe f-Ullho \ they w.... ld usher in .
vully clo.oonpd I_I. Even he did _ drMm how vully ehonpd il
w.... ld lruIy be.

Did Jimmy Carler really

bring peace 10 the Middle Easl?
In four . bort ,....... I'reoldenl Jimmy Cart .... II U«lu th. world . nd hi. P""
Idftnllol"'CCMIO"S.n unr.lIl11j Inrmulo tn wrtdt Ihe Middle Eut: Incul
",-"Ivelyon brlnaJrIA ~ bet_ the 1.....lto and the P.I.. tinl.....
u I'God ~ only you . nd your pwoooaI wupeou " '0 do It, and ron:..
frl. .dly IO"m .... nll to .11, Ibel. OWl! Ihl"OOltl by lnll.IUIIj full-aco.le
I\merkan'llyl, democ:rac:y iJruna:Iillely. II fIIll• .....,.II....,
Carter Pf'O'I""d ClOIIcl .... '...ty, u Drillin'. N..... U.OwnberWn bad forty
y.... "'Iott hIm, ilMI lb. rood 10 hell .. P'yed wilb toad Inlen,;on ... A
pel'lOnoll)' d_nt. bononoble, iDOOlTUplible .... ns-llal Oubltln , he
wanted nothl.,. ""'" or I_ It...> to bring .. _ l ~ beI_ Ib, 0,11-
dren of Abnbom, lhe Jew. and the ABbe;.

Than"" to Cen.ld Ford and Henry K1 ..llIgtIr. Cuter came Into omao
with .n . wfullot goi ng for him. Even 00. hi. bungling. nth.r than h i•
• klll . san him hi. big bn>akthrough. In 1977 . a.rter wlnlM!lhl $ovl~
Union to be tboI Unl~ 51.0.1 ... • partner 10 ruJ1J1Ina I Middle East ~ con-
fereooe or diplomotic inItiotin to IIIItie the bneli-Arab conflict.. Egyptian
prwidellt Anwar Sad,t con fnNltM! the ide. with .. ndemandable horror.
He ho.d rlAkM! his life and I~ fum", of hII country 10 kick Nu ..... •• 5ovl~
.dvi...... OIIt III 1971. The I..! Ihlng he noedM! w.. lOme utnordinorily
n"WI U.S. p .... ldenl letting th.m com. boock. bound for ",veng •. $0 the
mon who h.d confounded III Upeel.tlOII. by u""lling the 50vleu l il[
)"IiI" ... rlie. Innounoed thet with in day. he WHI!DinII to vi.it /aruaoJem.
Thl mOvl WU Illoundlng beyond Im.glnation. Nothing li k. It hod
ev.... 00e1l _ n ill Ihe hlltory of the Middle Foul. S.d't wu 8"lng to m_
the (lu pjlOH'lily) mool herd-lin •. ferodoua.ond Im pllCllble l.....li 1II1II",
or them .ll: M e~em Begin. whOM Ukud bloc had finally won power
ill the 19n 8""0",1 ellllCllom . 11.", he hId endured lix p",viou. ellllClonJ
dor..... In I row H IlIIIIe. of the Herut Ind Gah.1 ""rtl...
No. WH S.d. t lu.t gol"3 to Tel Aviv. which would have OOen ndlcal
enough. He Wilt 8"i"3 to /eruMlem.thedty whOM lJlounic holy lit.. hid
OOeo In I..... U hand. for ........ thon. decode. to the u",,"di ng fury oft ....
entlre .....b . nd MUIUm world •.
Friendllnd enemi...Ilk. we.. "unne<!. Cen ....1 MoNi!lcluo.1 Gur. the
tough 1. .... li 8"n....1who hid lid the fon:eo thaI . torruM! the Old City in
H167. ,u,pected • I",p. Only Elegln look th" whole thing In . Irlde. Thou·
undo of "'pone... nd tel""lolon ""w.tMm. flooded In f",m ermutd t ....
world. Bezeq. [,nel·. jUllly nviled n.tlonallzed telephone oom",,"y.
which ulu.lly ""uldn·lln.ull •• hnpl" phone in 8n I""rtment without .
tru----y ..... d"l.y. l1li up flawl_Iy working f/"1Hl gJobIl communiaotlOlll
for III of them in I... than I week.
Sada!'. jenualem vlJit wM the hl8ll'l'1 thing ofitl kind .ino:;e the Quoen
of Sheba hid come to wDO KI"ll 5010moll. S.dat WM l_lmprnued. And
Mlddlo EMI Won ... d I ' - .

th ..... wll camlllly no lova affair betw.. n EcYpt and 1i...1 to rival the
famous biblical OM. Bill IMy did .hare Ihalr h ...."· dlflre: peeDI
belWIlft lhelr two COIIntri.. and. for Sed.t .• danuond that the .. tire
demItU ..b ....d Sinai Penlnlllla b.l'llllImed to EcYpt.
What follo ... ed ..... more than fifteen month. of 10"1. exhausling.
IIIMn •• nd ob.eaolw ~;'Ho",. Can ... thBw bimMU Inlo 1M t-rt of
them and OOlllled ov.r avary detaa, (Lih Hurborn lloover. COrter....hn
penonally plan"ed Iha ",hod"l", fn r 1118 Whll. IIOUM ten nl. COllrt.
Ihri ....1 Oil detan •• the mOre tUo&l ... Ihe belter,) " ... nl u.lIy, It all cam.
I..,.u- al the 1918 Camp o.vid ~ co"ra_.... h«to Caner bulcally
locked up 1M .ov.,...11" l-ten oftareel and £cypIln .. luIt amounted to
.I ...... ry pri_ . with the Secret ServJ,oa .. their ~11ere. unln they finally
..... CIa' peeDI t...ly.
The ItOIIy I. lhat non. of it WIll o-...y. and lhat lutl", peeDI
bet ....... luMl and EtIYPt may ....llha ... 1.en puMibl •. on rat ....... favor-
abl, lenna fot .....1.... ilhout it.
S.d" frenkly refuoed 10 mlh peace ... lthout ptUn,,1l of the Sinai
hK.k. but.loe. Killi nger" monumanl.1 Sln.1 n I8fIIm.nl In 1915, he
had Iha I1NIlily or peace anyway. T h ..... ntu.II ...ly h.mm~ oul at
COmp o.vld ..... m.da pouibla only ... lth ""onnou•• nnu,1 pIoy" ... nl. of
more Ihan $4 billion from the American IUpooy ... 10 1....1 Ind EsYPI
alilr.a. 1....1 paUIII. tmWtIlban Egypt In ,baolu~ \....,.. but .. It IuId.
much IrIIIU.. population. vaatly mote In par c:aplta lanna, 8uI by ,ivl",
up th, Sinai. I. . .lloet 111ft Jlret.depth It would detperel.ly r-t Iflt
madtt any '""'·term ............t with the PaleJllnl..... II abo 100t 111ft I....
ritory It would ultimately need If It ..... rilOld 10 Im pllQlbl..... my
determined 10 ..:quIre nud.... wilpon •• Th' _ 4 ...1', population
w.. concenlrelad In th. . . . of greate .. T,l Aviv. tb. more tamptln. II
... ould II. for &fly poocldal·mlndad mlnlac 10 wipe oul Ih' bulk of lh,
population al ,.lngle "rot •. By g;vl", up tha SI".I. Begin m.de Ih"
nJ&htm ..... ,lot _I ... 10 Khlava.

Rel.iolns much of SIII.I would .Iso have made It fa, .... ier to moin·
I.in control of the ea:u Strip. The Pal ... Un l.... we .... dept. o. the Viet
Cona had been before them, In conSl ru<;llllR .ndl.... arnoyo of lu ...... l1 to
.m uggle w... ponl intn Goo:u from EsYPt wtlOln the ' "ra&lI·Egyptian bord",
wu right bMldelhem, And In .h.rp contrast to Ga:u and the WOIt Bank.
Sinal wu olmool uninhllbit&d,
~'at from hri"3i"ll """"" with ill neighbon, the ... I•• good .rgument
to be made that Carte,', wo,1:; enobled Bagln to "art • di l8.l ....... waribat
hi' ooontoy ba. been poo.yl"ll for ever .1I>0Il, p...,. with Esrptln the oouth

PC MytfI: Ronald RoOC"" Didn"

Know Who! He W., 001",
E ~ u- Hmty Kis~ wil i &ell1UI, ¥Id if ~ didn't, ho! r-. hnitilfd to ttll
10. &u! Prnidfnt I\cNId lItilpll tot ~lIy impm.w moult. b)' ilWWinC 10 be 11\

/lU<h l~.. !Nil ho! wHo

wt..n 1It'l"" ted: oIfu, tho! umd Stitts WI'! r!<1otl<i 10 on""" """'" Uite of Iunillition ¥Id
lppOIenI inpoIMtt tNr! it Net bHn <lma tilt J97)-1914 oil ~ TIlt new ~ ~kwIiry
~ in Inn _ 11~1 haIdIrc ftly·twIJ .t.meriun difIomob ¥Id atho!t u.s. dlllf!lS ~tI&e ¥Id it
home tho! lII1ionol wil 10 IICt u~l Net no!l~l<i from tho! t~ of VortNtn ¥Id W,lte<pte,
~.., IUU-wd b)' ul ..... toucb.lClirc (ilUlkMly, ¥Id ~ b"lliirotly. !-If ond hit top
"HItJ"I, no! only ,rstortd MId Ittqtheord ,t,mer;cil 60miNnt pmiloon in tho! Mkidle £ilt, but
thty f'OerI ~ it IUUrsWIly 10 «OtlomlCllly "ocIermirlf tilt So<voe1 tJriDn iIld Sfnd ~ "Udirc to
lItilpll «<osni1l<i !hi! tilt lntfflclfol SoYifI Cormutnl IjlUtm II'Iriwd on hI&h rtobll f!'IerI)'

prim. jo.nt 1\ thty _ " l'IIcf'rtmlte fof tilt Lnilfd St"fI.;.p..,.1IICI tht other mijof industr~·
lIed "",ion! of 1M flft wot1d, He therefore workl<i very dll'fly with lint KhiIfd ¥Id (sown
.....-... _-
freMI BoIsln to l.unch hlI _ y Into Leb&oon to the nol1b in Iprina 1l1li2.
But DefenN Mlnllte. Al1el Sharon'. grand d_1an for l.eb.oon quidly
went dlMotrow.ly wrq.lJnotIluffi!red hundredJ of deed and IhouMnd.
of wounded before II rmally withdrow from much of IOUthem Lebanon
. 11.... broken RosIn left offloo.
H..:! Eflypl re .... lrlld _Mnti.lly powe.le...nd In tiM U.S. orbil . but
wllhout. flnal peaI:8 IrMty with 1s....1. ... d had 1.....1 m.I .... ln.... con·
lrol o f ... 011 ofthl Sinai. hut forc":! to bot on 8,..«1 In Ih' lOuth. Desln
would never h.... da.-IO "poo" up an Imblllouo new r.onl In I.... nort h.

P'rinI:f fotld 01 Wudi AlJbW to _ m. U.s. moIII.y pow!I' ptOIKHd tho! bcdoo'" boIh fn;wn
tho! Sondl and hom the ....... ~iH ~ Itof Gulf who hod ,." TOpJHd the wtI.
lIt.Ip'I·l _ i f f hfro, lIriuin' -.tone prWnt rnirvltff WI'ISIOfI 0utt0ilI,1\od IIOl .......
tlltd 10 I!4IPOI1 SO¥iff ~ )owf SloI ... the IIQI proIik killer 1'1 tu.... hi$tOlJ. wM! the Scwt-
ftl_"IM;kt<! by tho! IM!'l ""'"' ~ lIwil 01 Nill ~ Itt 19011. Rtqon ~
tquiI mIon. boIdo:1ffi. ¥d ,n4>06til cyni<::ivro Itt IUPPQft.... the _It ~t .. Itof Middlf r.ut.
s.a.:IdMn ~ ¥I'l'Iffl Siddom 1ItII:R<i kin .. mo. flit klflllnl rlllltd bfhRI me. dwivNlit
~. AJiloIlIt ~ Ind l1li' ~ _ dr~ on fof fiji! )"UrI. ~ RtopI. the

1kiI«l Stilt" piOf~ ........... 1!4IPOI11O ~ iAdo.odIr.: r8·t " iltfltc-f on ..nm
the ""'"' _1:liII """ ot .... iC and U(l0CJIiy IntpI k...... fon:f'I _ pIomi'o& 10 and:.
~ IU«ftdtd .. 011 .......... ~ LuI: ro.ts. Itt wt"cU",ifd ~ pifW;t wd Qq.
- . l Wudi AlIbI.. kIrpc oil pr\I::f'I r-ubly Iow.IIId fftIind thM the 1geO!. _ iI dK* d
r\ObiI p!OIopffIty Amfriu bwotifd .. I ~ Tht ott, ~ tw I~ _"lebnn ...
_ thert. tw ~ It......t fn>m hts_tJln. ~~ tilt pt(Iplt ~. and I'fOIdtd pl'
till wciotd l1'li0;1 _Iw did IIOl ....... Hi! brilliltlt ,,~dntrvt1. r., dow;r ~ from ~
WCCtiIOfl!Nn It his ,fCt'i<f<i

lie Ind Shlron mlghl"ilI have _ .. piihe PLa oui oflba large andave 11
c:ootrolled In aouihem Ulbanon, bullbey would ReV.". t.."" dared 10 J>ulb
on lnlo Ihe ...... rt ofLeboonon. lIazbollah, C..... led by Ihi .... riM ofmaneu_
veri. J>roved I far mo ... formi dable and 10"S·I."lng enomy of the )ewi5b
.i.i. ihln ihe PLO had aver t-n,
The iSr&f! n_~:gypHan ~ i ..... iy abo COlt Amaricllh" life of lilt m ...1
important and COllltructive Illy In Ihe entl", Middl e ~:"I1. On October 6 ,
1981, Anwa, Sadat proudly ... vlewed hli armed fo..,. .' Ihey man;hud
pall blm In maloed .rn.y. A .mall groUJ> of lilamie extnomlll conopl,.._
ion In hil own army, furloU'11 Sodal". p8IICe wilh [.,...1, broke rlnb al
ihel . unit marched by tho ... viewing atand and 1I0rm<><i iI , Ihei. automaiic
riO ... blazing. SocL.I d ied in. ianlly. Hi. fai" we._lod by lhe m081 enor_
moul decoration b" wont on hi, ch ... I, ihe Star of SinaL 11 w .. JUII 100
bi.JI and sa.bh 10 mill,
Had Ib" 1975 Sinai II diNngagemenl "IV""menl t-n aUowM 10 deO~
llraeli-Egypl ian ..,lallOJ1l, Sad.ol would hi"" lived I nd e~I "'m" Illamilm
would neve, IuIva won It, 8"""lell ula"lnallon cou p to dale, OuI by
Ihen, thoOlher IUppoeed greel allyoflh .. Uniled SIal.. in Ibe Mlddl" Eut
had .loa fall"n, even more • victim 10 Carter'1 romantic Ind farciCiI ... n ..
of pnOliU .... Carte, ', "S ..... I .chl"vemenl" of peace belween Israel and
" 8ypl CAm" at 'd l.... lrou. price, il ","uhed In lnon ', f.lI lo Ay"lollah
Khomaini , bunc hing ' vindent neW form of Illlml.t exlremllm hlthe<1o
Inconceivable. From November 1917lhrough March 1979, Carter wu 00
"""""-I with .chlevlns an [lraeU-EgypUan ~ InIIly thaI h" IgnOftld
ib" increaling evldonce Ih.1 Ihe 'hlh of Iran', poIlUon w.. crumbling
wllh amui"lll~.

Clinton: Carter all over again

AI Ii... 81"",,", Hill Cllnlon', dealings with the Mlddla Ea.1 ap]>MNld Ih"
abanlula Opl""'ile of Ib" h.pl_ Carte,', e.:porlence. And com""",,, with
manyoflhe bun&!_ \be oubHquelll BuaI! .dmllllltniion would make. il
....... bly ttlllloob flOOd.
Uoder OllltOOl. ~ ..... telatl .... .uobllIty WIIf'II ~ IlIroughout
lhe .eaJon. and 11M bneli·PaIemnian ~ p.....-. ......... 10 .dnnce.
EYeIl Inll . ppMNd 10 I!eoome IIlOf1I moderatl. wllb the 1l1li7 I loction of
the ..,.,..,kably modent. '111_ by blamlc Republ ic fIfIndardo) Moham ·
mid Kbl '"ml. And 011 pm- until 1_lIlyed u lonlllll Jl3ly low. Com·
pa1$(\ to Cutet ', nightmlrlill """"d of buffoonl.1I Incom petencl. tbil
wu. wllcome cont ...l lnd""".
BUI ult lurned 0111. Ointon "'pelled Carl .... ·1 bIIlc ml.uoke of fOCllI'
I", obMnlv,ly On the Iln,li.A.. b pHOI prOCMlo. H, .Iuored Carle,'1
m...1oman1lat1 delUilon IbM he OOIIld forte the INtl"'.- IbM "-d
.Iuded pNVtou& a--tiOlll on either lide. Iu I _ult.lib Can ..... Oin·
IOnand bl. lop ~ on the region;pond or o:atutrophla.lJy UDder·
nted tbe nm_leoo-bu.t otherwiM "lthly pnlv.nl.bl......n.. of •
feroc:lou. enemy tlMt W<MIld kill more A..-kana In Illntledey I.be.n!be
,,~ n.vy did II J>etlri Harbor.
Clinton unnot l.....Ith.... credit or bleJ", for lhe 0.10 Peeoe Pt-ocM..
It WII fo,me, I..... Ul llpe... b.wk (now Ilimed uilnl-dovej Shimon ........
who u,ld Ihll "l1li. And It wlI Rabi,,-haunted by m,morl_ of the dlllth
ai_ of hll youna <;otnnd_ 1II IIIe tIM7 flghtl n, for jet"llNII",-who
....d. thl auclal decl.1on 10 ....1""11 with " - .
Bul onCl Rebln end A..flt beld thet remoUi ",IIIt IIl, and . honk
beod. on tbe Wh ile Ho.... Lt.wo 10 1l1li3. Oloton .od hi' ,_ ......Iy
tumpod .hoerd 'he "Pee.,..t Lul- up, .... Wbe .. Cut" bad . . .•
.1" . ly Ibrown hi_If Inlo .... try nook eod cnnny of '1M I.... U·f:«ypt·
110 "'I0Ulllonl for , I,b'III" moow. 0111100 did 10 fo, • full ..",n
y...... Th, cUmu uml in l u.ly 2000 wb.., . wllh lbe Nodi of time run·
nina ou.t on hi. IICOnd 'I nn . Oinlo .. convened. Camp [Mvtd II peea
I .. mmlt witb 1o,... U p,lme mlnlo' e, Eh .. d Bo.. k ood ,h, old on d elll",
Ullng Jimmy ('.r,rter u a moo&L for anything. even fnr what It ill
appeared 10 be hi. one undisputed grtMIt diplomaUc achi""""'ent. Ihould
have s1ven Ihe Clinlon t...", plu .... but cI .... rly 11 d id not. The id"" and
drlvLI\3 fon::e for Ihe mnfe",,,,,,, reportedly came from BarU. whn capped
a brilllanl carMI' U IMHl'l top lpeelal foreeI comrn!l nder (during which
hll exploill ex.-dod evan th..... ofOayan and 5 ....... n) with alhort Ind
utlerly trul\3led p",mle.. hlp. BllIlhere 11 110 dou~ th. t Ointon and hb
lOp psaoo nf!gOllalon were exOllptionllly eager to make the effort.
For luch en ambitioul end ... vor. Barak and hlllllLlll bungled Ihe I",ff
work for Camp Oavid II abylmally. It u difficult to i""'3ine that Ih. man
who hId been Ih. legendlry commendaT of .peelal fol'<::" and Ih&1I I
. .peeled IOF ch ief of ,taff could h .... proven.., lJoppy In pnopari"ll for
hi' g.w.IGSI challenge RI nalionall ... der.
Bul Blm. II hll intlmal ... llter ",vealed. d id not even do the bRllc
dipl ...... tic P"'P"retion of IIOUndil\3 out the Pal",llnlana' It.olule bottom-
Hoe \emu for a MlII. menl. Whll heoff.....d wRl. from the llraell penpec-
U"e. Lmme....,ly senerouo: mono than 90 percent oflhe West a.nL DUI he
d idn't yield on the right of relurn for Ihe dMCendenll of PII ... tinian
re fugee. from Ihe IIM7 war. l boUI wb ich Aflrat wu ill.i.tent. He al$O
Inlilled on mainllining totll 11...li control ov. r the .ntlre c h y of
Jerunlem. Ind on retal nln8 the relall vely I mln amount of territory
beyond the 1961 borde.. on which \80.000 llraelil had built tOWIlI and
..".tlomenll. Th ll wa. 80 JHl'l'OIInt of tb. tot.I I.... H HIller populallon
beyond the Creen Line.
Over the pfflvlou . ... ven y ...... Anf.t hId gained I VRlt amount for
him ... lf. and hId mad. hi. fi .. t pin. for hi. 10"ll·..,ffering people. hy
com promi.Ln8 for the fl111 time In hl,life. lIulllCamp Dovid II. when he
coul d have won JO much m""". he turned It down. Oemandi"ll nothing
bul the enlirll cake. he 100t the much Ilrser oJ ice of It he would olh_l...
b.ve bId. Hi. deci.ion wI. true 10 Ih. plllem . o f bizarre beblvlor Ind
logic thaI had sovetned h tlen ll ... IIf... It II.., condemned Ilrwlll and

