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# WHAT IS PHYSICS ALL ABOUT?

## Physics seeks to understand the natural phenomena that

occur in our universe; a description of a natural
BaseQuantity Symbol Unit
Length /, x Meter- m
Otherphysical quantities are derived from these basic units:
Prefixesdenotefractionsormultiplesofunits; manyvariable
positionofa
motion with position,
1. Newton's 1st Law: A body remains
motion unless influenced bya force energy is the energy of
phenomenon uses many specific terms. definitions and
mathematical equations
SolvingProblemsin Physics
In physics, we use the SI units (International System)
for dataandcalculations
velocity and acceleration as variables; mass is the
measureoftheamountofmatter; the standardunit for
mass is kg. I kg = 1000 g.; inertia is a property of
matter,andas such, it occupiesspace
I.Motion along a straight line is called rectilinear;
the equation ofmotion describes the position ofthe
particleand velocity forelapsed time. t
a. Velocity (v): The mteof changeofthedisplacement
()
.h' ( cis Lls
s WIt tIme t):v = rlt= Tt
b.Acceleration (a): The rate of change of the
.h . dv Ll v
I
ve oClty WIt tnne: a = dt= Tt
a & v'are vectors,with magnitudeand direction
c. Speed is the absolute value ofthe velocity; scalar
with the sameunitsas velocity
2.EquationsofMotion forOneDimension(I-D)
Equations ofmotion describe the future position (x)
and velocity (v) of a body in terms of the initial
velocity(Vi), position (XII) and acceleration (a)
a. Forconstantacceleration.the position is related to
the time and acceleration by the following
equationofmotion: x(I) = Xu +Vi( +tar
b. Forconstant acceleration. the velocity vs. time is
given bythefollowing: vr(t) = Vi +at
c.lf the acceleration is a function of time, the
equation mustbe solved usinga = aCt)
R. 'Iotioll ill 1\\0 Dimcnsiolls(2-0)
I. For bodies moving along a
straight line. derive x- and y-
equations of motion
x = vi, I 1 ; a, t'
y = vi, ( + ;a, ('
2. For a rotating body, use polar
coordinates, an angle variable,
0 , and r. a radial distance from
the rotational center
C. 'lotion in Dimensions(3-D)
I.Cartesian System: Equations of
motion with x. y andzcomponents
2.Spherical Coordinates: Equations
of motion based on two angles
from theorigin.
Newton's Laws are the core
principles for describing the motion
of classical objects in response to
forces. The SI ullit of force is the
Newton, N: IN=lkgm/s2;thecgs unit isthedyne: 1
dyne= Ig cm/s2
y Polar

Polar:(r, 9)
x = r cos9, .
y = r sin9,
r2=x2 +y2
Spherical
z
%,
x
x =r simp cos9,
y = r sinep sin9,
z =r coslj),
r2=x2 + y2+z2
Mass m,M Kilogram - kg
Temperature T Kelvin- K
Time t Second- s
Electric Current I Ampere- A (C/s)
2. Newton's 2nd Law: Force and acceleration
determine the motion ofa body and predict future
positionand velocity: F= ma OR F= m a
3.Newton's3rdLaw: Everyaction is counteredbyan
opposingaction
F:. 1 pe\ofForcc\
I. Abodyforce actsontheentirebody, with the force
acting at thecenterofmass
a. A gravitational force. Fg. pulls an object toward
thecenterofthe Earth: Fg = mg
b.Weight= Fg; gravitational force
c. Mass is a measure of the quantity of material ,
independentofgandotherforces
2.Surfaceforces acton the body's surface
a. Friction.Fe. is proportionaltotheforce normal to
the part ofthe body in contact with a sUlface,
Fn:Fr ="Fn
DynamkFriction
i. Static friction resists the
Fn
move-mentofabody
ii.Dynamic friction slows
the motionofabody
1,- 0
For an object on a
horizontalplane: CircularMotion
Ff = Il Fn = ll m g
....
Netforce = FI - Ff
F. Circular'lotion
I.Motion along a circular path uses
r
polarcoordinates: (r,8)
..
2.KeyVaria_b_le_s_:___ , ___._____---.
I
----r- I The from distance the
r I Meter rotation center (center of
mass)
The angle between rand
the(x) axis
2
Theangularacceleration
The circular motion arc
s Meter
s = r8(8in rad)
3.Tangentialacceleration & velocity:
v, = rw; a , = r a ; v and a along the path of the
motion arc
v'
4.Centripetal acceleration: a,. = r;a is directed
toward the rotational center
a. TIle centripetal force keeps the body in circular
motion with a tangential acceleration andvelocity
1
symbolsareGreekletters
MathSkills: Many physical conceptsareonly understood
with the use of algebra, statistics, trigonometry and
calculus
motion;mass. m and velocity. v: K = t mv'
The SI energy unit is the Joule (J):
\J= I kgm
2
/s
2
2. Momentum, p: Momentum is aproperty ofmotion,
definedasthe productofmassand velocity: p = m v
3. Work(W): Work is aforceactingonabodymoving
adistance; forageneral force. F,anda body moving
a path,s: W = JFds
Fora constantforce. work is the scalar product of
the two vectors: force. F. and path. r:
W =Fdcos(8) =F r
F__D
r
F__D
Maximumwork
r Nowork
4. Power (P) is energy expended per unit time:
p = LlWork = LlWork
Lltime Llt
Work = f P(t)dt
TheSl unit for power is the Watt(W):
I W = I Joule/second = I J/s
Work fora constantoutputofpower:
W = PLit
II.Potrnthll & Consenation
I.The total energy ofa body, E,is the sum ofkinetic.
K,& potential energy. U: E= K+:Eu
2.Potential energy arises from the interaction with a
potential from an external force
Potential energy is energyofposition: U(r); theform
ofU depends on the force generatingthepotential:
Gravitation: U(h)= mgh
. q,q,
Electrostatic:U(r,,) = '"'"F;;-
Iftherearenootherforces actingonthesystem,Eis
constantand the system is calledconservative
I. Collisions& Linear'loml'lItulll
Collisions
I.TypesofCollisions
a. Elastic: conserve energy
b.lnelastic: energy is lost as heat or
deformation
2. Relative Motion & Frames of
Reference: A body moves with vc:locity v in frame
S; in frame S'the velocity is v' ; ifYs' isthe velocity
offrame S' relative to S, therefore: v = V,'+v'
3. ElasticCollision
Conserve Kinetic Energy: L: tmv,' = L: tmvI
Conserve Momentum: L m Vi = L rn Vr z
4.Impulseis a force actingover time

