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Course name: Political Marketing and Management

Author: S.G. Sebe
Time version: 2011/2012 academic year
(For any other details consult the secretariate and/or the course site)

Time Module Lecture
Week1 Course Overview

Object, Philosophy,
Vision, Value
Defining PM
Week3 The Political Science Roots of Marketing Logic
Week4 The Mathematical Roots of Marketing Management

The PM and
Informational Society
PM Nature, Structure, Functions
Week6 Information Society and PM
Week7 Competitive Advantage


Electoral Processes
in Markets
The Strategy Design Cycle
Week9 Terrain and Ground Tactics
Week10 Networked Operational Structures


C4 Cooperation, Concurrence, Competition, Conflict
Week12 Electoral Image Building
Week13 Electoral Campaign and PM Warfare

Week14 Course Closure

Week 1 Course Overview
- Vannevar Bush paradigm as an initial setting for political marketing realm: information
society, open sources, free informing without frontiers, inducing trends through the
information market;
- Shannons coordinates of the informational society; the confluence setting for the
tehnological, social and political innovation processes.
- US national security policy and the meaning of political marketing within the academic
intelligence field; the shift from product generating processes towards
customer/product/need research cycle. Innovation and Intelligence.
- Market orientation and market oriented strategy; including limits of growth as
adaptive regulator. Prospective and anticipation as basic elements of orientation.
- exploring course conceptual map;
- transdisciplinary dimensions: representative researchers, scientific journals,
monographic books;
- establishing student-teacher channels and protocols of communication;
- presenting available resources: course reader and IT&C support;
- presenting course structure: modular format;
- presenting course general requirements, assignments and the grading process;
[] V. Bush, Science - The Endless Frontier, Transactions of the Kansas Academy of
Science, vol. 48 (3), 1945, pp. 231-264
[] V. Bush, As We May Think, Atlantic Monthly, July, 1945, pp. 101-108
[] A. Campbell, P.E. Converse, W.E. Miller, D.E. Stokes, The American Voter, John
Wiley & Sons, Inc., NY, 1960
[] P. Kotler, V. Balachandran, Strategic Remarketing: The Preferred Response to
Shortages and Inflation, Sloan Management Review, 17(1), 1975, 1-17
[] M. Maruyama, Communicational Epistemology, The British Journal for the
Philosophy of Science, 11(44), 1961, 319-327
[] M. Maruyama, Communicational Epistemology, The British Journal for the
Philosophy of Science, 12(45), 1961, 52-62
[] M. Maruyama, Communicational Epistemology, The British Journal for the
Philosophy of Science, 12(46), 1961, 117-131
[] M. Maruyama, The Second Cybernetics. Deviation-Amplifying Mutual Causal
Processes, American Scientist, 5(2), 1963, 164-179
[] B.I. Newman, J.N. Sheth, A theory of political choice behavior, Praeger Publishers,
NY, 1987
[] C.E. Shannon, A Mathematical Theory of Communication, The Bell System
Technical Journal, 27, 379423, 623656, 1948
[] C.E. Shannon, Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems, Bell System Technical
Journal, 28, 1949, 656-715
[] C.E. Shannon, Prediction and entropy of printed english, The Bell System Technical
Journal, 30, 5064, 1951
[] C.E. Shannon, The lattice theory of information, IRE Transactions. Information
Theory, 1(1), 1953, 105-108
[] J.N. Sheth, A market Oriented Strategy of Long Range Planning for Multinational
Corporations, European Research, 5(1), 1977, 3-12
[] J.N. Sheth, Psychology of Innovation Resistance: The less developed concept
(LDC) in Diffusion Research, Research in Marketing, 4, 1981, 273-282
[] J.N. Sheth, Toward a Theory of Macromarketing, Canadian Journal of
Administrative Sciences, 9 (2), 1992, 154-161
[] J.N. Sheth, Atul Parvatiyar, Toward a Theory of Business Alliance Formation,
Scandinavian International Business Review, 1 (3), 1992, 71-87

Week 2 Defining PM
- analyzing the recent definition of marketing; its meaning in PS and PM terms; its
signification for PMI;
- tracing back the evolution of the definition;
- establishing the succession series of the PM, PMI with respect to the concepts involved
in the underliyng definition;
- establishing the differences and the convergence issues;
- defining semantic interoperability between different realms already identified;
- identifying the meaning for the trans-disciplinary character of PMI.
- from buyer to customer;
- from customer to stakeholder;
- from stakeholder to citizen;
- the marketing myopia effect and the mental map problem.