MIddle Eu. 1'0'....... d "-<:e

Palestinian••li ..... . o I new round of war and luffering g..",ue • •lton Iny-
Iltlng Iltey Itld end Ul"lld In more than fifty y$ll .....
Fnr Clinton. th" fl!lure ofCoomp O' ... ld n duhed hll druml of NCU,...
ing I lal.i ng en d NCul"1l I"""'" (or botlt lid .... But w orM by far, Clinton
and Iti, chi~ f Midd le &..1 p".ce en ... oy. Dennis ROil, Itld fn<gnuen lite
lasting wisdom of Holll)' Ki..lngur: ..·lten di.pulea"", not ....I.... bl •. It
I. bat to rtICOgnbe wh • • ""nnot be ....Ived Ind limply coneentnl. on
Impro ... lng tit, rondltiollsthat CllII be improved. E... en. ually. conditio".
.lId l u ltud ... may clt.ngu sufficlently.o tfICOIIcll. Ib, pmvlou.ly 1"",,-
oneil.blu, bul trylna to do 100 muclt too lOOn olway. bto:kfi ......
That wu the collMquence ofComp o.vld II. When Aria' Shlron vi ...
Ited .b, Tem ple Moun' ill Solp •• m..... 2000. an Idmluedly pot,nHoUy
incelldiary mOve. Anfol UMd It 10 1ft! off . new Pal ... tinl.n Intifada. Th'
Finl [ntlfado bod heell fought witb violon. bu' non·lethal prote ....
bec&u ... gu". and upl ... iv ... wen not _lIy 1... llIlhl. on th' IV... Ban k
and in Gnl Ift.r twenly y.... of offectl .... lI ... oli oon trol. The Second
Intlf.da W," far mOt1lletho.l.
Some 1.100 11",,,1i civilian. dl.d In Ih' following four yean of may-
hem. and probably II I_, th ..... tim ... Iha. number or p.lestinlan, died
from [,raell retaliation. Rahin', idNli.m end P..... ·• utOplln vl.lonl had
bom biuer fruil.
Tho Uniled S"tes bore • worse an d more direct price. In Ih. YN ••
before Comp o.vld II .• nd in Ihe f" ... ,red mOllth. up 10, during. and after
il. CLi llton and h i. lop officills pl>ld no ,uendon to the mounting evi-
dence that.1 Qaedl,. onceobscure but inc....ingly formidable u,",me
1.I,mlet .~rrorill group led by Saudi renegade ClAme bIn ~den. had
become emboldened. EncouAged hy III pmvioul impunity from .... al la-
tlon by the U.S. anned 10...,.... it wa. now prepl>rlng a t"""rllI .\lack of
unprecedcIlIed 1aI1. on 1M two of the gmt.... citles in the United States.
Clilpu. ,


M tltrroriJt alllCu of ~ember \1 , 2001, had I profound effed Guess what?

T on lhe Amerio:an payche. Tha &10')' of ll..11 ... )'. whalled up 10 II.
and wluo' ... uhed from il ;' .Iowly .tartl.,. 10 loUdlfy. It _ _
OIIly ",""pia qu.lioni.,. 1M omclal venlon ... 1M
Ii ..... - . t i l lbe
• 0tfIdab III Wlo the
CIA .... flilaw
Ilut .t o.GI ""*
~ ltUtben~-tha Mld>M1 Moon 1)'pM conrirw:ed IM I....-how Bush and I ..... 1hnII. lout
Halliburton . togtotha. wilb Iba C.rl)'la Croup and problbly Wal·Mart ,
~Ic M. tloeJ
Itljj"llOi Ih' allKk. wtm't .t~1O
HUlth, omct.1 hlJlO')' of Sl!plambe. 11 h.. baen Infaoted by political lhire 1...ronutlGa.
comK:ln... and we do..-l to ..,llhe..cord It ..lghl. MooII),. if a impor- • Tuml"lll~ lLS.
Ilnl 10 remembe. lhe bu'4lJing of the Cllnlon Idminillril ion .nd the 10)01... t~ Souodll
__ Hy tiemeM
co.......,,"'" b), Cl inton .. nal10nal """uril), adviM>r Sandy Be..... 11.110. it'.
crudal lo debunk ~plrlqr tbeorieo aboul Saudllnvol ... menl ; one of
bin Lade n'• ..,.1 .... 10 weal ,.., Saudi A ..bla b)' h.rml .... U.S.,Saudi
11.... W, abo need 10 lqu,lch the c1al mo oftba bllOl.. II.maric:a,firiten,
. ...
!.IdH·1 Sr,umlle.

o..m. bin Udao and hi. pawn. ant the only paopla ...ponoibla foo- Sep-
tember 11 .

[lInlon', team missed the al Qaeda threat

II"I crucial for the Left to cllJm thaI und. CUnlon Americ:alll ""joyed y......
of paac;e and pfOIIpe.it)'. Th. economy gaw. tbey .. y. and 8"vemrrumt

spendins w.. """" k~pt und .... Clll"Jttol. They admit Ointon may have had
pel'SOnallhortmmi"lP. but he governed well. To pfflServe thl, myth. you
n....d to bolieve that September 11 came out nr nowhere. with no warn-
11111 .1.11. To belle"" th.l. you n....d tn lanore history.
AI Qaeda wu hardly unknnwn In U.S. policym.kel'f bef..... Seplem-
ber 1 t. II had al .... dy carTied ou t Iwn 8mbil;0", and dovaflBling all"""
on U.S. largell. well nul.lde Ihe norm.l rang<I of Middle Eutern terTM
groupo. On Augusl 7. 19ge. Ihe group .imu lt.n...,ully bombed the U.S.
emhuol... ln Nairobi. Kenya. and Oa.... Sal .... m. Tanzan ia. Togmher, zn
poople wel'llkilled and mono than 4.000 were wOUJlded. land tn.I.lly Olb ...
American joumalioll corTeCtly aocribed Ibe bnrnbingo 10.1 Qeed••1 the
dme. The IIAme wu . p"..endy 1i",1 publicly u...,.j (Ipellf!<lal-Qoidal by
Preoidonl Bill C1inlon nnly Iwn wec" after th_ 811acn.
On October lZ . WOO. al Q.teda membel'f ulill1l nothing mol'll hlah-tech
Ihan. rowboal filled with explnslv ... sevel'llly dam.ged Ihe USS OJle In
Aden. Yemen. Sevenl... n U.S. ulln", w8l'11ldlh,d and annth... thLny.nlne
wenl Injured. Th8groUp wu d ... rly .I ....dy compelent. and dangel'OUJ.
The . nacu on th. embAJsI.. showed a capablllly 10 organlM ambitioul
aimultan""uI aUltCu agaill81 d iffemnt t""8"l',
II later emerged th.t d ifferenl".ru ofthe enormoul U.S. intern.tional
inl"lHgence and domet11c MCUrity organluUOIII had received dl'pe.<ete
pi"".. of Inform.lion in d icotlng that . 1Qaed. wu organizing an,cu
wilhin the Unllf!<l Sial.. U..,l f, Thll Waf oomlllhlll1l thai neither the PLQ,
Biacir. September. and or any nth... p,l".tlnl.n terror group had dared or
t-n .ble 10 do.
A number of Nnlo. U.S. offici.l. were alert 10 Ih" d.ng.",.1 Qaad.o
poHd. On" w•• Jl.lchard C1Rrke. who w.. In charge of oounter-terTOrllm
in the C1inlon .dminlltnltion. whieb Cli nton rightly made a coblnlll·I_1
job. Another wal John O'N" ill, • brim.nl. .br.. lve. 8<>1Iettill1l deputy
dlT1lClor81 the FBI wbn wu fon:ed oul of office In 2000 beclUN he made
.Uck. .....1.... bu .... UCJIIIs uncomfonahlft, A thin:! was GIlorve Tenet. Clin .

100', own director of c..ttai Inlellipn<a Th
biI a.:iit, Ceor&e W, BUl h kept both T _ • ..> BooIcs You',. Not
Ind C"r~' In thel. poolli""-lliahly , .> Supposed to R.ld
unu.u.] for Iny tncomllll oppooilion p..,.l.
denL {Cuk.', pooitloo wu dow~, 1 The QI'\lfophesd~ttI1ber II "-pro-
However. who! foUowld wu. hlpanllan cb:td , Iibr;wy of boab. mony 0I111l'11 "">'
CllAIll'Oph., Olnton Ind hlJ Nlti"",,1 Secu. fXId. T_ 01 ~ "">' bHI" M• ..-.uAI
rity Coun<:III&am, lI... dud by IUItlon.l_u- Cntmin: hsIdr Amfml) Wdr on rfffl)l" by
.hy 1d ..11O. Sandy 88t1«. ....... look III, kidIMtI ClMh: Ne\oI York: F~ Pm" m4.
!hr.t of.1 QHdoo .,,,,,,.Iy e"""'l!h, Aft .... MId rht I«riw r - AI QDtdu r;rnd!ltt
Septemt- II, well.fterth. O lnlOQ admin- bid ro Stpftmbfr Rby ~ Wri&ht
1,I,"lion len olH.,., aers... In In unprece_ Ne\oI yQtt: Vint. , 2001.
dented Ind h!&hly Improper Mi. of d_Iy Hn one Wfi in iI hftl8 poUtIon !kiln
J>f'1I'DI'diuuod liClioni boIwwa Seplembor z CliIRt to ~ me Int.idOI' lfOr)' on me
and October Z. 2003, withdrew hund....u of r~pu'td ~ 01 top-'-I U.s. pullc)"

~'" of documenlJl d",UIII willi lJlamlll rnHm ~ bodI ainlon ItId But.h. Alltil-
te ...... Ih .... \11 to the United SlotOl from Ibe iIw. opi'"oorwttd,lcroc1edc'-" ~
U_S. N.II"""I Ar<;hlv. In Wuhl"ll04, MId CIlll"IpOQn. he _IN! ~ m..c. ,
Mloy uf IhUM documentl we .. n..... wil!.hoflcton memoN thiIt (MliH (omiwon.
returned, and Berger. ,fter contred lclln. If II iIbo ill'~ IUd.
hi_if In prn1"", • .:counlJl ..... n' ... U' So II WrlcJW'I book. fOClMd 1\ i{ II on
Idminod 10 dOllroyin. mony of them. On the tr"CiC "-Iotrn 1 O'Nril. who (cdc!
September I, 200.5. he wu Hned S.50 ,OOO " - IIQPI)fd the Stpt~ n ,.. tOt plot iI1
ond Mn lenced 10 on. hund.-.d boun of III trotH.lIut no _ w. /lUI !Itt ple(fI
community ..,.,.1.,. for theM IiCIlo.... Con • t. . . ., MId Ih 0iIrb. O'tWIQI
• tdert"l tho, Ihe docu .... nlJl be dettroyld s/'wuq«I 011 by me Iurt! in bo!tr me CIo1tofI
ml,hl well hIVe IIIrvod at e.. idon ... fo, MId 8uI.h illlrnrmllillloni u t-,. 100 bird·
Impeechmenl .iml him by .orne fulure dIM.... Whit !hillmurrt _ !hill he _1\
U,S, Conar-, Ibe ",...It, _mo • chllP ~ dyrfto:. inlrIIipm. honftt.
prke for him 10 poy. II _m •• ......,n.bl. ItId ~"'" • ..-d to pmI«t tv. C(lO.I'II'"1
preoumpllon to conclude that Be.....

dattroyMi the document. beau ... they cont.iMd """eptlo.aUy Inctimt·
lllltins or embutualns evidence .bout bow he .nd top Qinlon offid.11
unde_ti .....led.1 q.ed&.

Bush drops the ball on al Qaeda too

Unforlunately. Ihe incom ing BUlh ad mlniliretlon w.. lUll .1 com·
placent. A f",'t,.ted John O'Nelll was tqueezed out of lhe FBI. Hi l
... peated wArnings .bout cltestropbe 00 the borizon b.d dlJCfftdlled
him In thecompt_n\ eya of policymake.. and move .. end .halwn in
both partl". He look. job n.tnning.ecurily for the World 'f'I-IIde Cente •
• nd w.. In hli office on the Ihlrty.fourth floor wben the hllocbd .1.·
liner Itruck h il building_ He .urvive<! Ihe inl ti.1 bl..t and called hil
f.mUy to lell them he wu III 'ight. But he Inllsted On going to beck to
h.lp fMCU. olh.... and perllhed when Ih. lOW." collapm. H. w.'
one of the mOlt heroic .nd terl.inly the mOIl tragic figu ... in Ihe whole
M..."whU•.• ble offici.I ••1 both Ih. FBI and the CIA we ....... meted
from . haringin fonnltion and coope ... ting effectively by congre.. ioo.al
[egillatlon pe.»ed In Ih' potl·Vletnam ere by Democntic-<:ontrolled Con·
greIHI. ACLU·lnlplred qu_Inea lbout Int.lIigenoo plheri"ll kept ...
from Kling before Sept.. mber II .
A. 1."., Sept.mber 10. Defense ~tary Donald Rumofeld lold.
group of U.S. IGn.otlH"l who wanled 10 Iwltch S500 mllHon_ ... Iat ively
IImIII lum by Iwenly·fim-cenlury defe.,.., budgel.tand.rd_from blgh·
lech _ponl. IncludinS balllllic mlNUe defenM. 10 InU·lerrorill opere·
Uono th.1 he would "'8" """'ident lIush 10 veto any l ucb "'_u.... Nur
i. Ih ..... any ..... 1 Indication. deopHe much luboequenl Ipin to the con·
lret)'. tMI ellher BUlb Or Condoleeu.ll Rk:e look Ceo'1!8 Ten"f. waminp
.boul .1 QHd.·1 gmwlna capobLHtleo and wldenl Intenlioo. to carry oul

lemlr .llIeb within th. United St.1 ... eny more oarioully. TIInet tried 10
n.. Hiotory 01 s.pt.... bor "

_ botb Clinton find Su.h d_tly, COP>pelAlltly, and bononbIy. But

If 'hen ..... on. ch&"" '~I CollI be telli nslY .... d.... In.t him. u •
... p«tt>d form. r ... olor coo....... lon.1 offid.l ... ho d... 1t .. lth maoyof
th_ IUUM lold me. i. Wfl' th., h. Klmetlmel .hronk from lelUns truth
Thou.. nd. of Am''''"an. .........bou. to die t.:.UIOI of .ll 1M compt.·
aortCy. Incompetence. and bull3ilna.

Heroes aDd lessons

Only on. h W>·t..:b .)","'" ... orked effiM:tl.,.ly 10 ..v. , ........00. of Amor-
lean llv ... Oil 58ptember 11. end I. dido ·, ,.ke .
".nt from the S360 bil.
lion l'en tllllon budget. Thet .,.te'" ...... ' h, ord inary cell phon..
.-....... on United Atrlm. FU ....,1I3 from Newerl<. New )«My. 10 San
~'rencl_ u...t. 10 report lbel thlr plane b.ed!.en hljecbd. IIMUd"ll

they ... en l1li.0....1)" trip, end ... ilh nothl"llieft to 10M. .. venl pat-
tengen lnfofn>ed their loved Ga . . ,hey ...... goi"ll 10 lIorm the bijecken.
... ho bed . l.-....iy .Ii' the Ihro.tJ of the . 1...
Hn. pHot •.•• their co-plolle.. d Id on Ihe
ot her . h .... p....... No 0'" will .....,.. know
,he cMtaIt. oI ... luo, folio..... bul the pM- BinUden
_4" .'lCC8M!ed III thel . p i: the .1... W...... US
liner cruMd Into. l'enn.)"lvenl. nel d.
In his IoWdt I991 lntet ,Ie ..
kllllIII .veryon. on board. It. lot.nded
t.rget .p.,....
to hlYI been ,h. Un ited
,.;i1fI CNH"I ~tI Amm.
0iimI bin Ude!t ippOIed 10 rm. dwKII, 10
SI.'M C.pUol, ... h... ,he U.s. 58l1.li1. end
me Il tKki of StpIembtr It
H OII ... of lIep...... nt.U v.. ....... boI h In
_Ion., the lime. P£TU; .u.N£TT: WhrI . . _ ""'" plwl
lIad 1~1 .. pee! of 1M pICII.~ed. .... lADOt 't'ooo'lI '" ..... ..:1 ..... - - .
• 1UI11"",,1 aolutropbe would hove...,... !'-_tIOO ..... GoII ......
I.ted loto • n.llonel crtltl. WMt .. ved

the nation from....:h .n unpl'9OellenlOO crb i, wei the heroilm and ifill·
sacrlf..:e of. handful of ordinary people.
The Iwo hijacked plana targol&<l for the TwIn To"' .... both hI! Ihelr
target., They we ... n04 ... motely controlled. U 10m. m..... c.... d"" con·
'piracy null laler claimed: I Uniled Preu lnlem.olional COI'reOpondem io
Manh. tlan ... pone<! later hnw he oboIerved wllh hll Own eyeo Ih.I the
hijo.cker pllol of the IfICOlld airliner h.d cornocted hli flIghl to try 10 hll
Ih .. tower at. lower point. to trap mo ... people.
The low" ... "'..... IUPpDHd to bio able to wilb'\Jnd any aircra ft enolh·
103 into them. Th .. ir "'''''I.lructu..... In fact. wlt],.t""" the kinetic .hocb
of the twollrline.., uloCIly u they w ..... IUppoHd 10. 8ul th .. IOW.... had
been d ... lgned biof..... the lint wide-body end "Iumbo" a;,I;n ...... nd the
hlja.o:ke.. had deliberately planned 10 hijack plan... at the begInning of
theIr croea-country nigh" 10 that lheir fuel tlob we", ltill allllOll fulL
Ooarna bin Laden had tnllned ... ci"HIAn engineer, and he boated I", ...
that he had calculated that the Inte ..... h ...1 of
y, . the bumillfl guoliM would pro.... l ufficient to
- A look You're Not melt tho tow ....· """I Itructures, The Iwo
L- 50""".... to Read buil d i/lfll we ... allO more ""lnarable becou ...

