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EMPIRICA L

OPEN 8TOPE

DESIGN

IN

CANADA

B.A.Sc ,

YVES

By

POTVIN

Universit e

LAVAL,

Quebec

1982

M.A.Sc. ,

Universit y

o f

Britis h

Columbia ,

1985

A

THESIS

SUBMITTED

I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT

O F

THE

REQUIREMENTS

FOR THE DEGREE

O F

THE

DOCTOR

FACULTY

O F PHILOSOPHY

i n

O F GRADUATE

STUDIES

DEPARTMENT

O F MINING

AND MINERAL PROCESS

ENGINEERING

We

accep t

thi s

thesi s

a s

conformin g

THE

t o

th e

require d

standar d

UNIVERSITY

O F BRITISH

NOVEMBER

198 8

@

Yves

Potvin ,

1988

COLUMBIA

In

presenting

this

thesis

in

partial

fulfilment

of

the

requirements

for

an

advanced

degree

at

the

University

of

British

Columbia,

I

agree

that

the

Library

shall

make

it

freely

available

for

reference

and

study.

I

further

agree

that

permission

for

extensive

copying

of

this

thesis

for

scholarly

purposes

may

be

 

granted

by

the

head

of

my

department

or

by

his

or

her

representatives.

It

is

understood

that

copying

or

publication

of

this

thesis

for

financial

gain

shall

not

be

allowed

without

my

written

permission.

 

Department

of

KtKtii^C

£

hiotfc* )

PROCESS

E/Q'

 

The

University

of

British Columbia

1956

Main

Mall

Vancouver, Canada

V6T

1Y3

Date

hft<tctt

\ C \R<\

nF.fin/ft- n

ABSTRACT

This thesis addresses the topic of underground excavation

stability

i n open

stope mining

methods.

There

ar e three

fundamental

aspects

t o be considered i n an engineering

rock

mechanics design of open stopes.

The first

aspect

i s the

characterization o f th e rock mass t o identify and quantify the

properties and components affecting the rock mass behaviour.

The

second aspect i s th e effect o f th e stress field s on th e rock

mass tha t

may

resul t

i n zones

o f hig h

compressive

stres s

o r

zones of relaxation i n stope walls.

The third

aspect i s the

physical condition of the problem and i s defined primarily by

the size, geometry and relative orientation of openings with

regard t o th e rock mass

and th e stress field.

The interaction

of these three fundamental aspects constitutes the problem t o be

investigated.

The

principa l

objective

o f th e study

i s t o develop

a

reliable geomechanical model (based on th e above three aspects)

that

can predict the stability

of open

stopes

i n typical

Canadian geological settings.

An empirical approach was chosen

for the development of the model, because o f the complexity of

the

problem

and the difficulty

i n estimating

the input

parameters with precision.

more reliabl e

since they

Empirical methods are likely to be

make

use

o f

past

experience.

A

considerable amount o f effort has been spent i n building a broad

data

base which

includes more than

ii

250

case

historie s o f

unsupported and supported stopes from 34 Canadian mines.

The

application

of

the

model

i n

the

back-analysis of a

large

number

of

representativ e case

histories

allowed

calibration of each of the factors composing the model.

Since

the model's prediction corresponds very well to the actual stope

behaviour

i n

most

case histories,

empirically verified.

the model

i s considered

The effect of external factors (parameters affecting stope

stabilit y

that

are

not

related

to

the

geotechnical or

geometrical conditions ) have also been investigated.

The

limi t

of applicabilit y

of cable boltin g

has

been define d and

rough

guidelines for the design of cable support systems are proposed

based on the systematic compilatio n of past experience. The

effect of blasting, although not quantified, has been observed

in

18

case histories.

More research i s required

i n order to

include the effect of blasting

i n the actual modelwhile

the

effec t

of

time

i s not

of concern

i n open stope mining,

when

there are no mining activities

i n

the

imediate area of

the

investigated stope.

iii

 

TABLE

OF CONTENTS

 

PAGE

ABSTRACT

 

i i

LIST

OF

TABLES.

.

x i

LIST

OF

FIGURES

xii i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

 

xx i

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1

1.1 DEFINITION OF THE PROBLEM

1

1.2 OBJECTIV E OF THE PROJECT

4

1.3 CONTENTS OF THE THESIS

6

CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF OPEN STOPE MINING PRACTICES

 

8

2.1 INTRODUCTION

 

8

 

2.1.1 Definitio n o f open stope mining

 

8

2.1.2 Applications o f open stope mining

9

2.2 CLASSIFICATION OF OPEN

STOPE MINING

METHODS

14

 

2.2.1 Mining directio n

 

14

2.2.2 Use o f pillar s and backfil l

 

15

2.2.3 Dril l hole diameter

20

2.2.4 Classification o f open stope

mining

21

2.3 DESCRIPTION OF OPEN STOPING PRE-PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT

21

2.4 DESCRIPTION OF

OPEN STOPE MINING AND SEQUENCING

.