[] L.L. Cummings, The Logics of Management, The Academy of Management Review,
8(4), 1983, 532-538
[] S.D. Hunt, The Nature and Scope of Marketing, Journal of Marketing, 40(3), 1976,
[] S.D. Hunt, In Support of the '3-Dichotomies Model,' Replying to Criticism by
Gumucio, Robin, Ross, and Etgar, Journal of Marketing, 42(2), 1978, 107-110
[] S.D. Hunt, General Theories and the Fundamental Explananda of Marketing,
Journal of Marketing, 47(4), 1983, 9-17
[] S.D. Hunt, On rethinking marketing: Our discipline, our practice, our methods,
European Journal of Marketing, 28(3), 1994, 13-25
[] P. Kotler, S.J. Levy, Broadening the Concept of Marketing, Journal of Marketing,
33(1), 1969, 10-15
[] P. Kotler, S.J. Levy, A New Form of Marketing Myopia: Rejoinder to Professor Luck,
Journal of Marketing, 33(3), 1969, 55-57
[] T. Levitt, Marketing Myopia, Harvard Business Review, 38(4), 1960, 45-56

Week 3 The Political Science Roots of Marketing Logic
- Niccolo Machiavelli and political marketing insight;
- Political marketing and social action;
- Political marketing, social marketing, purposive social change;
- The PM of NGOs;
- Culture and PM;
- Intelligence and PM;
- persuasive communication: case studies of communication campaigns;
[] P. Kotler, The Elements of Social Action, American Behavioral Scientist, 14(5),
1971, 691-717
[] P. Kotler, G. Zaltman, Social Marketing: An Approach to Planned Social Change,
Journal of Marketing, 35(3), 1971, 3-12
[] P. Kotler, Marketing and Public Relations, Journal of Marketing, 42(4), 1978, 13-20
[] P. Kotler, Strategies for Introducing Marketing into Nonprofit Organizations,
Journal of Marketing, 43(1), 1979, 37-44
[] S.D. Hunt, L.B. Chonko, Marketing and Machiavellianism, Journal of Marketing,
48(3), 1984, 30-42
[] M. Maruyama, Dysfunctional, Misfunctional, and Toxifunctional, Aspects of
Cultures, Organizations, and Individuals, Technological Forecasting and Social
Change, 42, 1992, 301-307
[] A.H. Walle, From marketing research to competitive intelligence: useful
generalization or loss of focus? Management Decision 37(6), 1999, 519-525

Week 4 The Mathematical Roots of Marketing Management
- on the use of mathematical models in marketing and PM;
- the simulation process in marketing and PM;
- behavior models of target segments: buyer, customer, citizen, voter;

- persuasive communication: case studies of communication campaigns;

[] P. Kotler, The Use of Mathematical Models in Marketing, Journal of Marketing,
27(4), 1963. 31-41
[] P. Kotler, The Competitive Marketing Simulator - A New Management Tool,
California Management Review, 7(3), 1965, 49-60
[] P. Kotler, Behavioral Models for Analyzing Buyers, Journal of Marketing, 29(4),
1965, 37-45
[] P. Kotler, Mathematical Models of Individual Buyer Behavior, Behavioral Science,
13(4), 1968. 274-287
[] P. Kotler, R.L. Schultz, Marketing Simulations: Review and Prospects, The Journal
of Business, 43(3), 1970, 237-295
[] B.I. Newman, J.N. Sheth, A theory of political choice behavior, Praeger Publishers,
NY, 1987

