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Amazing hustles

Amazing hustles P. 3 From Nameless, Amani to Wahu Jaguar, Juliani and Daddy Owen, we reveal

P. 3 From Nameless, Amani to Wahu Jaguar, Juliani and Daddy Owen, we reveal the side jobs that keep mu- sic stars afloat

The blunder- ing ministers

P. 10 Economist David Ndii on why Jubilee is tumbling one scam to another

Queen of crop breeding : D r J a n e Ininda has devel- oped

Queen of crop breeding: Dr Jane

Ininda has devel- oped more than 180 crop varieties and counting

has devel- oped more than 180 crop varieties and counting ∆ Nairobi | May 17, 2014
has devel- oped more than 180 crop varieties and counting ∆ Nairobi | May 17, 2014
has devel- oped more than 180 crop varieties and counting ∆ Nairobi | May 17, 2014
has devel- oped more than 180 crop varieties and counting ∆ Nairobi | May 17, 2014
has devel- oped more than 180 crop varieties and counting ∆ Nairobi | May 17, 2014

Nairobi | May 17, 2014

KSh60/00 (TSh1,700/00 : USh2,700/00 : RFr900/00)


No. 17941

SECURITY | Kenyatta defends move to empower county commissioners even as Nyong’o says it’s in bad faith

Uhuru and Cord face off as 12 killed in city blast

faith Uhuru and Cord face off as 12 killed in city blast ISHMAEL AZELI & DENISH


The aftermath of twin blasts at the popular Gikomba Market in Nairobi, where 12 people died and 78 others were injured yesterday afternoon. Right: One of the survivors at Kenyatta National Hospital. The attacks happened a day after the UK government started evacuating its citizens from Mombasa over insecurity.

Two men arrested

after twin explosions hit popular Gikomba market, leaving more than 70 people seriously injured

Big losses for hotels and other businesses as US, UK and other European countries evacuate their citizensmarket, leaving more than 70 people seriously injured Raila’s party accuses Jubilee of laxity and deceit

Raila’s party accuses Jubilee of laxity and deceit in paying Anglo Leasing debts, threatens to go to court Stories and pictures on pages 2, 4 and 5

to go to court Stories and pictures on pages 2, 4 and 5 INDEX News P.
to go to court Stories and pictures on pages 2, 4 and 5 INDEX News P.
to go to court Stories and pictures on pages 2, 4 and 5 INDEX News P.


News P. 1-18

Opinion P. 12-14

Letters P. 15

Weekend P. 19,22,37-41

International P. 42-46

Business P. 47

Sport P. 51-56

2 | National News


INSECURITY | President appeals for calm as UK evacuates its nationals on holiday

Nairobi terror attack leaves 12 dead

78 taken to hospital after twin terrorist attacks at the busy Gikomba market near the city’s central business district





T wo terror suspects were ar-

rested after twin explosions

left 12 people dead and more

than 78 injured in Gikomba market, Nairobi, yesterday. The attack came as panic spread through the international community, with Britain evacuating more than 600 tourists mainly from Mombasa and cancelling, with immediate effect, all scheduled flights from that coun- try until October 31, this year. The Kenya Tourism Federation es- timated the loss expected after the cancellation of tourist arrivals at Sh5 billion and accused the government of not taking adequate measures to deal with terrorism. President Uhuru Kenyatta, who spoke a few minutes after the twin explosions, called on the international community to instead work with Kenya to tackle what he described as fast-rising worldwide evil.

to tackle what he described as fast-rising worldwide evil. I heard the second explosion, only that

I heard the second explosion, only that this time it was louder than the first one. I saw people lying down, some of them bleeding”

Stanley Karanja, kiosk owner

Four people died instantly and more than 80 others were injured in the back-to-back explosions at the crowded Gikomba market shortly after 2pm, a few metres from the Machakos Country Bus Station. Eight more succumbed to injuries at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). Police said the blasts — two minutes apart — were caused by improvised explosive devices. Nairobi County Police Commander Benson Kibue said detectives were questioning two people arrested at the scene by the public shortly after the blast.

Buying second-hand clothes

“They were positively identified and they are in police custody,” he said. Police had, however, not linked the two suspects to the attack. Accounts of eyewitnesses interviewed by the Saturday Nation were contradictory, but police maintained that they were holding “the key suspects”. The two were apprehended as they tried to escape amid the confusion that befell the unsuspecting shoppers. The first blast went off near a structure where people were buying second-hand clothes. Two men and a woman were killed instantly while 30 others were injured. A matatu belonging to Jesmat Sacco, which was carrying passengers next to the makeshift structure, was wrecked by the impact that left the passengers with shrapnel injuries. As the public fled towards Pumwani

with shrapnel injuries. As the public fled towards Pumwani ISHMAEL AZELI | NATION Detectives at the


Detectives at the scene of the explosion that happened in Gikomba, Nairobi, yesterday. Twelve people were killed and dozens injured.

yesterday. Twelve people were killed and dozens injured. DENISH OCHIENG | NATION A victim is tagged


A victim is tagged at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, yesterday.

at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, yesterday. DENISH OCHIENG | NATION A Kenyatta National Hos- pital


A Kenyatta National Hos- pital guard restrains the public at the institution’s emergency and accident reception.

at the institution’s emergency and accident reception. Police clear the scene of the explosion. Road, another

Police clear the scene of the explosion.

Road, another blast went off about 70 metres away. One person was killed and 40 others injured in the blast. The two explosions left two holes about 30 cm deep and 45cm wide on the ground. Police had a difficult time control- ling the crowds at the scene. Second-hand clothes — some soaked in blood — were strewn all over the place. Others hang on the overhead electricity cables. Mr Fred Majiwa from the Kenya


Red Cross confirmed that dozens of people were injured in the explosions and were taken to Kenyatta National and Guru Nanak hospitals. Mr Stanley Karanja, owner of a kiosk next to the scene of one of the explosions, said that when he heard the blast, he thought it was a tyre burst. “Then I heard the second explosion, only that this time it was louder than the first one. I saw people lying down, some of them bleeding,” he said.

I saw people lying down, some of them bleeding,” he said. ISHMAEL AZELI | NATION A


A young girl is assisted at the scene of the explosion.

A young girl is assisted at the scene of the explosion. DENISH OCHIENG | NATION A


A victim arrives at Kenyatta National Hospital. Scores were seriously injured in the blast.

Preliminary investigations showed that the attackers targeted people who frequent the busy market to buy clothes and food. The rear windscreen of a white sa- loon car parked next to a structure where one of the devices went off was shattered. Another businessman, Mr Peter Ndegwa, who was unhurt, said the assailants were dressed normally. “I sell shoes next to my friend who has just passed on; he was killed by

the explosion.” A statement from Kenyatta National Hospital chief executive Lily Koros Tare said: “Patients sustained mul-

tiple fractures and shrapnel injuries. Eight patients have died (four men and four women).” Seven patients were transferred to other hospitals with Aga Khan Hos- pital taking four, Nairobi Hospital two and Mater Hospital one, leaving

69 at the country’s premier referral



National News


SHOWBIZ | Many in the local entertainment industry agree that income from performances alone is not enough

For Kenyan artistes, music alone cannot pay the bills 300,000 We have to think of
For Kenyan artistes, music
alone cannot pay the bills
We have to think of
other ways of getting
a constant flow of
The amount, in shillings, that
local musicians can now charge
for a single show. Despite that,
they have to seek other sources
of income to survive.
Singer Wahu Kagwi
Juliani: Owns a company that cre-
ates concert concepts.
Jaguar: Has investments in secu-
rity and real estate, among other

Local pop musicians must have full-time jobs or engage in businesses to supplement income



T he Kenyan entertainment

industry has turned into a

multi-million-shilling busi-

ness in the last decade. Popular musicians such as Jaguar and P-Unit say they can now charge up to Sh300,000 for a one-hour performance. Others earn between Sh100,000 and Sh200,000 — a far cry from the paltry rates of yesteryear. Despite the rising popularity of local pop music, many artistes confess that the frequency of

shows in Kenya and East Africa is wanting. It is difficult for a musician to earn a living from performances and music sales, hence many find it necessary to supplement their income. For Jaguar, whose real name is Charles Njagua, to maintain his four fuel guzzlers and flashy lifestyle, he needs more than just performances. “I have invested in other busi- nesses so I don’t have to wait for performances in order to pay my bills,” he says. The Kigeugeu singer owns a garage on Nanyuki Road in Nai- robi’s Industrial Area. He has also invested in a security firm that provides guards for offices and homes, and in real estate, with apartments in Kileleshwa and Pangani. “I’m also importing top range cars and have a fleet of taxis in Nairobi and Mombasa. I have no reason to wait for performances

to pay my bills.” Singer Kunguru is also in busi- ness – he has a garage – besides working at Standard Chartered Bank. Showbiz couple Nameless and Wahu too run businesses when they are not performing. “We co-own an audio visual company, Alternative Concepts, where we produce music and both radio and TV commercials,” says Wahu, adding that shows alone cannot help them to provide for their children.

Constant flow of income

“We have to think of other ways of getting a constant flow of income, even if the shows may pay well.” Wahu also runs a beauty parlour, Afro-Siri, in Westlands. Julius Owino aka Juliani decided to open an entertainment-related business. “I have an office at the Godown Arts Centre, with a team that creates concert concepts,” he says.

Gospel act Daddy Owen runs an events company called Loud and Clear. “Performance income is not enough in this industry,” he says. “One must look for other ways to pay bills.” Boniface Chege, who is Bon- Eye in the group P-Unit, is into green building solutions. He is the managing director of a Muthaiga- based construction consultancy company, Web Limited. “We are the only company in East Africa that consults on sustainable construction (solu- tions),” he says. “We are currently consulting on the construction of the upcoming Garden City mall in Ruaraka.” He sits in the Kenya Green Building Society committee, which seeks to create a unique building rating tool for Kenya, and he is the champion for the National Coalition for Green Schools movement. “This keeps me busy and pays my bills when we are not perform-

ing out there as P-Unit.” One of the most financially successful musicians in Kenya is Wyre, who makes a pretty penny from corporate endorsement. His two-year endorsement deal with Samsung ended last year, but he has just been signed up as brand ambassador for Sport Pesa. “When one invests heavily in

their brand, it’s easy to eat the fruits much later,” he says. “I have worked hard to build my brand and in the process, I have gotten

a nod from the corporate world.

I no longer wait for performances to pay my bills.”

Besides, he owns a recording studio, Love Child Records. Many other artistes remain in employment. Peterson Githinji (Pitson) popular for his song Lingala Ya Yesu, works at Standard Chartered Bank, while others such as Sanaipei Tande and Mimmo Wanjuhi are radio presenters.

Shock and grief as county prays for victims of toxic alcohol



Grief engulfed residents of Ka- tilini in Kitui County at a joint requiem Mass for 10 victims of poison drink. Relatives and friends of the victims wailed uncontrollably when the bodies were lowered from trucks at Katilini Primary School in Ikutha District. Among the victims were Mr Muinde Munyao, the deputy principal of Monguni Second- ary School, and primary school teachers Onesmus Maingi and Muinde Munguti. The teachers consumed the killer liquor on the opening day of the second term two weeks ago. The region’s leaders, among them Kitui Governor Julius Malombe, condemned the drinks that caused the tragedy in which 18 other people became blind. Dr Malombe said the tragedy had amplified the need for county

and national governments to put in place a comprehensive strategy for dealing with disasters . “We must accept the bitter truth that these deaths were caused by negligence, corrup- tion, bribery and incompetence in our institutional framework as well as careless living at the individual level,” said the governor in the company of his deputy, Ms Penina Malonza, and Kitui South

company of his deputy, Ms Penina Malonza, and Kitui South We must accept the bitter truth

We must accept the bitter truth that these deaths were caused by negligence, corruption, bribery and incompetence”

Kitui Governor Julius Malombe

MP Rachael Nyamai. He reminded mourners that a similar tragedy happened a few years ago at Kyumbi in Machakos County, when drinks laced with methanol claimed 52 lives. The victims were fathers, husbands, brothers and guard- ians whose deaths were needless and could have been avoided, he lamented. The governor pledged to coop- erate with government agencies to seal all loopholes and tighten mechanisms to regulate the trade and consumption of liquor. Kitui Catholic Bishop Anthony Muheria, who conducted the Mass, said it was sad that among the dead were parents. The bishop urged the commu- nity to extend compassion to the bereaved families in the spirit of good neighbourliness to enable them to overcome their loss. The bodies were transported to their respective villages in Maunguni, Yolomuni and Athi, for burial after the Mass.

in Maunguni, Yolomuni and Athi, for burial after the Mass. KITAVI MUTUA | NATION Solemn moment


Solemn moment as Katilini villagers pray for the 10 victims of poisonous liquor at the local primary school in Kitui County yesterday. The bodies were later buried in Maunguni, Yolomuni and Athi villages.

4 | National News


SCANDAL | Settlement of contracts will burden an already strained economy, coalition says

Cord denounces payments to Anglo Leasing companies





Kenyatta of







T he opposition yesterday

strongly opposed President

Uhuru Kenyatta’s directive

to the Treasury to pay two Anglo Leasing-type companies Sh1.4 bil- lion for suspicious deals. The Coalition for Reforms and Democracy (Cord) accused the President of “breaching and undermining” the Constitution, and said they would go to court to stop the payments in the interest of the public. Cord also protested at the President’s decision to delegate executive powers to county com- missioners. By doing this and also authorising the payments to the two shadowy firms despite Parlia- ment’s disapproval, the President, had broken the law with impunity, the opposition leaders claimed. “It is regrettable that the Presi- dent has turned into a rodent that is eating away at the very core of the Constitution that he swore to protect. We wish to remind him that our Constitution is not a lifeless piece in a museum,” Cord said in a statement read at a Press briefing at the Serena Hotel in Nairobi by ODM acting party leader Peter Anyang’ Nyong’o’. “It is our considered view that the President’s decree in favour of Anglo Leasing is inadequate even to invite our conscience;

impotent to warrant payment from the Exchequer; ridiculous for sanitising fraud; scandalous if brought forward to earn public support and monstrous enough to ruin our already strained economy,” he said. But asked what action they would take, Prof Nyong’o said they would consider whether to

take their case to the law courts

or leave it in the court of public

opinion. Cord co-principal Kalonzo Musyoka added: “Peaceful dem- onstration is a right of every Kenyan under the Constitution. Nobody should feel threatened by

that because what else do you do when you have a government that

is not listening to its own people.

A peaceful demonstration is an

option.” The Wiper Party leader went on: “We hope Jubilee is not doing

things that are going to get us to go to the streets, because that is

as far these things have gone.”

streets, because that is as far these things have gone.” It’s in the interest of the

It’s in the interest of the country that we make the payments, get closure and move on”

The Rev Musyimi, Budget Committee chairman



ODM’s acting party leader Anyang’ Nyong’o addresses a Press confer- ence called by Cord at the Serena Hotel in Nairobi yesterday. On the

left is Cord co-principal Kalonzo Musyoka.

Prof Nyong’o quipped: “You know this Constitution was brought about by demonstra- tions and it will be defended by demonstrations. We have profes- sional demonstrators here.” The Cord leaders described President Kenyatta’s decision to

have the two firms paid as “the

lowest ebb in our struggle to combat corruption and engender prudent management of public resources in this country.” The opposition leaders pointed out that given the central role Mr

Kenyatta played as the Leader of the Official Opposition during the investigations by the Public Ac- counts Committee in 2006, it was shocking that he would be the same person to authorise the payments. “We wonder what spiritual bap- tism the President has undergone to rationally demand the clear- ance of the fraudulent sums.” But speaking in a televised address at State House, Nairobi, President Kenyatta said he made

the “painful decision on which was the greater evil; to pay the money or put the economy at risk”. But the Cord leaders insisted that the deals were fraudulent, and, therefore, could not be honoured. Some members of the parliamentary Budget and Ap- propriations Committee, who attended a meeting with the Presi- dent at State House, Nairobi, on Thursday, told the Saturday Na- tion that he would rely on Article 223 (2) of the Constitution, which provides for Parliament’s approval to be sought for any payment out of the Consolidated Fund within two months after the first with- drawal of the money. Committee chairman Mutava Musyimi said he stood by the po- sition taken by the joint Budget and Finance committees that the country ought to pay. “These are debts that have chal- lenges, but failure to pay would provide greater challenges. We are choosing between bad and worse.

Coalition states its stand

Coalition states its stand Payment of the contracts is not in the interest of the public

Payment of the contracts

is not in the interest of the public

It amounts to sanitisingof the contracts is not in the interest of the public and honouring of fraudulent deals

and honouring of fraudulent deals

It could undermine further,

an already strained national economy.

undermine further, an already strained national economy. It is a setback to fight against corruption It’s
undermine further, an already strained national economy. It is a setback to fight against corruption It’s

It is a setback to fight

against corruption

It’s shocking for Uhuru to

pay now yet he opposed the same when he was Leader of Opposition

to fight against corruption It’s shocking for Uhuru to pay now yet he opposed the same

It’s not a choice between good and bad,” the Rev Musyimi said. He said President Kenyatta was “within the law in authorising the payment and Parliament would rightly be asked for its approval when it resumes. “As soon as we go back, we shall do what we need to do, in accordance with the law. It is in the interest of the country that we make the payment, get closure and move on,” he said.