.

24

 

2.4.1 stopirig with

Open

no backfil l

25

2.4.2 stoping with

Open

backfil l

25

2.4.3 Stope and fil l mining

 

32

iv

2.5

LONGHOLE OPEN STOPING

35

2.5.1 Longhole

drillin g

37

2.5.2 Longhole

blastin g

39

2.5.3 Longhole retreating methods

 

39

2.6 BLASTHOLE OPEN STOPING

41

2.6.1 Blasthole

drillin g

43

2.6.2 Blasthole

blastin g

45

2.6.3 Blasthole

retreating methods

 

4 6

2.7 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

51

CHAPTER 3 STRESS

56

3.1

INTRODUCTION

56

3 .2 PRE-MINING STRESS

58

3.3 STRESS MEASUREMENT

60

3.3.1 1; Flat jack

Method

60

3.3.2 2; Hydraulic fracturing

Method

 

61

3.3.3 3; Overcoring techniques

Method

62

3.3.4 Compilation

o f stress measurements

64

3.4 INDUCED STRESS AND

STRESS DISTRIBUTION

66

3.4.1 Components o f stress

.

68

3.4.2 Two

dimensional

state o f stres s

 

71

3.4.3 Two

dimensional

closed form solutio n o f simple

excavation shape

72

3.5 NUMERICAL MODELLING

78

3.5.1 Continuum approach

79

3.5.2 Discontinuum approach

,

83

v

3.6

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

.

.

.

84

CHAPTER 4

FAILURE CRITERIA

87

4.1 INTRODUCTION

 

87

4.2 INTACT ROCK MATERIAL FAILURE CRITERIA

88

 

4.2.1

Laboratory testing

88

4.2.1.1 Uniaxial compressive strength

89

4.2.1.2 Multiaxial compressive strength

91

4.2.1.3 Uniaxia l tensil e

 

strength

92

4.2.2

Analytica l approach

93

4.2.3

Empirical approach

94

4.3 SHEAR FAILURE CRITERION ALONG AN EXISTING DISCONTINUITY 94

4.3.1 Shear strength

.

9 6

4.3.2 Frictio n angle

98

4.4 JOINTE D ROCK MASS FAILURE CRITERION

101

4.5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

.

104

CHAPTER 5 REVIEW OF EXISTING DESIGN METHODS FOR UNDERGROUND

OPENINGS

108

5.1 INTRODUCTION

108

5.2 ROCK MASS CLASSIFICATION DESIGN CHARTS

109

5.2. 1 Bieniawsk i RMR syste m

109

5.2.2 Barton e t al . system

.

Il l

5.2.3 Discussion o f th e Q and RMR systems

115

5.3 LAUBSCHER 1 S GEOMECHANICS CLASSIFICATION OF JOINTED

ROCK MASSES

120

vi

5.3.1

Descriptio n o f th e model

121

5.3.2 Open stope design applicatio n

128

5.3.3 Discussio n o f th e method

130

5.4 MATHEWS' OPEN STOPE DESIGN METHOD

131

5.4.1 Description o f th e method

131

5.4.2 Discussio n o f th e method

138

5.5 NUMERICAL MODELLING DESIGN

142

5.5.1 Open stope design applicatio n

142

5.5.2 Discussio n o f th e method

144

5.6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

146

CHAPTER 6 OPEN STOPE FAILURE MECHANISMS

149

6.1 INTRODUCTION

149

6.2 NATURE OF THE ROCK MASS

149

6.3 INTACT ROCK BEHAVIOUR

155

6.4 DISCRET E BLOCK BEHAVIOUR

156

6.5 JOINTE D ROCK MASS BEHAVIOUR

158

6.6 SUMMARY AND CLASSIFICATION OF FAILURE MECHANISMS

160

CHAPTER 7 DEVELOPMENT OF THE GEOMECHANICAL MODEL

166

7.1 INTRODUCTION

166

7.2 THE BLOCK SIZE FACTOR

169

7.2.1

Estimatio n o f block siz e

169

7.3 STRESS FACTOR

174

7.3.1 Effec t o f compression

174

7.3.2 Open stope parametric

study

17 6

vii

7.3.2.1

General concept o f th e parametric study

177

7.3.2.2 Longitudinal open stoping parametric

study

179

7.3.2.3 Transverse open stoping parametric study

187

7.4 EFFEC T OF JOINT ORIENTATION

 

195

7.4.1 The critica l join t factor

 

198

7.4.2 Effec t o f anisotropy

 

200

7.4.3 Shear strength o f th e critica l

join t

 

202

7.5 THE GRAVITY FACTOR

2 02

7.6 EFFECT OF STOPE SIZ E AND SHAPE

 

203

7.7 CALCULATION OF THE MODIFIED STABILITY NUMBER AND

 

PRESENTATION OF THE MODIFIED STABILITY GRAPH

 

205

7.8 SUMMARY

207

CHAPTER 8 DATA BASE AND

MODEL CALIBRATION

 

210

8.1 INTRODUCTION

210

8.2 DATA COLLECTIO N

212

8.3 DATA BASE

213

8.3.1 Description

o f

th e

main data base

214

8.3.2 Description

o f

th e

complementary data base

.