Week 5 PM Nature, Structure, Functions
- exploring the relationship between management, marketing and political science;
- defining conceptual distinctions; Shelby Hunts approach.
- defining a conceptual framework; the lawlike generalization problem;
- truth in marketing research;
- defining research criteria;
- identifying in the political science, sociology, economics realm the lawlike
generalization problem;
[] P.F. Drucker, Thinking Ahead, Harvard Business Review, 37(1), 1959
[] P.F. Drucker, Management's new role, Harvard Business Review, 47(11), 1969,
[] S.D. Hunt, Lawlike Generalizations and Marketing Theory, Journal of Marketing,
37(3), 1973, 69-70
[] S.D. Hunt, Truth in Marketing Theory and Research, Journal of Marketing, 54(3),
1990, 1-15
[] S.D. Hunt, Objectivity in Marketing Theory and Research, Journal of Marketing,
57(2), 1993, 76-91
[] S.D. Hunt, A Realist Theory of Empirical Testing: "Resolving the Theory-
Ladenness/Objectivity Debate", Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 24(2), 1994, 133-
[] P. Kotler, A Generic Concept of Marketing, Journal of Marketing, 36(2), 1972, 46-
[] T. Levitt, Business and the Plural Society, Modern Age, 4(2), 1960, 173-179
[] J.N. Sheth, D.M. Gardner, History of Marketing Thought: An Update, Working
Paper, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1982
[] J.N. Sheth, R.S. Sisodia, Revisiting marketing's lawlike generalizations, Journal of
the Academy of Marketing Science, 27(1), 1999, 71-87
[] S.M. Shugan, The Cost of Thinking, Journal of Consumer Research, 7, 1980, 99-

Week 6 Information Society and PM
- why mathematical communication theory and information theory are within the PMI
realm: Vannevar Bush, Claude Shannon, and Open Sources Politics;
- how social scinces become integrated with PM;
- due to which items marketing and management converge toward PM;
- linking concepts: defining a conceptual framework;
- national reputation management processes;
- case studies: US, Eastern Europe;
[] K.E. Boulding, The Medium Is the Message, The Canadian Journal of Economics
and Political Science, 31(2), 1965, 268-273
[] J. Fulk, J. Schmitz, D. Ryu, Cognitive elements in the social construction of
communication technology, Management, 8(3), 1995, 259-288
[] T. Levitt, Production-Line Approach to Service, McKinsey Quarterly, 9(4), 1973, 2-
[] T. Levitt, Management and the Post-Industrial Society, Public Interest, 44, 1976,
[] T. Levitt, The globalization of markets, McKinsey Quarterly, 3, 1984, 2-20
[] T. Levitt, Futurism and Management, Antioch Review, 49(1), 1991, 29-38
[] M. McLuhan, Understanding Media. The extensions of man, McGraw Hill, NY, 1964
[] J.N. Sheth, How Consumers Use Information, Working Paper, University of Illinois
at Urbana-Champaign, 1978
[] J.N. Sheth, M.M. Saghafi, A.K. Gupta, Achieving an effective R&D/Marketing
integration in the telecommunications industry: Actors perspective, Advances in
Telecommunications Management, 1, 1990, 163-175
[] J.N. Sheth, Strategic importance of information technology, Advances in
Telecommunications Management, 4, 1994, 3-16

Week 7 Competitive Advantage
- introducing the CA (competitive advantage) concept with its genuine inference;
- defining the trans-disciplinary setting for the CA;
- tracing back the CA succession series; Sun Tzus SIW (Strategic Initiative Winning)
concept and the DW (Defeat/Win) scale.
- The intangible dimension and the tangible/intangible interaction in CA building;
- The moral dimension of CA business, advertising, capitalism, ...
- CA case study: the tangible dimensions in PM, Political Science, International
- CA case study: the intangible dimensions in PM, Political Science, International
- CA case study: the tangible/intangible interaction in PM, Political Science, International
[] G.S. Day, R. Wensley, Assessing Advantage: A Framework for Diagnosing
Competitive Superiority, Journal of Marketing, 52(1), 1988, 1-20
[] G.S. Day, P. Nedungadi, Managerial Representations of Competitive Advantage,
The Journal of Marketing, 58(2), 1994, 31-44
[] T. Levitt, The Management of Reverse R&D or How to imitate your competitor's
products before it's too late, Management Review, 55(11), 1966, 33-37
[] T. Levitt, The Gap Is Not Technological, Public Interest, 12, 1968, 119-124
[] T. Levitt, The new markets - think before you leap, Harvard Business Review,
47(3), 1969, 53-67
[] T. Levitt, The morality (?) of advertising, Harvard Business Review, 48(4), 1970,
[] T. Levitt, The moral legitimacy of business, McKinsey Quarterly, 2, 1978, 58-66
[] T. Levitt, Marketing intangible products and product intangibles, Harvard Business
Review, 59(3), 1981, 94-102
[] B. Moingeon, A. Edmondson, Organizational Learning and Competitive Advantage,
SAGE Publications Ltd., London, UK, 1996
[] R.S. Sisodia, Competitive Advantage through Design, Journal of Business
Strategy, 1995, 33-40