MAY 17-23,2014
Dead capital: Why land titl
in Africa
won’t end poverty
Economists say that
land owne≥ship is
the poo≥,
one of the tools of
but studies show that the
cost and ≥ed
to productivity. arguments who
tape involved
in obtaining
fo≥ the
the titles, for
p≥oof of owne≥ship is
not necessarily become better.
continent’s poo≥
show that poor people
with titles are no more likely
obtain loans than
those without.
MAY 17-23, 2014
P. III >
B≥eathing life
into stone,
at a time
to with on
to ≥enowned the
the Onge’sa speaks
a sculptu≥e


National News


SCANDAL | President at pains to explain his decision on the security contracts

Uhuru blames Anglo Leasing pay on AG

State Law office was sloppy in defending the Government’s position on contracts




BY AGGREY MUTAMBO @agmutambo amutambo@ke.nationmedia.com Treasury to pay Sh1.4 billion to First Mercantile Securities

Treasury to pay Sh1.4 billion to First Mercantile Securities Corporation and Universal Sat Space, which took the country to courts in London (2013) and Geneva (2012), for breach of contract. First Mercantile won $10.6 million while Sat Space was awarded $7.8 million. The two companies had signed contracts worth Sh2.9 billion with Kenya but the court awards meant Kenya had to pay an equivalent of Sh1.6 billion. Treasury officials have argued they negotiated the figure down to Sh1.4 billion, but which would balloon to Sh96.6 bil- lion including interest rates, if Kenya failed to pay. When he tabled a Parlia- mentary Accounts Committee report on the procurement of passports in 2006, President Kenyatta, then the committee’s chair, observed that the con-

tracts represented “impunity, negligence and recklessness in the management of public resources.” He called them a “scam” given the way insiders in government colluded with faceless firms to dupe the gov- ernment into paying interests and fees on items that were not delivered. Yesterday, Mr Kenyatta said he still stood by those words since only the circumstances have changed. “That position still stands, but the fact of the matter is, that was a parliamentary report. I was not counsel representing this nation in the courts in London and in Geneva at the arbitration. We didn’t lose our battle in the National Assembly; we lost our battle in the courts out there. “Despite that particular

standing, there is a ruling in an international court that has made demands that Kenya must pay. We lost the case, we didn’t win it. The fact that we didn’t win it doesn’t mean that I have changed my position, I maintain my position.”


Reasons for

paying up

Enforcement of court rulings No recourse for appeal Failure to pay would block- the sovereign bond process Negative impact on sovereign rating Interest charges on the judgments would be too high


President Kenyatta addresses a press conference at State House Nairobi yesterday. He blamed lawyers in the State Law Office for failing to defend the Government’s position on the Anglo Leasing contracts competently.

The President said it was better to pay and clear the way for Kenya’s issue of a Euro Bond which the govern- ment hopes will fetch Sh132 billion to finance the next budget. Failure to pay would mean Kenya would not secure approval to issue the bond as it would be deemed to have

dishonoured its international obligations, he said. On the possibility that the payment could open up an avenue for other firms to sue for compensation, claiming they were not paid, President Kenyatta said it was the duty of the Attorney-General to pre- vent such an eventuality. Anglo Leasing involved contracts entered in between 1997 and 2003 for the deliv- ery of security services for the government which included a forensic lab, passport equip- ment and technological improvement for the Postal Corporation. They were worth Sh55 billion. But the government then did not have money so it entered lease-financing and credit and supplier credits to circumvent the departure of financial donors. According to the Treasury, 11 contracts (Sh30.5 billion) were partially completed, four of which worth Sh18.9 billion were cancelled and three worth Sh6.8 billion were fully delivered. However, of the five remain- ing (Sh13.8 billion), Kenya paid contractual penalties worth Sh7.9 billion to two, one is still being negotiated while two were subjected to court proceedings in London and Geneva.

I nternational pressure and second-rate performance by the State Law Office

condemned Kenya into pay- ing for the controversial Anglo Leasing contracts, President Kenyatta said yesterday. He tore into the Attorney General’s office and demanded that they “up their game” in fighting the country’s legal battles abroad. The revelation formed the core of the President’s argu- ment that Kenya had no choice but to pay Sh1.4 billion to two controversial firms, after los- ing cases to them in London and Geneva. “We must up our game so that our counsel can stand by what all Kenyans including myself believe that we should not be paying this and we need to be able to win all those court battles in the courtroom,” he told journalists at State House, Nairobi. “Unfortunately, out there in the international community, they are not interested in our debate here; they are interested in the ruling of the courts and whether Kenya has obeyed the ruling of the court or not,” said the President, who on Thurs- day authorised the National

THE COUNTY ASSEMBLY OF TURKANA PUBLIC NOTICE Pursuant to Article 196(1) (b) and 221(5) of
Pursuant to Article 196(1) (b) and 221(5) of the Constitution of Kenya, 2010 and Section 207 of the Public Finance Management
Act no. 18 of 2012, The Committee on County Budget & Appropriation of the County Assembly of Turkana will be conducting Public
Consultative forums on the County Budget Estimates for the Financial year 2014/2015 as forwarded to the County Assembly by the
Executive Committee Member for Finance and Planning on the 30 th April, 2014.
The dates and venues for Public Participation are as indicated below.
3 RD – 4 TH
Lapur, Kaeris,
Sub County
Lakezone,Nakalale, Kaikor/
administrator and
Kaaleng, Kibish
Ward administrators
Kakuma, Letea, Kalobeyei,
Sub County
Lopur, Lokichoggio,Songot,
administrator and
multipurpose hall)
Ward administrators
7 TH - 9 TH
JUNE, 2014
Kerio Delta, Kangatotha,
Lodwar Town
Sub County
(Ceamo hotel)
administrator and
Ward administrators
10 TH – 11 TH
Turkwel, Loima, Lobei/
Kotaruk, Lokiriam/Lorengkipi
Sub County
office hall)
administrator and
Ward administrators
12 TH – 13 TH
Lokichar, Katilu, Lobokat,
Kaputir, Kalapata.
Sub County
(RCEA hall)
administrator and
Ward administrators
14 th – 16 th
Lokori, Kapedo, Katilia
Sub County
administrator and
Ward administrators
* Submission of Memorandum by persons should be done in writing to the Clerk, County assembly of Turkana. Or send to
* The ward administrators and the sub county administrators to take lead in Sub County and Ward discussions.
* Copies of the Budget estimates can be accessed at the assembly and Ward offices.
* Members of the County Budget & Appropriation committee will guide discussions and presentations during consultative forums.
* Members of County Assembly from various sub counties are encouraged to be present during consultative forums at sub counties’
Mr. L.L. Miinyan.
Clerk, County Assembly of Turkana.


What the Government is paying two companies in the Anglo Leasing contracts after losing two court cases

Minister defends new structure


County Commissioners will be expected to exercise their new powers in line with the Constitution. The Cabinet Secretary in charge of Devolution, Ms Anne Waiguru, said yesterday that the commissioners would not be allowed to misuse the powers and would be dealt with if they did so. While addressing editors at the Ministry of Information of- fices yesterday, Ms Waiguru (right) said delegation of powers was meant to ensure proper coordina- tion at the grassroots to optimise on resources and avoid wastage. She added that the move was part of a wider plan to decen- tralise

management and create a lean, rationalised and well- coordinated government. “A key plank of the plan will be pooling of resources, both financial and human, at the grassroots with the commis- sioner exercising oversight,” she added. Consequently, a county commissioner will have a big say in the way government functions are undertaken and will be answerable to the Executive. According to the CS, the commis- sioners will be expected to work har- moniously with the devolved units

be expected to work har- moniously with the devolved units where decisions will be by consensus.

where decisions will be by consensus. If there will be no agreement, the commissioner’s word would be final. “In such a case, commis- sioners will be expected to escalate the matter to their superiors who will then de- termine whether it was the right decision. They can over- rule it if the situation demands but the commissioners will be expected to ensure there is con- sensus,” Ms Waiguru said. Later, while addressing a Press conference at State House, President Kenyatta defended the move, saying it was meant to ensure efficiency and better coordination. “It is not about control. We recognise that we live in a new dispensation. It is the people arguing the opposite who still have a mind of control. We left that when we passed the new Constitution,” he said.

6 | National News


TERRORISM | Tour company bans all bookings to Kenya until October 31

Tourists fly out as travel firms heed warnings

Flights lined up to take UK tourists back home amid fears that the move would lead to losses of Sh5 billion



B ritain yesterday stepped up the

evacuation of its citizens tour-

ing Kenya as the Government

and tourism officials protested, term- ing the decision unfair and harmful to the economy. More than 600 tourists left the Coast for the UK in two chartered planes yesterday as British tour firm Thomson Holidays informed its cli- ents that all flights up to October 31 had been cancelled. Kenya Tourism Federation vice- chairman Adam Jillo accused the US, UK, Australia and France of failing to consult them before making the deci- sion to pull out their citizens. Mr Jillo, who addressed a news conference in Nairobi, criticised the Government “for not doing enough” to reassure tourist markets that Kenya was a safe destination. He warned that the tourism sector would collapse if the government did not respond to the travel warnings, noting that the economy would lose more than Sh5 billion and 500,000 jobs over the

period of the cancellations. “Tourist are now being airlifted out of Mombasa without any consulta- tion with the private sector; we are greatly disappointed by this move,” said Mr Jillo, who urged the Govern- ment to consider increasing funding to the tourism sector to ensure its sustainability. “All indications are that the travel warnings were based on security- related information. As citizens and investors in the sector, we are greatly disappointed in the Govern- ment’s inaction because they should be handling this and reassuring citi- zens, investors and our tourist source markets,” he added. Federation chairman JS Vohra, said their members at the Coast had reported losing about 900 guests, who were all set to leave the country last night. Thomson Holidays posted an alert on its website saying; “As a result of the change in Foreign and Common- wealth Office advice, the decision has been taken to cancel all our outbound flights to Mombasa.” The alert explained that all the firm’s customers on holiday in Kenya, including air fare passengers would be flown back to the UK on Thursday and yesterday while all flights to the country before October 31 had been cancelled. “We understand that many custom- ers will be very disappointed about the cancellation of their holidays but in these types of situations we

of their holidays but in these types of situations we I am angry that I have
of their holidays but in these types of situations we I am angry that I have

I am angry that I have to return home prematurely without completing my holiday”

Tourist Gary



Tourists wait to board the Thomson flight back to the UK at the Moi International Airport in Mombasa yesterday.

have to follow the FCO advice,” the notice said. Australia also updated its travel ad- vice, urging its citizens to reconsider their need to travel to Mombasa and Nairobi in the wake of recent terror- ist attacks. Britain warned its citizens against travelling to Mombasa, Eastleigh in Nairobi and areas within 60 kilome- tres of the Kenya–Somalia border unless travel was essential and una- voidable.

Safe destination

The top five tourist source mar- kets for Kenya are UK with 149,699 arrivals, US with 115,636, Italy with 79,993 and India and Germany at 64,887 and 60,450 respectively ac- cording to the tourism performance results in 2013. Mombasa County Commissioner Nelson Marwa sought to assure Ken- yans and foreigners that Mombasa was a safe destination contrary to the warnings and that security had been

beefed up in hotels, ferries, airports, supermarkets and entertainment spots. Mr Marwa said activities at the Moi International Airport were nor- mal. “There is peace in Mombasa and foreigners should continue with their normal business without being frightened.” Moi International Airport, Area Manager Yatich Kangugo said the airport was secure. According to the BBC, the warning against non-essential travel covered Mombasa Island, Kiwayu and coastal areas north of Pate Island, the Gar- issa district, Eastleigh, the slums of Nairobi and areas within 60km of the Kenya-Somalia border. The advice did not include the Diani beach resort or Moi Interna- tional Airport. British tourists expressed disap- pointment at the abrupt interruption of their holiday at the South Coast. Some of them had only been in the country for three days and were

yet to tour national parks and herit- age sites. Mr Stefan Arlow, who was vaca-

tioning at Amani Tiwi, said he was informed that tourists were to quickly leave the country and return home and that he flew back home against his wish.

“I am disappointed to be told that

I should be evacuated yet I was to relax after working and saving for the holiday,” he said while waiting to board his flight. Mr Gary Roberts said he “was gut-

ted” by the requirement to go back to England after “a short time on holiday in a beautiful country.” He said: “I am angry that I have to return home prematurely without completing my holiday.”

A disappointed Sheila Simon said:

“I had to obey the directive to go home but this decision is not good for me.”

Reported by Lilian Onyango, Yvonne Kawira and Bozo Jenje

In your

I n y o u r Tomorrow The week Uhuru would rather forget P resident Uhuru
I n y o u r Tomorrow The week Uhuru would rather forget P resident Uhuru
I n y o u r Tomorrow The week Uhuru would rather forget P resident Uhuru


I n y o u r Tomorrow The week Uhuru would rather forget P resident Uhuru

The week Uhuru would rather forget

P resident Uhuru Kenyatta ended his week with an address to the nation that was punctuated by blasts in Gikomba market. It was the same

day that he was painstakingly explaining to the public why he had to pay Sh1.4 billion to the infamous Anglo Leasing companies against positions he had taken as Opposition leader and as Finance minister. News of the controversial payout came as British tour operators evacuated their nationals from the Coast over terrorism fears, striking a major blow to local tourism. We take a closer look at these events and explain what they really mean for Kenya.

Why Kidero is at a crossroads

Nairobi Governor Evans Kidero’s political career was thrown into a tailspin this week when he lost his seat in an election petition at the Court of Appeal. He rushed to the Supreme Court and appealed the decision – and will stay in office until a decision is made. Should the Supreme Court judges endorse the decision to send him back to the electorate, he will run headlong into political waters far more turbulent than last year’s general election. Find out why this is a moment of truth for the Nairobi governor.

out why this is a moment of truth for the Nairobi governor. lifestyle Kenyan girl who


Kenyan girl who loves working for Mayweather

Kenyan Grace Nabwire Haukwa is working

for one of the richest sportsmen in history, Floyd Mayweather Junior. Three weeks ago, undefeated Mayweather chalked up his 46th win in professional boxing, defeating Argentina’s resilient World Boxing Association welterweight champion Marcos Maidana. The bout earned Mayweather – Mr Money to his friends – a massive $70 million, or Sh6 billion. Read about Nabwire’s encounters

with the boxer and what she is doing for him.

Only in the SUNDAY NATION. Don’t miss your copy

Low funding causes crisis in day schools


Public day schools have been thrown into a crisis after the Government re- leased less money for the free learning. The Ministry of Education has disbursed only Sh1,550 instead of Sh3,000 for each child as the second tranche due to the day schools. In total, the government has disbursed Sh2.7 billion against the expected Sh4.7 billion for 2,057,198 students in secondary schools. Each day secondary school student is allocated Sh10,265 a year. The amount is paid in three tranches. According to the govern- ment’s schedule, the first tranche to be paid out is 50 per cent of Sh10,265 which is sent out in Janu- ary. Second term allocation is 30 per cent which is sent out before schools open in April. The rest — 20 per cent — is released in August for the third term.

20 per cent — is released in August for the third term. Mr John Awiti, KSSHA

Mr John Awiti, KSSHA Chair- man

Many heads of secondary schools contacted by the Saturday Nation said the money released early this month was too little to run the schools with. “Most headteachers will be forced to beg the suppliers to be patient with the arrears and also to pick new merchandise without paying. It is a chal- lenge we are facing, we are being pushed to debts,” said the Kenya Secondary School Heads Association chairman, Mr John Awiti. The funds go into pur- chasing learning materials, pay non-teaching staff and run the school feeding pro- gramme.



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8 | National News


ICC TRIAL | Bench dissatisfied with early adjournment

Ruto case put off as court drops witness

Judges grant prosecution’s request and postpone hearing to June 16

reconvenes, the court ruled yesterday. However, presiding judge Chile Eboe-Osuji, who read the decision on behalf of judges Robert Fremr and Olga Herrera, expressed the Chamber’s “serious dissatis- faction” with the prosecution over the earlier-than-expected adjournment. The session was to run for four weeks but has only lasted three days following the wit- ness’ withdrawal. The judges directed the prosecution to use “all avail- able means, including seeking summons for witnesses”, to ensure the case is not put off again when it resumes.

Release this witness

Yesterday, the defence requested the prosecution to present its four remaining wit- nesses to testify at once in the next session. “We want this case to close before summer break,” said Mr Ruto’s lead de- fence counsel Karim Khan. The four do not include the eight the Chamber directed the Kenya Government to compel to testify. The defence has asked to appeal the ruling and the State also wants to take part as a friend of the court. Mr Sang’s lawyer, Ms Caro- line Buisman, supported that the four witnesses testify in “one formal session.”