219

8.4 CALIBRATIO N OF THE FACTORS COMPOSING THE MODIFIED

 

STABILITY NUMBER

219

8.4.1 Block siz e ratin g

 

224

8.4.2 Stress factor rating

225

8.4.3 Join t orientation factor rating

 

229

8.4.4 The gravity factor rating

231

viii

8.5

THE MODIFIED STABILITY GRAPH

232

8.6 DESIGN PHILOSOPHY

233

8.7 POSSIBILITY OF USING STASTISTICS

237

8.8 SUMMARY

238

CHAPTER 9 CABLE BOLT SUPPORT IN OPEN STOPE

240

9.1 INTRODUCTION

240

9.2 DESIGN CONCEPT

.

242

9.2.1 Prereinforcement

242

9.2.2 Stiffnes s o f th e support system

244

9.3 CABL E BOLT SUPPORT SYSTEMS I N CANADIAN OPEN STOPE MINES 247

9.3.1 Cable

bolt

patterns

fo r open

stope

backs

.

.

247

9.3.2 Cable

bolt

pattern s

fo

r

open

stope

wall s

.

.

251

9.4 DEVELOPMENT OF CABLE BOLT DESIGN GUIDELINES

 

257

9.4.1 Design analysis o f cable bolt support data

 

.

257

9.4.2 Density o f bolting

 

264

9.4.3 Cable bolt length

266

9.4.4 Bolting factor

2 69

9.4.5 Cable bolt orientation

 

269

9.5 SUMMARY

271

CHAPTER 1 0 EXTERNAL FACTORS; BLASTING. BACKFILL AND TIME

 

EFFECT

274

10.1

INTRODUCTION

274

10.2

BLASTING EFFECT

 

274

10.2.1

Case historie s o f blast induced damage

 

275

ix

10.2.2

Blast monitoring and prediction o f blas t damage

276

10.2.3

Optimizatio n o f blas t design fo r wal l stabilit y

279

10.3 EFFECT OF BACKFILL IN ADJACENT STOPES

 

283

10.3.1 Effect o f backfill i n limiting walls and back

 

exposure

285

10.3.2 Case historie s analyses

 

287

10.4 THE TIME EFFECT

 

292

10.5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

294

CHAPTER 1 1 SUMMARY

AND CONCLUSION

 

297

11.1 SUMMARY

 

297

11.2 APPLICABILITY OF THE DESIGN METHOD

 

301

11.3 INDUSTRY BENEFITS OF

THIS STUDY

302

11.4 FUTURE WORK

3 04

11.5 CONCLUDING REMARKS

305

REFERENCES

307

APPENDIX

I OREBODY DIAGRAMS AND ROCK MECHANICS DATA

.

.

311

APPENDIX

I I

DESCRIPTION OF THE BOUNDARY ELEMENT PROGRAMS

 

2D: BITEM AND 3D: BEAP

 

333

APPENDIX II I PLOT OF INDUCED STRESSES FOR DIFFERENT

 
 

GEOMETRIES AND K RATIO

 

339

X

LIST OF TABLE

 

PAGE

TABLE 2.1

Approximate value of ore fo r mines using

19

backfill, and mines using permanent pillars.

TABLE 2.2

Comparison of the mining sequence used with

54

the proposed open

stope classificatio n system.

TABLE

4. 1

Values

of the constant A from the Murrell

95

intact

rock

failur e criterion , and B from the Hoek

intact

rock

failure criterion, fo r five rock materials.

(After

Bieniawski , 1984)

TABLE

4. 2

Value s o

f Hoek and Brown constant s m and s fo r 105

disturbed and undisturbed rock masses.

TABLE 5.1

Bieniawsk i CSIR geomechanics classificatio n o f 112

jointed rock mass. (After Hoek and Brown)

TABLE

5 . 2

Barto n classificatio n o f individua l

116

parameters i n th e NGI tunnellin g

qualit y index, (cont)

TABLE 5.3

The excavatio n suppor t rati o (ESR) fo r

117

different underground openings applications. (After Hoek

and Brown 198 0)

 

TABLE

5 . 4

Assessment

o f join t condition s fo r th e

122

Laubscher

geomechanic classification of jointed rock

mass. (After Laubscher, 1976)

 

TABLE 5.5

Summary o f th e fiv e basi c parameters

o f th e

12 5

Laubscher geomechanic classification of jointed mass. (After Laubscher, 1976)

rock

TABLE 5.6

Adjustment facto r fo r th e

number o f joint s

127

inclined away from vertical . (After Laubscher, 1976)

TABLE 5.7

Adjustment facto r fo r th

e effec t o f blasting .