Week 8 The Strategy Design Cycle
- defining the conceptual framework of strategy;
- strategy design setting and structured architectures;
- terrain and ground concepts and the strategy splitting into tactical objects, processes,
units, activities and actions;
- the joint action setting as a base for the C2 concept;
- the operational allocation taking into account competence, capability, determination
and loyalty
- the operative networks and action propagation through C2
- integrated representations of the strategic process c4i
- the strategic intent and associated EW processes: OSIA modules
- the BWW models;
[] D.P. Baron, The Non-Market Strategy System, Sloan Managemet Review, 37(1),
1995, 73-85
[] W.C. Bogner, H. Thomas, The Role of Competitive Groups in Strategy Formulation:
A Dynamic Integration of Two Competing Models, Journal of Management Studies,
30(1), 1993, 51-67
[] Y. Chen, J.D. Hess, R.T. Wilcox, Z.J. Zhang, Accounting Profits versus Marketing
Profits: A Relevant Metric for Category Management, Marketing Science, 18(3),
1999, 208-229
[] G.S. Day, L. Fahey, Valuing Market Strategies, Journal of Marketing, 52(1), 1988,
[] G.S. Day, R. Wensley, Assessing Advantage: A Framework for Diagnosing
Competitive Superiority, Journal of Marketing, 52(1), 1988, 1-20
[] P.C. Godfrey, C.W.L. Hill, The Problem of Unobservables in Strategic Management
Research, Strategic Management Journal, 16(7), 1995, 519-533
[] D.C. Hambrick, A.A. Canella, Strategy Implementation as Substance and Selling,
The Academy of Management Executive, 3(4), 1989, 278-285
[] H. Mintzberg, Strategy-Making in Three Modes, California Management Review,
1973, 16(2), 44-53
[] H. Mintzberg, The Strategy Concept I: Five Ps For Strategy, California
Management Review, 1987, 30(3), 11-24
[] H. Mintzberg, The Strategy Concept II: Another Look at Why Organizations Need
Strategies, California Management Review, 1987, 30(3), 25-32
[] L.S. Pheng, M.C.S. Tan, A convergence of Western marketing mix concepts and
oriental strategic thinking, Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 13(2), 1995, 36-46
[] J.N. Sheth, G.L. Frazier, A Margin-Return Model for Strategic Market Planning,
Journal of Marketing, 47(2), 1983, 100-109
[] J.N. Sheth, G. Morrison, Winning again in the marketplace: Nine strategies for
revitalizing mature products, The Journal of Consumer Marketing, 1984, 17-28
[] J.C. Spender, Some Frontier Activities around Strategy Theorizing, Journal of
Management Studies, 30(1), 1993, 11-29
[] M.A. Young, Sources of Competitive Data for the Management Strategist, Strategic
Management Journal, 10(3), 1989, 285-293

Week 9 Terrain and Ground Tactics

- the dynamic meaning of resources in PM; the concept of knowledge based action.
- identifying and organizing the knowledge space representation through segmentation;
- defining terrain and ground in terms of strategy splitting into tactical steps;
- defining terrain and ground in terms of resources;
- defining terrain and ground in terms of competitive advantage; the manoeuver
concept as an integration between strategy and tactics.
- defining terrain and ground in terms of C2 (command and control); the risk taking
decision process and military mission.
- the BWW model;
- explain why this analysis becomes important for: political science, intelligence/OSINT
[] H.J. Claycamp, W.F. Massy, A Theory of Market Segmentation, Journal of
Marketing Research, 5, 1968, 388-394
[] T.H. Dodd, B.E. Pinkleton, A.W. Gustafson, External Information Sources of
Product Enthusiasts: Differences between Variety Seekers, Variety Neutrals, and
Variety Avoiders, Psychology & Marketing, 13(3), 1996, 291-304
[] R.M. Johnson, Market Segmentation: A Strategic Management Tool, Journal of
Marketing Research, 8, 1971, 13-18
[] T. Levitt, Corporate Goals and Marketing Tactics, Management Review, 51(5),
1962, 56-66
[] T. Levitt, Marketing when things change, Harvard Business Review, 43(12), 1965,
[] T. Levitt, Putting the Product Life Cycle to Work, Management Review, 55(1),
1966, 19-23

Week 10 Networked Operational Structures

- the experiments problem Campbell: reforms as experiments;
- the impact evaluation problem;
- the market orientation problem;
- the communicational social contact and the networked representation processes;
- designing a networking strategy;
- designing a tactical decomposition of a networked strategy;