T he trial of Deputy

President William

Ruto and former radio

journalist Joshua arap Sang has been adjourned to June 16 as the prosecution’s case nears closure. The withdrawal of Witness P-0025 by the prosecution led to the adjournment. In its request to withdraw the witness, the prosecution said he was unable to accu- rately recall or give a coherent and consistent account of crit- ical parts of the evidence that it had intended to lead from him, hours before he was set to begin his testimony. Mr Ruto will be required to be present for the first two days when the session

to be present for the first two days when the session ‘‘ The Chamber grants the


The Chamber grants the prosecution application to withdraw the witness”

ICC Judge Chile Eboe-Osuji

INQUEST | Probe into Wanjiru’s death

INQUEST | Probe into Wanjiru’s death PAUL WAWERU | NATION Top: Security guard Stephen Maigwa Kamau
INQUEST | Probe into Wanjiru’s death PAUL WAWERU | NATION Top: Security guard Stephen Maigwa Kamau
INQUEST | Probe into Wanjiru’s death PAUL WAWERU | NATION Top: Security guard Stephen Maigwa Kamau


Top: Security guard Stephen Maigwa Kamau swears before testifying yesterday at the Milimani Law Courts in Nairobi, in the inquest into the death of Olympic marathon champion Samuel Wanjiru. Also in court were Wanjiru’s mother Hannah Wanjiru (left) and widow Trizah Njeri. Chief magistrate Hannah Ndung’u is conducting the inquest.

Attacks leave 11 dead in two counties



The death toll in the inter- clan clashes along the Wajir and Mandera counties border yesterday rose to 11 with the death of two more people. The clashes between the Garre and Degodia clans have also left scores injured and displaced. The victims of yesterday’s attacks died in the hands of gunmen in Gunana location of Tarbaj district in Wajir. The clashes started on Tues- day when three men from the Degodia clan were killed in the border location of Burmayow, as they worked on a road project that the rival clan was opposed to. On Thursday gunmen from the Degodia clan on a revenge mission opened fire on a matatu in the outskirts of Rhamu division in Mandera County killing six people. Two grass-thatch houses were also torched in Waberi location, Wajir East District, last night by unknown peo- ple prompting the locals to vacate the village in fear of attacks. Wajir Deputy county com- missioner Jacob Narego who visited the scene linked the arson to the border dispute.

of attacks. Wajir Deputy county com- missioner Jacob Narego who visited the scene linked the arson


National News


GOLDEN JUBILEE | Aga Khan’s Rays of Light exhibition set for Nairobi

| Aga Khan’s Rays of Light exhibition set for Nairobi His Highness the Aga Khan recently

His Highness the Aga Khan recently completed 50 years as Imam (spiritual leader) of the Shia Ismaili Muslims. As part of the Golden Jubilee celebrations, the Ismaili community will be hosting an exhibition that depicts the Aga Khan’s commitment to improving the human condition over the past 50 years. The exhibition will be held at the Aga Khan Reli- gious and Cultural Centre in Parklands, Nairobi, from tomorrow to May 25. The ex- hibition has been to France, Portugal, the US, the United Kingdom, the United Arab Emirates, Uganda, Canada and Tanzania. Viewing is by appointment.


INVESTIGATION | Lawyer promises to evaluate claims professionally and objectively

Muite to lead Malili land probe

DPP instructs senior counsel to review allegations against Muthama, LSK boss



T he fate of Machakos Senator Johnstone Muthama, Law Society of Kenya chairman

Eric Mutua and seven others over claims of fraud in the Sh1 billion Malili ranch sale now lies with law-

yer Paul Muite.

Director of Public Prosecutions Keriako Tobiko has instructed the senior counsel to review the recom- mendations of the Directorate of Criminal Investigation (DCI) and decide whether or not the group should be prosecuted. The lawyer is required to scruti- nise the police records, witness and suspects’ statements, and all docu- mentary evidence. “We would like you to advise our office on whether sufficient evidence is disclosed to prosecute the suspects or any other person named in the in- quiry file. We would also want you to conduct on our behalf any prosecution that may ensue in relation to the mat-

any prosecution that may ensue in relation to the mat- Paul Muite ter,” said Mr Tobiko.

Paul Muite

ter,” said Mr Tobiko. The DCI last month asked the DPP to arrest and prosecute Mr Muthama and Mr Mutua among others, saying it had obtained evidence linking them to fraud and forgery in the land sale.

Former Information and Com- munications permanent secretary Bitange Ndemo, Commission on Implementation of the Constitution member Kamotho Waiganjo, Mr James Waweru, formerly of the At- torney-General’s office, and former Lands Commissioner Zablon Mabea were in the list. The others are Mr Peter Mutua Kanyi, Mr Julius Maweu Kilonzo and lawyer Alphonce Munene Mutinda. The recommendations followed investigation into alleged misap- propriation of Sh1 billion paid by the Government to purchase 5,000 acres of the ranch for the construction of the proposed Konza Technology City.



Police officers gun down phone thief

Police shot dead a mugger and recovered a stolen mobile phone at a matatu terminus yesterday. The panga-wielding mugger who was in a group of three had threatened to attack matatu at- tendants who attempted to re- cover the phone snatched from a traveller in the 4am incident. Divisional Police Commander Bernard Kioko said that police shot the man when he attempted to attack an officer who had con- fronted him.


Patient locked up to clear TB dosage

A court yesterday ordered a TB patient to be locked up at King’ong’o prison for a year to finish his treatment. Mr Anthony Wambari had been charged with absconding medication thrice on diverse dates between November 19, 2013 and April 2 in Tetu. He pleaded guilty before Resident Magistrate Catherine Mburu who said be released only when tested and found to have recovered.


Man charged with rape of minor freed on bond

A man was yesterday charged with raping a 10-year-old girl in Nyandarua County. Mr Samuel Karanja Ndegwa, who appeared before Nyahururu resident mag- istrate Rose Mukenga, denied the charge. He was released on Sh200,000 bond. In the same court, Mr Boniface Mwangi de- nied raping a 13-year-old girl at Salama in Laikipia County. The case will be heard on July 29.

Mr Boniface Mwangi de- nied raping a 13-year-old girl at Salama in Laikipia County. The case
Mr Boniface Mwangi de- nied raping a 13-year-old girl at Salama in Laikipia County. The case
Mr Boniface Mwangi de- nied raping a 13-year-old girl at Salama in Laikipia County. The case
Mr Boniface Mwangi de- nied raping a 13-year-old girl at Salama in Laikipia County. The case
Mr Boniface Mwangi de- nied raping a 13-year-old girl at Salama in Laikipia County. The case
Mr Boniface Mwangi de- nied raping a 13-year-old girl at Salama in Laikipia County. The case
Mr Boniface Mwangi de- nied raping a 13-year-old girl at Salama in Laikipia County. The case
Mr Boniface Mwangi de- nied raping a 13-year-old girl at Salama in Laikipia County. The case
Mr Boniface Mwangi de- nied raping a 13-year-old girl at Salama in Laikipia County. The case
Mr Boniface Mwangi de- nied raping a 13-year-old girl at Salama in Laikipia County. The case
Mr Boniface Mwangi de- nied raping a 13-year-old girl at Salama in Laikipia County. The case

10 | Special Report


GOVERNANCE | The Government has failed to adjust to the Constitution, preferring the old system of ruling

Why Jubilee has become a byword for blunder

system of ruling Why Jubilee has become a byword for blunder Uhuru’s novice Cabinet and the




and the


search for

new foreign


suggest a


that is



David Ndii

A few weeks ago, I was

shooting the breeze

with friends in one of

those conversations we call in my language shortening the evening—an oxymoron, since they almost invariably go on to the small hours. As this was around the Jubilee Government’s one year anniver- sary we pondered a little bit on how it might fare in the second year. The one thing on which there was unanimity was that the Jubi- lee Government could be relied on to continue blundering. As one usually prescient politi- cal observer put it, if there is a banana skin on the other side- walk, Jubilee will cross the road to skid on it. As if on cue, we watch helplessly as the Government scales the walls of the cemetery to go waking up ghosts — I am talking about Anglo Leasing. In another one of his now predictably intemperate op-eds, the President’s speech writer at- tempted a satirical spin on the blundering, blaming everyone from corrupt civil servants to analogue citizens for frustrat- ing Jubilee’s gallant efforts to run a “clean government and sound financial management” (I keep telling you they are smok- ing something these people!). Judging from the comments on the article on the web, it was a blunder. As an economist, I much pre- fer to draw my conclusions from data. For this article, I did a two second opinion poll on the Jubilee Government. I googled “Jubilee Government blunders” and Jubi- lee Government achievements.” Results were as follows. Blunders:

5.5 million hits. Achievements: 1.2 million. It could of course be that the results for blunders are spiked by reactions to the speech writer’s article. Not quite. A search for “Eric Ng’eno Jubilee Blunders” yields 770,000 hits. So even excluding the reactions to the article, the public association of Jubilee with blunder is at least three times as likely as associa- tion with achievement. So what is ailing Jubilee? Three things. Institutional change, para- digm paralysis and leadership.

Big challenge

Institutional change. Jubilee seems totally befuddled by the challenge of institutional change brought about by the new Con- stitution. Much of the public focus has been on devolution. This is part of it, but not the big- gest challenge. For the national government, the change from a parliamentary to presidential sys- tem is the bigger challenge. Take the complete separation of Executive and Parliament. In the old system, every ministry had at least one and typically two assistant ministers. With 30 ministries, and more than 40 in the last one, this meant that the President had a team of at least 80. This has now been reduced to 20. This requires a very radi- cal re-configuration of both the functions of the Executive and how it works. Jubilee does not seem to have recognised this, and continues to

does not seem to have recognised this, and continues to FILE | NATION From left: Cabinet


From left: Cabinet Secretaries Adan Mohammed, Najib Balala and Jacob Kaimenyi during a Cabinet retreat at Mount Kenya Safari Club in Nanyuki on March 7. The government has failed to adjust to the Constitution, prefer- ring the old way of doing things.

try and work like in the old sys- tem. So the Cabinet Secretaries find themselves running all over the place, permanently over- worked, not achieving very much, but they can’t seem to figure out why. It’s rather like watching a beginner swim — furious violent motion, water all over the place, very little movement. But perhaps the more poign- ant study is the tension between the two offices of Secretary to the Cabinet and the President’s Chief of Staff. The Secretary to the Cabinet position is established by the Constitution. It is the lesser half the job of the previous posi- tion of Head of the Civil Service and Secretary to the Cabinet. The Chief of Staff is not in the Constitution but it is a common position in presidential systems of government. It is more or less an elevated position of the Comptroller of State House. The problem here is not with the positions per se but one of the President bungling the transition. The first mistake was to appoint the two senior-most bureaucrats in the previous system to the two positions. In a presidential sys- tem, both positions are below the positions the two incumbents held previously. What we are now see- ing is a re-creation of the powerful Chief Secretary position occupied by Ambassador Francis Muth- aura and his predecessors. But the Constitution abolished this position because it does not fit in presidential system with executive Cabinet Secretaries. It would not have taken much work to devise a State House staff structure for a presidential system. A good place to begin would be to google “White House Organizational Chart.” There, you find that the President’s Chief of

Staff has two dockets under him, a Deputy Chief of Staff for Policy and Deputy Chief of Staff for Op- erations. The functions under the deputy for policy are similar to those for the Secretary to the Cabinet while those of the deputy for operations are similar to those of the Comptroller of State House. The way I would have gone about it is to add Chief of Staff portfolio to the Secretary to the Cabinet position and then create under it “Deputy Chief for Cabinet Affairs and Policy”, and “Deputy Chief for Administration and Comptroller of State House.” The President has gone on to add security docket to his chief of staff. We now find ourselves with a clueless innkeeper and overworked twice retired bean counter as our security policy chiefs. Terrorists, muggers and alcohol poisoners beware. It is fairly obvious that there is a big gap somewhere between the President and the security agencies. How does the country whose system we have copied do it? Most people will remember Condi Rice, George Bush’s bril- liant, elegant National Security Adviser. Here’s the Wikipedia entry for the US National

Adviser. Here’s the Wikipedia entry for the US National The Cabinet Secretaries find themselves running all

The Cabinet Secretaries find themselves running all over the place, permanently overworked while not achieving very much but they can’t seem to figure out why.”

David Ndii

Security Adviser:

“The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (APNSA), is a senior official in the Executive Office of the President who serves as the chief adviser, stationed in the White House, to the President of the United States on national security issues. This person also participates in the meetings of the National Security Council. He or she is supported by the National Security Council staff that produces research, briefings, and intelligence for the APNSA to review and present either to the National Security Council or directly to the President.” Enough said. Paradigm paralysis. For the last two decades at least our de- velopment policy has been led by the Washington Consensus which, reduced to its core, is the dictum that free markets equals growth equals development. Free markets tick. Growth tick. Development? This is what I call paradigm paralysis. The Bretton Woods institutions who we have relied on to provide intellectual leadership to our de- velopment policies have yet to come up with another paradigm to replace it. The problem is not that there are no viable develop- ment ideas. Their problem is one of a paradigm that has them, and aid, in the driver’s seat — for the radically inclined, a paradigm that perpetuates dependency. For a while, they were onto in- frastructure, but then the Chinese ran away with that show. The Washington Consensus has been dealt a serious body blow by the global financial crisis. Finally, the penny has dropped. The rich also cry. But having never before

thought for themselves, our leaders now wander the geo- political wilderness looking for new foreign masters. It is said that if you don’t know where you are going, any road will get you there. So they roam. China, Russia, Brazil, Turkey, Nigeria. The one place they don’t look is inward, to their people. Leadership. In his memoir From Third World to First: The Singapore Story, Lee Kwan Yew had this to say: After several years in government I realised that the more talented people I had as ministers, administrators and professionals, the more ef- fective my policies were, and the better the results.” I was in a social place I fre- quent when both instalments of

the Jubilee Cabinet were unveiled. The most common reaction to the appointees was “who is he?” or “who is she?” followed by “re- ally?” These reactions of course do not mean that the people are not talented, but the fact that

a broad cross section of the

country’s top professionals and business leaders had not heard


three quarters of the Cabinet


pretty unusual.

When we pick our national foot- ball team or Olympics athletics squad, you expect people who follow the sport to know most,

if not all the team members. I

don’t have any data but I would be surprised if there are many prec-

edents where a president picked Cabinet members from a bunch of CVs submitted by cronies. Cabinet calibre people would not have to

send CVs to be scrutinised. Their public credentials should speak for themselves. There are two primary motiva- tions why leaders choose weak teams. One is lack of confidence

to lead people who are just as or

more accomplished than he or she is. Such leaders choose peo- ple who cannot be threats to their position. The other is leaders who value loyalty more than ability. Such leaders choose people who will know that they owe their po- sition to the leader, not to their credentials. Take your pick. Having made his bed thus, you would think that the President

would be happily rolling on it. No. Having no substantive achieve- ment to report in his inaugural State of the Nation address, he shoves out his hapless Cabinet to take the bullet for him. And now with frustration rising, they throw tantrums, lashing out at anything and everyone, civil society, media, opposition — it is everyone’s fault but their own. It is Charles Njonjo, that re- freshingly forthright sage, who foretold many years ago, at an- other time like this, that when the leading sheep limps, the flock does not reach the pasture. Thankfully, times have changed. Thanks to democratisation, eco- nomic liberalisation, devolution and our nascent constitutional- ism, Jubilee is not Baba na Mama, and theUhuruto Error is not going

to be around for 24 years.

David Ndii is managing di- rector of Africa Economics. ndii@netsolafrica.com


Special Report


TELECOMS | Mixed fortunes for operators as one makes profits, others losses

Collymore banks on M-Pesa growth to make more billions

T elecoms operator Sa- faricom on Monday announced a record

Sh18.8 billion dividend pay- out after it reported a 31.4 per cent jump in net profit to Sh23 billion for the year ended March. Safaricom said the record profits had come on the back of strong growth in non-voice business including short mes- sage service (SMS), mobile Internet and money transfer service M-Pesa. At Sh23 billion, Safaricom added nearly Sh7 billion to its profit in a year — having reported Sh17.5 billion the previous year. Bob Collymore, the chief ex-

ecutive spoke to Okuttah Mark on the industry’s outlook and how Safaricom plans to main- tain its profits momentum in the coming years. Excerpts.

Safaricom’s voice service rev- enue grew to Sh86.3 billion and accounted for 62 per cent of your service revenue down from 66 per in the previous year, what explains this decline? The decline is mainly arising from the new subscribers we added in the year whose aver- age revenue per user (ARPU) is lower compared to our old subscribers. We are also seeing the voice contracting as subscribers shift to messaging services such as WhatsApp. But it is important to remember that these realities did not prevent the voice rev- enue from growing by a robust 11 per cent. Kenyans do not use their mobile phones for luxury ac- tivities but as an essential tool for production. This effectively means that when life becomes tougher they reduce the amount they spend on food but retain the communication budget.