127

After Laubscher, 1976)

 

TABLE 5.8

Summary o f th e possibl e adjustmen t factors .

12 7

(After Laubscher, 1976)

 

TABLE 5.9

Adjustment facto r fo r th e inclinatio n o f th e

129

designed stope surface. (After Laubscher, 1976)

TABLE 8.1

Background informatio n fo r th e main dat a base. 215

xi

TABL E

8.2

Inpu t parameter s fro m th e mai n dat a bas e

218

necessary for open stope design back-analysis.

 

TABL E

8.3

Backgroun d informatio n fo r th e complementar y

220

data base.

 

TABL E

8.4

Inpu t parameter s fro m th e complementar y dat a

222

base necessary for open stope design back-analysis.

 

TABL E

8.5

Relationshi p betwee n th e

siz e

226

facto r (RQD/Jn / hydrauli c radius), behaviour.

relativ e bloc k and rock mass

 

TABL E

9.1

Backgroun d informatio n fo r th e dat a bas e o f

2 58

case histories that have used support.

 

TABL E

9.2

Inpu t parameter s

fo r th e dat a bas e o f cas e

260

histories that have used support.

 

TABLE 10.1

Relationshi p between th e peak particl e

280

velocit y and

the resultin g condition on rock structure.

(After Atla s Powder company, 1987)

 

TABLE 10.2

Relationshi p between th e peak particl e

280

velocity ,

the rock mass quality and the resultin g

stability of a stope.

 

TABL E 11.1 Bawden, 1988)

Importanc e o f dilutio n on th e DCF ROR.

(Afte r 303

xii

LIST OF FIGURES

 

PAGE

FIGURE 1.1

Pi e diagram showing th e proportio n o f mines

2

having less than 10% dilution, between 10% and 20% dilution, between 20% and 35% dilution and above 35% dilution . (After Pakalnis , 1986)

 

FIGURE

2.1

Range

o

f

orebody dip s i n open stope mining.

11

FIGURE

2.2

Range

o

f

roc k mass

qualit

y (expresse d

i n

12

terms o f the Q index) i n

open stope backs.

 

FIGURE 2.3

Range o f rock mass

qualit y (expressed

i n

13

terms of the Q index) i n hanging walls.

 

FIGURE 2.4

Graph o f th e orebody roc k mass qualit y

 

16

(expressed i n terms of the Q index), versus the

 

orebody width, fo r longitudinal

open stope mines.

FIGURE 2.5

Graph o f th e orebody

rock

mass qualit y

 

16

(expressed i n terms of the Q index), versus the

 

orebody width, fo r transverse open stope

mines.

FIGURE 2.6

Graph o f th e stope wall s rock

mass qualit y

18

(expressed i n terms of the Q index), versus the stope walls area, fo r open stope mines, using a "full lens" longitudinal extraction.

FIGURE 2.7

Classificatio n system fo r open

stope mining

22

methods applied t o Canadian mines.

 

FIGURE 2.8

Idealize d isometri c drawing

o f

th e "ful l

26

lens" open stope mining method.

 

FIGURE 2.9

Idealize d isometri c drawing

o f

th e sub-leve l

27

retreat open stope mining method.

 

FIGURE 2.10

Idealized isometri c drawing

o f th e

28

longitudinal longhole open stope mining method, with permanent pillars.

FIGURE 2.11

Idealized

isometric drawing

o f th e trans-

30

verse blasthole open stope mining method, using the "leap frog" sequence of extraction.

FIGURE 2.12

Idealized isometri c drawing o

f th e

31

longitudinal blasthole open stope mining method, having small primary stopes and large secondary stopes.

xiii

FIGURE 2.13

Longitudinal section o f a blasthole open

3 3

stope mining method, using the (1-5-9 ) sequence of extraction.

FIGURE 2.14

Idealized isometric drawing o f th e

34

longitudinal open stope mining method, using the "stope and fill " sequence o f extraction .

FIGURE 2.15

Plan view showing th e "panel mining"

3 6

sequence of extraction, (after Alexander and Fabjanczyck,

1981)

FIGURE 2.16

Typical longhole drillin g patterns employed

38

in Canadian open stope mines.

FIGURE 2.17 Graph

o f th e maximum area o f rock t o be

4 0

broken

by individual dril l hole (burden x spacing),

versus hole diameters.

 

FIGURE 2.18 Idealized isometric drawing o f th e longit - udinal longhole open stope mining method, using a full face retreat.

42

FIGURE 2.19

Typical blasthole drillin g patterns

in Canadian open stope mines.

employed 44

FIGURE

2.20

Illustratio n o f th e loading procedure fo r

47

large diameter blastholes.