Impulse = FLlt or f F(t)dt
Impulse is alsothe momentumchange: Pfin - Pini!
.1. Rul:ltiulI 411 a Rigid
I.Center ofMass: The "average" position in the
body, accountingfor theobject'smassdistribution
2.MomentofInertia,1: Themomentofinertiais
a measure ofthe distribution ofthe mass about
the rotational axis: rn, r,'
SampleI for bodies ofmass m:
twirlingthinrod(length L): ,',rnL'
RotatingBodies
3.RotationalKineticEnergy=+LQ'
The rotational energy varies with the rotational
velocityandmoment ofinertia. I
4.Angular force is defined as torque, T:
T = la= r f (angularacceleration force)
5.Angular momentum is the momentum
associatedwithrotational motion:
L = Iw = r P = v dm f r
Torque is also the change in L with time:

Angular
Momentum
h:. Static E(llIilihrium &
t
1.Equilibriumis achievedwhen:

Thebodyhasno linearorangular
acceleration

2.Deformationofasolidbody
a. Elasticity: A material returns to its original
shapeafterthe force actingonit is removed
b.Stress& Strain
i. Strainis the deformation ofthe body
ii . Stressis the force perunitarea onthe body
c. Hooke's Law: The stress IS linearly
proportional to the strain; stress = elastic
modulusxstrain:
i. LinearStress:
Young's Modulus, symbolizedY
ii . ShapeStress:
ShearModulus, symbolizedS
iii.VolumeStress:
BulkModulus, symbolizedB
L lIniH'rsal(;nl\itatiull
...._......_._.........r ......_.............................,
M
1
... UniversalGravitation ...M2
1.GravitationalForce& Energy
.. I U GM,M,
a.
G
ravltatlOna energy: ,=--r--
. . I r F GM,M,
bG
. ravltatlona lorce: ,=
Fgis avector, alongr,connectingMJ and M2
c. AccelerationduetoGravity,g:Foranobjecton
theEarth'ssurface, Fgcanbeviewedas Fg=m
g; g is the acceleration due to gravity on the
Earth'ssurface:g= 9.8m1s
2
2.GravitationalPotentialEnergy,Ug
a. The Earth's gravitational
potential=> Ug = mgh
b.Weight is the gravitational
force exerted on a body by the
Earth: Weight=Fg =mg
Weightisill!!thesameasmass
Gravitational
Potential
Energy
M. Motion
I.SimpleHarmonicMotion
a. Force: F = - k..1x (Hooke's
Law)
b.PotentialEnergy: Uk = +k..1x'
umll
c.Frequencyofthe oscillation:
Hooke's
f=..L Ik
Law
21l'V m
Spring
2.SimplePendulum
a. Periodofoscillation:
T =21l'jI
T
b.Frequency of oscillation:
nr,
Simple
f=..L !K
21l'V T
Pendulum
\. in Solids& Fluids
I.p , thedensityof asolid,gasorliquid:
p = mass/volume = M/V
2.Pressure, P, is the force divided by the area of
the forces acted upon: P = forcelarea
The SI unit of pressure is the Pascal, Pa:
I Pa= 1NI m
2
a.Pascal's Law: For a Pascal'sLaw
fluidenclosedin avessel,
thepressureisequalatall
pointsinthe vessel
b.PressureVariationwith
Depth
PfThepressurebelowthesurfaceofaliquid:
P, =PI +pgh
h is the depth,beneaththe surface
p is the densityofthe water
PI is the pressureatthe surface
Pressure
Variation
,-,.-.,.,..,.,.,.,.,,,.......==1.....,..,,......,..,....., .'".,.. . Surface
Liquid PP
l
h
c. Archimedes'Principle:Anobject ofvolume
V immersed in liquid with density p, feels a
buoyant force that tends to force the object