The government is one of the biggest beneficiaries from the im- pressive financial results and must be delighted by the Sh6.6 billion dividend cheque you are about to write. How do you feel about this? I think it is very positive that we are the biggest dividend payer to the government. Apart from the Sh6.6 billion dividend, last year we paid a total of 47.5 billion in taxes, spectrum fees and duties, taking our total con- tribution to the Exchequer past the Sh50 billion mark.

With this kind of a relationship, does it make it harder for the Com- munications Authority of Kenya (CAK) to regulate Safaricom? We have a very healthy rela- tion with the regulator. The government and CAK are ac- tually two separate things. CAK is an independent authority. Di- rector general Francis Wangusi and I are sometimes very good friends and sometimes really bad enemies, but I respect the work that the DG (Wangusi) does and I think he also re- spects what I do. I think there is a natural tension that exists between the regulators and the entities they regulate.

Some of the newly licensed mobile virtual network operators (MVNO) have indicated they will charge lower voice rates compared to the current tariffs. Is Safaricom prepared for another round of price wars? We believe in offering quality services; I don’t see how low they can go because already we have operators offering free calls, which we have all seen is not sustainable. Not unless the MVNO say they will be paying subscribers for using their lines.

is, however, important to note that we are still offering the other post-paid plans.

M-Pesa and data seem to be your key growth drivers. How do you plan to increase their uptake in this competitive market? M-Pesa is at the forefront in deepening financial inclusion in Kenya. In the past year, we launched the revolutionary Lipa na M-Pesa service that enables our customers to carry out day-to-day transactions on a cashless basis. Our priority this year is to commercialise this service by growing the number of active merchants and making Lipa na M-Pesa the preferred electronic payment platform. This will make a significant contribution to the lives of our customers and acceler- ate Kenya towards a cash-lite economy. Currently we have 122,000 Lipa na M-Pesa merchants recruited and 24,137 actively using the service. On data, we are now ready to roll out LTE (4G), subject to avail- ability of spectrum, to deliver super-fast broadband. This will extend the reach of data and the Internet, in- cluding the provision of WiFi access to schools in support of the government’s digital education programme. We have had successful LTE trials in 10 sites within Nairobi and Mombasa, realis- ing 70Mbps data speeds. We will also be increasing smartphone and 3G device penetration through cost ef- fective

ity offers and continue with our push on relevant content, social media and applications.

Safaricom’s licence is coming up for renewal next month. Have you reached any agreement with the industry regulator, especially on the quality of service? The negotiations went well and we reached an agreement with the regulator on most of the conditions. On the quality of service we agreed that CAK should engage an independent firm to conduct an independent fresh study.

This interview was first pub- lished yesterday in Business Daily.


What strategies do you have to counter this kind of competition? We remain steadfast in our goal to provide the best net- work experience supported by significant investments in fibre roll-out and network modernisation. We continue to focus on our “Best Network in Kenya” pro- gramme. We invested Sh27.8 billion in the network in the year under review and our goal is to provide the best customer experience through improving our network quality, capacity and coverage.

Safaricom is mulling a possible scrapping of its lower end post-paid services (those currently paying Sh1,000 and Sh2,500). What is the logic behind this move? This was a tactical tariff we came up with during the price war period, but to be honest it is not earning us any money. We are planning to restructure it subject to an approval from the regulator. It

I think there is a natural tension between the regulators and the entities they regulate”

I think there is a natural tension between the regulators and the entities they regulate”

Bob Collymore,

Safaricom chief


Is Safaricom shortchanging its customers?

S afaricom is undoubtedly the most successful com- pany in Kenya, a phenomenal brand by any standard. Kenyans are accustomed to its green and red ring of

confidence and to its omnipresence. It is the largest com- pany in East and Central Africa and the biggest contributor

to the national coffers. Its “Niko na Safaricom’ adverts are generally patriotic, showing the sights and sounds of Kenya — though unrepresentative of the faces of Kenya. Its in- novations such as the mobile money service M-Pesa have placed the country in the league of the top innovators in mobile telephony. However, the “better option” is anything but that. Making

a simple phone call has become something akin to a lottery,

a challenge. Mobile users have become accustomed to high

call charges, poor network connectivity and voice quality. The services are unreliable and unpredictable. Phones be- have as if they are switched off or engaged when they are not. The most common words you are likely to hear when making and receiving calls, which has become part of our vocabulary, are “sorry, network problem, or wrong number.” When you make a call, it drops or goes to a wrong number or straight to a voicemail. Every Kenyan must have ex-

perienced problems with mobile phone reception. Either there is no mobile signal, or where there is, it is not possible to connect or sustain a call. Most users will say they have experienced dropped calls, incomprehensible speech and a voice quality that mimics speaking from the bottom of a water tank. It is common to call a regular number like that of your wife, husband or business partner but the call is misdirected to a stranger. Your call goes through but the receiver cannot hear you

or they can hear but you cannot. You are billed for your troubles. The ability to make or receive calls or texts is the most important aspect of mobile phone reception. But is Safaricom making supernormal profit by cutting corners, compromising quality, charging calls it ought not to? How does it explain the routine calls break ups, glitches or misconnections, misdirection of calls, the inability of the users to sustain conversation for more than five minutes? It cannot be explained why every call you make is likely to result in a drop call, disconnection, miscon- nection, or it’s of poor sound quality, breaks up or it ends unexpectedly. Safaricom will still charge you for a service it did not provide. Mind you, for every 10 mobile users eight are Safaricom’s. I am yet to hear of any Safaricom loyalist like myself ever being refunded. The level of dissatisfaction is so high that there would have been a mass exodus of mobile users if there was an alterna- tive network with a similar brand awareness and coverage. Mobile users would generally switch networks depending on the voice quality, connection, coverage, ability to make or receive calls easily, reasonable charges, clarity in billing, flexibility of schemes and easy accessibility of the service provider’s customer care services. Safaricom has a duty to provide its customers with a re- liable and working network. It ought to invest in network system. It has an absolute monopoly and that is where the problem lies. Due to the absence of vital competition in the market, Safaricom has failed to upgrade its network or manage traffic congestion. Traffic management is a tool to effectively protect the security and integrity of networks and restrict the transmis- sion to end-users of unsolicited communication. It ought to increase its capacity concurrently with demand on its services. It has to tackle network congestion and prioritise traffic to avoid overload. Safaricom makes phenomenal profits and does not lack the capital to invest in upgrading the system. It announced this week that it has made a net profit of over Sh23 billion for the financial year ending March 2014. The Communications Authority of Kenya, should not allow such deterioration of service. It should require Safaricom to invest a certain percentage of its profit in improving the network. It should renew its licence subject to guarantees of improved services. The size of Safaricom would intimidate any regulator. It shouldn’t if you stick to the law.

any regulator. It shouldn’t if you stick to the law. How does the company explain the

How does the company explain the routine call break-ups, misconnections or inability of customers to sustain a call for more than five minutes”

Abdiwahid Biriq

The author is a lawyer and a partner at the firm of Sagana, Biriq & Company Advocates. biriq@saganabiriq.com

12 | Opinion


12 | Opinion SATURDAY NATION May 17, 2014 This is not how to make Kenya great

This is not how to make Kenya great

P resident Kenyatta issued two directives on

Thursday that threw the country into a spin.

First, he appointed 47 county commissioners

to direct and coordinate functions of the national government at the grassroots, including taking charge of security. Second, he directed the National Treasury to pay Sh1.4 billion to two Anglo Leasing related-compa- nies on account of a court ruling in favour of the firms. Mr Kenyatta said the country risked being ostracised and blacklisted by international money lenders if it ignored the ruling. The directives drew public uproar, with the Oppo- sition Cord Coalition addressing a press conference in which it termed the decisions unconstitutional, preposterous and unacceptable and threatened to use both the courts and public protests to challenge them. Inevitably, the bubbling public anger compelled President Kenyatta to address Kenyans yesterday to clarify the issues, insisting that he had acted in the public interest. His position on the appointment of the county commissioners was that he was simply delegating powers of coordination of government business and that he was not in any way attempting to un- dermine the devolved governments. Thus, the objective was to enhance service delivery. But he never addressed the constitutionality of the decision and the fact that he was re-enacting an old order and an archaic structure that Kenyans fought ferociously to dismantle. Experience has shown that when the leadership begins to couch its decisions and actions in terms such as service delivery and enforcing peace and stability, the intention is always to numb the public when grave atrocities and transgressions are being committed. Anglo Leasing remains a blot on the country’s fiscal report. President Kenyatta himself admitted that having to pay made him feel terrible, especially because he believed Anglo Leasing was a fraud against Kenyans. His only justification was that Kenya’s hands were tied since an international arbi- tration court had sanctioned the payments. But this raises fundamental questions that must be confronted. Must Kenya commit an illegality by paying for Anglo Leasing deals just for the sake of unlocking international cash through the Eu- robond? Can the Government explain to Kenyans what the Eurobond is all about and why it is the only avenue for raising cash? Is the amount in- volved worth mortgaging Kenya for? An argument that has been advanced is that fail- ure to pay would put our embassies abroad at the risk of auction. Nothing could be farther from the truth for foreign missions are inviolable since they are protected by the Vienna Convention of 1961. Put together, the two directives do not cast President Kenyatta and the government in good light. An impression is being created of a govern- ment hell-bent on violating the Constitution, that is insular, insensitive and driven by arrogance and self-preservation. If the President read the public mood correctly, he would realise there is discomfort all around and that he needs to review some of his decisions and actions. As they say, might is not always right.


LINUS GITAHI: Chief Executive Officer JOSEPH ODINDO: Group Editorial Director DENIS GALAVA: Managing Editor

Published at Nation Centre, Kimathi Street and printed at Mombasa Road, Nairobi by Nation Media Group Limited POB 49010, Nairobi 00100 GPO Tel: 3288000, 0719038000. Fax 221396 editor@ke.nationmedia.com Registered at the GPO as a newspaper

Registered at the GPO as a newspaper FOOD SECURITY | Magesha Ngwiri Just when will MCAs

FOOD SECURITY | Magesha Ngwiri

Just when will MCAs realise the need to save their starving voters?

will MCAs realise the need to save their starving voters? This country has enough resources to

This country has enough resources to feed its 41 million inhabitants if only the wastage and corruption in government was checked

S tarvation is a figure of speech for most Ken- yans. When they miss

a meal, they walk around with sulky, downcast faces and growl at friend and foe, acting as though the whole world has come crashing down on them. And although they claim loudly that they are starv- ing, at least they have an idea where their next meal is coming from, which merely means they are hungry at that particular moment. Not so a sizeable number of Kenyans, both in rural and urban areas. Starvation is when you have not swallowed a morsel for days on end, the body juices start digesting your innards, there is nothing to eat anywhere within walking distance, and even if there was, there is no strength to go fetch it. Early this week, it was reported that a Baringo woman stalked her neigh- bour’s cat, killed it, skinned it, and roasted it so that her two-year-old child and 80-year-old mother could eat their first meal in many days. Fortunately for the fam- ily, the neighbour did not rush to the chief demanding payment for her pet; she

reported the grisly incident, and probably saved this par- ticular family from starving to death. This is not a pretty story. It is the stuff of deep pa- thos. How many people have been forced to eat dogs, rodents and bugs just to survive? Nobody should be starving in this day and age. Spent well, this country has enough resources to feed its 41 million inhabit- ants. A country that has never known real war, one that is dreaming of becom- ing a middle income state in the next 16 years, and one that is undertaking multi-billion-shilling infra- structure projects, is also the same country that has


It is the constitutional obligation of governments to ensure no citizens die of starvation. If it fails in this cardinal duty, then it has no reason for being”

become congenitally inca- pable of feeding its people. Why does that happen? I do not have the answers, but I could hazard some. First, we waste too much on non-essential stuff — and staff. A lot of men and women in government em- ploy are holding sinecures. They are under-employed, but they consume a huge chunk of money which should go towards helping the unemployable. Sooner or later, the government will have to right-size its workforce, which will mean massive layoffs. It will be a bitter pill to swallow, but there is no way around it. Secondly, there is a great deal of pilferage from gov- ernment coffers. In fact, theft, misuse, and misappro- priation of taxpayers’ money goes on with impunity, and apparently the government is helpless to stop it. The third is the same old song of runaway grand cor- ruption which successive governments have vowed to fight and failed to do so. This is hardly surprising. The most corrupt people are in government, whether as civil servants, or as political leaders. But the biggest problem is massive — widespread ignorance which has made it impossible for many to grow enough to feed themselves. I have no intention of delving into the rather hackneyed technicalities about not rely- ing on rain-fed agriculture, crop rotation, wise use of in- puts, and so on. I am talking of small farmers who sell

their manure so they can buy fertiliser. That kind of ignorance is guaranteed to lead to poor harvests, rain or no rain. But beyond these rather simplistic diagnoses of what ails us, there is a big- ger problem — our total, unreasoning reliance on a nebulous concept known as government sitting some- where in the capital city like some benevolent father whose duty is to feed his children. This kind of vacu- ous thinking leads us into collective complacency. This is in no way an attempt to excuse the gov- ernment from its failures. Everywhere in the world,

it is the constitutional ob-

ligation of governments to

ensure no citizens die of starvation. If it fails in this cardinal duty, then it has no reason for being. But on the other hand, the last time I checked, there were county governments all over the place, complete with governors, assemblies and ministries. For instance, Baringo has

a governor and an assem-

bly, but instead of focusing on the hunger ravaging the county, the MCAs have been busy trying to impeach their governor. The same county has a senator who has been busy defending a governor from another county from impeachment. When will these guys get the time to know that their voters are skinning cats to eat?






THINK AGAIN | Maina Kiai

We target small fry in war against poaching and drug trafficking

small fry in war against poaching and drug trafficking We have never seen brokers and financiers

We have

never seen




of illicit

trade taken

to court

F irst Lady Margaret Kenyatta

is easily the shining light

of this regime. Combining

grace and determination, she has appealed to Kenyans with the quiet dignity with which she carries her- self and the issues she has chosen to engage with. Her determined run in the Lon- don Marathon, using her status to raise funds for mobile clinics in every county is admirable, allowing us a glimpse of the effort and deter- mination that it takes to participate in such a gruelling event. Of course there are some who saw sponsoring her as a way to get into the better books of the regime, but the cause is noble. But it is her role as Patron of Save the Elephants campaign that stands out. For saving elephants is not just an environmental and economic matter. It is also a role that necessitates standing up to corruption and impunity, the indis-

pensable siblings of poaching. Make no mistake: wildlife poach- ing is a well-planned criminal activity, with similar networks and protections as those afforded to drug smuggling and corruption. It is not simply, as Kenya Wildlife Society (KWS) would like to tell us, a matter of “human-wildlife” conflicts, even as they acknowledge that more than 60 elephants have been butchered this year, following on from the 384 killed in 2012. Ivory poaching — like drug trafficking and corruption — is lucrative, with the illegal global market at about $1.5 billion (Sh130 billion). A typical elephant carries about 10kg of ivory, with a street price of about $100,000 (Sh8.5

10kg of ivory, with a street price of about $100,000 (Sh8.5 First Lady Margaret Kenyatta is

First Lady Margaret Kenyatta is the patron of Save the Elephants.

million) per elephant. And because most customs agencies do not have specialised detection systems as they do for illegal drugs, it is esti- mated that what is seized is just 10 per cent of the ivory shipped across the world. With these sorts of figures, you can be sure that this is not about small poachers doing small busi- ness. This is big time crime in every way. It is not easy to ferry these huge elephant tusks from parks and conservancies to the airport and the port of Mombasa for shipment to China and Thai- land, which are the destinations of choice. Ivory smuggling means a good number of people must be involved. From KWS staff, to police, to customs officials, to the crew in air- lines and ships, the chain is a long and expensive one. And it needs not just a lot of money to grease palms but also a good deal of power and influence to hush things up.

These are essentially the same channels that drug traffickers use, minus the KWS warders. They are so protected that even our international partners — such as the Australian Navy that recently intercepted Africa’s largest drugs shipment in our waters — have so little trust in our system that they prefer to dispose of drugs seized than hand them over, certain that doing so will mean that the drugs remain on the market. It is instructive that the people we have seen taken to court on poaching charges are always at the lower end of the criminal chain. They are the ones suspected of ac- tually killing the elephants. We have not seen the brokers, the truckers, the financiers and the masterminds ever arrested and charged. And just like with terrorism and grand corruption, the master- minds behind poaching are highly connected and certain of their im- punity. The last time we witnessed such an onslaught against our wild- life was in the 1970s, when Jomo Kenyatta was in power. Then, like now, the masterminds were a cho- sen few who were untouchable. Yes, the First Lady has re- cently taken a back seat on saving elephants, wildlife and our environ- ment, but that could be due to her focus on the marathon. With the marathon done and dusted, let us hope that she will soon be back to take on poaching and shame those who demean her — and us too — by denying our children and grand- children their rightful legacy of abundant wildlife and nature.