 

FIGURE 2.21

Idealized isometric drawing

showing th e

49

"mass blast " retreat fo r blasthole open method.

stope mining

FIGURE 2.22

Cross section o f th e vertica l crater retreat

50

method used i n blasthole open stope mining, showing an initia l blast, and the remnant crown blast.

FIGURE 2.23

Cross section o f th e inverse bench blastin g

52

method used i n narrow blasthole open stope mining.

FIGURE 3.1

Analogy o f a flowing stream obstructed by

57

three bridge piers, representing stress streamlines around underground openings. (After Hoek and Brown, 1980)

FIGURE 3.2

Plo t

o f vertica l stresse s agains t dept h below

65

surface. (After Hoek and Brown, 1980)

 

FIGURE 3.3

stress

Variatio n o f rati o o f averag e horizonta l

65

t o vertical stress with depth below surface.

(After Hoek and Brown, 1980)

 

FIGURE 3.4

Variatio n o f rati o o f averag e horizonta l

67

xiv

stress t o vertical stress with depth below surface, from Canadian shield measurements. (After Herget, 1987)

FIGURE 3.5

Stress components actin g on

a surface

69

element. (After Hoek and Brown, 1980)

 

FIGURE 3.6

Stres s components actin g on

a

cubica l

69

element. (After Hoek and Brown, 1980)

 

FIGURE 3.7

Kirs h equation s fo r th e stresse s i n th e

74

material surrounding a circular hole i n a stressed elasti c orebody. (After Hoek and Brown, 1980)

FIGURE 3.8

Variatio n i n th e rati o o f tangentia l stres s

76

OQ t o th e vertica l applie d stres s

p z wit h

radia l

distance r along horizontal axis fo r K=0. and Brown, 1980)

(After Hoek

FIGURE 3.9

Definitio n o f nomenclature fo r an elliptica l

76

excavation with axes parallel t o the field stresses. (After Brady and Brown, 1985)

FIGURE 3.10

Idealized sketch showing th e principl e o f

80

numerical modelling.

FIGURE 4.1

Typica l stres s strai n

testing of an unconfined elastic

relationshi p during th e 90 specimen i n compression.

FIGURE 4.2

Idealize d sketc h showing a roc k specime n

submitted t o triaxial compression.

FIGURE 4.3

Graphica l representatio n o f th e Mohr circl e

and

failur e envelope .

(Afte r Hoe k an d Brown , 198 0)

97

97

FIGURE 4.4

Idealize d sketc h showing th e shearin g alon g a 99

discontinuity surface having an exaggerated roughness. (After Brady and Brown, 1985)

FIGURE 4.5

Graphical representation o f th e peak and

99

residual frictio n angle. (After Brady and Brown, 1985)

FIGURE 4.6

Typica l discontinuit y roughness profil e fo r

102

the evaluation of the JRC index. (After Barton and

Choubey, 1977)

FIGURE 5.1

Relationshi p between th e stand-up tim e o f an

113

unsupported underground excavation span and the CSIR Geomechanics Classification . (After Bieniawski, 1973)

FIGURE 5.2

Relationshi p between th e maximum equivalen t

118

dimension (De) o f an unsupported underground excavation and th e NGI tunnellin g qualit y index Q. (After Barton

xv

Lien and Lunde, 1974)

FIGURE 5.3

Diagram fo r th e evaluatio n o f th e join t

123

spacing parameter i n the Laubscher modified geomechanics classification system. (After Laubscher,

1976)

FIGURE

5 . 4

Relationshi p between

th e adjuste d rock mass

129

rating and hydraulic radius of a stope surface. Laubscher , 197 6)

(After

FIGURE 5.5

Relationshi p between

th e stabilit y number

133

and hydrauli c et al , 1980).

radius o f

a stope surface. (After Mathews

FIGURE 5.6 Mathews e t

Graph fo r th e estimatio n o f facto r A. (After al , 1980).

135

FIGURE 5.7

Graph o f th e stres s induced on th e major

13 6

surface of a stope

versus the ratio of opening

dimensions. (After Mathews

e t al , 1980).

FIGURE 5.8

Graph o f th e stres s induce d on th e mino r

137

surface of a stope versus the ratio of opening

dimension. (After Mathews e t al , 1980).

FIGURE 5.9

Sketch

fo r th e estimatio n

o f

th e rock defect

139

orientation factor B. (After Mathews

e t

al,1980).

FIGURE 5.10

Graph fo r th e estimation

o f

th e stope

14 0

surface inclinatio n factor C (After Mathews e t al ,

1980) .

FIGURE 6.1

Triangula r char t fo r th e estimatio n o f bloc k

152

shape. (After Folk, 1968).