[] M.J. Baker, G.A. Churchill, The Impact of Physically Attractive Models on
Advertising Evaluations, Journal of Marketing Research, 14, 1977, 538-555
[] H. Bettis-Outland, The impact of information distortion within the context of
implementing and sustaining a market orientation, Journal of Strategic Marketing, 7,
1999, 251-263
[] D.T. Campbell, Reforms as Experiments, American Psychologist, 1969, 409-429
[] D.T. Campbell, Assessing the Impact of Planned Social Change, Evaluation and
Program Planning, 2(1), 1979, 67-90
[] S.G. Harkins, B. Latan, Population and Political Participation: A Social Impact
Analysis of Voter Responsibility, Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice
2(3), 1998, 192-207
[] B. Latan, The Psychology of Social Impact, American Psychologist, 36(4), 1981,
[] B. Latan, S. Wolf, The Social Impact of Majorities and Minorities, Psychological
Review, 88(5), 1981, 438-453
[] B. Latan, A. Nowak, J.H. Liu, Measuring emergent social phenomena: Dynamism,
polarization, and clustering as order parameters of social systems, Behavioral
Science, 39(1), 1994
[] B. Latan, T. L'Herrou, Spatial Clustering in the Conformity Game: Dynamic Social
Impact in Electronic Groups, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(6),
1996, 1218-1230
[] B.E. Pinkleton, E. Weintraub Austin, A. Dixon, Orientations in public relations
research and campaign evaluation, Journal of Marketing Communications, 5, 1999,
[] H.W. Riecken, R.F. Boruch, D.T. Campbell, N. Caplan, The Purposes of Social
Experimentation, Educational Researcher, 3(11), 1974, 5-9
[] M. Schaller, B. Latan, Dynamic Social Impact and the Evolution of Social
Representations: A Natural History of Stereotypes, Journal of Communication, 46(4),
1996, 64-77
[] J.N. Sheth, B. Mittal, A Framework for Managing Customer Expectations, Journal
of Market Focused Management, 1, 1996, 137-158

Week 11 C4 Cooperation, Concurrence, Competition, Conflict
- the internal political conflict; the generic meaning of conflict;
- distinction between public affairs, public diplomacy, political marketing;
- the competitive superiority and the competitive advantage;
- the resource-advantage theory of competition;
- the competition framework segmentation: cooperation, concurrence, conflict;
- exploring case studies;
[] K.E. Boulding, Conflict and Defense. A General Theory, Harper, San Francisco,
[] K.E. Boulding, Equality and Conflict, Annals of the American Academy of Political
and Social Science, 409, 1973, 1-8
[] G.S. Day, R. Wensley, Assessing Advantage: A Framework for Diagnosing
Competitive Superiority, Journal of Marketing, 52(1), 1988, 1-20
[] Z.S. Deligonul, S.T. Cavusgil, Does the Comparative Advantage Theory of Competition
Really Replace the Neoclassical Theory of Perfect Competition? Journal of Marketing, 61(2),
1997, 65-73
[] P.R. Dickson, Toward a General Theory of Competitive Rationality, The Journal of
Marketing, 56(1), 1992, 69-83
[] S.D. Hunt, R.M. Morgan, The Comparative Advantage Theory of Competition,
Journal of Marketing, 59(2), 1995, 1-15
[] S.D. Hunt, R.M. Morgan, Resource-advantage theory: A snake swallowing its tail
or a general theory of competition? Journal of Marketing, 61(4), 1997, 74-82
[] S.D. Hunt, A General Theory of Competition: Too Eclectic or Not Eclectic Enough?
Too Incremental or Not Incremental Enough? Too Neoclassical or Not Neoclassical
Enough? Journal of Macromarketing, 20(1), 2000, 77-81
[] S. Jayachandran, J. Gimeno, P.R. Varadarajan, The Theory of Multimarket
Competition: A Synthesis and Implications for Marketing Strategy, The Journal of
Marketing, 63(3), 1999, 49-66
[] J.C. Jenkins, C. Perrow, Insurgency of the Powerless: Farm Worker Movements
(1946-1972), American Sociological Review, 42(2), 1977, 249-268
[] Karmeshu, V.P. Jain, A.K. Mahajan, A Dynamic Model of Domestic Political Conflict
Process, The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 34(2), 1990, 252-269
[] J.F. Porac, H. Thomas, Taxonomic Mental Models in Competitor Definition, The
Academy of Management Review, 15(2), 1990, 224-240
[] M.A. Young, Sources of Competitive Data for the Management Strategist, Strategic
Management Journal, 10(3), 1989, 285-293