; :docu-nonfuiQn <:i ~ lO!'I'iIl inc~· In I d.Jsn exceptionally unu ....l for any oky·
acra.-. thel. """I abletont had been """",ed
\fflCf iDd bI~ oIl~ O""on iId!rOnis.
on the oUUlide. mthftl' than In lheir inner co ....
\"lIIon on ~ ~, Ihr ~ 10 rNII is
Had the Twin Towe ... t-n built in the Indl·
~, H:Jw Amrrito', "'f~ fail-
tlonal manner. they mIght ha .... lurvl.....! .
.". LN fO Pili by &ill ~l; W'liWtcIon. The iourth hijo<:ked plane wu cruhe<! Inlo
DC: ~, 2002. ~L ~ ~!ff~ 1n!~11- the Pentlgoll. n...lul'ftl"\orily of World War Il
JfIlCf corrnpondtnt M ~ ~on .",hhOldunl plenntng hut ... d of 11l6Os Iky·
rmn, productd .1IMn-<t.ri "-"horinl~ ocnpe'" 'ppro"ed by Ihe Rockefelle.. w"
<ltv",! ..... iDd 1IO'ffWI>eI...... in itl docu· r'pid ly demon,ltl ted. The P.. magon death
mffItMion ItId Mtoil
toll wu 1".1000"" 200 " frlctlon of the 2.7M1
who died inlhe Twin Tow ..... The Penlagon
d.-n·1 ewen .PpMl' 10 h..... been the Inlended lerrt. Th. hiliecbn
.PpMl' 10 h.I... JOU&hllo d8llroJ' the \Vblle Haute. bullh.,. dldo1 ...1-
im W I u.. WIIlt. HOUM b carefully Qlmou.llafIed from ....1 rec:osnitlon
end h.. '-n fo.,....... Un.bl. 10 ideolify 1M WIl lIe Hou... lhey then
llruck 1M P... I..... u the ~I eui ly Ident m.bl.. " .... auum.lngu..1
thel. comnd.. on United 93 ... ou ld dettroy the Capitol.
Del~nlfl Secnllery Rllmofeld Ibo...ed......, • • l'lM" red 10 I ho"'"""W'M1
cooln... and MII-eonllden,," whon wiliting the . lIe of Ihe crllhed .I.llner
In hi. own PenH'gon hNdquertero. Ho.... v... Ie'.. ""PO"' ..,...... Ied thaI
Rum.r..ld ITUIy not Mve '-n fu lly I wan olwh., W.,goinAOII or how 10
_pond. H•• ptnI IM real of lMI "'Iwl moming pahulakingly dnfli ns
1.... 1 rul .. of ""....m • •11 under which 1"- U.S. AI. f o_ <:O<I ld .hOOl
down hllKUd .1r11Don.

The Saudis weren't compllclt In the attacks

Cawltoph.. end .. _ hution •• Iw.,.. produce con.plrlC)' lheon... .
moe' o r th. m abtll«l . ... d Sept.mber 11 WI. no • • c.ptlon. W.. h... ",
who WlJnled to Invad. In<) lried 10 hang the blame on s.dd.m H"...in.
Th.,. w•• n·, •• Ilred of _I 'vidence 10 .upport Ihll OOlI lenl ion. Ihough
depuly ""fen.. - . r y Peui Wolfowlt.r. w., " 'llng.n Invulon of Iraq
wllhln " Hnly·fou. hours ol th~ .11Ido.
At Ihe other ..,d of Ih' .ptoCIrum were 1M lef'l-wl ... nul. led by
MIch.I Moon. Woo a1W11)'l1 bed haled tboo Sooudlo '-'-!hey ..... rich.
o::on"""'.I1 .......lIp",,". tndltiOll.J. and-wonl of all-frMlDm of Ib.
Unlted Stlt.. and lhe BUlb fl.mlly.
Ma.t of u.. hllodrn Wfft 1""-1 Sooudil. tboo IWI ...... ~Iana. This
wu no II<X:ld~nl. Bin Lad"" w. nted 10 torpedo Ihe U.S.-Soo" dl alii.,..,. .
.., h, wanled .. ITUIny Sudi nltional. u poulbl, Implica led in ' he
. lI ock. H, wa, dOl erm ined 10 ......,. bli. h the callphel. \ha, Mu,l. f.
Kem.1 Aillurk h. d . boli.bed in 1924 .• nd bll fin! and primary lerpu

nol "'Ulk lll, IKI.... <I G-oI'. II I" " lU I. Ea'I

......... Ih" rul .... of hll own nlli"o. whom h. halod with. virul"DI POl'
lioD. The Soudll' main IOU"'" of Income rnmolned Iheit oil u~port., and
U.S. mllllll")' .upport ........ lnod _ntl.IIOlh" klngdom'l.urvlvlJ In tho
r""" of Ihe Inlnion and Iroql tw...ls. Th"....fo ..... bin Loden', ItnlegiC g00l
on s..pI ~mber 11 . beyond .loughleri'41 thounnd. or Arn .. riCUlI Mnd
decophlllng Ih" "nli .... U.S. pnlilia l ly,lvm, w" to d estroy lhe U.S.-
Soudl elliancu. He didn't quite I lIcceed, bUIIn Ib .. sbort I" rm, h .. dom_
IOg<!<lh bIIdly.

The Heroics of Flisht 9J

The hijK~1 rJ RI...., 9J hid witMd tIIr ~ to III)' still but 0l'Il:0 tIIry
lurne<l tNt Ittl hid auhrd Into tIIr Twin Towm lind tIIr l'fntil&Ol\ tIIry <HI.
iztd tIIry needed to IKe Ktion.i!tIow i! iIII'I ooctrpl rJ tIIr ctll phone COI'IVffIl-
lion btt_ RiJhl 9J pmtI1ItI Tom &o.mt1tlnd hi! .m~ Dttni:

TOM: We',. wtltinl UI'It~ ~',. _ I nnI-. We', . ,..,.10 toke bock the oirpIMt..

DUN.I.: Not SiI dowft. be still. be quiet ond don't drJw """",ion 10 _"",,I [the e"" -'"
to hot" b7 0eIt. Aifl .... fIi&h1 omnd&oIt tr .....J

TOM: 0eeN. if tI\ei........ 10 <mil thi< pbnt into the pOlrId, ...... JOIn. to _ to do

TOM: lIN <111" _ rOf the....rhotttieL I don~ __ ......1 It.., could do tn)'WOJ. II·, up 10 .... I
IhiM ... (I" do ~ .

DUN.\; Whol do)'OU WIllI "" 10 dol

TOM: ""Y, 0eeN. "", pu,..

DUN.I.: (ofttr I ~ _ I I ",")'0\1.

TOM: 1IofI~ WOf11, ...."" ...... to do >OIloetbi ...

IIln Laden w .. I renepde. but he w .. I ,.Mpde from 0111 of the
_Ithlel!. -':-wo-*'CI. _ lnn .....u.Lal • ....t mOlt ... peo;ted £.mili..
l.D &ludl ArabiL Immedu,I,ly .tier Sept_be. 11 . lhe &I .. dia ...:led by
rushl ..... m.ny of their nollbl_ 0 ..1 of the UnUed Stet.. u pos.ibl•.
uter exteml ... ~ JIll'" 00 indlculon that lilY Ilgnlflcanl r'll1J'et in
the Seudl roy,1 family. sovernmeol. or ....1or wlltutlon. w.... In~oI....t
In the pin!. but the meN n l&ht did pLly inlOlhe hendl moon.pl,..". mono
8"n. Much d.nuop wu .110 done by Michael Moo ...·'lmm_Iy popu ·
Iar dor:ument.ry Fahrenh,11 9i ll.In the yeor before lhe 2004 prwiclen\l.J
.IKllon Ih' movie ml de man Iban $100 miLU....-n unp_edented
..:hl_nt for .ny A..-ican doc\uneowy DD Ihe.tricf,I ... though 1_.
the _ of I.. w.cc... wu the IUltl·&ludi Ind Inti_II company pare.
nola with which M..-. l..:ed it.
Th, United Stll .. paid. h.."Y prke for the .."l.studl pann ....
finned by Moore IIld hi. fri.ndl. The &ludl. were Ilermed by.ll tbe
rhetoric:. end tbey f...,.d thel Ihe loush m......... In the USA "ATIUOT
Act th.1 could rr..... l...orilll CfoplUoI could freeze Siucll Cfopltll II weU.
Th,y mo....t mOil of th e liquid e_llh,y h.ad tept for deced.. In tbe
Un ited SIll.. 10 ",b.. putl of the wOlld. No one know. thu .~a.:t .ums
In volved . b\lIIlUmltll bivi ",to .. high .. mlny bUllonl uf doll ....

Why did It happen?

W.u.... I". &ludl Alehll wu e ....Ior elm of bin udeo . bul he had no
~ of ......... to bete !be U.s. Self·het!.aa Americene Ill<e 10"y bin
Ladet! IIlKked the U.S. becot........ opp.-l lhe "el..!lnlan.. or
hM;eu .. of our c.piUon ............. Others blanM 0\lI' cornapl cullure or our
mUltery 0VII'I'MCh. In IOGII weyl. Ibey'" ~I rtshl! hln Laden IIUci::ed UI
bece .... 01 everythl". eboul w-
If you look II bin uden 'l vui"". public 1I.,emenll. botl.,..., end ,ft,.
September II . )'011- thel the li.t of compleln.. I. 10111' In '996 •• n... he

I.. ued b ll "DecIIll1lUon of War Agalrul1 the AmerlC&llI Wbo Occupy"
S.udl A,.bi •. he 11trlbutod the jihld to the fKl th.ot the U.s. government
II "IInjlll l. criminal. and ty .. nniCl!'" H~ o;lt'><i AmllriCln "JIlPP"n for the
breeU occupation," .. well '" our Il""nee Indll. try h:h a'lli"ll int......t. you
know!. and ou. con.umptlon of .lcohoL In. post-September 11 . tat ....
ment. h. IltIclted the U.S. for Dill blockade "lI,lnat S.ddam U<uu';n·,
'181m". I...el·, use of fon:e "lI,i"ft the Palesti n ianl. the bombins Dr
Hiro&hlm'll1 d Naguald •• nd Ih, very ,xlllence of 1,_1.
Very l imply. the on ly way we cou ld have .voided Ihe Ittack w .. by
preVl!nling It th~ Intelligence . nd counter-terrori. m ",...u ....

an anytbl"ll 1M do"e aboul Ihe Middle £&lIt Can .,..,. 1M Guess what?

C .nalnedf Can ..... I.."

u..m 0010.... and bop" 1"-1 don'

jimmy Cuter ami c.q. Buah ' - - ohown .. 11,.1 plOt inlellu.... ""d

• • ..tor.....
,..",.*,. ..., •
W.tom LLb.n1 Ideal, won'l lOl" MlddJ.

..,1 ..... ThAI mlghl have w~ )ewe

FMt·, pI'Obieonu. [nd_. th.y
te"d to ....1:.. Ihl .... wone. ThIs hili cau ..... "'.... AmmcaDllo call for

ul 10 1101.1. OWHIYH from Ihe "'Ilion ,,,d let them 8gbt it oul Ihem·
MIlled I" the "'IlIon and
awps. 'NIt1oaul til
LollIiDo pcopIo ..to!
""rte II dUlh.
hId oil " ",,,. bee" dlt<;ovlred . • [..,n if bfHI we~
The Middle &lIt I,. m.... but "ot a hop"l... m.... Looki"l1 ,t th. dtsIfV]ft. UlrtfIIIII

"'Ilion "Ml.oy, '" can _ whet workt and wh.c dONn't wo<k. hJ.omlsll _ld IIIlI
...... 10 COIIquef till

Hope at the end or the millennium • r.ltJ III ""bit

IlIoWLo Ull II . . I
AI the..,d 01 the Iwentktb Qe1llury. 11M lmmedla.. proIIptCU for the Mid· dt/lllaMIc bit lIOII
d ie Ealiloobd hopeful. Saddam HuaellllULl ruled I" IIWI a"d Harea
A-.d In Syria.. bul Seddam Iwd no Inn _ _ """Ide 1ttIq. ami A-.d _ ......
• POUI'" s.uott

playl", Ilf;IIUd",,". Even Iran Iwd a ",ladvel,. moderate lMder.l'reold,nl

Moblmrn.d Khallml. a"d tJw ",UgI..... I"U-\\I..lem fervor ohhe blem!c
R"Wllutlo" _mad 10 be runnIng oul of ' INII! . KIu"mLe ven offured

Presidents Bill Clinton I nd George W. BlUh I d .... l to ocrap hilnuel .....
program In retum for diplomatic ... laUonl &lid &II end to amfrontltlon.
bul neilher p_tdenl dar$d. 10 gralp thot portleular nou l•. Khill mi',
attemptllt ...1.Iive modoration go! nowhe .... end in 2005 •• very d iffer-
ent man ... p18Oild him ulNder of Iran: Mahmoud AhmadlneJood.
Ahmad lnejad', emergence was only one In e _leo of grim develop-
mentlthat made the Middle East a vUlly mO ... ominou,"nd threatening
plactlal the heslnnl"ll of the twenty.fint century thin It hod t-n JUII '
few .hor! y ...... befo ....
Oil priceo. which had t-n lowe. than len dollar.. benel ln 1999, had
climbed to mo ... thIn ninety dnlll"" ~I by lite 2001. Sodd&ll\ ... d
A.... d we ... both gon •. bUI thl~ w.... vutly WOI"H in botb countri_
lhan ",hen the Iwogrim old Bo·.thl.tl were .till.live. In l.-.q . U.S. f _
quickly toppled Soddam . and" the end nf 2006 h, WI, deoervedly
hansOO for juol. friction oflh. monotrou. crim ... be had. committed. But
U.S. pol icymake....... ddled witb libe.. l. do;pxIer dreanu .oout equal·
ity and democracy. bungled the peace. In 2006 .nd 2001. more [..cju

,.. ..
w..... dying .nd at I fOlter rate Ihan Ih.y had durillJl the Iwful Soddam

In Syril. Auld 'llOlI Bul\Ir ruled NCUrely as pretldent. bul he proved

fM mo", th ..... lellil18lh ... hi. alUlioul f.ther had. Syril 00U&h1 ""'" mi...
oil ... froID Ruui •. and by 2007 IIraeli military In.lYltljudsed Ihe dlllglr
of In outbrNk of direct "'a. be\ we.:m Syria.nd 1Jr&e1 greater lhan I I Iny
limo .ince 1913.
Under Ahmldillejad. I mall who publicly denied the Holncaull. lrIn
pu,hed IhNd witb it. nuclear I rmamenl development program r.ster
Ihan ner boof" .... AlunlKiinejad openly bouted of Innl hll.tlng 1.....1. The
Ib ..... t of In 1•• lell 0. American p ...... mptlve ,Irl k. 18111111 the lranlla
lIuclea. facilitiOi sleadlly grow.
The P.l ... tln i...· l..... li . i!Ultioll ,100 IIIW.orne bad IUI1lI II the lum of
Ibe millennium. In 2000. V....... Araflt ... fu..,d to Iccept mljor lornli

p..,. In tt.. Middle EMt

......"..,..1""" It the Camp Oorid II ~ DDnf_ _ aDd ttwm un'_bed

• bloody new terror _ult on '-I. Befon dyl ..... b. went bold: to w....
b. knew bMt:, ¥Ii,.. Beginnl"8 ill ZOllO. Ib. ~ "'~lru.n Intifada
lIbook 1....1 for nv. y..... with It. meln t.:tic: .ulcld. bomb ett.a.
",l ... t c1vlllllU I.. public pltcea. M.... 1.... 11 cMlla... died durl",
Antfel'l Lut bu ... h than In any previowo connie! ""oept lor the 111411 w....
A.. f,. "1'1_ " to b........"u i...ly beU,ved Ihlt i.,.. 1 w..uld fall.part
under the IIIIUlt. In l teed. 1,...11, •• llIed tOfjethe •. Are f.1'1 old lreb·
""I"30nlll A.I,I Sh ..... n beclme prim. minuter II lall end ... joyed hil
n .... t bour. He beld bl. country .ogether and _ponded f,rocloully In
.... llatDrY lIr1ke1o ...Inll both ('.au and the Wei' IlInk. Th' lmelu kept
killl", off Hemal lHderJ. but il dldn' t dn any pd. Th. F ..... ch had
found.'" IIDIIth\nc w..... they ......od!be National U'--tlon Front 'l
bl&b commatKI dllri"8 !be A~ war or lndepeDdenca. W.... did ....,...
tually work. OO_er, .... builq h..., ~ 10 cut off ....... nllhe
Well Bank and ('.au from Is ....l.
lIy 2001. th .... wu I good cue to b. mid, Iblt the Middle EIIt bid
I..d-' n"'lly become the world ', mOlt dl"._roUI nelghbo. bood. Th'
lrony .. u tbal, apl.. 111 ..,pule1ion, It had .. ever bee" to before,

They are here to stay

When .... 10010: II the diffICUlty nltetli", up .... bl. dtomoc:recy In I,..,
min)' Americ;anl_rt lhat !be Middl, Eulil nearly I_poob ... nI per.
m.went or I..ltlm ............ menl. Retpec!ed joumllill CharI. Cl .....
hardly In unco!ldhlonel admirer of !be Unit" S .... and '-I. OIIled
tM countrlill of lha ,..;on Mu'iI_ with f1 • . w And It II ceruolnly th. CUI
In !be ••1), Iwenly· nral OIIIltury th.tot tha ""'" w.... of Islaml .. ext ...... ,.....
enA.med 1»' lhe dl ...troully bungled U.S. military COfI'mll ..... nt in lreq.
put prevlou • •)' I!.bl•• eglm81 like thDM of lord .... S.udl Arlbll. end
Egypt 1\ new tllk.