outofthe water: g, = p V g
Archimedes'
,,\.\I\i{fWV""hXXhhH omAA"""" Surface
Principle
Liquid
3. ExamineFluid Motion& FluidDynamics
a.PropertiesofanIdealFluid
i. Nonviscous- minimal interactions
ii.Incompressible- the density is constant
iii. Steadyflow - no turbulence
iv.Atanypointin theflow,theproductofarea
and velocity is constant: AI VI = AlVI
b.VariableFluidDensity
Ifthe densitychanges, the following equation
describedproperties ofthe fluid:
p,A,v, = p,A,v,
Variable Fluid
Density
c. Bernoulli's Equation is a more general
descriptionoffluid flow
i.Foranypointy in the fluid tlow:
P ++p v' +p g y =constant
ii.Fora fluid atrest (special case):
P,-P,=pgh
2
WAVE MOTION
A. Esampfl's01 01 \\a,cs
Transverse Longitudinal
Traveling Standing
Harmonic Quantum mechanical
1.General fonn foratransverseORtravelingwave:
y= fix - vt)(totheright)ORy= f(x +vt)(totheleli)
2.General form for a harmonicwave:
y =A sin(kx - w t) OR Standing'\<ave
y = A cos(kx - w t)
3Standing Wave: Multiples of,1/2 fits
the lengthofthe oscillatingmaterial
4.Superposition Principle: Overlapping
waves interact => constructive and
destructive interference
a. Constructive Interference: Thc
wave amplitudes add up to produce a
wave with a larger amplitude than
eitherofthetwo waves
Harmonic
b.Destructive Interference: The
wave amplitudes add up to
produce a wave with a smaller
amplitude than either ofthe two
waves
B. lIarnwnk\\:I'l'Propertil's
Wavelength A(m) Distance betweencycles
Period T (sec)
Frequency f(Hz) Cycles per,eeond: f - IT
Angular
r::
= 21l'/T = 2m
Frequency
Wave
A Height ofwave
Amplitude
Speed Iv(m/s) Linearvelocity v = Af 1
C.Sound\\aH',
1.Wave NatureofSound: Sound is a compression wave that
displacesthe mediumcarryingthe wave; soundcannot tra,el
throughavacuum
2. GeneralSpeedofSound:v =
a.B is the bulk modulus, the volume compressibilit. of
the solid, liquid orgas
b. p is thedensity
, RT
3.Fora Gas: v = Jr M
r = Cp/C, (the ratioofheat capacities)
4.Loudness- Intensity& Relative
Loudness (sound i11lensity) is the power carried by a
sound wave
a. Relative Loudness- DecibelScale(dB):
P(dB) =10log(f.)
i. The decibel scale is delined relative to the threshold
ofhearing, I,,: P(I,,) = 0dB
ii.Achangein 10dB, representsa lOx increasein sound
intensity, I
b. DopplerEffect
Thesound frequency shifts(f'/t) due to relative motion of
the source ofthe sound and the observer or listener: Vo -
speedoftheobserver; vs-
DopplerEffect
speed of the source;v
speedofsound O=> <=S
i. Case I: Ifthe source
ofsound is
approachingthe
observ.::r, the
frequency increases:
ii.Case#2: Ifthesource
ofsound is moving
awayfrom the
observer, the
frequency decreases:
f \ +\ ,
<=0s =>
I ).
----
--
V

THERMODYNAMICS .
Thermodynamicsis thestudy Thermodynamics e.Carnot's Law: For ideal gas: Cp - C. = R c.Reversible,isothermalexpansionof anIdealGas
ofthework.heat& energyofa Q W
Carnot's Law is exact for monatomic gases; it
againstPext; gas expands from VItoV2 using an
process

