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UNDERSTANDING WEAR

From: triboscience.weebly.com
WEAR
Progressive damage, involving material loss, which occurs on the surface of a
body as a result of its motion over another.
Laws of wear
Wear Increases with Sliding Distance
Wear Increases with Normal Load
Wear Decreases as the Hardness of the Sliding Surface Increases
Can be detected as
Weight loss - by weighing the component
Volume loss - by profilometry

Factors affecting wear
Geometry of the surface
Applied load
The rolling and sliding velocities
Environmental conditions
Mechanical, Thermal, Chemical and Metallurgical properties
Physical, Thermal and Chemical properties of the lubricant

TYPES OF WEAR
Wear
processes
Adhesive
wear
Abrasive
wear
Erosive
wear
Corrosive
wear
Fatigue
wear
ADHESIVE WEAR
Transference of material from one surface to another due to cold welding at
asperity junctions.
Adhesive wear is by far the most common and least preventable form of
wear.
ABRASIVE WEAR
When an asperity of a harder surface ploughs a groove in the surface of a
softer counterpart.
Abrasive wear types
Two body abrasion - Involves one hard surface and one soft surface in
relative motion
Three body abrasion - Hard particles are entrained into a tribological
interface
EROSIVE WEAR
Damage to a surface caused by the impact of hard solid particles carried by a
fluid
Erosive wear are of 3 types -
Fluid erosion - Damage caused when small droplets of fluid strike a surface at
very high speed (>1000 m/s)
Cavitation erosion- Damage resulting from the collapse of vapor bubbles in a
fluid close to a surface
Spark erosion - Material removal and deposition resulting from an electrical
spark between two surfaces
CORROSIVE WEAR
When tribological components are operated in any form of corrosive
environment, the surfaces will tend to react with their surroundings
yielding reaction products that adhere poorly to the surfaces
Corrosive wear is a combination of chemical reaction and rubbing


FATIGUE WEAR
This mechanism involves the removal of material from a surface by fatigue
due to cyclic stress variations over a long time period.
Fatigue wear can occur without direct contact between the surfaces.

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT WEAR PROCESSES
Type of wear Effects
Adhesive Metal contact, sold welding, adhesion and
shearing
Abrasive Leakage, Low efficiency and more wear
Erosive Slow response, surface erosion and spool
jamming
Corrosive Rusting of parts and more wear debris
Fatigue Leakage, deterioration of surface finish and
cracks

WEAR PROCESSES IN MECHANICAL CONTACTS
Type of wear Mechanical components
Adhesive wear Hydraulic cylinders, ball bearings and journal
bearings
Abrasive wear Hydraulic pumps, hydraulic cylinders, hydraulic
motors and journal bearings
Erosive wear Servo valve, proportional valves and directional
control valve
Corrosive wear Bearings, pumps and valves
Fatigue wear Journal bearings, hydrostatic bearings and
rolling element bearings
References
Tribology notes by Dr. Martin Preist, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
Wear presentation by IISc, India
Effect of internal stress of CN
x
coating on its wear in sliding friction - K Kato, M
Bai, N Umehara, Y Miyake
TRIBOLOGY: THE SCIENCE OF COMBATTING WEAR - William A Glaeser
(Member, STLE), Richard C Erickson (Member, STLE), Keith F Dufrane
(Member, STLE) and Jerrold W Kannel Battelle Columbus, Ohio
Classification of wear mechanisms/models - K Kato www.rermwiki.com
W.A. Glaeser and S.J. Shaffer, Battelle Laboratories www.substec.com
Friction and lubrication in mechanical design A. A. Seireg
ocw.mit.edu/courses/mechanical-engineering/2-800-
tribologydcu.ie/~stokesjt/Thermal Spraying/Book/Chapter1
Wikipedia

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