Th" facl "'lI'I.Iln. thaI by Ihe beginning or Ih" Iwenly,lInt cent .. ry Ihe
notlon-ltatu of Ejjypt. Syrt... Jordan . S... dl Arabia. and IIVMI Iraq had aU
~n In Ih .. lr C...... nl hordon and ..."""li,,1 rorm ror mme than """""Iy_
five yean """h. That makeo thom olda. than Ih!'llOH[uarten of the mem-
he. Itatel of the United Nation •. Mosl of the nallon. O!lhe Arab lea&ue
!Lad won the;r IndepMld8JI,," befono India and Pakiatm became Independ-
"Dt nalion. in 1941 and before the Peopl,,', R"public of Ch ina was ..lab-
l\t.hed in 1949. The Il'l.lIor o!l-produclng ,tot ... with the """"plion of Iraq
(S.ddam·, m .. rd"m .. s h .. ngl ... ~alnl. hav" pmven far more genem ....
"""ially luo1. and Ikillf.. 1 at ,haring their vast wealth w ith th"ir people
and maintolninglOClalotablllly. Compare thaI 10 other oil majon around
the world. s.. cb 8. V"neE .. ela. Iran (wbe ... th" lbah wenl .. nder) . or
Indon ...... which under the long rule ofPruldent Su harto w.. p...,.,.bly
the mo.t COrTUpt nation on ..rth.
Even Gamal Abdel NBIN r'l regime In E8YPI. th" moat mil itarily
incompetent 80vernmen t in modern Middl" EaSt hiSlory. dldn't f.1l
after three consec .. tlve h .. mlUatlon, at Israel', hands-th" 1956 Sinai
Campaign. Ihe 1001 Si x·Door W... end tb" t 009-t970 W.r of AUrilion.
The Second a.·.Ih Republ ic in Irl<! retained III Impl..:able. lerTiblegri p
on power from 1968 .. nln t01l1 mHltary def... t " th" hand . of Ih "
Un ited Stalu loppled it in 2003 . An d againl1 aU the prognoaticalions
of Americon pundit. both old and new. the BI·.th Republic in Syria hal
endured .Ince 1910. Even little [ord.n. "1t.bB,hed •• ,, CI .... I ,fte,,"
Ihought by Winotoll Ch .. rch lll during hll holiday amid the Pyramids al
Ihe CairoCOn f...... nce In 1921. conlinuu to thrive und"r King Abdu llah
II. though Ihere II no doubt Ham.. h.. It firm ly In III 'i&hll. And lID far,
lh" "nd l.... pmp hecl ... of doom that have ~n thrown atlh" shrewd
an d cautlou. HOUle of Saud over Ih" pall hal f-cenlury have not b&on
worth. conI.
Thi. obvioUl record of politicol and even lOCial achievemem should
bave giv"n th" ambitious armchair .tn.tegilll of th" r""t BUlh "'mini ..

l"'lion. who .u..m.t of ....... wina !he .... p of lbe Mlddll EuI. au.. for
pooutt. UnfothIMlII),. II didn't.

Arab democracy " n:lremisl rule

Aft.! Ib, ,uac'" of SeplelDt- 1 1 killed th"", thou .."d "'m,riallu. II
become fll hlonabl. In lbe Blllb Idmlnl,ullion Ind U.S. pllndll eln:l ...
to tllk .bout ~d ... lnillfl the IWlI1Ip· of the Mlddl. Eall by fordn8 corrupl.
lup~ly 01l1-of'101lcb ""IIim.. 10 lnltl.t. cnlh·d.mocntlutlon
refo:JnM . ... key fl«un In penuadillfl a",b Idmlnl.tntlon pollc)'INIken to
.... tnao lbl.ld. WIS Nat&rl Sb.renak),.lbe rom- Weal l refuMnik hero
who bed dIoned _ 1"'-" I decide of hnprilOO.lDlnt &rid .bu.. by lb.
bill KCB to ....'8* IS I ~lh bero. He .v"lIually became. poIltiaol
IMder .nd r!&ht·wl"l .... emmeol m1nlltM In 11,,"1. Sh.,.nsk)'·. book
T1Y CctH ~ Dorrnoa-ocy ...d bll.mbrKe ofthll ...........1 proved lnot·
mou.l)' Inn ..... II.1 with "-Ideot c.orp W. BUI-b .nd Secretuy o'SI.t.
CoodoI_ KIC'I. who"""",t toen.lorc.lt.t the '-I!nnl,.ofBuNI'. 1IC-
ond 'Inn In 2005. Th. rellll li w .... unlfOi'mI)' dllUtroua for lhe United
Stat.... nd I.. m.n), frieodlllld 1m... In tb. ""IlIon.
I.llmlt utremlill I nd f.rodoully Intl· ... m..lcan poortl_ end mov.
IIIlnll IlIAd. huae pint In electkinlln Kuwllt and fcypI. U...... won 1"1t"
1I11t1w.JiICIIonto In Cua that lb. UnIted Stal... hed pil .und p.l..tinu,n
..... thorlty pNlldent Mahmoud ... bMo to hold. \~ ten ..I ....ly free
democntk: "-':Ilona _ held ICI"ONI the ......,. ...1"""" 1I11mial PI""
Ii... '""' 1m_1)'~.
There ahouJd b"". been no owprlM It &rIy of thll. Demoaecl..... ,.,.
from liw.ys I"'"C"fuJ. 0uri"8 III flnl forty yean of pop .. lar democncy
. fter 182 •. the United SIll.. upended.,..,.. bIlh continent and Joupl
the bloodl.t d .. U war In modem WISt""' hlotory. Th'lI""tett powth of
the Brlll.h Emp l.. ..:rwt ,II of "'frlu end the Middl e EI.t callte only
Ifter unlve ...l malfl.u f&.ge ..... Inlroduced In 11161.

Fa, from "dnlinl,,!! th e . womp," the policy of undemtlningauthorirol'
Ian 0' cautiously conM",atlv8 Nlgim ... w" much mon akin tn blowi,,!!
aparl tbe watertight dODl'l on the 11tonic, The ,umpl, of Soudl A.. bLo.
'Inee Seplember II sbow. th.t ,un"!!. trldltlonol. and liable govern,
manlll In the Sunni MUllim Middle East, given """,,nabl. Ilabilily ocroII
their borden, ..... parfuctly capable of .u pp.....,i"' I.I.mic ut .. milm and
lenwi.m, Ind~, they a... lot bMte. I t doi", it than the UnillKl SIal..
and IIlI urn...t fo""", bne prov"" 10 be in Inq,
[n Ibe yur aftor Seplember II Ih. mont uluoble Intemgenee the
UnltlKl S\.Ites ....::elvlKlln IIlI fight IfIII""t al QolKIs came from I b e _
......Ic.. of Jordan and Syria, {The [... eli inlellilienOillimply waon't very
llood.1 Bul t .... Syrianl became furiou •• t Ibe Bu.b ""mlnl'trltlon', con·
Unuing bostility tn Ibem and broke off that valuable conperolion,
Still, polltlc!anf In both parti.. \.Ilk u if functioning democracy in Iraq
can 101"" our problenu. in the region. The fectI on the ground.u.sgest_
tbing very dlffe",nt: the character nr blam and the Anob people "",ul...
tough, autor;notiC8"vO)mmetlt like Soudi Arabi_the Otloman Empi""

Why solving the Israell·Palestinlan

conflict won't solve the problems
The", I, no dou~ that 1M Arab world and the wider Mu.l im communily
I, enflamod by contlnulKlI ......li conlrol of the t.ol y plOOlll in Jeruoalem,
md by the very conlinued tu<i.tence of the Jewish slOte . .... we h,,,e ......
this h .. been the Cf>se eve. since Hoj Amln al.Huoselni, the mufti of
JetuAIIlem bet_n the world wan, auO<>!lllded.., weU In IIlamlcizin3 hll
local, blttor conflict with the Infant Jewuh communlty In Pal.. tlne,
1'0' se""nty yean. ambltlous peACemu.en, ... pecially AmeriCIJUI and
1I.... li. with viliollS of Nobel PlIIICe Prizea dancing In their headl, have
punued a IW<>-Itale ..,Iution like the pot of gold at the end or the rain·
bow, The unending notura of the conflict h .. convinced mOrB than a few

peoplit In the W-' thai wider ~ In Ih NKi<>n CUI come ... Iy Ihroufh
I 1a,1", I_H,Pllett;""',, ~ tettlemeal.
Such I t-fl!ltl. j... t. I"d fli, d_IM,lffyl"l every .ide WO\Ild ctl1ll"ly
b'l " Ice. But with Hemu takl"lOV1lr In 0 . _ dlMllopmmu IIIlOOtlnrd
by bungled Isnell and U.S. pollelllll In th "'Ilion over the jMlI 1I1l"""
yean--that dfMtlopmen.t loo'" furt .........y .nd more 1.UIlibly llIan_.
But ...... Iflt could be aI.......J.I... thr-.t oflllldXbww ....ml.t w..........
of .... jor A.. b MUon., lneludl", Ih wMltltl"'lonet. wouldn'l v..,ltb
........I&bt. And Ifbnel_-now~ elm-by ItanIan nucl_
IllICIt or by combined Syriln'Pl llIIIllnlln 01' Hezboll.h·l",nlan mllil..,.
1oCt1on. 1.llmltt oonlidence and pow_nd the d.ngen they poM 10 lhe
United Stll.. Ind W.... em EutOJ»-would .......tly WorM. ,,'" boIlta •.
11II_1IOn for Ihll '" 1.lmple and abvIoul 0"'" thot o..ml bln lMkn
und_ood very clearly. With. cynlcel clarily WOfIhyofNlc:colo Mal·
....111 or Adolf Hitler. be wfOle !hel people lib to follow I llrona horN.
He w.. ri&ht.
Th, whole IdllOl')' of the A.. b world Ind the modem Middle Eall
NCOrded In Ibb book conll,..,.I""t when W",tem &... mark.. deln(l(n'
el", mllltlriLy COII<luend .nd Ihen occu pied the region. the rull", elil'"
WI/lled 10 be Ilk, them. Wh ... filJCLII orCommunl1l naUonl_med 10 be
on lho uplwlns .inll the W..I. copyl ... Ibem beca .... lhe f..hlon In
.hapS.,. Middle Eutem polilicel pert... and then runnl ... nallon_t",.
" " _ ........ not the re1laloa "" hM tnodilionally been pncILc.d foo-
1\t-t ....... hundred)'IUS. w.. _ a d by Ayllollah Kbom.tnlln
,..." .nd S.yyld Qutb In EIl'PI. But If Him... Syril. end thel. lran ilJl
.111..... ,~bow ~ to dettroy Itnoel, would II Qooed_ m"llk:elly dll'
IPP"' from Ihe o<:ene1 Woul d Ihe utf'llone IoL.",llt terror th ...t to the
United StallllllJld Wettem Europe ,,"nllh ovemLsht1 It II_y 10 _thlt
It would Il0l.

Reo:IlcelllLua would be _boldtoned. IWIlMtiJfied. by !be deowuctlon

oIl1n1e1. Tenor IttKU ud the IXlnIme .. Iamid leaden' demand ..... !he

1 '"
nllloni of W$ltern Hum"" would In"""' .... not dec ....... EUmlnl!llll!
ISI'1I.1 would 1.ld to I rapid InCI'NH In the popularity and prestig. of
e~trnme Il lamle movementl within p"",loully fBr morn mod .... t. Mua-
lim commun iti81 lround the world. The bust way 10 eliminate popular
,upport fur , uch group' ",mlin, to etarve them of I UccesS.
When Adolf m tl er IUCCf!fIded In conqueri"3 or otherwise ab.orbinll ooll
German IIl.Ijority mgion. in Eum"" into hi' Third Reich . he did not
becom .. 8 " lie fled . peace-lov ing moderate. inSlead. he Icculerated hi.
"lam to Invade Pollnd the followlll3 yu •. And when h .. l ucceeded in
wiping out the F",nch anny Ind Iweepilll! the B.Hllh army off the Euro-
""en mllnland in 'ummer 1940. he did nO! pelr. the end of the war.
lnstMd. he pUlhed ah... d with plannllll! hi' gtIIIIu.t crim..: the genocide
of th.. ",wilh ~ple in Euro"" .nd the conqu8l1 and en.lnement of the
1*'1'1 .. of the Soviet Union.
o...troylng t....... I. thcrnfu .... would not rn"llically ..rad icate anti·W..t·
em and enti·American Mntimenl from the Middle East. It would u~d
it to U<t.I·wa". proportion •• end the darlr. forces retp!IIUIlble would prob-
ably ,weep to power acl'Oll t .... Mgion. d8ltrnyinll overnight trwoditionlily
mod ..",te and ..... ponlibl .. gov..rnmenllin countri.. lllr.e Egypt. )0t<Un.
Saudi " ",bl •. and the Culf Stat... This d .... not mlllllfl W... tem netiOlll
Ihuuld .bandon the t. ...... li·pool_inian conflict Bul they .hould .blndon
th .. ir tBditional dnl8m of bringtlll! an eterml, lull, and tuUIlI! end 10 II.
Henry KIMII1f!Ut". poniml.tk: wl.cJom In de-Hili! with the conflict .fI....
th. 1973 Yom Kippu. War II now mOM .ppropri.le th.n ever. the ........
conflict. lhat can be conlained and allowed to die of old age ... Ih, hl._
tory of the Protel tent-e.tholic llruggle. In Northern t""l.nd demon-
Ilnot8l. Th .. busl thl"llth.1 can be don .. II to try to .mellonote lufferllll!
and Immediate grie",,1lO8I and provide HCUrityon both .ld.... whnelX"t.
ponlng the m""t d!fficult luu ... u. a late. date.
Allume that lOme """.fecl " braeli·P.18lIinl.n puce could be
achieved betw ... n 1."",1 and the Paleltlnilm. Or even that 11"",1 and Ihe
"-" in the Mi<l,n. Easl

1<.. <le ... of liamu could ",...:h a vud,gins bul

verifiable compromise. Would IlL Ibe O1her
IOClal, "'Hgio.... political. terror. economic. The Ettunot Economy
lod H<:urity problem. of th. Middle Eaot
vanl.h overnight? They certainly .... nuld 001.
II i. "rildng to recall that .... hen bin Laden W @(OIidCOOCel>'IbIY''P!I«OI
psdft COIl5I.I!IpIIon ,.i\tI E-
85.1 fwI C<:Imbt'" of 8S pen:ent
and his llIi. got al Qood. up and running In
the 19900. they I"'id I lmoot no Itlentlon 10 dhInol TIll' countl)' miCht loot I hili!
the 1.reell·Plleatlnian connIe\. 11 limply MfMnt. thoucII:
...... n·, Importanl 10 Ihem . They demanded ". rht " .. ZOll•• Urht ~
lhe TOIlo",lion of th. cali phate to polillaolly cropIMd of rht Utoited StHn would
and rellgloully rule I U MUll iml. pu", Ind be ~ fOf (Offt procIyctlon. .•.

limp l•. 11 would he. cal iphte armed with '"'"'* _,.
If lO4I. -.in ... lly rht
-..itt. rht e....... of <iIIn. would
nud ..... weapon., conlmlling ell the mlio
be <O'I«ed bJ <On'I pIontat .......
oll.produclng ....... on Mrlh. It would not be
I """",,""_Idng Or In loCCommodatlog ooe. Mon:eio l DIn de Ol",""l. et oL "E1hlnaI
III Ihe OIlom.n sul1an-callplul """n lUllly 11\hod:£nor.,..
c.t.on Diooide &;il¥u!,
..cI Ecolocol ~"",. !ioScitru. My
I:>ecIme after they ......... thrown bec:k from the
gat ... ofVienlll for Ihe JIICOIld tlme in 1683.
Bin Llden-"d the ftXt ... me 1IIImiit
groupo thot bove mUlhroomed IICfOM lIOU\h&n\, I(Mltheul&rn. Ind cent",1
Alii over the "".1 decade and. half-tlrive loward I mUltlnt. extreme
caliph"e lhat w(MIld make the nationl ofEutlnd Wett .Il k. bow dowo
11111 f_. They envilion I luprame sovemment .... lentleu In uoltl"llthe
anti ... worl d under It. Own vlelon or 101..".
Eal8bliehlng a Luting. rair. Illd lUll I..aIlI!""'ment belween 1s"",1 and
Ihe Plleotlnlanl would n01 elhn ln". Ihe grinding poverty of Egypl . 11
would n~ end the ambttiona of a l Qood. 10 deolroy the kingdom of Saudi
Arabll and ..... all iu oil w .... lth to finl""" endletS. unllmi ted. jihad
lround the world. It wnuld ~ end the .fforu of 400.000 poor Yemeni, B
y ..... 10 try 10 .n.... k into Saudi A .... bl •. adding 10 the i"'ll". potonU.lly

TIll p.,IIIlcIU, I _ ' HI 1i'o1. 1 11 lho MloIoIll Eatl

Ih"",18nl"ll. UIlIlobl. undarel... In thll country. II would Dol end the

.mbilionl of the I.lamlc Ropublic of Iran 10 conlrol Ihe onti", Gulf. No<
would Ii end or I U""llle In any way the cootlnul"ll anarchic chIOIln lroq.
The bloodi".1 conflict In modem Middle Eaal hlllory--theeigb.l-yeor
Iran.l,..,. Wor----h.d nothing 10 do with the 1...... U·Pal ... tinian conflict II
all. And when Syrian p .... idenl Hafez Aaod oblite",led hll own cily of
Ham •. he did.., 10 kHlI.llmlau. nOl jew •.

Tbe American pipe dream: A world wltbout 011

The United SlIl.. lIill imporU Iwenly million ham!ll of oil. d. y. I nd
o,l na impor1l 5.6 m illion I nd rili~ fa.l. Indi o il h... dj~ lowll<d hugo!
hnporu I I well. Yt!!. Ih. ldea of . "hydrogen economy" ",mol,.. . fanllly.
Hyd ......... powemd I UlomobU.,. .... yean. probably decad ... OWlY from
bei~ c h ... p .... fe .• nd co.H, ffoclive. Elhanol. of cou .... II complelely
unprontoble wllhoUI mammOlh luboldlel. and expondlnilit beyond 0
nIche fu. 1 would Inyol ~ 1XlY<Iri"3 the nalion wilh com . Th. id ... of get.
Ung lhe U.S .. much 1..1 the p lant!!. . off oil I" pipe d ..... m.
W. ueed oil nOI only 10 power our carl and heal our hOi" ... hUI Ibn
10 m.ke pllOlicl (li ke you. kilche n ule,..ill o. YOlJ. d .. k choir) an d to
grow food .• 1 well .. lran.port it. Mauy pl.IUeo 1m "pelroleum dl,UI.
laleo. ~ meaning lhel. raw lngredlenl I, h1ocl. gold. If l ..... h"83lnll envl.
ronmenli lioll wBnlloconlinue the imp ....... iv. protllClion and growth of
f.,.....led a"'" in Ih. Nort hern Hemil phe", and fiu.lly get I hludle on the
conllnued COI$Slrophic deplt!!.lou of Ih .... In fO,..lI of Soulh Americo .
• ub-SAb.",n Africa. and Sot.olh....1 .... i•• Ihen they'", ""Ing 10 ItIll need
loti ofpluUc for fumitu", .nd concrete fot buLldlns-»d 10 80 00 hav.
1"3lhoM olcelhl"8". y.... ·ve .... 10 have oU .
lIovi"3 plentiful food ""'lui. . oil. becou ... fertilize. ""'luimoo o ll--end
Ihe gJobol food crunch II even mo", Im placable and unrelenlinglh .. n Ih.
011 crunch. ~'ully one-lhln:J of the hUmlll belugo livlna lodoy-two billion
oIl"""'-wou1d tNo 1tatYi", weN il not for lhe ul¥enlloa of n_ rertlH".
..... Two Germln.. chemUI Frilz I'llbet' Ind Indullrilllll Co.I ao..:h.
innllltllCi lb, Hoobor-Booch ~ ror u u,,,,tI,,, "dUIII. from Itm..-
pberic nllnlll'" lull tNolon World WII" I. Thil enlbled II.. production of
nll ..," fMtIlIU1'1 to .... u... bumper crope 011' _Ie .nd qllllltY-"d
Ifford.bilLty-p"""lowl, inconoel".ble. f or thu utnordLnuy ocbl"" ...
ment. widely dMCribed .t the lime u • ..... ki "ll "'-l <lUt of II." (.ft,. In.
70 ptIK81I1 or the Itmotphel'll II Inen nLtl"Ofl"ln). both men won Ih, NDbeI
I'rIz,o foe- che,nLllry. (Habe. ·, Lo.ul'IIll WfII1I dlmmad , few y.,.,.. Illor when
he wu thol .qullLy OIIthUJlulic genLu. behind Ihe IndUJtrial production
of polIO" p i foe- 11M by Ibe Gemo.on Irmy In World WII" I. but tholt ·,
anotb. "001.)
But th, H1bor-Booch p"""" NII" i. . h".. q... nIIlL_ of oi~d
unIlb .1ectricfI1 pow ......... _i"ll _10M. th_ aN DO aubotltut. liloe
hyd..... 0»101. w.'er. 0. nucl ... pow. lhal can" u-' ICO <k> tlwt;ab.
CbemJc.o.I "'I"lIt loCOI .nd '""""I.-Ilk. .....Ihorm.tlul 0 ...........
unch"'5i'" I nd ImpllCloble. WIth the &lobll popul.tlon 0_ .1"
. nd 1\111 ,bl"3. the world needl H,bet .nd 1IoIcIt'1 nl t .. te ',nlliu.--
and IhoI'lIIIIn. It'l gol"3 10 go OIl n~ I"3 011.
Thll meanl Ihat_untl l they run oul--<l1I n.ldl In Stu d l A .... ul •.
K"w.l l. Iron. and Inoq will be ."en """" cruel.1 tholn ."". Ev,n with the
dev,lopmenl 0' NII""'n OD d _ I Afriun Heidi. ODd RUlli .....'l!8'I.
colly d_lopln, ,nd ..111"3 I.. Own hllp 011 ond p i the _rca.
1.upIt. ch.poot. moot . .Uy .....M·jbM. ODd bl&hett-q... llty peII'O\.eum
,....... In tho world .......un in the Middl. Eal.