FIGURE 6.2

Idealise d diagra m showin g th e transitio n

154

from intact rock t o a heavily jointed rock mass with increasing sample size. (After Hoek and Brown, 1980)

FIGURE 6.3

Failur

e mechanis m

o

f

intac

t

roc k

submitte d

154

to compressive stress.

FIGURE

6 . 4

Failur e mechanism

o f

intac

t

roc k

i n stat e o f

154

stress relaxation.

FIGURE 6.5

o isotropic rock material submitted to compressive stress.

Failur e mechanis m

f discret e block s fo r an

157

FIGURE 6.6 isotropic

Failur e mechanis m rock material i n a

o f discret e block s fo r an state of stress relaxation.

157

xv i

FIGURE 6.7

Failur e mechanis m o f discret e block s fo r a n

157

anisotropic rock material having elongated blocks oriented parallel to the stope surface and submitted to a compressive stress.

FIGURE 6.8

Failur e mechanis m o f discret e block s fo r an

157

anisotropic rock material having elongated blocks oriented parallel t o the stope surface i n a state of stress relaxation.

FIGURE 6.9

Failur e mechanism o f discret e block s fo r an

anisotropic rock material having elongated blocks

oriented perpendicular t o

submitted t o compressive stress.

the stope surface and

159

FIGURE 6.10

Failur e mechanism o f discret e block s fo r an 159

anisotropic rock material having elongated blocks

oriented perpendicular t o

state of stress relaxation.

the stope surface i n a

FIGURE 6.11

Failur e mechanism o f jointe d rock mass fo r

159

an isotropic material submitted to compressive stress.

FIGURE 6.12

Failur e mechanism o

f

jointe d rock mass

fo r

159

an isotropic rock material i n a state of stress relaxation.

 

FIGURE 6.13

Failur e

mechanism o f jointe d rock

mass

fo r

161

an anisotropic rock material having elongated blocks oriented parallel t o the stope surface and submitted to a compressive stress.

FIGURE

6.14

Failur e mechanism o f

a jointed rock mass

161

for an anisotropic rock material having elongated blocks oriented parallel t o the stope surface i n a state of stress relaxation.

FIGURE 6.15

Failur e

mechanism o f jointe d rock

mass fo r

161

an anisotropic rock material having elongated blocks

oriented perpendicular t o the stope submitted t o compressive stress.

surface and

 

FIGURE 6.16

Failur e

mechanism o f jointed rock

mass fo r

161

an anisotropic rock material having elongated blocks

oriented perpendicular t o the stope of stress relaxation.

surface i n a state

FIGURE 6.17

Classificatio n o f th e

open stope mining.

failur e mechanisms i n 163

FIGURE

6.18 a)

failure.

Sketch showing th e gravit y fal l mode o f

165

xvii

FIGURE 6.18 failure.

b)

Sketch

showing

th

e

slidin g mode o f

165

FIGURE 6.18

c )

Sketch

showing

th e

slabbing and buckling

165

mode o f failure.

 

FIGURE

7.1

Visualizatio n o f th e geomechanical model.

168

FIGURE

7.2

Sketch showing th e measurement o f joint s

17 2

along a scan line. (After Priest and Hudson, 1976)

FIGURE 7.3

Relationshi p between RQD an d th e average

172

number o f discontinuities pe r meter. (After Priest and Hudson, 1976)

FIGURE 7.4

Graph fo r th e estimatio n o f th e compressive

17 5

stress factor.

 

FIGURE 7.5

Definitio n o f th e aspect rati o and K rati o

178

used i n th e estimation o f th e induced stress acting on a stope surface.

FIGURE

7.6

Longitudinal

open

stope

typica l dimensions.

181

FIGURE

7.7

Longitudinal open

stope

stress : hanging wall

182

horizontal plane.

 

FIGURE 7.8 seam width.

Back an d HW horizonta l stresses: effec t o f

183

FIGURE 7.9

Longitudinal open stope stress: hanging wall

185

vertical plane.

 

FIGURE 7.10 stresses.

Longitudinal open

stope

stress: back

18 6

FIGURE 7.11 stress.

Longitudinal open stope stress: abutment

188

FIGURE 7.12 study.

Summary o f th e longitudinal parametric

189

FIGURE 7.13

Transverse open stope dimensions expressed

191

in terms of stope length (L).

 

FIGURE 7.14

Transverse stope boundary stresses:

192

abutment wall.

 

FIGURE 7.15 wall.

Transverse

stope

boundary

stresses: pilla r

194

xviii

FIGURE

7.16

Transversa l stope boundary stresses : stope

196

end.

FIGURE

7.17

Summary o f th e transvers e parametric study. 197

FIGURE

7.18

Illustratio n o f th e critica l join t concept.

199

FIGURE

7.19

Influence

o f

joint orientation .

 

201

FIGURE

7.20

Influence

o f

gravit y

fo r slabbing and

 

204

gravity fal l modes o f failure.