-
Heat: Q +Q addedto the system
I
Work: W +Wdonebythesystem
!
Energy: E System intemal E
Enthalpy:H H = E+PV
Entropy: S Thermaldisorder
Temperature:T I Measureofthermal E
Pressure: P Forceexerted by a gas
Volume:V Spaceoccupied
-
I.Thermodynamic variables are variables ofstate
and are independent of the process path; other
variables are path-dependent
2.TypesofProcesses:Experimentalconditionscanbe
controli ed to allow fordi fferenttypesofI'W"""'"
r
Thermodynamic
Condition Constraints
Result
Isothermal = 0 I = O, Q= w
I =-w
Q= 0
No heatflow
PV' = constant
Isobaric
= 0

Fixed pressure = Q
V = 0 = Q
Isochoric
Fixed volume w= 0
I. measures thermalenergy
a. The SI unit is Kelvin. absolutetemperature:
T(K) = T (OC) +273.15
Tisalwaysin Kelvin,unlessnotedintheequation
b.Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: If two
bodies. #I and #2. are separately in thermal
equilibrium with athirdbody,#3,then#1and#2
are also in thermal equilibrium
2.ThermalExpansionofSolid,LiquidorGas
a.Solid: tL=a LIT
b.Liquid: LI: =/3LIT
(T,- T,)nR ,
c.Gas: LIV = - p (Charl es Law)
3. HeatCapacity,C
C dependson LIl'andQ, the heatlostorgained:
C =LI<;' OR Q=CLIT
a.Specificheatcapacityis C pergram
b.Molarheatcapacityis C permole
c.Two special experi mentalcases:
i. Heatcapacityforconstantpressure,Cp:
LI H isthe key variable
ii . Heatcapacityforconstantvolume,C.:
LI E is the key variable
5 3
d. ldealGas: C"= 2'R AND C, = 2'R
i. Theratioofthesetwoheatcapacities iscalled y
ii. ForIdealGas: r = = i= 1.667
mustbemodifiedfor moleculargases
C. IdealGas L:m: P\ = 11 RI
I.TheIdealGas Law
a.Pressure,P:Thestandardunitis thePascal(Pa),but
thebarismorecommonlyused: Ibar= 10
5
Pa
b.Volume, V: The standard unit is the m
3
, but the
liter, L. is more common: I L= I dm
3
c. Temperature,T: The standardtemperatureunitis
absolute temperature,theKelvin scale:T(K)
d.Amountofgas,n: #ofmolesof gas(mol)
e. R is aproportionalityconstant, thegasconstant,
giventhe symbol R:R=O.083 L barmol-I K-I
2.ApplicationsofGasLaws
a.Boyle's Law (constant temperature, T): Pressure
is proportional to I/volume
b.Pressure is proportional to temperature, with
volumefixed
c.Charles' Law (constant pressure, P): Volume is
proportionaltotemperature
d.Avogadro's Law (constant P and T) : Volume is
proportional tothe#ofmoles,n
e. GeneralIdealGasLawApplication
i. Use PV= n RT to examinea gas sample under
specific conditionsofP,V.nandT
Charlet'Law
jl \-,...
IL
Pressure(Pa) Temperature(K)
O. & Ist Lan of l1amics
I.Wand Q depend on path ofthe process; however,
Eis independentofpath
2.lst Lawof Thermodynamics: E = Q- W
a. The change in energy of the system is
determined by the difference between the heat
gained(Q) by the systemandthe workperformed
(W) by the systemonthemechanical surrounding
3.Enthalpy,H
Enthalpyisanew state variablederivedfromthe 1st
Lawof Thermodynamics atconstantpressure:
H = E +PV H = E +P V
a. H =Q for a process at constantpressure; the
di fference between E and H is the work
performedbythe process
i. Endothermic: Positive H;the system absorbs
heat from the surroundings (EX: evaporation of
liquidtogas; meltingof asolid)
ii .Exothermic:Negative H;the systemreleases
heattothe surroundings (EX: combustionoffuel,
condensationofvaporto liquid)
b.Phase Transitions: s olid +- liquid +- gas
Aphasechangecorrespondstoachangeinenthalpy:
i. Enthalpyofvaporization: H...
ii.Enthalpyoffusion: H,,,,
c.Enthalpy& VariableTemperature:
=jCpdT
ForconstantCp: H = C. T
4.ExamplesofWork: W = j PdV
a. P opposes the V for an expansion; P causes the
V forcompression;Wdependsonthepath
b.Single step isobaric expansion from VI to V2
against an opposing pressure, Pext '
infinitenumberofsteps; the systemremainsin
equilibrium: W = nRTIn This type of
process gives the maximumwork
SIa&IeStepEspDIIoa
PL'
p..
E. rhl' Kinetic ofGases
I .Gas particles ofmass, M, are in constant motion,
with velocity. v, exerting pressure onthe container
2.EquationsforEnergyofan IdealGas:
3
E =+Mv' and E =2' RT
a. AverageSpeedofa GasMolecule:
Vn ", =
b.Gas Speed & Temperature: v"". , IS
proportional to IT ; a change from TI to T2
{T;
changesthespeedby V1";'
c.GasSpeed& Mass: v,,'" is proportionalto !l:r
d.KineticEnergyfor 1.00 MoleofanIdealGas:
K - lRT
- 2
e. For a Real Gas: Add heat capacity and energy
terms for molecularvibrationsandrotations
F. & 2nd I.a\\ of Itamics
The2ndLaw ofThermodynamics is concerned with
thedrivingforce fora process
I .Entropy.S
Entropymeasuresthethermaldisorderof asystem:
dS - dQ
- T
Entropy is a state variable, like E & H:
S(universe) = S(system) + S(thermal
reservoir)
2.2ndLawofThermodyna mics:
For any spontaneous process.
>0
S,,"h= 0 for a system at
equilibrium or for a reversible
process
3.ExamplesofEntropyChanges
a. Natural Heat Flow: Heat flows Q
fromThot toTcold
b.Entropy& PhaseChanges:

LIH(change)
HeatFlow
LlS(changc) = T( h )
c a nge
solid --. liquid positive S S, ...
liquid -+ solid positivI.' S S"p
c.Entropy& TemperatureforanIdealGas:
SeT):LIS = nCpln( i : )
IncreasingT increasesthe disorder
d.Entropy& VolumeforanIdealGas
Agasexpandsfrom VIto
S(V): = n R
Thedisorderofa gas increases ifit expands
3
Thennocl namics
I.ThermalEngine: Aheat
engine transfers heat, Q,
from a hot to a cold Il(
reservoir, to produce
work. W
a.The Ist Law of
Thermodynamic states
that the work, W. must Q...w T.
equal the difference
betweentheheatterms:
W= Qhot- QCOld
ELECTRICITY. MAGNETISM
r-----r ------,
ElectricFIelds&;EleetrleCharge
\.Electric & Electric Char:.:e
2.Theefficiencyof anengine. 7J, isdefinedasthe
ratioofW dividedby Qhot: 7J = QW
"",
3.IdealizedHeatEngine:TheCarnotCycle
a.TheCarnotCycleconsistsof twoisothermal
i. Foroverall cycle:
t. T n,t. H = 0andt. S = 0
b.CamotThermalEfficiency= 7J = 1 - i:
c.For a material with dielectric constant K:
Examine the nature ofthe field generated by an
electricchargeandthe forces betweencharges
I.Coulomb,giventhesymbol C, is ameasure of
theamountofcharge:
I Coulomb= I ampI sec
e is the charge of a single electron:
e= 1.6022 x10-
19
C
2.Coulomb's Law for electrostatic force, Fcoul:
F 1 q,q,-
rou' =41r o --r;- r
3.ElectricField,E, is thepotentialgeneratedbya
charge that produces Fcoulon charge qo:
E
- F...:u'
- qo
4.SuperpositionPrinciple:Thetotal FandEhave
contributions from each charge in the system:
R. Sourcesflf Electric Fields: Gauss's La\\
I.Electricflux, (/J. . givesrisetoelectricfields and
Coulombic forces
2.Gauss'sLaw: (1),. =f E dA =
Theelectricflux, cp, dependsonthetotalcharge
in theclosedregionofinterest
C. Electric "otential& Coulflmhic
I.Coulombicpotential energy is derived from
Coulombicforce usingthe following equation:
Uroo' = f F"."dr
a.CoulombicPotentialEnergy:
1 qq'
U e,.,ul = 4Jreor
b.CoulombicPotentiaWoltage
i. The Coulombpotential,V(q), generatedby
q is obtainedbydividingthe Ucoul bythe
testcharge,q': V(q) - U - _1_3.
- q' 47[.011 r
U = V(q)q'
c. Foran array ofcharges, qj' V",", = LV,
2.Potentialfora ContinuousChargeDistribution:
V - _1_fd
q
- 47[.00 r
3.TheDielectric Effect
a. Electrostatic forces and energies are
diminished byplacingmaterial with dielectric
constant K betweenthecharges
b.Voltageandelectrostaticforce(V& F)depend
on thedielectricconstant, K
I.Acapacitorconsists oftwo separated electrical
conducting plates carrying equal and opposite
charge. A capacitor stores charge/electrical
potentialenergy
2.Capacitance,C.isdefinedastheratioof charge,
Q, divided by the voltage, V, for a capacitor:
C = V is the measured voltage; Qis the
charge
a. Energy stored in a charged capacitor:
'Q'
U = ,.c = t QV = KV'
b.Parallel plate capacitor, with a vacuum,
withareaA,andspacingd:
. C' C A
I. apacltance: = .0" d
ii.EnergyStored:
U = tCII AdE'
iii.ElectricField:
PanIIeIPlateCapacitor
E =.Y.=..JL
d c"A
c.ParaUeiplatecapacitor,
dielectric material with
dielectric constant K,
with area A. spacing d: &
= Kc" A = . f'
C
d "'--II
C,= vacuumcapacitor
i. Capacitors in Circuits: A group of
capacitorsinacircuitisfoundtobehavelike
a singlecapacitor
" C "Se' 1 ,,1
II. apacltorsIR rles: -c= L... C.
101 I
iii.Capacitorsin Parallel: C", = C
j
.,
E. Current& Resistance: Ohm's L:m
I.Current& Charge:Thecurrent,I, measuresthe
chargepassing througha conductoroveratime;
totalcharge,Q: Q =It
4
p CanotCyde
AT- O
T.