Good fences make good Delghhors

When ItrIeU primo mlniIter Ariel Shuon lWIed buildil'll! hl.ienco In 2002
10 Mlponte l'.lettinlan ...... ortlwt W.... Blnkond Guo from WoeI'1 '-n·
I.o.nd. ntoll ..... JChal'I\tIIleglsU ond pundJulIOIInd lite world did ~ think
it would wwk. Ubonol. woreconditionOO to wony about the "root .,...-"
of connlcu talher Illan the nut. I nd bol~ of .:tu.lIy winnir\3 the",. And
many IXlmMVItI"", clllioved the mmantlc Ideo. ofbold. thriIIl.nfI ollensl~
.rmoted &I1d blitzkrl • • trlkM. lib It..- that won tIwt 1991 &I1d 2003 Gulf
War military campalgnl. Security fenceo .lonS notlon.l borde.. and
~ border control. wore g10b8lly out of fMhion. l1>e Berlin Well wu
tom down In 1939 by e<;StatU; Eul Cemwu In the nonvioleOl upb .... vol
that beralded the collapse of Communi 1m. Tb .. l8CUri ty fence. that lont
Europe in two fDr forty-four y...... coIl.~ u Commun~m (:tUmbled.
A new en. of g10balilm powerOO. by worldwide economic growtb ",d
1m. informalion technology revolution followed. New Yorl; nllMl pundit
Thom.. Friedman herelded Ihe IlTival of. IU Ppoted "n" ..rtb." The
EUlOp""" Community con.olJdated I_If InlO Ihe Europ""" Union_ Int......
nal"""ur!ly bani .... with in 1m. EU we", lorn down .• nd th .. cu.toml.
MClIrily. and Immignotion ehecbon I~""'.mal perimeter beoc.ame. )ob .
lI ut u Edward Gibbon. Ih".,....t "igbl""nlb-centwy Enali l h hillorian
.nd OUlbo. of the monun,ent.l DtK;/ine ond Foil o/lh. Roman £mpino.
could n.ve lo ld Friedm", and tb .. EU pollcynuoken.• n.t eartb whboul
bord .... was .110 . pla nel wit houl der.." .... 0s.inll barbari.n inv.d ....
• triklfIJI from .very direction.
Even Ifter Seplember 11. "'01'1 "'ed .... lilet In lb. U.S. belJ.".lh .. ld ....
of. Will il lO(l Ilarb.oric. Thi, II. CIolfi In which th" Wett cou ld 1""n
lOffielbins from the Middl. Eul.
II WU lough old Sharon, . Iway."*'y In pu.h liberal bullOIU. who pul
....,..rity f..n""" . nd d.r..mlble bord~ .. b.ck on the g1obolllnllogiC mop.
liraeli bard-line rigbt-wiflJle.. and liberallu pponen of tha PoI ...ti" .....
a lik.. derided hil concept of . """u.lly f.. n<:e to cut tbe Gooza Strip and Ih.
p.l.. Unl. n .. IOU of lb. W..I Sank nff from 1....1 in nrd • • In Itnp luldd"
Th. f"nce worked. In 2003 ..... fora h wu even completed. the number
nr terrorist atu,,::"'" os&ln" I..... eli civill.ns f.1l by 30 potrcell!. and the
"-'0 In the Mldd .. &oo.

o ... mber of clvm.... killed by such .ttaci.. foil by ~ poI'OIInt. In the foI.
Lowt..,,..,.. lIMo lmprov.rnenr.continlled..
s...x-.",.. .... icide bombw anac'" rail from <10_.,... 10 Ii..,t. lit.
Ilf'IItI. Hund ...... of clvUlan Ii ... per y_ we .. M.. ed. And .uddlnly. ..-I.
..... border dor- were bock in fuhlna..
Tlwlndlan amy wu 10 Impf'ellMd hy Ih.,ue<:ellofllw l.rHlI butler
I"'t It built a .Imlla. 0". 111,1", the Line of Cootrol .. pontlnl Indlln..,...,.
lrolled jamm" Ind K.lhml. from Ibo m ... ch IllUIlier part of the .ute h.ld
b)' Plkl.tan .Ine. 11147. Soon thl Indian ....... "'ponlng that Illambt
11,11..111. lncu.ntOlUl """" Ih. Una ofCootrol had fall"" by 1IO peromL
They followed up the KQhmIr fence with In aven IonfIr ""'" 10 OUJ'1'OUnd
th. Inll.. MII,lIm ....1100 of Bang,I..:t..h . alntladelh. like lndla. II I
diIDOCnlCY. bul I.laml" ..,I.. mut. lhe ... havi *a muc.h more actin
Ij...,. they ~ drl...... O\I.t of Af&hanillan by U.S. r.:..:- and !het. Illi.
In IalllOCl l .
The S.udl. 1100 took nOlIce of how well 11...1', fe_ wort.ed. Th.y
encled one nf Ihet. nwn to try to """lml thel. IOUlhero borne. with
Yemen. whLeh 400 .000 iIlegollmmlaranll lookt"l 10' wort. Croll.very
)'1IAf. They ItnI now buildIng OlIO 010 ... thnl. nMhBUIMn border ... Ith u.q.
Sharon'l f"108 I... n.forme<! ""'esLe Clleull1lnn •• bn ... t how to control
borde.. ll'OlInd the world. And it I•• fen.ce. not I concrete w.ll. oontrery
10 much lnaccu ... t. IntemallOlMI repont ... on lIMo IlIbject. Accord'.., 10
official IuMU nlllf'lltl. onl)' foboul' ~t. or twenty·four mil •• of tb.
rou"hundred.mllo fenc. b I thiny·foot·hlJh coocret. w.11. Such barrio
... were...::led to protect IuMli clvili ..... from anlper fI .. on the otbor
.Ido. In onllncldenl n ..... Bo,thleMm. .....1"'t·,......,ld 1....11 Jltl ...u
.bo! deotd In onl .o.>ch I l t a bef"", the wall wu built. Th_ HCtioDi
look no dlffi!nml from tlMotound t:.m.n 10 famll"'atona-Idt fteewlYO
Ind I... n'pllr.el tn th. United Sta,,,. Ind 110"1 mOlotW.yo In E... rupo.
Thl bIt ..l.. I. therefo ... low·key and ... nrema.bbll. II II not. h ......
&WfltOD'Ie CODltructl"" like I n Wlderground mllllU. fin ... bate. It hu only
• fnd:10Il of lIMo concnrc, and .....w of Ihe IIIOmIOUI t..vy vUU..,. II"N
tlMl w"e buill lrolo Ihe French Maslnot Ullfl 0, Hiller's All.lnllc .nd
0..1""", w.lll durl rog World Worll.
Shanerllll lIlOIher populor myth, Ihe bonier Isn't ""'" hliJh·tech. Non,
ofu.. lechnolOilltIIJ uNd 10 build or guard It II leu th.n 'lxly)'Nn old.
lwp-lik,potrol "hid" . 1.....1 klenllao.l lothe """" the U.S. Anny .....
In W",ld Wor II 'weep elOlls lu din roedt. TlM berbed wi.. It .... wu
In....,I'' 120,...,.. .... Onl., the _ " " " 'I.(I..«I.lon ...o-. .....Je.
ti .... ly oophi,Uat". and ....... th ... tlMo .... phull II on lau&hn. . and
reliablllly "Ih" th.n Inno .... tlon. The rene. doe. not tlql.llrt any new
lechnol"lll... only old .fuhloned bUI curloully ,rrlClive oppllcal loro of
old 0"'.
0..0. the feroce heco.me fully furoC!lonalln 200S. the wove of .ulcld.
bomblnp Ihol killed mort than. Ihouund iJ...1I elvill .... durlllj Ih_
five,..... of tlMo Second IntLfado wu "opped d...t ill iu t.-.cu. SIDoo
th ... DOl 0 .llljle .ulcld. bomber from eilber Gn. lit Ih, P.I.. Unl.n
Aulhnri t)'""GllllroLled ...... rof the W.. t Bonk hu. bMro Ibl_ 10 klll on_
addltLontll ll,..,U cIvi lian . In the ."m.......nd f.U of2007. the ""f........
the moin ."....... ofTel Aviv and jetu..1em WII'I lbronged with CUltomeft
doyand nLs11I u!hough lIMo Second Intlfo'" hf,d !lIVer happelled. Evero
tourl.m h.. _red t.ck to p. .inUfodo 1......1a.
Sharon ', fence • monllmenl to poUIIClllncon-ectn _ _ w•• dolna
iu )Db.

The Saudi solution

When 1,l.mlll' delon.ted two bomba OIltll .... S.udl Arabian MCUrity """.
I, .. II lbe _rod of December 2~ , wl thiro bou.. Ibree or lbe ',,'peelad
ri"llleeden had '-n 1<111.. end Olhen opprehended.. V.... when Lmwpntl
In lnoq k.llled Ihlrt., govem:menlIIOldierlIn .tlllcb oa "K~n ... do.,..
IlMoy did 110 with Impunity.

" - h. tho MIddle EM!

... cc:onl.l", 10 much American c:ooveollona! wbdon>.t Ibe tlml. nel·

ther of Ih_lhl ... _ '"ppoNd 10 !Mppeo. The klnpIom • ...,llIbed
by old KI", Abd"lub Ibn 500 .... _ ... ~ 10 be I ........ 01c:vdo, and
the SunnllnaurNCllon In nq _ ouppoeed 10 M • mhlOt IotaI dllfk:ulty.
Inq lwo r-n .fter lhe lopplina of Saddam WII ."ppoMd. to IlrMdy be
I plll.r of I'I8l0nalll.blllty, I'''mplna oul eo""'" 011 10 br.k the power
of the OPEC Clnel; &'"dl .....,bi. W.I ""ppoNd 10 be Ihe d.ngemul
breedl"ll Jp'OUnd for ICIlve 1.lemlst Iern:mSl •.
Yet by Ib, ...,d of .........1 2007. mono than .!&bleen Urn. Ih' numl>l!r
01 "'merican IOldl .... h.d been killed In 1'-'1 .I n.:. Prwldent George W.
Ih ... h decI.aNd " Million "'ClXlRlplW>ed" on May I . 2003 . lhan lhe num-
ber of !hoM who died d"rlnalhe II,.. thr. ~ of OCX:Upllllon. And the
banb • ...u.leoliajj facI ..mai ... I.... ' the ...... lnql MCWily ~ .. pidly
fUlbed loto ... 1. 1 _ 10 uke the burden oR Ib, ...!M,,"ed and under-
....... ned U.s. ~ .... ve 10 far obown no eblllly 10 do tbllOb.
Their monole to poor, Ihel, eq"lpment m IM .. bl. , .nd their 1..lolna
I Wful. U.s, mJliWYlllfoly.u farth, n_ ror.:. ... riddled wHh 111.mill
and former Be'llh ..... u Uld !bello inlell\seoOl I.nnllhey Iher.fOfe leal<
like. II""", In Wuhlngton, many Middle EaslllCpetU now orl .... lh" the
U.S .• hoo ld Inll_ b.v, opted for bulldl", . Lowly and I.. mono uMfully
Ul , lite. carefully ICJ1IOIned. and much .",.n.. lnoql fon:e.
By a>n1lul.1he "'f*Ied predicllonl of u\.IIuophe and doom In s."dl
..... IM ","ve been pl'O\'lO complMely wn:NII- Ei&ht ,...... .... with gIobel
011 pnc:. dow.. 10. biItork: low of.-ty .... doIlen pW t.n.I, there ~
Indeed wlo..pr..d ~ tbII the Swdll m\shIM Nonl,. oul al CMb
10 fund the . . . . - ... d expeosl'" fOdr,l c:ootrecl tbel bee I>ou&ht
der:edee of....,. and l""llily to the deHI1 klnadom- But today, witb
&lobel 011 prlcee It ill weU .hove eighty doll .... barrel .nd In eoergy'
huflll')' Ch ina ""'l\OUIly _kl"ll new 011 'UPI'll.. from u far away u
C.n,d. and VeneE"el •. Ih. Sa"di. cerllLnly do nlM lack for Ilnandal
.... urcee to fund eHher theLr IOClll pf08>1lml or theL. _ u.hy ..... Ie •.

hwMd. over th pul,..... their ..... tallzed MCUrily ...... Ic.. which
- . . alw.,.. far ........ eflecti"" than bmtlle cilia in th. ~ media
oft.... poolnled lhem."""" 1CIOI'tod.,... ~ IfI.,. .notber.inM Iolamlot
AI QMda'1 orpruz.lion In Stoudl Atlb\a hal been _111\3. with I t I_I
fI"" of III IMdeti kllled by Stoud t Ncwlly In only 1"",1"" monlh ... AI'
...w.. !he Stoudtl did ........ 10 dent I'" 1_ IFOUP·' ..... nf lnvllldbililY
than ..... ...d • ball,.... nf U.s. military 01**1000 in tr.q ha"" _n & I
The _ ~ and e/Iectl"" _1M ,I Q-Ia hao r.:.d two"" been
!he lnlellJrnce..vl<:. of exillil\3 Arab JOY1InI..-II. w........ they '-!he
ulen ..... r>elwork ollbe Saudi monan:lly. Ihe .moJl but highly efficient
..:url ty forceo of k l"l Abdullah II In jordan. or lbe Syriln IntelUgence
...n-ico of Bubar AIMd. Inde.l. Syri. provtod 10 be.n inval ....hl. tIIUl'Ot

of inlell~ em .. Qo.t. 10 the y.- . fler lhe Seplemher 11 lnocU.

AI 1...1 for lhe ,non"..". !he Stoudl NCllrily lutborili.. !:Ontl n ... 10
clamp down on Iheir own mlillanil. BUl lo lIIigbbori"81noq. \h,lmu ..
genII IIIIl hav.!he BUlb admlnbtnlllOlllnd their own p:wemmenl by the
throat. 00;11: the other WlY around.
By coni 1'111, _ ,Inuory ZOOS report lltled "AI Qaed.ln Stoudl Anbl"
Alymmetr1c Th..." Ind Illambi ..,,1......."" from Wuhl"l'on'. c.nler
ond Inlflmltional Sludl.oonflrmod 1M Stoudl.,,,.,... 'The
. 1 Qoe<J.- orpnlutloo in Stoudt AnbI.,· IhI paper repolU. "hu done
I00I. d·m·ge 10 Ih. kingdom" _nomy and hal kliled many Innocenl
"""p lo,- How ...... - Ihl. h .. bod IlIllo ImpKt on lho d.y·to-doy life 01
ordinary Stoudi.,-
AI QNdI hal been "'>D'uo:<!$Ifu l ln III recrulunenl elforu." the report
continued. "II f. lled 10 I rticul.te a viable .ltem aliv. 10 the exillll\3 BOV'
em""",1- and "II Iocl ed fundlna and _ forced 10 channel "'*"""'* IniO
the one pbtl", OIU-UtUi unobIe 10 -.bibb. other lndopendenl 011 .... -
The roporIal.a disputed the widely held popul.. bellef l""' ol QMdI
.. In'flodWe t..:. .... il il deamtroli .... and can reorpnl. and regroup

" ... Ul. Thl. 11M no! been the cue In Saudi Arabia. -DMplle the popular

I n IndlQtlOIlI that the orpniulion hal nOl .... n .bl, to

JO~.mmtlnt ,1I..,lq. AI it. ~k.

lIOlIon or,1 QNda _ , hydro. that cen oocutanliy ....... """" beed •• there
S.II,dt .1 QNda cl.lmtd betw.....
500-600 mtlmben ..,.,ulllt'fld .."onll the QUI. OftheM.l"OIlJhly 250 WeAl
dl.. h..-d.. l:ly the end Of 2004 . beI ....... n 4Q0.....500 mlllt~ntl hld .... n a:oop-
I U~ Ind killed. Indudlna , II ofitol.....--Ihilin !addition 10 the lhou·
Jand, of III .ymp.tht ...... who .... '" • .,..,,,.1 In d 1,,'n''''lI"lod. m.,.' of
whom h........n freed .-
Once 18&ln. the 1"'1""" found. bordn. oonl..,l l. kll)'. - In 2004 , Saudi
border lUItd. detained ....... Iy. million peoplio 'lIemptl", 10 .. ln 111"'8"1
.nt~ Into Ih. kl",dom Ind a:ooplured _ than len 10... of drup (the
Jal. or which IN oft... uoed to fund JUllni lla opentlon.l. In ..!dilion.
0-. __ 2,000 _pono oeIzweto ...d , In IJlIII.OOO""ugli", Il1emptll
were foU..! end '.000 .... uglen UTIIMed.. -

'.' ,. '-~
...... ,'.p '~
'.'.'~ ... ... '"... .. .
',' , - ••"".,:,.,',.",.,-
~ ~

Public Opinion in the Middle East

I f )'001 wendt< ibcuf the f.II\ft r:J d!emoo;'K)' in the MIdcIt bu, dwd:
CUI Thr Grt« DMdI: How Wnrfmon cnI MusAms Vifw lDdl Orhtr.
jUlI~ in lOO6 II,- me,.... C".Iob.l Attiturtfs 1'rojfc1. 1fIow Is, ~ r:J
me $U pAtod from , pol r:J Muslim ~ Ihr-..oriel:

'-'" -- -
..". ''''

M.,.I Important. hDwe ...... the .ulh..,.. concluded. wu dUll "Ihe D'8"n.
IUlion could not win popular oupport . While il wu .blelo ""plDit po~

ul .. f""U"ll and anger On IOm"I .... "".uch .. Ib, .....I>-I...eli conmct. It

could not win oignine.nl ouppol'l {Dr il' actual activUl ... from either
Saudi """pi e or Ih e Saudi clergy. Above all. Ita empha.io Dn violence
f.lled 10 .....,n. l. with the people. Saudis we.. ohocked hy th' Inlti.1
attacks. and Ib ..... th"l largeted Muslim. and .....111 furth... ali.n.led and
diminished support for Ih, <»pnlr..otlon."
Neverth"I_. the 1"'1"'''' authDn ","u1l0noo againlt undue and p""".'
lUff! compl..",ncy In u ....i"ll Ih, con tloulns al Qa.ed.lh ....,. "S.udi
Arabia II 81. crillcollum;tutfl In Ita IIghlapinot lorrorilm. Th, th_t I.
u .. likely to dl .. ppear for y....... lo come. Al Qow.d.a o;&n dnw 011 SaudI. In
A{ghanislan. Pakill"". Vemen. and Cenltlll A.I•. a. woll"s other memo
ben of.l Qaed. who may be able to en ter Saudi Arable. The lrlqand
Vemeni borde" present ..,riOUI probl'''''' In terms of lnflh n tlon."
[ronlcally. whllo P.... ld ....1 Sad dam Huneln conlinued 10 rule InK[
with. terrifyi.. gly iron hand . the Saudil foatd no th ..... t whol_ver from
al QMd.·'lnfllltlltloo..,..... that bonier, 11 wll only .tier the U.S. occu'
pAtion of Iraq and Ihe ""'plion of. formidable wid ... p .... d Sunn ; M.....
11m popul .. i"ourxency Ihat thl, problem b.u ""ploded.
Th, repol'l abo noted the wll'Dinsthol Saudi Inlerlor minister I'rinee
Nayef bin Abdul.ui~ issued . I • hlgh·]evel ,..tonal -=urily meeti .. g In
Tehran: "Iraq muJl not he a place for t ..lnlng terrorist•• and they could he
S.udif.llI<e whal happ"..oo In AfghantIIIn .. , ,1l>ult\Ultlnn in Iraq end ....·
sera not only the 1lOO"!Jy and III people, but It baA beooo ..... ch...... nd dan·
gerou. Ih ...1 10 oecurily and ltablllty in the region."