 

FIGURE 7.21 failure.

Influence o f gravit y

fo

r

slidin g mode o f

 

204

FIGURE 7.22

The modified stabilit y graph.

 

206

FIGURE 8.1 histories

Modified stability graph showing the case of high compressive stress.

 

228

FIGURE 8.2 histories

Modified stability graph showing the case of stress relaxation.

230

FIGURE 8.3

Modified stability graph showing the case

229

histories

included

i n the main data base.

 

FIGURE 8.4

Modifie d stabilit y grap h showing

th e

cas e

234

histories

included

i n the total data base.

 

FIGURE

9.1 a)

Uniform

cabl e

bol t patter n

installe d

i n

248

open stope overcuts.

 

FIGURE

9.1 b)

Uniform

cabl e

bol t patter n

installe d

i n

248

open stope overcuts and supplemented with short rebar.

FIGURE 9.2

Cabl e bol t suppor t syste m

usin g incline d

 

250

cables and two phases prereinforcement.

o f overcut development fo r

 

FIGURE 9.3

Cabl e bol t

support system

usin g an inter -

 

250

laced support pattern.

 

FIGURE 9.4

Cabl e bol t suppor t syste m

designe d fo r

 

250

overcuts containing a small pillar(s).

 

FIGURE 9.5

Unifor m cabl e bol t

patter n installe d i n an

252

open stope wall.

 

FIGURE

9.6

Creatio n o f a rock

beam i n th e

hangin g wal l

253

by installing a localized high density of cable bolts.

FIGURE 9.7

Cabl e bol t support system fo r a hangin g

 

255

xix

wall, installed from a parallel bolting drift.

FIGURE 9.8

Cabl e bol t suppor t system stabilizin g pilla r

256

walls.

FIGURE 9.9

Th e modifie d stabilit y grap h fo r supporte d

263

case histories.

 

FIGURE 9.10

Relationship between th e density o f boltin g

265

versus th e relativ e block size factor (RQD/Jn) / hydraulic radius.

 

FIGURE 9.11

Relationshi p between th e cable bol t length

268

and hydraulic radius o f a stope surface.

 

FIGURE 9.12

The modifie d stabilit y graph showing

th e

270

bolting factor fo r each of the "supported" case

 

histories.

 

FIGURE 10.1

The modifie d stabilit y graph showing

case

277

histories that had significant blasting effect.

 

FIGURE 10.2

Relationship between th e reduction i n rock

281

mass quality and the peak particle velocity originating from a blast. (After Page, 1987)

FIGURE 10.3

The effec t o f reducin g th e burden on a

282

charge of constant energy. (After Atlas powder company, 1987)

 

FIGURE 10.4

The effec t o f delayin g detonatio n decks on

284

the resulting wave packets. (After Sprott, 1986)

 

FIGURE 10.5 Idealize d isometric backfill of a four stope block.

view

o f th e

mining and

286

FIGURE 10.6

Idealize d isometric

view

o f

th e

mining

288

bloc k a t Min e #19 o f th

e dat a base .

 

FIGURE 10.7

The modifie d stabilit y graph

showing

th e

290

effect of backfill i n adjacent stopes.

 

FIGURE 10.8

The modifie d stabilit y graph

showing

th e

293

time effect on seventeen case histories from the data base.

 

FIGURE

ll. l

The stabilit y graph method fo r open stope

299

design.

xx

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The author wishes t o thank th e principa l sponsors o f thi s project, NSERC, Centre De Technologie Noranda and Falconbridge Ltd as well as th e thirty four mining operations that have provided data and expertise. Martin Hudyma and Dr Wil l Bawden are also acknowledged fo r their significant contribution i n this research work. The assistance provided by the technical commitee formed by Dr Hamish Miller project supervisor, Ken Mathews, Allan Moss, Dr Rimas Pakalnis, Chuck Brawner, Allan Reed and Andy Mular was greatly appreciated. Acknowledgement goes t o the following persons fo r their continuous support and encouragement during my graduate studies; Wendy Cumming-Potvin, Jacques Potvin, Jeanine Potvin, Audrey Cumming and Antonio de Conceicao Ramos.

xx i

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

This thesis addresses the topic of underground excavation

stabilit y

i n open stope mining

methods. The efficienc y of open

stope mining operations relies on high productivity resulting

from large, non-entry excavations and mechanized equipment.

Considering the high cost associated with the development of

each stope, the economic incentive to produce a smaller number

of

large open stopes

i s tremendous.

On

the other hand,

the

consequences of exceeding the maximum possible stope dimensions

ca n be disastrous .

Instabilit y aroun d ope n stope s may

caus e

large

remedial

costs for ground

rehabilitation,

delay

of

production, loss of mining equipment, loss of ore reserves and

at the extreme, mine worker injuries or fatalities.