2.Ohm's Law: Current density, J, is in
proportion to the fi eld; IJ is called the
conductivity: J = IJE
3.Resistance
a. The resistance, R, accounts for the fact that
energy is lost by electron conduction;
resistance is defined as the voltage divided
V
bythecurrent: R = T
b.TheSI resistanceunitis theOhm. ,Q
w
u
1 h (
n) = Ivolt(V) a:
c. 0 m 0& 1amp(A)
0.
4.ReSistivity: The inverse of conductivity is
resistivity,given the symbol p : p = 1
5.Voltage for current I flowing through a
conductorwithresistance R: V=IR
6.Power Dissipation: Power is .Iost as 1passes
through the conductorwith R:
Power=VR = 12 R
7.Resistors in Circuits: Certain groups of
resistors in a circuit are found to behave as a
singleresistor
a. Forresistorsinseries: Rio, = L R
b.Forresistors inparallel: i,,,,- A,
F, Ilin'ct ( urn'nt('il'cuit (1)( )
I.Goal: Examine a circuit containing battery.
resistorsandcapacitors;determinevoltageand
currentproperties
2.Key Equations& Concepts
EMF: The voltage ofa circuit is called the
electromotiveforce, denotedemf
a. Thisvoltageaccountsforthebattery,Vb'and
the circuit voltage, denoted IR:
emf=Vb+IR
b.The battery has an internal resistance, r:
Vb =1r
3.CircuitTerminology
a.Junction: Connection of three or more
conductors
b. Loop:Aclosedconductorpath
c. Replace resistors in series or parallel with
RIOt
d.Replace capacitorsin series or parallel with
C
tot
4.Kirchoff'sCircuitRules
a. ConstraintsontheVoltage
i. Forany loop in thecircuitthe voltagemust
bethe same: LV= LIR
ii .The energy must be
conservedin acircuitloop
b.ConstraintsontheCurrent
i. Thecurrentmustbalanceat
everynodeorjunction
ii.For any
--<
LI= 0
iii. The total charge must be conserved in the
circuit; the amount ofcharge entering and
leaving any point in the circuit must be
equal
(. Jkid. 1\
I.Magnetic Field: A moving electric charge or
current generates a magnetic field, denoted by
the symbol B; the vector 8 is also called the
magnetic Induction or the magnetic nux
density
a. TheSI unitforamagneticfieldistheTesla,T
b.The SI unit for magnetic flux is the Weber, Wb
Wb N m N
IT= Ill'= C .s = A m
c. TheCGSunit is theGauss,G: 1T = 10
4
G
d.Fora barmagnet,thefield isgeneratedfrom
the ferromagnetic properties of the metal
formingthemagnet
i. The poles of the magnet are denoted
North/South.Thefield linesareshowinthe
figure below