A safer Middle East

Amerlcano and Eurof"'ln~d. frlnkLy. everyone-n"",b to wOlTY
.boot the MiddLe EIIt. l1's not 801"11 10 go away. and It's not gol"ll to I..ve
....... in tile Mlddk """

... aIone. W. will ~!be ,..; .... '. 011 for the forlll'pbl.l'utw. . ....t IIV8D
Ifw. didn',. IJlMI.,uw. aDd 10 Anb anger will penbl:.
W""t .,.n on do .bool il?
Beron WI can begin 10 .w...lop e wtdable vision for I-=- In the Mid·
die Eatl, we need 10 ,l,y. few polilicr.lly oornct d f1l8OlII. Flt'fI. on Deed
to ntjecI MI""""I 10.1"""" end b!. crvniet wbo have d""lded lhat Ib, S.udi
~for Ib, altne ofbein,; friendly with the B... h femUy-I, the bean
Second ...... nMd 10 I.... e.id"lhe f""I-sood Id..ll.m of Jimmy Cart,r
Ceorae Bu.h Ihat WOIlem·,' yl" llberel d~moc'KY can wo.t
end In Ib,
~on ltke II hal In tb, w.....

Third. on D..I 10 adjUlt our J\AOdardo of ~ncy. and doNi with the
feel 1""1 Ih' OIlo .... n Empi...-bnllal. Inlol,nnl •• nd b..vy·handed-
wuobd. AI .... how_unpa-nl the ..:wily Mnct ..... y be In lRMI. il',
I by 10 pMCe.
If w, ""'"er Ib_ PC Idol. and embnce ....... politically h..;o"eu
trulhl 1""1 h!.IOI)' tMCh. .... ....,.,.., lIaIl 10 _ lhe I*h 10 ...1Iti.... peM>e.
Th, key 10 • "Ibl, regime \. not • democnlk: 1'""1 bul a powerful S.udt
Arabi., Whll"h, klnsdOlu may nol become In empl ..., II an......n 111
Influeroce th~llhe "'Ilion. lmagl .... Ifolher countrl. could control
at QMd. Ilk, S.udl ...... bt. doe;. Th, S.udb. like the Ollo.... n. Ind In
"""lIul lo lhe IInt!.1I or Americano. """'1 arnold 10 II" Inlo '"'*Iu" aDd
utrt Influeroce.o quub the ulnlmioto and defend "'ablllly.
W, ..... need to .... pport.1IronI but renttalned Isnel. Ariel Shuon. the
fi....::. wurior wlto .......... ,........tIc.
b the model for...,..U 'I' tlNlhlp.
h o _ tevlltd by the Left .,..Iooked dowu upon by W....... ell,•.
in eli upeclol of life. polili<;ll COllleu.- c..... d. true poIfCIption, but
In ttle Middle "'.. t. IMI"hII down PC myth, becom• • miller of life IOd
_III for A.. b.. luull •. Europeem.lnd American ..

boo'" could not have been written without the I'rlend.hip.

~_t. unllorgi"ll~. ",ppon. and ",pert. pror..lon.
allsm of H.rry ero.:t., vice pnal<Ieal of Regnery: 1lra Cuney. my
dr.m editor II Rejp .... ,. &Dei myoid. de..- friend John O'SUIll ...... "'"'-
edltor-I.o-cbleflt UPt. who sot the wbole thIna movIna.
Myoid t..cher. thl ll'l, grMI Prof_ _ EIII t::edourie. provld .... DOl
ju.t Ihe fruit. of hi. unrlnl<!d .cbol... hlp but IL ... hilun lque under-
'Uond'll3 IlIId w' tdom lbout. "'Ilion filii 100 much pl1llCh..... lllIId 100
lillIe undetltood 10 Ihl. d.y. " mlud d, 8on::hJY1lv" thelegonrlaryerlllo,
IlIId f,,",11l" comoIpondoml. hu ,I",n me Ihe Sift of hll friend,hlp .. well
.. hi' ulonllhlna . I"ty· plu. YN .. of ""pe.lence Oflh, region IlIId pre.
.ocIeot c.U.lh....,.t. I II of It. It wall beao ..... I worked for him for 00 many
,.....11 the "luMn,tfon 17..-th.oll ..... Ibll 10 MlCUmul'le lhe ""peri_
once II..I I did.
Thlnb .1.. 10 Tobin IIecI:;, aaude Sr.l....... M~ MIrIIwIl. Martin
W.l ...... IlIId Kri.hn ....... C.ll.tnm. my Lonstlml boo_. coll... u... Ind
friend. 1\ UP! und .....hom I conlin ....... 10 ....10 Ind monitor the region
IlIId ...ho merle every dey of coverina 0 - thin • • loy and. pnvilep.
"bOlO Holpt Jen ... n IlIId the lite Woody Waol . who unl ..,h<!d me On
the teIIlon. 10 W..ley Pruden. Anuiud'llu""",""" <!dlto. In chI"''' Ihe
WII.hln,!OIl 17........ nd o.",d Jon.... hl. lonl'M",ln, Ind much· loved
fOnlI", IMIltOf, who Nnt me OUt th_ 110 often. to Martin HutchlllOn,
<;OIwnnbl: 011 emerJIng marleu In the 1\\11/ S,,...., /oumalwho helped ....
un, nel 110 many economic conundruma. and to Sttnt •. fo. p.leal...
advlce."d encounogumunt at ufIoCtly the tlghl Urne. Non .. of th, OUI'po-
bn ludgmenlf In 'hi, hooI< , houJd he attributed 10 any O!lhem.


AbbM, Mahmoud, I" AUon. Vi3MI, ~~, I OI!

Abot,,1 H.mld II, 10, II , 13 oJ QMd.o. 12: bin lAden, a......
AWuJ.uI.&. Abot,,11lob Ibn, 131. 1:)9. Md. I~~ , Ill: Buoh, G.orp W,

AbcluJu:l&. F.IMIltm., 141-51
and. 118-0: OItoIOA, Bill and.
1 _: Sooudl Anobia and. 135,
Abclului&. NIo,..,W ... 1 12 I _ I , 1», 1 5~,:lOJ, 210-12:
AbcluJJ.h. -s.yykI. 34. 35. 37_:)9 Syrl.I and, llO: lllbAu, 115:
Abdullah, Crown Prh'QI. $6 z..q.wl , Abu M"""" .1· and.
AbcluU"', KI .... 152-5/1 12_13
AbeI"n ... U, KllIfI, 311, 1l1li.210 A.. ,e.,AlkMl lla ."n . 121, 129
Abtohom UncoIn, USS, I' Amem, StM United SUI..
AdenII".,., Konrad, 125 Am~rlct.n Clvl1 l.l bml .. Union
Afsh.nlotln, SoYIIIII InvuklR o f. 71, (ACLU ), III
U,I~ , 131 ... merlun 1._1 Public AlTai .. Cam·
An.q, MlebeL , 1110 mln_,I05
.4.I<>lnll All CtMlmlH: Ir1Ii~ A __ . . . .011 , IMIU ,"",u •• 12~
ka" I,'a,on TMmr(et-u), HI7 AqIo-IlaIlLan OU Company, 110. 101
AhmMil ...... ""h"",,,d , 811, ~, anTl-5emld.... , 11. 31, 124
101)-101 , 1~5 , 1l1li 10....1....1connlc1. 58 ........
oJ.""", ""*I.... ~ 31. 33 Palulhl .... connld
oJ·Aok.i,. Mo.que boonbI .... ........ ........ 52, 1l1li
116-71.13 ............... ' 37. 41.". $6, UN. 120
Albr\tlll. MMleIo1.... I ~l A....... l ioMU.m,5, III , 144
AlpN, 7,'. 1$6, 1511, Ii? .....to lIevol! (1113&), n. 33, 42~',
AU, AJun.d 11.... 11 , 121 54. 145
10111",54-51 A.. b Soclalill 1'&11)" 1&0


J\mbic PoJIdoaI ,\.Ie......... Bobylonbul Empi .... 35

(Kodouri.j, SII Bobylonlan t:..U•• 89
J\tofol ; T"" Mon and ,.... MytII s.pdood. tr.q. 17. 22.1..... 75
(Kleman). 104 SoUt. lam_ ..... eo
"",r••. Y_. 115: "oat!. t!.or•• and. Oller, ... hmed H ........ I•• 112. 1&5
151. 18l: c."'P llovld II pMCe Bolf..... D.claralion (lgI7). 25-26.
"""fel ~11COI and. 1!III-lI1; F","h
orpnl..,I.... nd . 110. IlZ-I . ; Bllkoot.o. 11. 13. n
Huuela. Sodolam and. 142: H_ Barak. Ehud. 1M. 111 ..... 2
..Inl. Hal Amln .1· ""d. 30. 32: Bat-'-.CI:!.llm.lJO-,)I
......11·" ... won and. 111-14: 8ot-'- Unt. 129-30
t.et.non. dvll ..n In..wl. 151: Blnl<l of tbo s.om..... 44
0010 ~ Aa:orda ""d. loe. IIfotIln. Men.oclMoOl; E«fpI.I ..... U
181: PID ""d. 111-14: Soudl ~ and. 11Il-10; WMI. <:...-
" .. bI •• nd . '.,-42 Irion of Ind. 46; Slnol II dl_·
"nom"". III ..... 01..,' liWMOItot (I .,,) and.
"""""j..... 10. 11.25 167; Su..tloy Wit ""d. , "; Yom
"'''''',. Pooler. 1U . 119 KJppur Wlund . 132. Ilil
ANI<I. Bubar. Hit . 170. 210 So""t..wl 1Iotlr..t Ilu.... 7t. 7t
1uAd. Hd.... IS. 114. Ill. 133. IIotlI. Certna .... .14. H. 146
170; ...,.,... Y _ aDd. 112. 151. Boa.c..na... Doo~id. 125. 12.:
163; ..... 1.11 of. II I ; H_n. Sod· Churclllll. Wlo!.o'OII and. 47 . 46;
d.m and. IS1-ee: 1.....1 and. 151. Ho Chi Minh ""d. 17; i&l1iooi and,
'83. 1_ : IAbuIon Ind. 1M: S: IoroeU· l'olootinIon """nkt """.
PII_Uno Ind. 151: RobIn. .'-41; Ottoman Empl..,."". 6;
Yltzhok and , 157. 183 .... of 1147_11141 and. 1M. 106;
......... Rlrul. l84 Wlloon. Woodrow and. 27
The Auilosi ... • Gal. (p.a.). 55 1I«pr. Sandy. 11.5. 117.....
.....yrioIII • ••. 5)-64 (wlln. Sir tt.oo<:. 160
"'1.11"'1.. MraIIIo "-I. 31. 100. BeIilliCl. 1ft
191;C.lUpoll """'~ aDd. Bib"'. 26. H . 147, ionooolJ.iUQ Win
, .... 20; World W., 1....:1. IS-ZO. and. 100; bno!l·l'alMtlnlln """.
22; You ... 1\1'0 aDd. II nLo;t..wl. 41-44. 46
... uocbwhz. 33. 34 Bli Throe oummil (11143). "
"ullraUa. tao W. U bin Loden. OMnIa. 66. 201; II QooedIo
"'~I •. le. 5. and. 144 . Ill; I..... U.pal.,lnlln
"""nLo;t and, 203; rMik:lll,1am
TI>e Ba",10 Oundl). 161 and. 7'.61. &4 ;S.udIJuab~
So ·.,h Pany: a.rton of. 151; H_ and. Ill. Il •. 144. US; s.pr.. ~.
";n. SodOom and. IS.; in Iraq. _ II and. II . 63. Ill. 115.
5&-69. 161. 1M. III, .ooIH.. , .....1. 113-44
"""" of. 159-11 . bIoIop::lol.....w.. 1111

BWnatd. Ono _ , '3, 11& bIll. c.o...
Ii. W.O eo
BIIar. Sel&b ".1)1.
81.od s.pt...... 116
ai" 160 Bu.h , C-W- w.. • oU . 1l1li: al
q.do and. 1.....: ...............
8L11•• Tbny. 140 """""" and, IMI, Inq _12OOl)
IIoIJ.IwwIL RevoIIIII.... :re, 87 aDd, 57. U . :lOt: poIlUcal-.
liard. ,,,,,,Il0l . ZIlS-3 I'ICI_ and , I : pott·s.ddam
ao-h. Corl. 20S 11'811 and. 87, Sept .... bar 11 and.
Bradlooy. Omar. l1li 185; z.~w\. Abu M.....-b aI·
B"",kd<>W1l: II""" Ame';';" ', In/elli· .nd, 73
~nao f'ollu_ Led 10 ' " r
tGwlzJ. 100
8"""e •• t. PIIiI. 65, 87
lI.....u.n.v. a-Id . 65 . l1li coliph.tc abolition 01. .: OttODWl
Bnw.. : Ani> ... ,IonaIlJ.m and, 144; Empl ...nd. 5-8. 10- 11
8&1""" Ooc:lantloa (1'171 ond. c.up o.wlcl ~_'-­
2So-2e: c..Lroeoa ....... (1121) (1"81. 177
aod, :J.4-37: den.......... IIIWI, 2. c.mp n.¥!d II ~ _ .......
51 , CoJUpoIl cempe'cn ..d. 181...-J , 1116-97
1&-23: ..... and, _ 2: INq aDd. c.n.. ,imra,.13. 82. lIA: QA .......
50-5): 1atMI, .,,..,i00i
of and. 10.; bu ...... n,bu.ucl. fl. N :
25-27. u ; bnel, withd .. wal l..n ..,d, fl . N-e5. ~7, IruLuo
from of, ._7: t-1I·PaJe.tinian '-ttpcrilll and . 77. 84-aS.
"""nlet and , 15, 28, .1 ..... 2: Kill. _ , I.llmlc i!e¥(ll uU.,., Md.
<Hr_, "' ."d. U - Zl; Low and 8', Mlddl, Eat, ~of. 157.
II""f'I"lI'MI In. 2; Middl. Ea.l 169-71). 17~, ""'II¥!.
rull of. 2. 7.... 10; ... val power of, Moh.n' mad l!eu 10<1.114
15-18: 0110 ...... Empire and. Tire eo.. fo< Dl'I>IOCfOC1ISlwu·
16-1): On....... Empl ..... fall of I kyl. 1l1li
""d. 1l_1l: J>aJ.tioian Mandal. c-y. W1l1Loom . 86
of, 15, ~ •• I_f2 . ~ : Shliltr CBS Rodio Newt, IZI
.......at \1820) and. 50-53; s.- Ceo". for S!rIj.p: and "'I.......
criN aDd, 10; Trip .. Eat"" .. and. tioMl S!ucllooe. Ul. 210
12-13: _ of 1e.47- 11M8 and. CDn'O. 'J
103-5: World Ww I and. 16-21; Cenu.llnteUIpact A,...c, lOA):
World w... and, ~7 : Zion ... .1 QoecIo. and. 1&5. I",AnlIIt.
_t"'.:Ie y_....J. 101' 0..1 ..... AhnMd
Brilllh B...oc...I... Coopontioll and. tlZ; MONdd"l. Moh°m.w
(BUC). 111 and. II I . Got , M~ and. 125:
Brill.1I CoI",,1aI Offlco, :ttl p*·Saddom lroq Md . 81
Hridlh P,"nlwm (BP). \10 Ceyloo. '9 . 40
lIumflu. Ileo .... '92 Cbalobl. Ahmed. 3e. 52. !a. &I~3
Burn"lI. Tom, 1112 o..mberlolo. ~IU •. lie. 115
~.KI~~'7 CoelIIiOll ProYb"-l Authority
n..~thom 110<1.. \'...non..nd (cPA). I I . 6J. IS. e7
cUrer MiddJ. ""fem Sfudies Cohn. N<omoan. 1 5~
("-<Iourl,). 'II. I~ r:.n.. USS bomb"'" 1811
Ch-.y. Dick. 1&4; lrooq wu (2003)
and. lSI; z.a,q..wi. Abu M.... b
"J. ... d. 13
Chw., KaI-eW. 80
a.;.... till. 137. 1118. 204
Colli n •. Latty. 31
ComDlll1.. of Union and I'mf-I.
C>OmaIunIJDI. 9. M. 135. 137. 141
enn.tanUnoplo.. I. 20. ~
Oubtopbw. Wan.. 1$3 ConItltutloo. U.s.. 10. 17
o.u.n:hlll . W!Ju.IOII: Abdullah .... ConIee"".n. lultbooy. l53
Soyyld and. »,
s.n.(;uri_. er-. Chat. . 136
Dovid and. 41. 41, B~ non. ~.'O b~ (Sybil). 41
aummU ... d . Il l ; Bri\llin', R.:Iyool CruNd •. n
Navy ... d. IIe-lD, C.lro Confer.. Cwchoelov.kl •• 108. 114
""'" ( 1\121) .... d. )4-37. 4 1. 14 2.