Evening news turning into reality TV

O ne of the more interesting and un- usual aspects of Kenyan life is that the most popular TV programmes

are the evening news. Crowds huddle around noisy TV sets in village markets while fathers ensure that their small chil- dren are sleeping before news time. The evening news tops the polls ratings and also provides top income to the media owners by way of commercials during the intervals. It is hardly surprising then that com- petition among the channels is intense and that newscasters, commentators and documentary makers hop between sta- tions like EPL footballers, always seeking the best contract. Extraordinary that folk who do such a mundane job as read the news — prepared by someone else — can be given celebrity status and strut the studio as if it were a catwalk. Anyhow, while the overall presentation is quite high standard, there is a growing tendency to juice up the day’s events and convert the tragedies, misfortunes and mistakes of the public into entertainment to keep rat-

ings high and profits mounting. Last week, TV crews accompanied police in raids on liquor dens in another knee-jerk operation this time over the deaths of over 100 from illicit and poi-


The evening news should not be promoting voyeurism or sadism but uncovering truth and enhancing human dignity”

sonous brew. The sight of drunken men and women unable to climb on to police vehicles and their subsequent degrading treatment by the officers is someone’s warped notion of entertainment and news reporting. The camera crews followed those arrested to court to record drunken mitigants making fools of themselves and become the laughing stock of the nation. Not so funny, however, for their families. This trend of television crews team- ing up with police officers to embarrass the public was very evident when the Al- coblow was first introduced, and TV crews became judges and jury over drivers be- fore they could ever defend themselves in court. Exposing hypocritical and promis- cuous pastors in ‘busted’ operations may interest the public and even titillate them but is hardly in the public interest. This is the stuff of tabloid news and gutter press

and Kenyans deserve better. Makes you wonder why these crews never accessed Kasarani or Bamburi detention centres when hundreds were detained a few weeks ago. That would have been in the public interest. Maybe there is a market for sleaze and reality TV but the national news is not the place for it. Reality TV is anything but real as it encourages the public to sit in judgment and to feel superior at watch- ing their fellow Kenyans make fools of themselves in their most embarrassing moments. Someone once said that reality TV only looks in one direction, down, and it is fast replacing soap operas for enter- tainment. The evening news should not be promoting voyeurism or sadism but uncovering truth and enhancing human dignity not jeering at it in its misery. Our newscasters too are often conde- scending and judgmental. With their large salaries, luxurious lifestyles and expensive fashions they symbolise the great divide that exists in this very unequal society. They should not fall into the trap of an ‘us’ and ‘them’ culture but present the news in a balanced, non-prejudicial man- ner.

gdolan54@gmail.com. @gabrieldolan1

POLITICALLY CORRECT | Kwamchetsi Makokha’s sideways look at the China connection

Kenya sees through trickery on the railway project

Kenya sees through trickery on the railway project W orld Bank officials must think Kenya’s leaders

W orld Bank officials must think Kenya’s leaders have porridge

for brains. Last year, the bank’s Africa Transport Unit wrote a secret note, ‘The Economics of Rail Gauge’ in the East Africa Community, saying terrible things about the standard gauge railway. Resentful of Kenya’s ambition

to build a shining new railway, with tracks one and

a half metres apart, the World Bank insisted that

the country remains stuck with the rusty old nar- row one-metre tracks built for the Lunatic Express over 100 years ago. Although repairing the old railway between Mombasa and Nairobi would cost Sh7.5 billion, it would never demand the construc- tion of 98 large and medium bridges, 77 overpasses across the highway or the 969 culverts to keep idle youth in employment for four years. And it would

still just be able to ferry 5.5 million tonnes of cargo

a year, running at 80 kilometres per hour.

In the alternative, the World Bank people tried to trick Kenya into expanding the space between the old tracks by seven centimetres to resemble the railways in Tanzania, Zambia and South Africa. For laying this track where the old one is, the govern- ment would spend Sh20 billion to be able to ferry 60 million tonnes of cargo a year, running at 120 kilometres per hour. None of the new 33 stations planned along the railroad would be built. The 30,000 youth who will get jobs as masons, carpen- ters, mechanical and electrical technicians would continue languishing in poverty. And they had no sympathy for the 400 engineers and technicians who will be trained during the project’s life. For the railway to pay for these repairs, it would need to at- tract an extra 6.2 million tonnes of cargo per year. A third desperate ruse was to get the government to lay the standard gauge railway – with new steel tracks, a metre and a half apart – where the old one is — for Sh61.8 billion. Such a railway, they claim, would ferry 60 million tonnes of cargo in a year and run at a speed of 130 kilometres per hour. The World Bank experts did not want the government to make people rich by buying barren land from its citizens in Mombasa, Kilifi, Kwale, Taita-Taveta, Makueni, Kajiado, Machakos and Nairobi counties. They did not want the local industries to supply steel, cement, or aggregates. And they did not want electricity generation and electricity transmission pylons and cables, roofing materials, glass provided locally to create another 10,000 jobs. They looked with envy at the 3,000 people who would be em-

ployed to provide food, accommodation and leisure for the builders and shook their heads with disap- proval. Following this alternative would require an extra 20.2 million tonnes of cargo to be transported in East Africa each year. For all its cleverness, the World Bank never of-

fered the Sh7.5 billion, the Sh20 billion or the Sh61.8 billion required to repair the second-hand railway. After all the World Bank’s jealousy, the President this week signed a Sh314 billion loan agreement with China to build the standard gauge railway to run at 130 kilometres per hour. It should easily attract the 55.2 million tonnes of extra cargo

a year, exceeding projections of the regions generat-

ing a mere 14.4 million tonnes annually by the year 2030. After all, there is rare earth, titanium, coal and oil that needs to leave the country in tonnes. The hidden benefit of building the new railway is that contractors will pass through the game parks — and see for themselves over 11,000 elephants. If they just sent messages back home about the won- ders they witness, and a mere one per cent of the 1.6 billion Chinese visit Kenya each year, the coun- try’s tourism problems would be solved forever.


14 | Opinion


POINT BLANK | Godwin Murunga

Role of communication channels in regional security is not clear-cut

communication channels in regional security is not clear-cut The biggest threat to media is not how

The biggest threat to media is not how to stay in business but how to stay in journalism

T he media have an

important role

in security and

peace building, but this role almost always has a context that is complex. This came through from a media workshop held at the African Leader- ship Centre in Nairobi. The workshop was jointly sponsored and organised by the centre and the African peace-building Network of the Social Science Research Council in New York in conjunc- tion with the East African Legislative Assembly. It brought together 30 media practitioners drawn from all the five member countries of the East African Community. The idea of the work- shop was to emphasise the importance of peace and security issues and to appreciate the extent to which the increasing de-territorialisation of insecurity puts a new emphasis on the regional context for the provision of security. This notion means there is a relation- ship between our regional existence as East Africans and the challenge of se- curity provision across borders. In conceptualising how issues of security and peace building are central to the work of journalists, participants discussed how the condition of

peace results from how journalists exercise their responsibilities, how they bring their journalistic tool kit to bear on what they report, what con- ceptual frameworks they impose, what gets empha- sised and how these are projected into society. Journalism is not im- portant to society simply because of how journal- ists report, but mainly because of how that responsibility factors in the general interests of the people. The idea of the interests of people is of course contested and workshop participants brainstormed around the implication of ‘biasing’ analysis and reports in favour of the amorphous category we refer to as the people. There was interesting discussion of how a peo- ple-centred perspective in media articulations has historically come to be challenged by the chang- ing vision and expanding interest of the media owners. It was noted that media ownership is heavily private; State media are few and far in between. As a participant argued, there is some unfairness in expecting a private media owner, with their own agenda, to serve the public interest. Private media owners normally

to serve the public interest. Private media owners normally A journalist at work. begin with a

A journalist at work.

begin with a journalistic agenda. But as they grow, they acquire new, largely commercial and political, interests. Is it fair to ex- pect their interests to be subservient to the histori- cal ideology the private media owner started with? The resulting situa- tion, it was observed, explains the current ten- sions within the media, where it is not always rosy between editors and reporters, and between media owners and jour- nalists. The other dilemma was that posed by the democratic recession in evidence in many African countries. This reces- sion is not explicit, it is

mounted by ‘popularly’ elected governments and their anti-media legisla- tions are often heavily supported by citizen par- tisans. This, however, raises the other critical ques- tion: are we experiencing an imposed democratic recession or are we active participants in the gen- eration of that recession? Of particular interest to participants was the issue of civic participation. It was argued that the civic public has outsourced their responsibilities for civic engagement. They assume that the work of guarding against abuse, corruption, and violence can only be flagged as wrong and unacceptable by journalists. The biggest threat to media, it was aptly sug- gested, is not how to stay in business but how to stay in journalism. There could not have been a better way to summarise the core message of the meeting. Going forward, the partners who organ- ised the workshop look forward to having the media play a significant role in peace- building initiatives.

Godwin Murunga is Senior Research Fellow, Institute for Development Stud- ies, University of Nairobi. gmurunga@gmail.com

FAIR PLAY | Peter Mwaura

Media are the message, or massage

W hen the book came back from the print- ers, the last word

of the title was “Massage”. But when Marshall McLuhan saw the printing error he ex- claimed: “Leave it alone! It’s great, and right on target!” So the book came out titled The Medium is the Massage. What the Canadian philoso- pher of communication theory had actually written was “The Medium is the Message”. Many people still read the last word of the title of his 1967 book as “Message”, or “Massage”. Both are accurate. What McLuhan postulates is a complex theory. But it can be reduced, for the purposes of this article, to a one-liner:

“The medium or channel of information is more important than the message.” He argues the medium contains its own message, independent of the content, and that the medium has more


It’s about media structures and their environment and how they cannot be separated from their messages”

influence on the public than the content itself. The medium shapes the user’s perception of the content, and it can even be the message itself. His hypothesis built on what other experts had laid down as the role of the media in society. In particular, Harold Lasswell presented in 1948 a simple yet brilliant model of communication. Often quoted by every communication stu- dent, the model looks like this: Who says what, in which channel, to whom, with what effects. Examples of what McLuhan

postulated are everywhere. Let’s take what was reported on the front page by the print media on March 25, 2014. I choose that date because it gives one of the clearest ex- amples. The Star story was headlined “Uhuru and Ruto have not taken pay cuts”, the Standard was “Baby left with

a terrorist’s bullet in head”,

and the Nation was “Chaos, delays as Lands bosses fight for power”. What were the effects of the three different stories? It depended on who was saying

what and in which media. If the Nation had carried the Star story, the effect would have been different. As it was, the Star story apparently died in

a whimper. Had the Nation

carried the story it would have been a lion’s roar. Had the Na-

tion carried the Standard story

it would instantly have been

a major medical issue, as it

later turned out to be when the

Nation joined in. McLuhan’s theory is not about media readership or audiences. It’s about media structures and their environment and how they cannot be separated from their messages. Take, for ex- ample, the case of Prof Makau Mutua, whose commentaries in the Sunday Nation used to

excite so many. He moved to the Sunday Standard and in- vited his readers to join him. He wrote in his September 11, 2013, Facebook post: “I have decided to take my talents to the Standard on Sunday. Thanks to colleagues at Sun- day Nation and NMG for a great seven years.” But that was the end of his great seven years. Nobody

today apparently loses any sleep over his commentaries. His case is perfect proof that “the medium is the message

or the massage”.


MARK MY WORD | Philip Ochieng

No, my world outlook is not the same as atheism

Ochieng No, my world outlook is not the same as atheism I n my last Sunday

I n my last Sunday Nation

column, I described myself

as a gnostic. Yet many read-

ers, reacting through e-mail, called me an “agnostic” — the exact opposite. The cinch is that, although they know the negative word agnostic, they have never heard of its positive counterpart gnostic.

As I said, the negative word atheist is formed by prefixing the Greek adverb “a” (meaning “not”) to the Greek noun theos (mean- ing “god” or “deity”). The noun atheos thus means “not god” or “non-god”. I reiterate that, in Hellenic Greek, you negated nouns and adjectives by prefix- ing the adverb “a” to them. What is true of theos, then, is true also of gno- sis, the Greek noun which stands for “knowledge” or “science”. Thus if, in negation, theos becomes atheos (whence atheism), so gnosis becomes agnosis (whence agnosticism).

A gnostic is a person who, like the Polish scien-

tist Jacob Bronowski, believes that knowledge is mankind’s only destiny and ultimate “salvation”. An agnostic, however, is a person who denies the pos- sibility of all knowledge, including knowledge of a supernatural creator. In the book In God We Doubt, John Humphrys, the sardonic former London broadcaster, insists strongly that agnosticism is not atheism. If atheism is belief that there is no god, agnosticism is belief that the question is even idle because God’s exist- ence (or not) is not knowable. But I emphasise that I am neither a Humphrysian agnostic nor a Nietschean nihilist. My faith is firm that, despite the many objective limitations within the human genome and the many subjective roadblocks in its way, humanity will travel a million times farther than we have travelled in our quest to become the scientific and techno- logical masters of the Hawkingian universe. Indeed, this contradiction is what defines human- ity’s techno-intellectual history. The human career consists in a never-ending — and always ascend- ing — solution and resolution between, on the one hand, our permanently unlimited capacity to know and conquer the universe and, on the other, the equally permanent limitation of human knowledge and skill at any particular time and in any particu- lar clime. That is why I prefer the astrophysical quantum faith that we shall soon arrive at a single simple scientific formula which — like Albert Einstein’s a century ago — will give a fully unified explanation of all reality. I wholly reject the pessimism, expressed even by scientists, that a certain quantum “uncertainty” will always stand in humanity’s path to full knowledge. But I repeat that atheism is not my world out-

look’s name. My faith rests only on humanity’s capacity for knowledge and skill. Gnosticism (its real name) is what will ultimately liberate mankind from its mis- erable drudgery. “Salvation” will consist entirely in collectively creating a human paradise on the planet that cre- ated us.

If it is atheistic, then atheism is just a by-product

of my faith. My real faith is that one day humanity will unite to collectively create and apply scientific knowledge and technological skill enough to be able to collec-

tively build a heaven right here on earth.





To the editor

The editor welcomes brief letters on topical issues. Write on e-mail to: mailbox@ke.nationmedia.com You can also mail to: The Editor, Daily Nation, POB 49010, Nairobi 00100.

Origi decision calls for review of our football

The recent inclusion of a Belgian of Kenyan origin — Divock Origi — in the Belgian team for the com- ing World Cup is of great concern. His father, former Harambee Stars striker Mike Okoth, was probably one of the best strikers Kenya has ever produced but he never made it to play in the World Cup because of the situation in the Kenyan sport- ing arena. Kenyans will be watching Origi keenly as his success brings hope to the youths who may have given up hope of ever playing in the World cup. Patriots might disagree, but maybe the boy’s family made the right decision for his future. Kenya is well known in athletics, yet when it comes to other sports, we barely make it on the radar. Our players can be just as good as the Cameroonians or Nigerians in foot- ball, but the pedestrian approach with which we handle the sport and players here bogs us down. The lacklustre performance of the national team damages the morale of aspiring footballers, who get discouraged when they see the frustrations of the national players, some who cannot afford a roof over their heads. The football adminis- tration in the country must improve for the likes of Origi to wish to play for Kenya.


Legalise traditional brew and set up new clubs

The government should reintro- duce clubs that sell traditional brews, like it was in the old days. It is not fair for Kenyans to drink while hiding as this makes it dif- ficult to establish the kind of alcohol being consumed and the standards of brewing. First of all, the government should legalise the traditional brews and license clubs where people can go and drink freely. The government should be in- volved in testing the drinks, just like it is involved in testing meat before it is sold to consumers. There should be serious educa- tion and campaigns carried out by the Health ministry and through churches to give people proper in- formation on alcoholic drinks. Bootleg alcohol should be de- clared a national disaster like HIV/Aids. There should also be a heavy penalty for manufacturers of killer alcohol to curb bad prac- tices.