Z
.n'_
III
A.
a
e. For a current loop, the field is generated by
the motion of the charged particles in the
current.
2.MagneticForce: Fmag on charge, q, movingat
velocity, v, in magnetic field B:
F.... = q vB= qvBsin8
a. B is the angle between
vectorsvand8
i. ForvparalleltoB; F=0
(B = 0, minimumforce)
ii.For v perpendicular to
B; F =q v B (B= 7[/2,
a
"---->-.....A
maximum force)
Z
iii.The "right hand rule" Rule
definestheforce direction
b.Forceonaconductingsegment:Foracurrent
A.
I passing through a conductor oflength Iin a
magnetic field B, the force is given by:
a F=IIB
i. Fora general currentpath s:
F=ljds.B
ii.Foraclosedcurrentloop:F= 0
3.MagneticMoment
A magnetic moment, denoted M, is produced
byacurrentloop
a.A current loop, with current 1 and area A,
generates a magnetic momentofstrength M:
M=IA
b.Torque on a loop: A loop placed in a
magnetic field will experience a torque,
rotatingtheloop: r = M B
TorqueOD aLoop
4.U(magnetic): Magnetic potential energy arises
from the interaction of Band M:
U(magnetic) = - M B
5.Lorentz Force: A charge interacts with both E
and 8, the force is given by the following
expression: F= q E +q vB
a.BandE contributetotheforce
b.The particle must be moving to interact with
therna etic field
a.GiventhecurrentIandtheconductorsegment
of length dl, the induced magnetic field
contribution, dB, is described by the
. p"ldI'r
followmg: dB = 41!'--r-
b.The total magnetic field for the conductor is
. pojdl'r
gIven by: B = 41!'1
2.The magnetic field strength varies as the
inverse square of the distance from the
conductingelement
3.Special Case - Infinitely long straight wire:
B(a) = :;i; a isthedistancefrom thewire;
I isthecurrent;B, isinversely proportional to a
I BIot-savartLaw
B
4.Ampere'sLaw:Foracircularpatharoundwire,
the total ofthe magneticflux, B . dS,mustbe
consistentwiththecurrent,I: f B dS = PoI
5.MagneticFlux, 1/)",
a. The magnetic flux, 1/)"" associated with an
area, dA, ofan arbitrary surface is given by
the following equation: I/)m = j B dA;
b.SpecialCase- PlanarareaAanduniformBat
angleIwithdA: I/)m = B A cosB
5
6.Gauss's Law: The net magnctic flux through any
closedsurfaceis alwayszero: f B dA = 0
a. Gauss's Law is based on the fact that isolated
magnetic poles(monopoles)donotexist
I. I.a\\ - Induction
Faraday's Law: Passing a magnet through a
current loopinducesacurrent in the loop
The EMF induced in a circuit is directly
proportional to the time rate of change ofthe
magnetic flux, Q)"" passing through the circuit:
EMF = fEds AND EMF =
a. Special Case: Uniform field 8 over loop of
area A; B is the angle formed by dA and 8:
EMF = d: (BAcos8)
b.Motional EMF: Moving a conductor of
length I through a magnetic field 8 with a
speed v induces an EMF (8 is perpendicular
tothe barandto v):EMF= - BIv
c.Lenz's Law: The direction of the induced
current and EMF tends to maintain the
original flux through the circuit; Lenz's Law
is aconsequenceofenergy cbnservation
EleetremapedeWave
I.Electromagnetic waves are formed by
transverse 8 andE fields
a. The relative field strengths arc defined by the
. . E
followmgequatIOn: B = c
b.The speed oflight, c, correlates the magnetic
constant, 11", and the electric constant,
. _ _ 1_
Cu.c- IlloE!)
c.In a vacuum, an electromagnetic wave. with
wavelength, ..t ,andfrequency, f, travelsatthe
speedoflight,c: c = fA
d.X-rayshaveshortwavelength, comparedwith
e.Visiblelightisaverysmallpartof thespectrum
Summarizethe general behaviorofelectrical and
magnetic fields in free space
I.Gauss'sLawforElectrostatics:
fE. dA =
2.Gauss'sLawforMagnetism:
fB'dA=O
3.Ampere-Maxwell Law:
f B ds = p"I+p"e"
4.Faraday'sLaw: f E dS = - ..
III
--
I. Light exhibits a duality, having both
and particleproperties
2.Key Variables
a. Speed oflightin a vacuum,c
b. Index ofrefraction, n:
The index of refraction, symbolized n, is
the ratio ofthe speed oflight in a vacuum
dividedby thespeedoflightin the material:
c(vacuum)
2.Key Variables& Concepts
I .Lensesand mirrorsgenerateimagesof objects a. Constructive interference occurs when
wave amplitudes add up to produce a new