lipoll -1""'" . .
1M; d _ocy lJId . 51; Cal·
d. 20; ~. 011
iDdu..try' ohDd. t. ft. _~. f l;
... c..-.V...... 9
0erdaneIJef. 17
1)arI", o..er.i."
Inq ...... » . 4\l; '-I. cnMIoo!. o.yu. Mothio. I n , CoIaa HelPu.
of ...d. )4 : Kenn.dy. joMph ... d. \aMI .. ""'ftI'- 01 and. 16t:
125 ; Law.-. T. E. ...,i, I U ; *-'- mUlWyiol MId. 110; WMII·
Middl, fMI."".p of and. 34. PU.eIlniAn .... nict and. 44: Sbc·
35-3.; Nul Getmany ... d . 31 ; c., War and. II'" Ill. 172 : YODI
Pohl.~I . Moh'D'l m~ R.... and. Klpput w., ... d. I 29-32
03 ; Soud. Abdul • .u Ibn ... d . 39; n.clillf ond Foil oJ thII Ho"",n
Su.·Doy W... and. 11.....19; l\arby EmpfN (CIbboo). 201
and. 22 ; WI .... ' •• Ordoo and. 42: "'C.ul'-. Owl•. 126
World WUI..-d. 14-1'. 17. 20. ... Mello. s.po VIfIIn. 55. 64 . II1II
12; Wortd Wu II ....t. 55
Clarb. 1lIcbud. 1""7
dsIobd..C'........ nd ...... 2. 51 :
2; h _ fiAhU and. 10:
a._Ita. Catl ....... 43 1tIq ...... 49 . 51--54. 57-69. Ill. M .
~land . WllliAIII 1,.. . $0 1117. 1\li--2OO; ' - ' and, 3: "'''''''
Oln' OII. 8il1. 13. 113; .l q..d. and . and. 2. 58: lu~iAn roun·
I IS-I8; A_d. H.ofe. and. 1&5 ; datlono 01. 2. 5 1: MlddJ. EaoI and.
Iran nucJ_ PI'OI""" and. W; 1_2. J. 9. 51-112. 1911-200.210;
M IddJ. ....I~of. 157. ()noman Empinl lOUd, 6: ~
110-1), 0<110 " - .tu:ardo and. and . SI ...s2, IW: nuby ...... 3:
101. III , 5.oopI-"-r 11 ... d, 115. lhollad sw.....:I. 5 1...s.z
'M DbahnIn, Saudi AnbIa. 5
om. 10. 144 ~ of 0.. Roo:k. ,.......u-. U . J3
l.IwI.....y. Fyodor. 1. 1'_.111. k l.... !WI. 57
DowbiSliIl.. H...t.o1. _ , . GO Farouq, kI .... 114 . In
DuIl. .. )oIIn 1'....... 114-25 f-'ah. 110. 11'. , '2 . 113. 114
Feo:IenJ B...... u of I.a...... lption
e..t Afrka ...w-.y .......bi... (FBI). ,15 . 111
(111N1. UNI FlF>t~ far I.....'r.dono of 1....1
Eb.n. Abbr.. " g (I..ehl). oWl. 11 8
F.uJ>I. 7. 55: 8rldlh rul. _ . 7....:
b_ll· Anob w...... d. ,,4-17; Flm InUfada. ,n
bnoU ..·.I.. tlnlan conniel ."d. fl.her. LQrd lob .. " JackJ.o." "
32; I, ... ll p.-ce ".,y with. liS. ford. Cerald. 115. 173. 178: Middle
'11. '7&-1O: N~. ~ Ealt record of. 157. 166-72
Abolel end. II : ~ In. U7 ; "'ru:/xrr. <WrIt Dl"1IlOIWJ. 117
SI ....1 II dllenpeecn.ont .......... t F..-: Alprian wu of In.depmd·
(' II" ) ... d . 117. 172; S.- criJU ...ao 1lIMI. 117: Areb ....,lonell....
Md. , 10 . 114: W.,of Attrilion ...... 144: dom inion _ MiddJ.
... d . 127_ 21 EM! of. 7; luMI and. 1%8: bnoli·
[irb_n". Adolf. 34 . It AnI> ........... llIl: MlddJ.o EM!
~. Dw!&h' 0 .• U . l1li: I.." ",I. of. '0; .... va1 powwof. 15:
... d. 1I1-e2: bnol and. I Uo-25; Ott......... Empl ... loll of ... d.
Mi.ddJ.o EM!....",..j of, le7: IZ- Il: S..... crill. II _I and. eo
~. MoIwamod ... d. 1I4 F~ F.-dllWWl . Archduke. \4
EI ...... Otvld. "0. I II Ft.nz _ph . EmJl"l"O". 13
IUkino. MlchMl. IZI FriedmllJl . Thom... 53. 184. 2011
""'- Em~IJIIf"'" of II,. Middl. E<*. Fromkln. Otvld . 28. 35. 43
191f-ll14 (s.cbu). 8. 15
Kn_ Puh • . 12. Ift: Cem>any and. Go.lUpoIl CIompool"". 111-21, U
1)-14: N~. C.mal Abolel VII .• Go.z.o Strip. 25. 1 10
111: Worid Wu I ... d . 14: V"""I!I G.rw/I I14', ""'-1'1.., A~/ur:Jelj
1\ubend. \I W.... (K ............ '. 11
£rIwd. Ludw" 125 c..n.nGoavmllon. 170
EthkDI. LrtI. ""'111, In . IU. U8 c.o... David lJord. %8, lI. 14{l
~ u....... 1M. 5. 20$ c-,.1'IcGl. ~. 44-45
[ump" t - _ 11M Middt. E<ut. Cenrwly: conUol..-1 of. 13:
11I36-1lS4ISoochMI, 7I de......"..". In. M; En_ pMho
EJt.txiu•• IOII ... d. 1)-14: Nul. n , 33. 40-60.
54. U . !WI: "J"Hple En_,.and , 13;
foM. kl .... 1:M1. 152, 1n , 11511 y"" ... TIotb .Ulanoo with, III
Faluwnhftlll/ ll . 135. 1113 Cernt. Bill . I to
f.lMl. PrInce lUrid .1· .nd, 77_7\1 ClIlI>on. Edwud. 2011
falMl l. k ina. 35. :te.37. n. \4\1 ClIlon. I·hlilp. 174
Ct.., a...1-. 107 IlIlIn.......10: ~ .. , and , 60;
Clubb, Iobn, 31
In 1..... 13, 114
lIumpllrey. Hubert H., 1119-72 I
CoI.n Haigh" . n . 117. I2 I -ZZ. lIu ... ln. Itl. . oriordan. li Z, 116.
1~7. 1&1. 1&8 IZO, 123
Golden Mo.q ... bombl ... 6&-71. 71 1I .. _Ln. s.ddam. 10.~. 57. $1,115.
TIt. a....
1 OM"", How W.st.......... 114. 143; Are"I, V _ Ind , HZ ;
..nd Mu~i"'. vs.w &xii 00..- AOMd. Hafu ... ~ . lel __ ; Bo 'IIh
I"- ~ AIIItude. Pn>jIocI). Pwt,lnd, IW; ....... U".. of. 198;
rr. .. and. 51, 6IHII. 07; !na.1req
GudiOtlan. IWiDz. Illl
W.. and. IS3; 1nq ...... S_I ;
,"uwILI and. 59. 81 . l1li. 1M: ......
GulfSt&t ... S.117 01.., C<>lfW... (1l1li1 ) .00, 2; Sep-
au" Monlecl\f,I, l7e lember II .nd. 511. 191
Hu_I ... Sherif. 31. 35. 311. 44 ; Coiro
HobfK. ~·rit.o.. 205 Conf.......,. (l1l21).nd , 34;
IIabJr.BotclI 20:1 p_. McMahon· Hu ...'" lilian ... d.
~ EJaplre, Il. 14 0 ; rwllcall ...... Ind. 711. 60;
HUlm. MoboHned llaql. al-. M . I!I& Soud. Abdulozl. ibn and. 145---46
tt.mM. 81 . 113. 117. 1l1li II_IDI. Abd al-Qoodlr aI-. 104. 105
Ham.I!lOIl. SI< \.ln, 18 11 .....1..1. Hoi Ami ...1·, l7 , ICH ,
Hpdl-ns. W......, Go , 27. 167 I I O. 140; HoIocalUt ... d . n . )4 ;
HM ....... It... 34 , ».
57 . 110, 143. 14e , IlrMU ·".leolin'.n connie! ... d .
1411, 154 30-34,46,200; P.IeoUnl...
Heooth. Ed_rd , 11 5 Ant.. Ind.l l -33; World W.... II

l-*ul P""y, I Ie
Herod the G.... t. 107

H4ozboI1ah, IlJ . UII, In. 106, 1110

... d . ll

ltIdl ... Antly, 17. $0. l1li, ro4

In_n16 Abrood (Twlln). 1 Z
Hlmml • • Heinrlcb. 34.38 ~u. 1amoI. 14
Hi..... Adolf. 201. :108: H.-in!, /"./<10 11M An,tIc>-Am" IAhrrinlh
lUI Amln 01- ..d. 110: Inq ... d. (Kodourlel. 13
55, $I: Orl ...... Empire ..... 10: 11.... , ' . 7; Alllnodi...;.c1. MohlllOUd
TINt ProlocoJ. oJ 1M EJd.... oJ .nd. n . 100-101. 196; Con",.
Zion Ind, 151--&2: RUffll, [nv.· JImmy .nd.1I7; CEm'O 100, UZ;
.Ion of by, 12 1; Third Reich O{, Churchill, Win.ton ... d. 5;
202: und. . .U .... ti . . of. 6Z humon ri8h"ln. IIJ.II4 ; H..... ln.
Hoot.., Thomat, 67, 11 Soddom Ind. 511. ~1.1I1--M.
Hn Qt.1 MiI.h, 27 11&-1/9; 1..... -1""1 Wlnnd. 22 . 61.
~. ', , 4e , 147. 152, 198 61, 15'; "1amic Republic: ltI.
Hno:wer. lhrbtrI. 11\0, 177 11&-101 ; ....... Ic: RoMIIurioa In.
SO. 77 . Il0-l1 . 13-64 , 85. 112-+1: 22. e3-64 . 06-71 . lOll: s.. ....1
KhIo_I, MohammMI aDd, <XIIIIJ'OI 01. $0. ~I~': SyN and.
.... 100. 1M-8&; KJoomeinI. Ay. or
III ..... w ... 1947- 194' ... d •
IDllah Ru.huilioh .nd. 71. II . 12: w...ld W",II and . 4!h50.
1)-15, til. 00. IH-e:5._ ,
IIvclMr"......... of. _lOll, 1116; Jnoql N.IIU""-I eon..- (INC). lI.
oll l n, 5. MI, _ 2. 101-2: II-oJ
Pahlayi . MOMmmad Roa and, Iraq war (llOO31. 17. 2 I . 57. 1Sf!:
1lz-..94: ...... Ian Empl..... d . Buth. Ceo. . W. and. ~7. 63 . Z09:
8t-90, pot1 -nvolutloo. 116-W, den>oXrtoCy Ind. ~7-S': PC myth.o
S.udl ",.. ble end. 152-64: Syri_ _boul. M . 60: Sunnlln,u'll"""Y
ilDd. 162: U.S. YI. Britoln and , IDd . n
00-02: World War II Md, 91 Ireland. 40. IJ . eo. 202
1...... In.q w• . n . II . II. 153. lSI, bJun Z.,.I I.Auml {N.II11on.I1 MU lwy

"" boll.
InDlu. atoll. U : c.n..
jlm.my..-d. K-M: -'Ieol islam
o..-n lo.llonl. 46
IrUh llapublicu Army. 40
"lam: d l>"On::llW . I4 : On ........
... d. 77. &+-65 Ealpl ...... d. 10-11 : .. relJ&loa . l :
..... 5 . 7. Il: .1·/UUrir' ""*tue Sht.. 63: W.hlwohi . 77. 11. 147.
bomblal In. M-71 ; ........... JewUh !iN aho...tlcal ..Iua
r-..q.- of, 411-&0, 71 : ArIb 'n
,01..", 1M UoIhm World
....... and , 52: /\xII and.:MI. 5.4; (Kedouri. ). 143
o." th Pu1r In , I!. 151H11: lliamk; Ileol,tIonao Moveme,," s...
BriUlh ... 1<I "y.... 7~. 48-50; 11,m..
Cairo COdferenoo (1921) Ind. 35: 1IIImIc RevoluUon, W. n. lI0-II 1.
OWTO lJId, Ill : o..llbI. Ahmed 13. 15. liZ ....
and. 61-43: CblllChlll. Winatorl luMl: AMId. llafn ... d. 151. 163 .
Irw!. 35. 4" civil w.,.
Ln. 71 . 7. : 1Is-ee: Ben.(:urion. Iloovld .nd.
d e ........ ' In. 411. 51-&4. 51-69. 6 . • 7-4': _ lIon of. :l5-1I:
Ill. tie. I'). 1W-2OO;.1ec:tionI d_ : :0K)' and. 3: deotnlCllon of.
In. U . 09, """·Ir.q War and. 22 . 201-4: FeYpt peKII, .... Ywith.
6 1. '1 . 153: ItneII-P.IeotLDLan 1115 . IU. 17$-80: l..:j. Nazi tab-
connk;t Ilnd , n . 55; military "". oI ...d. 411-60; 1IfMI1·1'aJM.
coup oIl~ III, 56. 51 . 10, 115. Ilnlan conAia MId . 15-41: Jew;oh
141: "I( 1 "Ion la, -"'100; Nul popuIotion 01. \ : i«e_.d.. 11
CArnwlyand. 4\1-60, M : .,.... wat 10 ... d. 157: N _. Go ....1
Saddam. 5$-81, 65: Soudl Ar8b1a AhoHl."d. 13: Koobln. YlIzhok
... d. 152: Stcond Sa'lth K.publlc ... d. 172-75: Sadol . An .... Ind .
In. M-$9. 182, 1115. \\18: Shll,. 151: 51",,111 dlNnpprnenl
....... 11 Ill1l0) In. 35.)6, 411. SO, ogtMI'JIorll (1915I.nd . le7. In.
52_$3.17: Sunnlllllurpncy In. 17): SoYI", Union ..nd. 11 7- 11:

1....1 h:on1 ln uedL 20 1-4; IOlvi"8. 200-204; Syk...

Syria and. 157. 163. 165-I!e; Picot AgroemMll &lid. 44-45; UN
United 51.1... nd . 124-25; U.S . and. 46: Unlled Sial.. and .
•rm. d ..1 wllh. 172-75; war of 25-28 . 110-71 : " ". of \\147-1 \14 6
1901 7-1946 Ind . 82. s.e pi.., I n d. 31
I.,...U·Anb w. n ; 1.....Il·PaI... Italy. 7. 33 . 58
Unl.n coon let
1.....1 o.f"n.. Po..."... 44 . lIB. 126 lipad. 2. 15.58.80
I..... U-Anb won: A.. b n. l lo .... l;.m lenIMlem. 7; 1929 riot. In. 32. 39.
I.IId . III; Y _ and. 86: lonel·. oonqu.t of, 25. 106:
111 _ 14: EiYPI and. 114-17; lJo_ll-P.llIIOtlnlon connlet Ind .
fllahand.IIO,lll; .. notlDDlJ 2&-29: )ewb b mysdclom In . 29 :
""nnlets. 11 1; NI~on . Rl~hard Meljl R" lonliion o f 11169 and.
and. 123. 12&-27; Pnlutinian. 58; .... of 194 7-1 948 I nd. 1(\4
_ n lng o f ."d. lOll. 10&-11; PC .....1.h Awlncy. 30
mythS.boUI. 124 ; PLO. 110. III: JohllAOll.l..yn<ion 8 .. 11 9. 125. 126
Sinal Campaign. 1\111; Six_Ooy jordan. 7. n. 37. 11 6. 120. 157 . 198
War. 101.115--11. 1Ig...2l. 127. lund!. Saml .1·. 162. 113
1911; Soviet Union Ind. 117_16:
w•• o f 19oI7-I \I4B. n. U)J-6: Kodowie.Elle. 3J . 45.5tI. 59. 61.
War of Anrilion. 123. 1911; Yom 143.1 44
Kippur War. 86. 103. 127-3l Kennedy. John 1'.. 125
1Jo ....1I-1'.1.. llnian ""nmet: Abdul_ Kenned~~h. 125
lah. u·Sayyld Ind. 37-311;.1 Kh. led. Klns. 136. n~. 1611
Qo.edllnd. 20 3; I nli-8emili.m Khan. Gellf,hl •• 82
• nd. 26: IMIn-Gurion . Oovld Ind. Khal.ml. Mohammad. 99-100. 15-4 •
47-48 ; Bible Ind. 42-44 . 46: bin 155.195-96
!MIen. o...ma Ind. 203; Brili.h IChomel n l. Ayoolollah Ruhullah. 77.
Imperiollsl w..kn_ and. 41 _42 : go; Hu .... ln. Saddoom Ind. 97-93.
Coiro eoor"",,100 (1921 )and. 98--!19:lrInand . 94-115 . 116-98;
)4--37 ; Dowblgl ... Herbert .nd. IJoI.... lc R.volulion Ind. 8 1. 83.
3_1 ; Huueini. Hal Amln .1· 114 .85; U.S. medd ling in Innlon
Ind . 3()-3.4 . 200; 1.... ·1""1 WIU polilica Ind. e9 . 94-95
IlOd. 204 ; 1""1 &lid . 5S; 1.,...1..,.... Khu;u,otan. 9 7
.llon of I .. d. U-2ft. )4 . _ 7 : KIernaII. Thomu. 104
1(1.. 1,,8"'". Henry Ind. 170-71: TIIII /(insdom: Ambia ond u..
McMahon·H u....;" let1".. Ind. 11ou.. of Saud (Locey l. 136. 149.
45; media .... d. 25; orisln. of. n. 150. I S4
29-30 ; Ani> Ravoh 119J6j..,d. KIOII"8"'". Henry. 17&. 178. W 2;
32.33. 42-43.54 ; PC myth, to .... lI·PII..linian conflict ood .
aboul. 211. 44 ; nd.lcalllilm and. 170-71 : Mld d t. E.!l 011 Ind. 151;

dl_.. ..
I'Nlpollrlk of. 1"-70, Sla.alll

Md. 111. 17J-71

1... _ 1 1111$)
MtIir, CoIda, III. 122. 120, 127. 151.
173: a-I1.AN!> _ _ 103;
Nlmn. IliI:bMd aftCI, 127: y_
KltcMotr. LonI, \7 KIppur war Ind.. 103. 1:JiO-.J1, 113
lCoIlel. 1Wdy. 107. In Mlddll EMI, AnI> Mllo....U.... In. 5;
K....... W". tJ . 17Z blnh .., . lA. 5 • • ; BrlIW, ruJ.
Knu'"-",,,,,,,, 0...1-. M <WfIr, 2. , .... 10; CoaJI'",IIam...d. e;
Kwunan.u.n . ll <IenIocrw;y and. 1- 2. ,. I . '1-52.
Ku .... l!. 5. 22. SO. II . 99. '155 1_100. 110: Eul'OpMII ",Ie
""It. 7: f.....:h ",I, "".... 7. 10:
uaoy.l!onald. 136, 149. IlIO. 154 Iran and. ~102: Lelanlla. 0:
LoplKno, Oomlnlq .... ll J..... II ·A... b w... ill. l(l)-a3:
"',In Amerk;&, 12.110 l.....ll ·P.!.Ilnl... canBict .... d.
Lo ......,,_. T. !!. . 34 . 39, 49. lH.... 5 . l~: - . . l ily ...,.. ill. 0:
14fl. 1$4 OtIOmad Ealpu. and. 3. 5-23: PC
' ... _ . 7 . &11. 112. U7 , 1M lIIythI-'>oul. I _I: J*'O'....t _
IMII (F1p,... lorthio F._10m 01 billly III. 2-3. 5: poIlliQoIlnoIoobil.
iI<'MIl. 48, 111 lIy La. 7: poput.aloa .... 5: po.at)
~. Vlodimlr. !II. 81 In. I : tadlc:al LeINa ...d. 77... 7:
Ubya.', U ... li&loII. fJ-'om 01 ill. US : bibel
LoIlobrIfIdo. Cl ..... \70 cullu ... In. I : World w.. l....t. o.
London .ukld. bombinp (2005 ). 1... 10: W(Jf\d Worn -..d. 14
,~~ MilM_ lQulb). f4
TIItJ I.ooml", To,.,,,,, Al Qo«Ia ""d MOlillJOITlery. Be ........ 43 . 104. 115
'hit Hood It> S.pl"",oo II Moo .... Mlch ... l.l. IS5. 138. 185.
(IV"""' ). 111 1111. 18l. 213
M..,hll •• UI , Nk:c<Ilo, 13. 113. 1M. MOMd ...... MohamltWld. 81. 12