Alcohol laws failed because nobody considered the poor

P olicy makers on alco- hol manufacturing, packaging, distribu-

tion and sale are to blame for the frequent alcohol-re- lated poisoning. They are blind to a simple fact — that both rich and poor have the same basic needs which they, in their own separate ways, seek to fulfil every day. Thus, as the rich walk into licensed pubs to sat- isfy their alcohol thirst with beer going for Sh150 per bottle, the poor, with the same thirst but with less cash, walk into dens where illicit brew goes for Sh20 per glass. It is not that the poor like taking their drinks in the dens, it is just that legislation and policies have cast them there. It was wrong to legislate against packaging alcoholic drinks in sachets of 50ml, 100ml, 150ml that were affordable to the poor. If cooking fat, margarine, cof-

fee and tea have been made available in sachets, why not alcohol? Attempting to fight al- coholism by alienating the poor through heavy taxation, packaging that increases the cost of the liquid, criminalisation and demonising the act of drinking will always be

and demonising the act of drinking will always be FILE | NATION Gigiri Police Station officers


Gigiri Police Station officers with impounded traditional brew containers. Both the rich and the poor share a need for drink, but the poor have been ignored by the law while the rich are taken care of.

counter-productive. Just like food, clothing and shelter, alcohol should be accepted as a need. What is required is proper regulation to cater for those who take it, whether poor or rich. The success of EABL’s Senator Keg in drawing the poor away from the dens back to the pubs should have been rewarded, not punished by newly-in- troduced heavy taxation. London Distillers, Keroche Industries, Kenya Wine Agencies, UDV and other producers known to make safe spirits should be al- lowed to distribute them in packages affordable to the poor. Simple arithmetic will show that if Kenya Cane

by UDV or Kibao Vodka by KWAL were to be packaged in 100ml sachets, each may cost as little as Sh15, which would be affordable to all. Once this is done, the face- less illicit brewer will run out of business and close shop. Policy makers should know that the current laws and regulations on alco- hol have failed miserably, and no matter who heads Nacada, or the usual reac- tion following deaths, illicit brewers will continue to flourish as long as no al- ternative is offered in their target market. It is time to pick up the carrot and lay down the stick. MIKE MUKIGI, Kiambu

Pedestrians to blame for high rate of accidents on our roads

Pedestrians are killed on our highways daily due to ignorance of traffic laws. Some urban residents, especially in Nairobi, carelessly cross roads at wrong spots. City roads are well marked. Besides, the installation of traffic lights is meant to direct pedestrians when crossing the roads. Along many highways, there are designated safe places for crossing that include footbridges. Un- fortunately, ignorant residents are always seen standing on roads, waiting for a chance to cross as cars speed off, ending up risking their lives and that of the motorists in case of an accident. GRIFFINLUKEAWINO, Nairobi

Technical issues that Nacada must demand from producers

An advertisement appeared in the press on May 13 following the alcohol crisis. From the listed 12 liquor manufacturers and im- porters, how many have quality assurance control departments with qualified person- nel? Secondly, more light should be shed on whether there are any chemists in the employ of these firms. Thirdly, continuous post-market surveillance by Nacada would pick up adulterated alcohol. Finally it is time accreditation and not certification be- came the hallmark of our safety. J. WAKUNGWI SAKWA, Kakamega




Should county government take over Mombasa port?

Was Uhuru right to order payment of Sh1.4bn debt to Anglo Leasing?

Send your comments to mailb ox@ke.nationmedia.com


welfare of his county. The national government has the slowest mode of action and for this they are not fully reli- able. ELAIS JUNIOR: Governor Joho should follow the law,

otherwise he will be returning to the old era that he purports to fight. CHRISTOPHER KIBI- WOTT: No. The port was built using national resources and should serve the nation.

No, The port should stay with the national government. All the revenue should be used to develop the whole country. LINCOLN KINYUA: Yes. That would be best for the



TERRORISM COURSE. As a long-term measure to enhance national security, a compulsory course on terrorism should be introduced in colleges, Benjamin Ashuma proposes. The core units of the course, he adds, should include terrorism risk assessment, anti- terrorism research methods, and collection of terror- ism evidence, international cooperation and nego- tiation skills. “Directives such as removal of tints will have little impact or motorists should drive with their car boots open.” His contact is xbenjy@gmail.com.

POLICE STATE. James Gakuo is alarmed at the possible slide towards a “police state”, which, he claims, is evident in some of the directives being is- sued left, right and centre by some top security offi- cials. He warns: “Kenyans need to be watchful, lest we lose our individual freedoms and privacy in the name of constant security surveillance.” He is particularly concerned about the directive requiring people to pro- duce identity cards before boarding public service ve- hicles. His contact is gakks2002@yahoo.com.

NO BANK. Calling the Cooperative Bank is Ga- thoni Kuria, a resident of Mwiki, Kasarani, on Nairobi’s northern outskirts, who is disappointed that the bank does not have a branch or even an ATM in this area teeming with small businesses that are in dire need of banking services. A long-time account holder with the Co-op Bank, Gathoni says she has watched other banks come and pitch tent, but with no sign of the one she patronises. “I am forced to go to Zimmerman or the city centre for banking services.” Her contact is Tel 0721390467 or gathoni_kuria@yahoo.com.

HIGHWAY TO HELL. The Muthiga to Limuru junction stretch of the Nairobi-Nakuru highway is in a pathetic state, says Muheani Muheani, disappointed that the recent flurry of repairs didn’t do much. Ac- cording to Muheani, the roadsides are also unkempt. He hopes Transport Cabinet Secretary Michael Kamau will ensure that the highway is spruced up to acceptable standards, “as it looks horrible”. And spe- cial attention, he demands, should be paid to a gulley near Sigona Golf Club, just before Gitaru, which is a car-wrecker. His contact is muheanim@gmail.com.

CHEAP BREWS. There is a good reason why the majority of Kenyans who drink alcohol go for the cheap deadly brews, says Michael Mburu. Many of them, he says, earn just about Sh200 a day, and yet a bottle of the most popular drink, Tusker, costs Sh150. “Such a person cannot afford to drink Tusker and feed his family. Worse, still the Finance minister con- tinues to increase taxes on alcoholic drinks. Kenyans will continue to die because many love their drink.” Michael’s contact is mburumk@yahoo.com.

Have a logical day, won’t you!



won’t you! ON THIS DATE IN 2002 COMPILED BY DELVIN OMWODO TEAM RAINBOW. National Rainbow Coalition

TEAM RAINBOW. National Rainbow Coalition leaders (from left) Charity Ngilu, Michael Wamalwa, Mwai Kibaki, Raila Odinga, Kalonzo Musyoka and George Saitoti on the day they announced that Mr Kibaki would be the coalition’s presidential candidate.

16 | National News


Contempt penalty against Speaker postponed


in Kerugoya.


He was accompanied by his

Embu County Assembly Speaker Kariuki Mate ap- peared before three judges for contempt of court. Mr Mate, who was found guilty of allowing the mo- tion that led to the initial impeachment of Mr Martin Wambora as governor when a court had ordered against doing so, presented himself yesterday at the High Court

lawyer, Mr Charles Njenga. However, a three-judge Bench, which was scheduled to sentence the Speaker and County Assembly Clerk Jim Kauma, postponed the mat- ter. Mr Njenga had urged the judges to adjourn the judg- ment as Mr Kauma had fallen ill and was admitted to Kagio Nursing Hospital in Kirinyaga County.

The clerk, who was also guilty of contempt of court and was supposed to be in court yesterday, had suf- fered high blood pressure, the lawyer submitted. He requested judges Cecilia Githua, Hedwig Ong’udi and


The date this month when the High Court in Kerugoya will sentence Embu Speaker

Boaz Olao to adjourn the matter to allow him to at- tend court once treated and discharged. The Bench granted the request and directed that the judgment be delivered on May 30. Mr Kauma will be expected to appear. The officials’ disobedience was the reason the judges re- instated Mr Wambora in the first round. He was removed again but has been reinstated temporarily.

He was removed again but has been reinstated temporarily. TRANSPORT | Buses deal gone sour JEFF

TRANSPORT | Buses deal gone sour

reinstated temporarily. TRANSPORT | Buses deal gone sour JEFF ANGOTE | NATION Mr Guleid Kunow Mursal


Mr Guleid Kunow Mursal shows journalists one of his Diamond Coaches Limited buses currently held at an auction yard awaiting sale by First Community Bank to recover a loan. The buses were to be deployed on city routes.

Trader faces bankruptcy over bus deal

Fleet of buses seized by bank kept at an auction yard in Industrial Area



A supposedly lucra- tive deal has left a businessman staring

bankruptcy in the face as the Nairobi County Assembly ordered investigations into the matter. For transport company owner Guleid Kunow Mursal, 37, the adage that when the deal is too good, then think twice, could as well have come to pass. Only six months ago, his bus company — Diamond Coaches Limited — was rak- ing Sh20 million a month out of which it diligently paid Sh1 million to First Community Bank that had financed the purchase of his fleet of buses that plied Nairobi-Mombasa and Nairobi-Garissa routes. This was until he got an offer from the Nairobi County Transport Executive Evans Ondieki. “To help address biting pub- lic service transport in the city, I was told to sell the company to the county government where they would own 51 per cent and me and my associates 49 per cent,” says Mr Mursal as he produced documents to back up his claims. The county government was to offset the Sh39 mil- lion bank loan balance in three equal instalments, documents show, for the partnership to be cemented.

But somewhere along the way, the county government did not fulfil its promise to the bank. “The bank became impatient with the City Hall deal after I failed to remit the Sh1 million monthly. It is now three months overdue,” says Mr Mursal. The bank moved in and seized 10 of the buses. They are now kept under lock and key at an auction yard on Kitui Road in Industrial Area, Nairobi. Mr Ondieki said the deal was no more and that Mr Mursal was just one of the many people and firms that submitted proposals for the transport contract.

We have many proposals

“Diamond wrote a proposal to the governor like any other stakeholder. We have so many proposals, most of them inter- national,” says Mr Ondieki. He says the Diamond issue was different from the rapid bus transport system that is designed to introduce big capacity buses in major city routes. Other firms inter- ested in the deal are VDL, Volvo, Leyland and Foton East Africa. Last Tuesday, the matter landed at the County Assem- bly which set up a committee to investigate the botched city buses deal.

up a committee to investigate the botched city buses deal. The bus company wrote a proposal

The bus company wrote a proposal to the governor just like any other stakeholder”

Mr Evans Ondieki


National News


Biwott denies wrongdoing in land tussle



Former minister Nicholas Biwott has said the law was fol- lowed in the eviction of a man who held his father’s land for almost 30 years. Recent media reports said that retired police officer Kigen Maina bought a plot from Mr Joshua Kiprono Cheserem, Mr Biwott’s father, in 1963. He was, however, evicted 30 years later after a court ruled he lacked proper documen- tation.

later after a court ruled he lacked proper documen- tation. Declaring that he was not party

Declaring that he was not party to the dispute, Mr Biwott (above) said it was wrong for Mr Maina to lay claim to land that is now under his ownership following the death of his father. “The parties’ rights to the dis- puted property were determined by a court of law and not myself. At no time during the legal proc- ess was I approached by anyone nor did I approach anyone else in respect of this matter,” said Mr Biwott. According to media reports, Mr Maina’s eldest son approached Mr Biwott in 2005 over the dispute but he is yet to hear from the former minister.

Baringo family that feasted on cat get aid



The family that slaughtered and fed on a neighbour’s cat due to lack of food will soon have more conventional meals on the table fol- lowing an overwhelming response from well-wishers. Early this week, the Nation re- ported the family’s plight in Tiaty, Baringo County. Since then Kenyans said they would raise money for the family and others offered to buy food. Mr Joseph Nyandieka M-Pesad Sh600 to the writer and followed with an SMS: “Please use this to buy anything that can sustain them for some days. I grew up in a poor family but God has helped me.” Mr Harrison Kipyatich said on his Facebook page: “It is very sad for a family to feast on a cat in this 21st century.” Baringo County Senator Gideon Moi is to tour the area next week. Baringo Governor Benjamin Cheboi said the county govern- ment and the central government is already distributing relief food in the worst-hit areas.

COMRADE POWER! | Trainee engineers take on oversight body

COMRADE POWER! | Trainee engineers take on oversight body KEVIN ODIT | NATION Engineering students of


Engineering students of the Technical University of Mombasa chant slogans after boycotting class yesterday over reports that the institution was yet to be recognised by the Kenya Engineers Registration Board. TUM was initially a constituent college of the Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology before becoming a full-fledged university.

IMPEACHMENT | Chepkwony not intending to go to court

Kericho governor: Senate will give me a fair hearing

Supporters claim rebel MCAs went against wishes of the council of elders, county residents and religious leaders




K ericho Governor Paul Chep- kwony says he will not go to court to block his impeach-

ment. Instead, he said, he had submitted to the authority of the Senate and hoped to get a fair hearing.

Speaking to the Saturday Nation

yesterday, Prof Chepkwony asked his supporters to be calm and main- tain peace until the process came to an end. “I want to appeal to all the residents of this county to relax and allow the process to proceed to full conclusion. The truth will eventually come out.” He was shocked at the outcome of

eventually come out.” He was shocked at the outcome of ‘‘ I believe in a fair


I believe in a fair process. I will not go to court because I have faith the Senate will be fair and exonerate me”


the impeachment process in which 32 MCAs voted to remove him from office while 15 did not vote. “I believe in a fair process. I will not

go to court because I have faith the Senate will be fair and exonerate me from all those claims. I have nothing to add,” he said. The 15 MCAs who supported the governor (but did not vote) accused their colleagues of rebelling against the wishes of residents, elders and the clergy. Londiani Ward representative Jack- son Kikwai accused the 32 of going behind the backs of others to push the impeachment agenda in spite of an agreement to withdraw it following the intervention of the Kipsigis Myoot (Council of Elders).

Withdraw motion

He said that the MCAs had agreed to resolve outstanding issues between them and the governor. “We had agreed to withdraw the im- peachment motion following talks with the Myoot chairman Joseph Cheruiyot and were shocked when our colleagues went against the agreement.” Mr Kikwai said the reasons given by the MCAs did not meet the legal threshold for the governor’s impeach-

Traders incur losses due to blackouts


The businesses community in Busia has suffered huge losses due to persist- ent power blackouts. Businesses that depend on elec- tricity have had to close for most of the day while other have had to buy generators. Governor Sospeter Ojaamong has now raised concern over the problem of blackouts and demanded prompt intervention of the Kenya Power Company.

Mr Ojaamong said insecurity had also been increased in the county due to the blackouts. “We are concerned about the laxity exhibited by the power firm. Over a week, we have lost four people in- cluding a Kenya Power employee,” he said. The governor said he had on several occasions called the company to have power connected in some of the areas after day-long outage. He urged KP to find a lasting solu- tion to the problem that has made it

a laughing stock among residents and investors in the region. Business owners said they had incurred losses as customers seek services in neighbouring Uganda. “We are asking Kenya Power and relevant stakeholders to address the menace which is killing our business,” said Mr Stephen Obala, the Busia Busi- ness Community chairman. Another trader, Mr David Irulu, said the most affected people were jua kali artisans, hotel owners and dealers in electronics.



Coffee woes: House summons minister

Agriculture Cabinet Sec- retary Felix Koskei has been summoned to appear before the National Assembly on Wednesday to shed light on marketing of coffee from Ny- eri County, which has caused controversy. Mathira MP Peter Weru said the minister is expected to explain agree- ments among the county, marketers and millers that he witnessed. He is also expected to shed light on sales made so far and payment released to farmers.


Man fined Sh50,000 for illegal logging

A man who was caught cutting down trees in a forest without a permit has been fined Sh50,000. Mr Sammy Marangu, who pleaded guilty, will serve two months in prison if he fails to pay the fine, a magistrate ordered yesterday. He was found with two logs of cypress valued at Sh10,000 on April 27 at Ndathi Forest. He said that he was hired by people who escaped when they saw police arresting him.


Commission wants list of grabbed land

The National Land Com- mission has asked counties to submit lists of public land that has been grabbed in their jurisdictions to enable it start the recovery process. NLC chairman Mohamed Swazuri said much of the land set aside for development in the county had been grabbed, disrupting plans for construc- tion of sewerage system. The commission was also address- ing disputes involving Nubian community in Mumias town.


High cost of inputs ‘hurts fish farming’

town. BOMET High cost of inputs ‘hurts fish farming’ Bomet Governor Isaac Ruto has queried the

Bomet Governor Isaac Ruto has queried the high cost of inputs for fish farming, saying it was a drawback for growth in the sector. In a speech read on his behalf by the county executive committee member in charge of fisheries Eliza- beth Langat, Mr Ruto said de- spite the challenges, some fish farmers in the region were expanding their businesses. The speech was read during the area’s fish marketing day at the Sigor trading centre in Chepalungu sub-county. He said many maize growers were turning to fish farming.