## wavewith a largeramplitude than eitherof

wave

o ..
thecomponent waves
N
Images& Objects
o
n= 2.Lenses and mirrors are characterized by a
c(material)
numberofoptical paramcters: \"2
c. View light as a wave--Iocus on wave
u. The radius of curvature, R, defines the
properties: wavelength and frequency
shape ofthe lens ormilTor; R is two times ConstructiveInterference
i. For light as an electromagnetic wave:
thefocal lengt h,f: R = 2 f
b. Destructive interference occurs when
Af =c
wave amplitudes add up to produce a new
ii.Light is characterized by its wavelength
LeD II.MirrorProperties
wave with smalleramplitude than eitherof
("color"),orbyits frcquency, f.
thecomponentwaves: the waveamplitudes
d. View light as a particle in order to
Parameters i+ Sign - sign cancel out
understand the energetic properties oflight
- y = y, +y, - E
al
O
i. Energy is quanti zed in packet s called
J't ) ill
::j '"'"g;",
diverging Y
gJ U :)i
photons lens lens z
\$>- f focal length
C)
ii.The energy of photon depends on the concave convex
", 0 :::1 ill
mirror mirror
lli frequcncy, f, with the proportionality
<Ii
I-- -

;:;
constant h, Planck' s Constant:
s obj ct virtual
C)
'Cc U w
E (photon) = h f
Q) ::J.
distance
t., 'bj,"
object
a:
0.
3.Reflection & Refraction of Light
DestructiveInterference a'
RenectionofLight
Incident
virtual
c. Huygens' Principle: Each portionofwave
s' imagedistance real image
Ray front actsas a sourceofnew waves
image
-
+- - 3.Diffraction of light from a grating with
spacing d produces an pattern
h obj ectsize erect inverted
governed by the following equation:
d sinB=mA, (rn =0,1, 2,a,...)
h' image size erect inverted
4.SingleSlitExperiment:
I
For a wave passing through a slit ofwidth a,
a. Law of Reflection: For light rcfkcting
destructive interference is observed for:
b.The optic axis: Line from base ofobject
through centeroflens or mi rror
sin() =rnA/ a, (m =0, 1, 2,...)
from a mirrored surface, the incident and
retlected beams must have the ame angle
5.X-raydifi'raction from acrystal with atomic
with the surface nOl1nal: 0, =0, c. Magni fication:The magnifyingpowerofa
spacingd gives constructive interference lor:
b. Refraction: lens is given by M, the ratio ofimage si ze
2dsinB=rnA, (rn =0, I,2,a....)
Li ght changes Refraction ofLight
to objectsize: M = *
speed as it
d. LawsofGeometricOptics
passes through
FundamentalPhysicalCon tanh
materials with
i. The mirrorequation: The focal length,
image di stance and object distance are
Massof
ditTcrentindices
described by the following relationship:
Electron
of refraction;
1 1 1
this change in Glass s+"S' =y
MassofProton I mr 1.67x10-
27
kg
speed bends the
ii.Theobject and imagedistancescanalso be
light ray as it used to detennine the magnification:
passes from nI
s h
___
A
I 6.022xI0
23
mol- I 'h
"S'=-1l'=M
to 112
Elementary
o Jf\-
e 1.602x10-
19
C
i. Theanglesofthe incidentand relracted C. Acombination oftwo thin lenses gives a
, Charge 0-
rays aregoverned bySnell's Law: lens with properti esofthe two lenses lI"\-
n,sin8, =n, sin8,;n l, n2: indicesof
i. The focal length is given by the
5 96.4R5 C mol-I
Constant
retractionoftwomaterials 1 1 1 rn .... --
follo\\ill1g equation' -f =- +-
1 rurn=
. 0 n,
f, f,

c. Internal Reflectance:SID " =n; ; Light SpeedofLight c
r-=tnJ iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiO ___
3.Gener al Guidelinesfor RayTracing
, rn

passing fromlllaterial ofhigherntoalower a. Rays that parallel optic axis pass through

MolarGas
nmaybetrapped in thematerial iftheangle
'T'
R R.314Jmol-I KI .-N
Constant
b. Rays pass through center of the lens nlO_rt'I
r-=!,...:!=N
ofincidence is too large
unchanged
I I ===:4'
4.Polarized Light: The E tield of th.: c.Image: Formed by convergence of ray Boltzmann
22===.-
CD CD =co
k 11.3RX10-23 JK-I
electromagnetic wave is not spherically
tracings Constant
RayTracing
I
d.Illustration of
raytracingfora
symmetric(EX: plane(linear)polarized light,
0-
Gravitation
circularly polarized light)
G 16.67XIO-llm3kgIS
1
Converging Constant
a. Oneway to generateapolarizedwaveis by
Lens
retlecting a beam on a surface at a preci se
Permeability of
angle,called B, 14;< x 10-
7
N A-l
Space
b.Theangledependsontherelative indicesof
l.Goal: Examine
refraction and is defined by Brewster's
constructiveand
Permittivityof
B
IR.R5 x 10. 12 F111. 1
n,
Law: tan , = n. destructive interferenceoflight waves Space