M..!J.on . ).om. . 113
Moaad. 118. 125
M"ban~. ~I . 12• • I n
MIllliIlOl U .... 130. roe
Mahdl ....... ,.. 70-71
M~hunmad. 11 . 79. ,.7
IIIujaMdlll. ... 137. 1". all
ManU , Nouri oJ " 70. 101 Mua/hll 8t0theth00d. ,",. " . 112.
~MId.ty. ... l00 'M
ManhoJJ , c.u.p. 1U
MIn. karl , " . U Nofllll-. 13. 12
t.ic:MaboD.. St.,..",.. 45. 1018 NaabaabJbll. '1-32 . U
Mc:M&boa· lt ........ l.u... 45, 146 ~. Camal Abc\tI.f4.I'.I7.
medII: ' _... Ii· P" tWlI,,"' .. con n icl 147: bIoIopcal wWre ond. 110:
Ind. 2S: Mlddl. ~ ""d, 1; reU· dellh 01. 103: Kn_ P.ooho ¥o .• Ie;
&JOWl fundomenUoliJII .nd. 1 line!. w.....In" ... d. 13: ' ..... Ii·
M<!lll RM'OI1IHon of 1_ . M Anobw ...... d. 11 ... 17. 117-18:

NUlflf, Gamal AW el I<XNlUn uod): 101-2: In Middle Eut. 5: 0Pt:.C

mlUwy buildup ...... 13: Qulb. ...d. 93, 115. 102: SoudJ Arobl.o
Soyyid. _lion of and. 86: reli· and. 102. 135-36. 14&-52:
&Ion ........ upp.-lon nf ...... M: world', food , upply and. 195.
Stx.lloy War and. 115-20 : SovIM ,~~

Union ""d, 13: S1M" crioio and. o ,.t1Juilltm (Colll"" ""d l.opl,"",,).
80.11. 11 5-16
N.Un ...1 U bl!nUon Froot IAIgtori.o1. "
O"Nei1l. Joh n. 188. 181. 1l1li
159. 191 Operation Barbatoua. III
N.tIonal Millwy Otg.o.nLtaUOIl Operation Nlcbl GraN, 13 2
Orgun Z ..i Leumi). 48 (INn. MlchMtl 8 .. 117
NATO. s..North At!anUc l'rMty OtganltaUon 0 1 the PItItO!1tWd
Qrsaniution Exponl,,« Cou.ntrl.. jOPEC). 93.
NHi Germany. 33, 55: Chun:hUl. 95. 102. 154 . 187
WI... tno ""d. 3 1: Ireq ""d. 4G-60. 0.10 PMCfI Ac.:on! •• lOB. 112. 113.

54: Middle Eut nil wMlth ... d.
56: Soviet Union. lnvwno of by.

N"", U.1... d. 11. n

142. 161
OToole. P"' .... 14 5
OItomlln Empire: .. all... con·
que,..,... 100 ...... b ... Uonall.m
"Night St.olb ... " i3 ""d. II I : callph.ote ""d._.
Nlxnn Ooctrine. 171 10-11: democncy and. 8: down·
Nixno. Rlcbard. 1 3. 108 . 136. 151. !.oil of. 11_1 4: fall o f, 113: 1.1....
188: MAd. Hal... ""d. 185: Ford. ""d. 10-11: loca.lo ""d. 9: Middle
Gerald pardon of. 16 7: luael ... d. Eut and . 3: Middle Eut. pMOO
125: 1..... II·A .. b 10'' ' ' ""d. 123. ""d Ot.Iblllly In ""d. 3. 4. 11:
126---21: Melt, Golda ""d. 121: ruthl .... - of. ~IO:."""'" o f,
Middle Eaot I"&OCXII'd n l. 169. 171: 9- 11: World War l ""d. 14- 18,
Pablavl. Mohammad Ru.o ""d. lf1.-2 1: You,,« '!'wi: Revolullon o f
93: Rabin. YlllthaIr.""d . 123. 1908 ""d. 11_14 , 15
126---21: W.IMpt. Ilnd . 187
Noel. a.o. lOB P""po.. Ion Mih.tl, III
North AII.nllc l'rMty Qrsanltation Pack .... Ce<qo. 55
(NAm), 92. 132 P.blavl. Mo h.ommad RHA. 9 1,
North K""",,, 88. 99 92-94, I ~
n""l ... _pont. ~ 100. 196 PaI .. Un ... 7: Areb ImmlpUonlnto,
2.... 29: A_d. llafe. ""d. 151:
ot.id. N.wof. 153 BrlllAb ......,...,tIon fJom. 40:
Ooxuplod Ic:nemy Torrltorl .. Bzitiah MLocLolfl ln. 25. 29-30.
Adml nlotntion (OETA). 28 41_42 , 46: C.tlro Conference
011: .homativ.. 10, 204_5: China 11921) and.l4-31: ...... llb """'.
and. 137: It&n ... d . 5. 89. Ql)...Q2, munltl.. In. 8, 28

Po'-th.. UbtntIOll Anay. 11. .. _1 ( 1I175J and . !&7. 113;
... J.tll.. UbtntIOll Orpnlulloa SIx.Day W.. ...d. 11' . I n ; U.S.-
(P1.OJ. IM . 110. 11K!: A .. fli . Io_li ...... ~ ""d. 112- 75:
Y_Md. 111 - 14; Saudi Af1IbIa warol I1M 7_ 11M. and. 105
Md. 142 radical ........: Anob hlMory .nd.
.......lD.1M AIQ; Huuelnl. lUI 7t-al: bIn t...d .... o..m. ond .
Amln 01· ... d . ll-33; 1de1!llty of. 71.81 . &4 : cuh ~ ... d.
1011 . 101- 11 77_71: 1'.....1. Prin", ThrU I I·
Poleotlnlan Authority. 1011 ""d. 77_71: LmlI... hoM. . ailla
Paleotlnlon Mandato. n. 111-30 . I nd. 77. 14-115: IlIHlL ·pl l.... I.. ·
n_.l.48 I"" connlcl ... d . tO I.... ; Saudi
1'. 11<",. S.. 8$. \leo 130 Arabia ... d . 152: t........u....lnd .
A Peot:. 10 End A// Po!o>CII 7': tll_t poMd by. 12; IMh
( ....... Unl. 35. U aboul. 77-117: w .. oa •.....nom
Pw.. SIIImon. 141. 181 . 1113 and . 2. s.. ,,/1'0 Lalam
fWsIan Empl ... ...... ~. RDnold . GO. II . 15-18. 137;
...."'" Gulf W. (11191). 1. W . Ilg LanoIIIId. 152; Mlddl. EM!
The 11;"_ (~I. " ...".... of. 187. 17..."
I'total" . Philipp". I Z8 tfIdIpDlil.It. 16I-7V. 1711
~ ...... D...ld . 101 Red Anay. '5 . • . 1S7
..... CIoi>eJ AIIII~ ProIKt. 1 10 RMI HotimIU (1'-.-1. 113
pbllby. llatry 81. John. I~ NlJ&Ion: r.-lom o f. I I . 1» ; lalamlc
I'In. William. 1M You...,.. 14 UIl'OmIim and. 1: 1omIri.... and. 1
I'opul •• Front fur tM UhonU"" of Rioo. Condol""lZII. 181. I W
... 1.... 1..... 114 RlchmOlld. SI, 1irnM1. 3 I
Pow.II . Colin . 110 lIommll . Erwin . 36. 55. 115
Princtp. C. ...UO. 14 R _ h . •·,...,Uln D.. 111 . 113
~..unllte ......... lloII . 8. 147 RoM. Den .. I• • 1n
The ProfocoJ. <l{11Ioe ~den of Zion. ItoyIoI tn.1ltUtl lOr 1.. lemot .......
151-52 Affalls. 144
Pulln . Vladimir. 1.18. 140 Rumlleld . OooIaId. 51: " QoocIo
ond . I. .; lnq_(ZOOJlond.
QMIID. Abel "·Karim. 57 151: ...... -&ddanI lnoq and.
Qutb. Sayyld. I4 . • 81~ . fl-87 . 17 : SopMmbor II
and . 1111 : Zarqo ..... AtNM ......
Rabin. Yllzhak. n o. 1)1 . 183; II · and . 73
.-.....d. 11.II......d. 1$7 . 183; RIlNlo. 5 . 20: BolaJ>eyrl ltevolulion
1....II· p. I..1InLan _nlcl ...d. In. 28; 11lI1.... Adol( Invlllon of.
44 ; NI""". Rlchard . nd . 123. 121 ; (,_1. .,..1I0Il of.nd .
UI-H : 0.10 " - Acoord • ..,d. 21-27 ; ,,"w l.h Immigration from.
181 ; 51 ....111 dL~nl 21--211, Triple Enl . .. t. and . I J;
Ru .." (continued): 147-41; Sepl~mbft. I I ...,d, 135,
World War I and , 21:1 ....... pi"" 1311-39.142.144. ISS, 115.
SovIet Union 191-'13; l6m>ri.m .nd. 3. 153.
Ru .. ian Revolution. 20, 71 :roo;t. l 12; th""'t. to, 152...,56:
und ... t.nding. 142-45: Wah·
s..:1w. Howard M.. B. I~. 71 hohllm In. I I ; wMithy mlddl.
s.d.t. Anwa •. 81. 128, 147: Abdu· d ... of. 137-38: World War I
l.ul~ ~·.I ..l Ibn and. 150: A.. fal. .nd. 142
YaM. and. 112: 1.... I.nd. 157: &:hI_Inger. )arneo. 127. 171
lmoeli ·f'.sypllan ~ IrMly and. &:holem. Genhom. ZII-ZQ
Schwankopf. Nonn.n. 21
Sad., C .. nd Ayatollah MOh.&trIJJlM Scimitar Hill, batlll of. 20
Sodl" .1·. 61 Soowcrofl, B.... t. GO
Sod •. M"'Itld. II·, 70-71 Second Bo'.th Republic. 5&-59.
Safavid dynUly. 89 16Z. 115. 198
Salam6. Ch.uMn. 55 Se<:on d lnUflda (ZOOO). 101. 113.
Samuel. 51. H.rben. 31. 42 141. lal. 197. ZOII
Saud. "bdulul. lhn. 37. 136. 154, Sephardic )e ..... 29. 33. 101
2(1';1; A ..h Rnolt 11938!...,d , 14$: September I I : bin lad"". o.ama
Huuein. Shen f and. 39: ond,II.I3. 138. 115. In-'ll.
lawnonce. T. E. and . 143. 145: oil 1113-94: BUlh. Georsot W. and.
and I.. n Ind. 102: Saudi A..b/& 115; Clinton. Bill and. 115. 181;
and. 19. 147-41:1; World War I ' - pro119-90. Illl; blttory
and . 110 of. II~: H....... ln. Saddam
Saudi A.. bla: AbduILZI~ r.1Mllbo and. 59. 191; Saudi A..t.Ia and.
and. U &-52; al QMda ...,d, 135. 135. 131-39.1 42 . 144 . ISS, 11 5.
139-41 . 153. 155. 203. 210-12: 191-93
,0.",101. Y_ond.lfl-42;bln ~n Pilip,. of Wisdom
laden. o...ma and , 131. 139. 144. llawrenoo).I43.1 44
155; ""nullunllm ...,d. 135. 131; Shah. R..... g l
JlIln .nd . 152-54: 1nuI.1raq War Shoml •. Yltzhok. 46 . 116
and . 153; lrM\and. 152; [I_II· Sho,....ky. NIlan. 1911
Pllutinw conflict and , 32 ; Mid· .!to,;., {I.I.mk Iawl."
die East. ~ and lI.bility In Shoron . Ariel. \30. 132. 166. 1110.
."d. 3. 195; Moo ... MIchael and. 183; 1._II·Pllutlnlan conflict
3,135, [31; mulahedln .nd. 81.
137, [ 55; N_ •• Gamal Abdel ,,,...
and. 197; MC\Irily rlDOl of. 141 .

.nd. II. 115; oil and. 102. Shnll. s...d .1-. 121. l2i
1l$-31. 1411-52;»MOO In. 157; Shlile """,It (1910). 49. SO. 5Z-$3.
PWond. 142; radlcallolam and.
152; Saud. AbduLui~ ,bo .nd. "
Shultz. George. 60 '
Sidql, &kr. 53, 54 TIN 1bnb of Thmmu~ rr....u.J. 111
51.,.1 lAm....... 1M ~ .SI,a- •. 4(I
Sinal~"" 110. III ~. r........ 1l16-li7. 1 _
51""i n dl ..... £ uwt ....
, __ . , ,...., M<lthoor. $11. IIJ
111175), HI'. 112.173.17$-«1 lerrori ....: ndkalls""" and. 11;
Sim.nl. Crand Ay.uollah .... U .1-.
MI ... Upon .... d . I; Qlu_ 01. l;
SilI·C.)' W." 25. 107. 11,...17. 5oud ! Anbl •• nd . l. 153.209.
11"23,127. IN m
She Da,.. of "'I1"/UM 1967 Ont/ Ihe ToMIIh.ShlbI.! . 111. 122
Making a/1M MotMm Midd'" "beriu'.511
Ea., (Oren). 117 IT''''' m"&,,oJna. 9l
S .... l h..... lohn.67 ".... MUlt.",. 133. 1m
Seal ..... U.nJ. of the. 44 Townobend. 51, Charlel.. 22
SoY!.! Union ••• , : ,,~itlaa. ........1ord&n.)4. 35.17.31. 55. liM.
Invulon ofb),. 77.12. ,~. ,~

137;ooIlap.of. lMII: ~, Thluk y.~. 17

c.-l hbdel and, 13: NaU in ...... 'T'roubrIdp. ErnMI. II
IIoa of. U: Slr..o.y w... NId, 'Ih"",". Hany S. 124
117-\8: s.- aiab and. IKI. See 'nuUy: C»nU ...... 112, Olluchlll.
01... 110 ..11 WI ...."" ...... 14-15; de"...,,6CJ'
Special NI&bI Sq ...... (SNSJ. 43 ..... . 3 ; "'Illtar)' llol' of. 3
Sri Lanka. 31. 4(J, &t ,..,..1". MMl. 12
StUln.~. 10.11. 1'. 164. 17'
Sland ..... Oi l of(:'Ufotola, 102, 154 Unit ..! "rab Republic. 115
SUit OO""rt....., •. U.S .. 1U~2 Un ited NOllonl rUN) . 84. 151. 1911;
51 ..... , SI . ROII.IJd, 31. 45, 146 1....II.".I.lIlIlon connlcl ond .
StroU of M.... ln •• HI 4&: Slx. Ooy W• • • nd . 115
SUUcrilll.IIO,II. 110, 114 . 11 5. Unlled N. tl..... R.!lllhnd won..

Suvll Bay. willi of. ZO
Unlled " ' - Int_llonal. 1l1li
Sr_. OoMopbw. 41 Unll"" 51",.., .. btd. I: deaKcJ.,y
5r.... Sir ........ 21, 27_211. 32, Ind. 51-.52: I..... nd.lIO-Il;
4+-4S.48 bnol. ",..I0Il 01 ...... 25-11;
Syk.-PicoI .......-1. 44-4$ l..... I·Az.b won ...... 103:_11
Syria. 7• • • 341, 10; III QMda and, orma de&I wllh. 111-75; bnoll·
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The Middle East
is always in the
The Harsh Truth about the World's
news, but have Roughest Neighborhood
you heard: Combine religion, race, the Cold War, America's enemies, and a history of colo-
o There has never been nialism, and you've got a breeding ground for the most virulent strains of politi-
separation of mosque cally correct mythology, distortions, and cover-ups. Welcome to the Middle East.
and state: Islamic
governments control In the Middle East, the cost of PC distortions can be measured in the lives of
religious leaders or are American soldiers, Iraqi civilians, Iranian dissidents, and Israeli Jews. Faith in the
controlled by them.
magic of democracy, a blind eye to the truth about Islam, and a fruitless search
o Ariel Sharon's security for terrorism's "root causes"-all of these PC delusions weaken America and draw
fence in Israel-a
monument to political out the violence there.
saved hundreds of Pale- The Politically Incorrect Guide'" to the Middle East is not an academic exercise;
stinian and Israeli lives. it is crucial reading for understanding the most important conflicts of our time.
o Jimmy Carter's do-
gooder meddling in the
Middle East is to blame
for Iran's Islamic
Revolution. Praise for
o Oppressive Arab
regimes like Saddam
The Politically Incorrect Guide'" to the Middle East
Hussein's took their
guidance from leftist
"The mysterious Middle East is no longer mysterious when the distinguished
ideologues. commentator Martin Sieff has explained it all with his inimitable blend of
scholarship. wit. and inside knowledge."
o Israel achieved peace
-John O·Sullivan. author of The President. the Pope. ond the Prime Minister
with Egypt and Jordan
through military might and editor-at-Iarge of National Review
and a willingness to
use it. "Martin Sieff. an especially incisive analyst of international issues. puts his
formidable skills to work demolishing an array of myths about the Middle East."
o Israel's greatest generals
based their battle plans -Ted Galen Carpenter. vice president for defense and foreign policy studies
on the Old Testament. at the Cato Institute

Martin Sieff is the managing editor

of international affairs for United Press
International, and he reported from the
III Since 1947
An EagIB PubIIsbIng Company • WashIngton, IX
Current Events u.s. $19.95 Can. $24.00

I SBN 978 - 1- 59698-051 - 8

Middle East for forty years. In addition, 51995
he has reported for the Washington A Main Selection of the
Times, National Review, the Belfast Conservative Book Club
Telegraph, and the Times of London.
(over design by Kristina Phillips
Cover illustration by Sam Ryskind