Week 12 Electoral Image Building

- the image concept as knowledge representation;
- the psycho-sociological approach on social representations;
- the polarization process;
- the social influence approach;
- exploring strategy design image building;
[] K.E. Boulding, The Image: Knowledge in Life and Society, University of Michigan
Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1956
[] K.W. Deutsch, The Commitment of National Legitimacy Symbols as a Verification
Technique, The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 7(3), 1963, 360-369
[] D.A. Gioia, M. Schultz, K.G. Corley, Organizational Identity, Image, and Adaptive
Instability, The Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 2000, 63-81
[] P.A. Gourevitch, The Second Image Reversed: The International Sources of
Domestic Politics, International Organization, 32(4), 1978, 881-912
[] S. Moscovici, P. Nve, Studies in social influence: I. Those absent are wright:
Convergence and polarization of answers in the course of social interaction,
European Journal of Social Psychology, 1(2), 1971, 201-214
[] S. Moscovici, R. Lecuyer, Studies in group decision I: Social space, patterns of
communication and group consensus, European Journal of Social Psychology, 2(3),
1972, 221-244
[] S. Moscovici, W. Doise, R. Dulong, Studies in group decision II: Differences of
positions, differences of opinion and group polarization, European Journal of Social
Psychology, 2(4), 1972, 386-399
[] S. Moscovici, P. Nve, Studies in social influence: II. Instrumental and symbolic
influence, European Journal of Social Psychology, 3(4), 1973, 461-471
[] S. Moscovici, Notes towards a description of Social Representations, European
Journal of Social Psychology, 18, 1988, 211-250
[] S. Moscovici, Preconditions for explanation in social psychology, European Journal
of Social Psychology, 19, 1989, 407-430
[] B.I. Newman, Image-manufacturing in the USA: recent US Presidential Elections
and beyond, European Journal of Marketing, 35(9/10), 2001, 966-970

Week 13 The Electoral Campaign and PM Warfare
- The meaning of campaign from military art to marketing competition;
- Founding analogy in terms of strategy, tactics, operational setting and operative action
for marketing campaign on informational society structure;
- tracing differences between campaigns at national level and international level;
- the leaders segmentation proiblem;
- case studies;
[] S.C. Cosmas, J.N. Sheth, Identification of Opinion Leaders across Cultures: An
Assessment for Use in the Diffusion of Innovations and Ideas, Journal of
International Business Studies 11, 1980, 6672
[] J.S. Fenton, T.R. Leggett, A New Way to Find Opinion Leaders, Journal of
Advertising Research, 11(2), 1971, 21-25
[] T.E. Frland, The History of Economic Warfare: International Law, Effectiveness,
Strategies, Journal of Peace Research, 30(2), 1993, 151-163
[] P. Kotler, R. Singh, Marketing Warfare in the 1980s, Journal of Business Strategy,
1(3), 1981, 30-41
[] T. Levitt, The managerial merry-go-round, Harvard Business Review, 52(4), 1974,
[] T. Levitt, Ideas for Action, Harvard Business Review, 52(6), 1974, 6-7
[] T. Levitt, Marketing when things change, Harvard Business Review, 55(6), 1977,
[] W.F. Ogburn, The Great Man versus Social Forces, Social Forces, 5(2), 1926, 225-231.

Week 14 Course Closure
- reviewing all of the concepts, methods, and case studies presented during classes;
- reviewing the conceptual network-map of the course;
- presenting some open problems from this field of research, related to the concepts
that were studied;
- identifying the invariant conceptual directions of the PMI field.
- What founding principles for PS arise from PM and PMI: the MPSP framework
- comments on the requirements of the final paper;
- completing quizzes;

[] N.K. Malhotra, M. Peterson, S. Bardi Kleiser, Marketing Research: A State-of-the-
Art Review and Directions for the Twenty-First Century, Journal of the Academy of
Marketing Science. 27(2), 1999, 160-183
[] P.M. Rosenzweig, When Can Management Science Research Be Generalized
Internationally? Management Science, 40(1), 1994, 28-39
[] G. Zaltman, Rethinking market research: Putting people back in, Journal of
Marketing Research, 34(4), 1997, 424-437