18 | National News



A litany of rules alone will not end insecurity

Past experience shows that the ban on tinted windows or screening will be forgotten soon

I f the Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Principal Secretary, Mr Karanja

Kibicho, wants to blame anyone

for the travel advisories imposed this week, he should start with his colleagues in government. The United States, Britain, Aus- tralia and France issued advisories or updated existing ones to take account of threats in the north-east, Nairobi and Mombasa. He is right to point out the hypoc- risy of Western governments; there were no advisories issued after the 9/11 attacks in the US or the bomb- ings in Madrid and London in 2004 and 2005 respectively. But such hypocrisy is not new. The British government’s reaction to the resumption of an ICC investigation into the conduct of its troops in Iraq is evidence of this. Mr Kibicho says the advisories are

only adding to fear and panic. But what is likely to cause more fear and panic: a government that has little apparent idea on how to respond to threats or foreign states telling their nationals to avoid Eastleigh? Watching Kenya in the last few weeks has been disquieting. Every new security strategy announced by the likes of Inspector General of Police David Kimaiyo and minister Joseph ole Lenku only creates the impression that this is a government that does not know how to protect its people. Newspaper readers don’t need to be told that banning vehicles with tinted windows is absurd. But this ban is likely no less effective a response to a terror threat than demanding matatu crews to screen all passengers or indiscriminately interrogating thousands of Kenyans on the ground that they are likely to be Muslims. Explaining such inconsistent, counterproductive and ineffective policies is easy. As Michaela Wrong recently argued, Anglo Leasing left the security services ill-equipped to investigate and prevent the kind of at-

ill-equipped to investigate and prevent the kind of at- JACOB OWITI | DAILY NATION Mr Stephen


Mr Stephen Okoth removes tint film from a car window on Oginga Odinga Street in Kisumu to comply with the new requirement.

The only saving grace of the policies introduced to counter terrorism so far is that

The only saving grace of the policies introduced to counter terrorism so far is that they will prove short- lived”

Dan Branch

tacks being witnessed. That taxpayers will foot the bill for that crime only compounds the insult. With the defence of the border and capacity of security forces undermined by graft, citizens and corporations are providing the last line of defence. Matatu crews are expected to act like the police while Safaricom will build a modern intel- ligence and surveillance network at its expense. The only saving grace of the policies introduced to counter terrorism so far is that they will prove short-lived. Po- lice do not have resources to maintain mass arrests of Somalians. The ban on tinted windows will be forgotten like earlier attempts to

introduce speed limiters. Matatu and bus crews will also ignore the require- ment to check ID cards. Far more dangerous in the long- term than any of the recent temporary populist anti-terror measures are the new powers for county commission- ers. There are reasons to object to the resurrection of the Provincial Administration. The first is disregard for constitu- tional reform. A county commissioner representing the Executive at the grassroots is incompatible with devolution. The second reason is the doubt about the judgment of those appoint- ing people charged with security. Whatever one might think of

Jomo’s presidency, his Provincial Administration and civil service of- ficials were drawn from the ranks of the brightest and best. The likes of Simeon Nyachae, Duncan Ndegwa and Charles Njonjo left an indelible legacy. By contrast, some of Uhuru Kenyatta’s appointments have been disastrous. There is no reason to believe that the quality of appointments of county commissioners will be better. Kenya deserves, and needs, more from its public servants.

Prof Branch teaches history and politics at Warwick University, UK. dan.branch@gmail.com

Ex-soldiers want to serve security chiefs with court orders in Press



Some 27 former soldiers want the High Court to allow them to serve orders of their release to Defence Cabinet Secretary Rachel Omamo, Chief of General Staff Major Gen Julius Karangi and Kenya Navy commander Ngewa Mukala through newspaper advertisement. In the application, Mr Gabriel Krigha Chawana and his 26 colleagues told Justice Edward Muriithi that all effort to personally serve the respondents have hit a snag. “On May 7, while armed with the court and release or- ders, we proceeded to Kenya navy base to serve the base commander but we couldn’t. We made similar unsuccess- fully attempt on May 8 to serve the chief legal officer Brigadier Kenneth Ndidi at the Department of Defence where we were told he is the only person to receive court orders on behalf of respondents,” the soldiers told the court through their lawyers. Lawyers Michael Mwanyale, Charles Mwalimu, Henry Kurauka and Daniel Kamunda


Judges quiz


Three appeal court Judges on Tuesday grilled lawyers representing the Kenya Defence Forces over failure by their clients to obey their orders Judges Hannah Ok- wengu, Fatuma Sichale and Milton Makhandia ques- tioned why Defence Cabi- net Secretary Raychelle Omamo and Chief of De- fence Forces Julius Karangi had not complied with the court order issued on May 2, by Mombasa High Court Judge Edward Muriithi.

told Justice Muriithi that sub- stituted service through local dailies with wider circulations is the only available option to serve Ms Omamo, Mr Karangi and Mr Mukala with orders to release the 27 former servicemen fighting court martial trial. They added that all efforts to serve the respondents per- sonally have been met with

difficulties and frustrations. “It is imperative, therefore, to have the respondents served by way of substituted service through an advertisement in the national daily newspapers with a wide circulation,” they added. The court heard that 20 former soldiers have complied with all requirements set by the court to be released on bond, including depositing Sh500,000 bond and surety of similar amount and their passports with the High Court registrar. In their grounds of opposi- tions to the application, Ms Omamo, Mr Karangi and Mr Mukala argued that the peti- tioners have not used all due and reasonable diligence to serve them. Senior legation counsel Oscar Eredi from the At- torney General’s office said the AG has not be person- ally served and that the application was deliberately brought to institute contempt of court proceedings against the respondents. Mr Eredi further indicated the petitioners were informed to serve the respondents through KDF chief legal of- ficer, but they have not made any efforts to do so.

RELIGION | Walk to Uganda

RELIGION | Walk to Uganda SULEIMAN MBATIAH | NATION Catholic faithful pray as they walk on


Catholic faithful pray as they walk on Njoro-Molo Road near Elburgon town yesterday on their way to Namugongo shrines in Uganda. Some started the walk in Mtito Andei some weeks ago and all are expected to reach Uganda on June 1, after covering over 1,000km.

Parent fumes at teacher over supply of food



As hunger continues to bite in Turkana County, a parent is now accusing headteachers of taking food meant for their school-going children. The parent yesterday said that headteachers have sud- denly stopped supplying food to nursery schools leading to a huge dropout rate. Ms Hellen Kuyia, claimed that teachers were hiding food meant for their children.

Satellite schools

But Mr Bernard Abong, the headteacher at Kanam Kemer Primary School, said since World Food Programme stopped supplying food to sat- ellite schools the situation has degenerated. “I can not supply food to the eight centres despite ac- cusations from parents who don’t understand this.” Mr Abong said. World Food Programme reportedly decided to exclude nursery schools from getting food due to an increase in number of children turning up at the gates to eat rather than learn.





PLO: THE DAY I WAS KICKED OUT OF JOB Former anti-graft czar on his life since in the political hotbed. Page 39

REFLECTIONS OF A RETIRING SCHOLAR | Thoughts of an East African elder and pioneer man of letters

Why I knock on every door for Kiswahili

For over a decade now, a campaign has been raging on the acceptance of Kiswahili in Uganda, an uphill task that is beginning to bear fruit

in Uganda, an uphill task that is beginning to bear fruit BY AUSTIN BUKENYA satnation@ke.nationmedia.com E



E choing the likely senti- ments of the classical victim of romantic love, I

recently wrote: “Ikiwa umeniroga, basi ongeza urogi (if you have be- witched me, fine then, increase the dose of your charms)”. As is often the case in such circumstances, the utterance may have been addressed to a real-life person, but we’ll skip the identification parade for now. What I can confess and admit to is that, from me, these words would be a sincere crie de coeur to Kiswahili. If any one passion has dominated the latter years of my life and career, it has, curiously, been Kiswahili. Mwalimu Joseph Mwamburi, my friend and co-au-

thor, with Wallah bin Wallah and Henry Indindi, of the Kurunzi ya Kiswahili course, once suggested that I should be given the nick- name Mswahilisti. This was at an East African Kiswahili teachers’ conference in Kampala, where, with a few loyal friends, I have for over a decade now been conducting an “evangelistic” campaign for the acceptance and promotion of Kiswahili in Uganda. It is, ad- mittedly an uphill task, but my fellow Waswahilisti and I are not just about to give up the fight. And, thankfully, it is slowly but steadily beginning to bear fruit. Of course, we cannot arrogate to ourselves such fundamen- tal developments as the 2003 constitutional amendment that proclaimed Kiswahili as the sec- ond official language of Uganda or the now fairly fast-moving process of setting up a National Kiswahili Authority. But we are encouraged by the fact that we are now regularly consulted by the policy makers on most matters

regarding Kiswahili. Thus, we participated in the teaching of the Basic Kiswahili ori- entation course for the Members of the Eighth Parliament, in the development of the primary and secondary school syllabi through the National Curriculum Develop- ment Centre, and in the formation of the National Kiswahili Author- ity, mentioned above, through the Ministry of Gender Labour and Social Development. The reader may wonder what gender and all that has to do with Kiswahili. Well, it just happens that in Kampala this ministry, currently headed by my long- time friend and literary colleague at Makerere University, Ms Mary Karooro Okurut, also houses the Department of Culture, which is responsible for language develop- ment in the country. Ms Okurut, also the founder of the famous FEMRITE, the Uganda Women Writers Association, of which I am an honorary member, last month launched the final stage of establishing the National Kiswahili Authority, where the Waswahilisti will certainly feature. In any case, we are already well-known, whether famous or notorious, to the ministry for our activism. Some time ago, when my friend, Mr James Mugume, the Permanent Secretary for Foreign Affairs, introduced me to his counterpart in the Gender, Labour and Social Development ministry, his colleague, she paid me a rather curious compliment. She said something like, “I’ve heard about you. You’re the gen- tleman who would wake up at three in the morning to go and work for Kiswahili.” I suspect that the PS had received this impression of my enthusiasm — or is it madness — for Kiswahili from my dear friend Juliana Naumo, now the Commissioner for Culture, with whom I worked closely on our contribution to the formation of the East African Kiswahili Council. It all started in 2004 when I received a letter from the East African Community secretariat at

a letter from the East African Community secretariat at Mr Wallah bin Wallah FILE | NATION

Mr Wallah bin Wallah


Community secretariat at Mr Wallah bin Wallah FILE | NATION Prof Kimani Njogu FILE | NATION

Prof Kimani Njogu


Arusha, through the ministry, that I had been designated to represent Uganda, along with my beloved comrade, Prof Kimani Njogu, from Kenya and Dr Anna Kishe from Tanzania, on the Task force for the formation of the East African Kiswahili Commission. Dr Kishe, who was then Executive Secretary of the Tanzanian National Kiswa-

2004 Year Prof Austin Bukenya represented Uganda at the East African Kiswahili Commission meeting in


Year Prof Austin Bukenya represented Uganda at the East African Kiswahili Commission meeting in Arusha

at the East African Kiswahili Commission meeting in Arusha What, however, the story-tellers didn’t tell us

What, however, the story-tellers didn’t tell us is why a 60- year-old man, as I was then, should think nothing of tearing across three countries, at his own expense, for the sake of a language that’s not highly thought of in Uganda”

Prof Austin Bukenya

hili Council (BAKITA), was to be our chairperson. I went to the ministry to seek facilitation to attend the task force’s inaugural meeting in Arusha but, not surprisingly, no funds were “available” for that project. I thought the opportu- nity for Uganda, and for me, was too good to let pass without a try. So, I scraped a few coins from my pocket and caught the good old Akamba Bus, through Nairobi, to Arusha. The rest, as they say, is history. Uganda participated fully in the work of the task force, and the East African Kiswahili Com- mission is an entity assented to by all the states of the East African Community. (By the way, I sorely miss the Akamba Bus Service. It was an institution with which many of us had grown up, and in its own way it, too, symbolised the East African spirit. I lived and taught in Machakos, the birthplace of the Akamba Bus, between 1977 and 1978, and I was both surprised and amused to actually see in the town some of the elderly drivers and conductors who had ferried me scores of times on their buses between Kampala and Nairobi. So, the Akamba buses were re- ally as Akamba as they were East African!) Anyway, the story soon spread along the corridors of the ministry that Bukenya had actually found his way to Arusha on foot! Well, if the guy could walk all the way from Kampala to Arusha for the

sake of Kiswahili, waking up at 3am to run a small errand for it wouldn’t be that much of a big deal. What, however, the story-tellers didn’t tell us is why a 60-year-old man, as I was then, should think nothing of tearing across three countries, at his own expense, for the sake of a language, and especially a language that is not that highly thought of in Uganda. I, too, am sometimes tempted to wonder why I go banging on every door in sight for the sake of Kiswahili. Often, indeed, it feels like banging one’s head against a wall when one runs into the thick indifference or even deri- sive “decampaigning” (as the Ugandans say) that characterise attitudes towards Kiswahili. In such moments, I try to brace my faith in our language by thinking back on the events that triggered my awareness of the priceless gift of Kiswahili to all East Africans. To me, this awareness, not to say fanatical love, of the lingo is the magic, the ‘urogi’ that wouldn’t let me either rest or relax in the quest for its recognition. For me, it all goes back to the 19th century, when my grand- mother, Hajara Binti Ramadhan, was born, most probably in Bagamoyo. Her father was one of the first converts to Islam in Uganda, and when their leader, Prince Nuhu Kyabasinga Mbogo,


20 | Advertising Feature



The future of broadband connectivity in Kenya

BY MILLICENT MWOLOLO mmwololo@ke.nationmedia.com

T he World Telecommunication and

Information Society Day (WTISD)

is held on 17 May to focus on the

importance of ICT and the wide range of issues related to the Information Society.

the wide range of issues related to the Information Society. A technician fixes fibre optic cables

A technician fixes fibre optic cables on Lusaka Road in Industrial Area, Nairobi.

framework. There is a multi-stakeholder commitment to achieve universal access to broadband connectivity and content in the country. The government and the private sector have been in consultations chatting the way forward for enhanced broadband connectivity in Kenya. In order to realize its full potential, it is essential to roll-out high-speed broadband

networks, making it affordable and universally accessible. Not only does broadband secure inclusion within the global economy, but it goes a long way to underpin the competitiveness of a nation. In a developing nation like Kenya, the success of broadband connectivity lies in the progressing the realization of the Millennium Development Goals. As such, there is need for a broadband ecosystem in Kenya to meet the demands of Vision 2030 that seeks to provide Kenyans

with a lifestyle that is only experienced in a newly industrialized country. The Constitution of Kenya 2010 anticipates information access to all citizens as a basic right; as well as the recognition that Kenya aspires to be a globally competitive and prosperous nation. Currently, broadband connectivity in Kenya delivers a minimum of 5mbps (in rural areas) and 40 mbps (in urban areas) to homes and businesses for high speed access to voice, data, video and applications for development. It is expected that by 2017, 35 per cent of the household in Kenya, and all schools and hospitals will have been connected to the internet. There are some key gaps in broadband research and development that need to be sealed if the adoption of broadband technologies will be an enabler in the attainment of Kenya’s Vision 2030. A whooping 90 per cent of Kenyans do not have access to broadband, students do not have access to computers. Many Kenyans do not have skills to use the internet. Unless these gaps are addressed, Kenya will fail as a country to take advantage of opportunities to uplift Kenyan’s socio-economic status and adversely affect the country’s global positioning and competitiveness. The country therefore needs a very clear road- map towards the realisation of a knowledge- based economy.

This day’s objective is to help raise awareness of the possibilities that the use of the Internet and other IT technologies (ICT) can bring to societies, as well as of ways to bridge the digital divide. This year’s theme is “Broadband for Sustainable Development”. Kenya and the rest of East Africa is at a developmental phase and its leadership has realized the role of digital development to transform and fast-track sustainable development. Broadband is a strategic infrastructure for a 21st century economy. Broadband is the platform for Kenya to develop and register economic growth and innovation. Broadband enables healthcare, education, employment and government service delivery. This will give Kenya a competitive edge in the region as very few countries in Africa have established a similar

as very few countries in Africa have established a similar The benefits of broadband connectivity in

The benefits of broadband connectivity in the country

BY MILLICENT MWOLOLO mmwololo@ke.nationmedia.com

The future of broadband in Kenya shall be more than viewing television, surfing the internet and making phone calls. It shall be about new forms of communication and mass collaboration through the virtually un-limited potential for sharing information, storage capacity, processing power and software made possible through high-capacity bandwidth connections. This collaboration will generate new ideas, accelerate economic development and lead to opportunities for wealth creation, social development and personal expression. It is expected that ubiquitous broadband services lower the cost of communication and attract investment particularly in rural areas. This will stimulate local economic environments and increase economic growth. Broadband networks have been shown to have a direct impact on employment. An increase in broadband penetration will have an increase in jobs in the country.

Broadband will facilitate the roll-out of e-health

This will provide

solutions to the constraints of health care

and marginalized

areas. The development of broadband infrastructure and ICT skill within the country shall promote

delivery systems in the rural

applications in the country.

benefit by gaining access to more suppliers and

more competitive inputs. This will consequently increase the competitiveness of their products.

A well-developed ICT infrastructure will provide

a conducive environment for business incubation

in the country. This will nurture the development

of entrepreneurial and ICT-oriented companies.

This would provide Kenya the opportunity to

ascend to the level of technological hub in Vision


Access to fast speed internet in all parts of the country is essential to the success of county e-governments. Efficient backhaul, last mile broadband network and end-user devices will support the efficiency of e-governments. The virtual working environment will be realized as broadband would likely increase telecommuting. This will cut travel time and expenses to employees and reduce environmental pollution- boosting societal welfare. Broadband is likely to promote inclusion of persons with disabilities in formal employment and access to education. Access to advanced technology at home would increase the availability of distance learning programmes and job certifications to persons living with disabilities. Broadband network within Kenya and the East African region would support security agencies and other agencies to respond faster to emergencies and natural disasters. This will aid

Business Process Outsourcing (BPO). This will


the communication of national security alerts


of the BPO sub-


serve public interest.

greatly impact the success sector.