In

a Canadian

actua l performance

term s o f dilution .

mine survey done by Pakalnis (1986),

the

o f

open

I t was

stop e

desig n was

investigate d i n

found tha t

fort y seven percen t of

the open stope mines had more than 20% dilutio n with twenty

one

percent sufferin g more than 35% dilutio n (figure 1.1).

Thi s

confirmed the need for a reliable engineering design technique

to

optimize open stope dimensions

Canadian geotechnical conditions.

1.1 DEFINITIO N OF THE PROBLEM

specifically

adapted

to

There are three fundamental aspects to be considered in an

1

DILUTION

-

OPEN

DATA BASE

STOPING

-

15

MINES

METHODS

FIGURE l. l Pie diagram showing the proportion of mines having

les s tha n 10% dilution ,

betwee n 10% an d 20%

dilution ,

betwee n 20% an d 35% dilutio n an d abov e 35% dilution . (Afte r Pakalnis, 1986)

2

engineering

rock mechanics design. The first

aspect

i s the

characterization o f the rock mass t o identify and quantify the

properties and components affecting the rock mass behaviour.

The

second aspect

i s th e effec t o f stres s field s on th e rock

mass. Redistribution of the pre-mining stress field due t o the

creatio n o f openings, may resul t i n zones o f hig h compressive

stress, or zones of relaxation.

the

(compressive o r tensile)

Estimation of the magnitude of

stress acting

on

each

stope

surface i s very important i n the design procedure.

The third

aspect

i s the

physical

condition

of the problem

defined

primarily by the size, geometry and relative orientation of

openings with regard t o th e rock mass and stress field.

The

physical condition should also consider

(at least indirectly)

the factors inherent t o the type o f opening environment.

For

open stoping, these factors include: the effect of production

blasting,

the influence

of cable

bolts,

the influence of

backfill i n adjacent stopes and the longevity of the openings

(time effect).

In this thesis, these factors will be referred

to as the external factors.

The

interactio n

o f

these

three

fundamental

aspects

constitutes the problem t o be investigated.

Each

aspect i s

accounted fo r i n the model by one or more factors empirically

calibrated through case histories. The factors are based on

geotechnical

parameters that

can be estimated with

on

site

data.

The principal hypothesis defended i n this thesis i s

stated as follows;

3

"

The

stabilit y

of

open

stopes

can

be

predicte d by

quantifyin g the effec t

of rock mass, stress

and

the physical

condition of the problem."

1.2 OBJECTIV E OF THE PROJEC T

The

objectiv e

of

the

project

i s

to

develop

a

geomechanical model for the prediction of open stope stability.

Since one

of the major concerns

of thi s

study

i s to provide a

practical design tool for Canadian open stoping mine operators,

the

followin g

development:

guideline s were

The design method

must be

set

regarding

the

model

capable of predictin g the

overall

stability

of

a

stope

in terms of operating

problems.

Instead of focussing on precise calculations

and

the identificatio n of discret e block falls ,

the

method should concentrate on defining conservative

stope dimensions,

less conservative stope

and

critica l

stope

dimensions

(beyond

stoping become impractical).

The model must be reliabl e and consequently

dimensions

which

open

i t must be

sensitive

to

al l

the

significant

geotechnical

parameters

in underground

stope

stability.

In

addition, i t i s important that the different conditions

associated with open stope mining,

stop e

geometry,

mining

4

sequence,

such

as

typical

blastin g

and

artificia l

support

(backfil l

and

cable bolts) ,

be

directly or indirectly accounted for.

The methodology must be easil y understood by mining or

geologica l engineers on site.

The input parameters

should rely mainly on observational methods rather than

expensive testing, lengthy studie s and sophisticated

equipment.

The design method should

mining, includin g durin g

be applicabl e at any

stage of

the feasibilit y study and fo r

short

term

and

long term planning.

Although

the

precision

of designs

i s largely

a function

of

the

quality of the input parameters,

which improves

as

mining

progresses, the method

should be

capable of

providing

at

least

feasibility study stage.

The

approach

must

be

approximate

answers

at

the

representativ e of rock mass

behaviour and be capable of identifyin g underground

modes

of

failure.

This will

provide

understanding

of

the

ground

condition s and

select

the proper remedial

actions i n case

control problems.

a

better

help

to

of ground

The

model

i s

based

on

an empirical

approach

and

it s

reliability

i s therefore a function of the extent of the data

base.

A

considerable amount of effort has

been

spent

i n

buildin g a broad

dat a bas e whic h

include s more tha n 250

case

5

historie s of unsupported and supported stopes from 34 Canadian

mines.

Each

mine has

occasions )

and

case

been visite d

historie s

were

(sometimes on several

back-analyzed

from

discussions with mine personnel, underground observations, rock

mass

classificatio n

and

numerical

modelling.

Empirica l

relationships

have

been

derived

from

this

systematic