Broadband will unlock opportunities and

e-learning will be revolutionalized as more people engage in on-line and distance learning. The

investment competitiveness

in the country.

availability of low-cost and quality education in

Economic linkages will be enhanced through access to new domestic and international markets. Businesses in the rural context will also

the internet will expand education opportunities

in the country.


Advertising Feature


SATURDAY NATION May 17, 2014 Advertising Feature 21
SATURDAY NATION May 17, 2014 Advertising Feature 21
SATURDAY NATION May 17, 2014 Advertising Feature 21

22 | Weekend


IN THEIR OWN WORDS | Kenyan authors speak The audience lights me up and my
IN THEIR OWN WORDS | Kenyan authors speak
lights me
up and
my poetry
comes alive
Poet Sitawa
Namwalie dur-
ing a past per-
formance. She
says poetry has
opened many
doors for her.

I write my poetry to figure out humanity and to understand the value of thinking



F irst, I started to read. I was 10 years old and a friend brought me a book for my birthday.

I sat down and started to read this book and the birthday was history. I could no longer hear the noise of my many friends as they played in the background. I was hooked and ad- dicted to reading from the very first book I read.

I still remember the title of the book,

Secret Island, by Enid Blyton. Many years later, when it was no longer po- litically correct to say you liked Enid Blyton, because some of her stories are steeped in racism, (the gollywogs are apparently negative caricatures of black people), I still keep a warm place in my heart for her.

I read to figure out life questions. I

was one of those kids who thought and thought about everything and looked for answers for what I now know is the human condition. I looked for answers to questions you can’t ask your father or mother or teacher without making them suspicious of your intentions.

Started to wonder

I remember the time I looked around

me and started to wonder how I was

supposed to know if anything around me was real. Was I real? How was I supposed to tell if I was real?

I would sit in class and look at my

fellow students, watch the teacher speaking and wonder, what if nothing I

was seeing was real, what if it is nothing but a figment of my imagination? I kept this strange inquiry to myself.

I knew instinctively it was something

that would mark me out as a weirdo. Later, I found out that this was a quest that had held the attention of many philosophers, including Rene Descartes, he of “I think so I am” fame. Books helped me to figure my many questions out. I read everything, newspapers, novels, encyclopaedias, (the original Google). Later on, as I

grew up, I read to figure out my place in the world. Writing is part of the same pursuit. It is me trying to figure out the human condition. I watch the contradictions, complexities, inconsistencies, outright hypocrisy that bedevil our lives and I spend time thinking and asking ques- tions and, best of all, coming up with answers for myself that I can then share with other people. Writing has helped me to understand the value of thinking. Think long-term on a single topic and more and more of the subject comes into view. Tribe, race, ethnicity and tribalism is one of my many enquires. I watch and listen to

people, to hear and see how they relate on tribe, race, ethnicity and tribalism.

I remember my utmost surprise when

I realised that Kenyans of all ethnic

groups perceive themselves as victims in the context of tribalism and have elaborate stories about the nature of their tribal victimhood. And then I have come to understand how tribe, tribalism, ethnicity, racism; the negative aspect of all these human

expressions of diversity, represents one of the negative pillars on which the Kenyan nation has constructed itself. In its negative manifestation, it is a place from which we reap pain and suffering, from which we victimise, from which we discriminate and from which we perpetrate. Ideas for my poetry comes from everything going around me. Writing

poetry comes from my love of words, language and love of telling stories. I also write essays, short stories and I am working on a new play.

I love writing for performance and I

love performing. An audience lights me up and my work truly comes alive. Writing has opened up a whole new world for me with so many new op-

portunities. In April, I went to Berlin, Germany, to participate in the Spoken

Words project, which was an exchange between Kenyan and German poets, spoken word artistes and hip-hop artistes.

I met the most amazing Kenyan and

German artistes. The best part of this project, for me, was that it allowed me to get to know Kenyan artistes from dif- ferent genres and it really helped me to understand and appreciate what these young people are doing. I am looking

One of the first poems I wrote

A Gifted Almost-Fifty

By Sitawa Namwalie

What do I do, now that I have


a gift at almost-fifty.

Writing angry young poetry,

A flair I should have used up at


At least uncovered back then!

Fresh, new, demanding, to be


Gnashing your teeth at fifty?

Do I hide it from mortification? Or expose it and subject myself

to explanation.

Why now?

You see it was like this your honour.

It wasn’t my miscalculation,

There was Moi.

A regime that did not tolerate


No irate self-expression,

24 years of blundering terror your honour.

It stole my fuming twenties,

Rolled over my barely mellow


I gave up in my forties.

And then he left your honour,


For no reason I can fathom. At once the rage inside me

churned. Poetry erupted, spewing on its


Brimming, your honour,

I couldn’t help myself,

My angry overdue gift, Exposed at going on almost


forward to working with some of them to infuse new genres into my work. Sheng, in particular, interests me for its sheer energy; it is such a testament to the genius of our young people.

My new show, Silence is a Woman, played at the Goethe Institut in Nairobi on Saturday, May 10, at 7pm.

Are you an author with a story to tell? Please write to satnation@ke.nationm edia.com.


Read this book and always trust your instinct



We are bombarded daily with situations that require decisions. Just this morning, I had to choose from an array of clothes what to wear. My decision was influenced by things such as the weather, comfort, and appeal, among others. Then I had to choose what to have for breakfast; bread, cereals, pastries, etcetera. As with my choice of what to wear, my decision on breakfast was driven by forces such as what I felt like, energy con- tent, “healthiness” etcetera. We generally make such decisions easily without even thinking about them. However, there are times when we are forced to make decisions and act in moments that can quite literally change our lives. Malcolm Gladwell’s book, Blink, looks at how we make decisions and draw conclusions in different contexts. He poses that we are affected by two main forces: Careful analysis and instinct. He looks at the pros and cons of each and attempts to determine when best to apply careful analysis and when to apply instinct. The book starts out with a story of a kouros that didn’t look quite right. A kouros is a sculpture of nude male youth standing with his left leg forward and his arms at his side, believed to represent the god Apollo. These pieces are few and quite pricy. In 1983, the kouros in discussion was priced at just under $10 million. As expected, tests had to be undertaken to determine its authenticity. From these tests the kouros appeared authentic, until experts were brought in. These were people with years of experience in historical artefacts, such as Italian art historian Federico Zeri, Evelyn Harrison, an expert on

Greek sculptures, and Thomas Hoving, the former di- rector of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.

Federico had an issue with the sculpture’s fingernails. They appeared wrong to him. Thomas said the sculpture was “fresh”. Fresh is a problem for a statue that was sup- posed to be 2,000 years old. The Getty Museum — the likely buyer of the kouros — concerned by the reaction of these experts, convened a symposium on the kouros in Greece. It was trashed as an absolute fake and further enquiry attested to this, such as a letter that was used to trace the kouros to Swiss physician Lauffenberger

(a well-known art dealer) dated 1955. In addition, the kouros was “aged” using potato mold. These experts underwent what is referred to in Blink as “intuitive repulsion”. Though they could not articulate their concerns clearly, something was off. Initial tests

proved the kouros genuine, but expert instinct rubbished the kouros and so begins the whole journey into the book.

In this particular instance, instinct beat analysis. But then again, this might not be the case really. ‘Experts’ showed concern over the kouros. These were individu- als who had the advantage of dealing with all sorts of artefacts over many years. As such, the moment they

looked at the kouros and felt something was off, they relied on years of experience meeting intuition. From my observation, neither instinct nor careful analysis

can be the winner; both apply. A number of other analogies are given throughout the book where Malcolm ponders if it’s best to rely on instinct or careful analysis. I recently finished reading Stiegg Larsson’s The Girl with a Dragon Tattoo, the story of Mikael Blomkvist tasked with finding a missing niece. The niece in ques- tion had a brother named Martin Vanger whom, after some serious detective work, Mikael suspected to have

killed a woman. On the night this insight came to him, he went to Martin Vanger’s house to “scan” it for anything suspicious. As he was doing this, he heard Martin’s car approaching and quickly ran out. Unfortunately Martin caught a glimpse of him and invited him in. Mikael acquiesced and went in only to be tied up and tortured like the many other female victims that Martin had taken to his house. Martin asked Mikael one question, “Why did you come in when instinctively you could tell it was the wrong thing to do?” My belief is one. Right instinct is followed by careful analysis. As was the case of the experts who ‘felt’ some- thing was wrong, Mikael was scared of Martin after he analysed the Vanger family history. I have two pieces of advice: read Blink, and always think twice.

Tell us about a book that changed your life in not more than 800 words. Send your story to satnation@ ke.nationmedia.com


Seeds of Gold

MAY 17, 2014

Seeds of Gold MAY 17, 2014 the weekly farming magazine

the weekly farming magazine


HOW TO PICK BEST BREED FOR SEMEN EXTRACTION. PAGE 26 The queen of crop breeding Jane
The queen of crop breeding Jane Ininda has developed 26 maize strains and over 180
The queen
of crop
Jane Ininda has developed 26 maize
strains and over 180 crop varieties,
and she is not about to stop. P. 28
Egerton University is a premier institution for Agricultural education, Training, Research & Innovations ‘We are
Egerton University is a premier institution for Agricultural education, Training, Research & Innovations
‘We are a centre of excellence in Agri-business, Value chain development, empowerment and Innovation facilitation’
For more information Contact us on Phone: 051-2217891/2, 051-2217781
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• Fax: 051-2217827 Email: info@egerton.ac.ke • Web: www.egerton.ac.ke
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Butterflies, finance and dorper sheep:



I live in Nyeri and I would like advice on butterfly breeding and export. I plan to empower the youth in this location through this venture. Wangui Ndungu

Thank you Wangui. Butterfly farming is among the untapped livestock potential in the country and an avenue to economically empower the youth. For more guidance on butterfly farming and breeding, kindly consider contact- ing ICIPE in Nairobi or butterfly farms such as Kipepeo Project around Arabuko Sokoke Forest at the Coast or community-based butterfly farming groups around Kakamega forest. Seeds of Gold Team, Egerton University


Hallo, my name is Stephen Gakuhi,

I work at Egerton University as an

electrician and I am interested in rearing chicks. I already have 200 hens, which have already started laying eggs.

My big problem is the cost of feeds, which are too expensive. I want to learn about the following.

i. The ratio of making all the three types of poultry feeds

ii. The raw materials and where I can

get them. Seeds of Gold has come to fill a gap that many farmers have been fac-

ing - lack of adequate information on agribusiness. Many thanks to Nation Media Group and Egerton


Intensive poultry farming is an im- portant livestock enterprise supply- ing protein diets to many Kenyans, providing employment and income. However, this enterprise is highly dependent on external inputs such as feeds whose price has been on the rise. Due to the sensitivity of poultry on diets, poultry feeds for- mulations require intense training. Kindly contact Department of Ani- mal Sciences, Egerton University for further guidance. Mugatha Anthony, Research As- sistant, Department of Animal Sciences, Egerton University. anthonymugatha@yahoo.com

Sciences, Egerton University. anthonymugatha@yahoo.com FISH FARMING I am planning to engage in fish farming in


I am planning to engage in fish

farming in Nanyuki. The soil is black cotton and thus is able to hold the water in the pond without the use of polythene paper. I, however, require help on the suitability of tilapia farming in Laikipia, due to the weather conditions (semi-arid area).



I am Henry Gichuhi from Mombasa

and many thanks for Seeds of Gold.

I want to start goose keeping. What

are the best breeds to rear. And Kari improved kienyeji chicken in comparison to other layers/boilers, which is the best?

Since goose breeding is mainly in the hands of private farmers, we advise you to contact your near- est livestock production office to provide you with more advice on breeds as well as linkage. The ad- vantages of the improved kienyeji chicken developed by Kari include being dual purpose, that is, it can be kept for both meat and eggs and are hardy. Ronald Kimitei, Research As- sistant, Animal Science De- partment, Egerton University. ronaldkimitei@gmail.com

I would also like to know where I

can get extensive research on fish farming in Kenya to assist me in my research.

Mwangi Sammy

The type of fish to farm depends

on water quality and temperatures. Some fish types dwell best in clear

and cold water while others do best in warm and turbid water. Water temperature also influences oxygen concentration. Tilapia and cat fish are best suited in warm areas but differ in their need for water qual- ity. Kindly visit Sagana Fish Farm for further training on fish farming enterprises. Wangui Chege and Mugatha M, Livestock Research Assistants, De- partment of Animal Sciences, Eger- ton University. prejaw@gmail.com



I own a hammer crushing machine

in Vihiga County, which is able to crush granite rocks up to sizes of between 10mm and 5mm. My ques- tions are: i) Can I produce chicken

grit from these rocks? ii) What is the quality required for chicken grit for digestion? iii) I have read that gran- ite dust can be used as soil nutrient, so how can I produce and market this? iv) What are the qualities for the granite rocks used for the above purposes and can they be found in


I currently use this machine to crush

ore for extraction of alluvial gold. Andrew Chanda

Thank you Andrew for your interest in chicken nutrition. Poultry should always have access to grit espe- cially if they are confined indoors. Grit aids their digestion because it acts as the hens ‘teeth’ in the crop to grind the food. Grit size should not exceed 2mm diameter. The ma-

jor compounds in granite rock are Silicon oxide (72 per cent) and Alu- minium oxide (14 per cent). Com- pounds of nutritional significance in granite include Calcium oxide (2 per cent) Magnesium oxide (1.4 per cent). Composition, however, varies with geographical location. Con- tact your nearest geological office

location. Con- tact your nearest geological office (probably at Kakamega) for more advice on qualities of

(probably at Kakamega) for more advice on qualities of the rock. Seeds of Gold Team, Egerton University


Kindly advise how I can get those Kari chickens in Kakamega. I am interested in rearing them. Festus Ngaira

Kari is still in the process of establishing an improved indig- enous chicken breeding centre in Kakamega, but for now, you can only obtain their day old chicks from Kari Naivasha centre. Seeds of Gold Team, Egerton University


I am Erastus Okoth Obongo. My

home town is Muhoroni in Kisumu County. I am interested in beekeep- ing and rearing Kari kienyeji chicken.

Please advise

Hi Erastus, Muhoroni has suitable environment for the two enter- prises. You can source improved chicken day-old chicks from Kari, Naivasha. Kindly contact your sub- county livestock production office for enquiries of where and how to source for bee colony and apiary tools. You may also consider visit- ing Department of Animal Sciences, Egerton University for more infor- mation and short course training in


Wangui C, and Kimitei K, Live- stock Research Assistants, Animal Science Department, Egerton University. prejaw@gmail.com, ronaldkimitei@gmail.com


Hello, I am a young and passionate Kenyan who for long has developed interests in farming. We have 2.5 acres in Subukia, Nakuru County

and I have been asking myself how I can venture into agriculture.

I would like to seek your advice in

terms of how I can jump-start my dreams and more so if there are any organisations I can talk to for credit. Harun

Land is a prime capital in any agri-

cultural enterprise, however, there are various enterprises one can venture in depending on the geo- graphical location. Kindly consider saving some of your income in a fi- nancial institution, where they may lend you enough finance to start an agricultural enterprise. Alterna- tively, consider other sources such as Uwezo Fund. Musyoka D, Research Assist- ant, Animal Science Depart- ment, Egerton University. dunmusyoka@gmail.com


Hi, I read your articles in Seeds of Gold every Saturday. They are very informative. I would to like to start sheep farming business. Are you

able to provide a contact for some- one who can sell me dorper ewes? I’m currently based in Machakos.

Eric Kiilu

Dorper breed does well across the different ecological zones in the country and are suitable in your area. Kindly visit the Kenya Live- stock Breeders Organisation offices in Nakuru or your sub-county live- stock production offices for further guidance on farmers keeping dor-

per sheep in your area. Wangui Chege


I am grateful for Seeds of Gold team

and Egerton University. The articles

are very interesting and informative.

I am requesting for information on

how to make a greenhouse more productive and the variety of crop

one can plant for more yield. Also,

I will appreciate to know more

about goat keeping for commercial purposes.


It is unfortunate that you did not specify your location. Therefore, contact your nearest sub-county livestock production office for more directions. Alternatively, contact the Animal Science Depart- ment of Egerton University to give you more details on short courses on sheep and goats. Felix Akatch Opinya, Livestock Research Assistant, Egerton University, Njoro. akatchf@gmail.com


Thanks for the informative articles Having a first degree in econom- ics, what postgraduate/masters programme can equip me with best

what postgraduate/masters programme can equip me with best JOSEPH KANYI | NATION agribusiness skills. Daniel Okwach


agribusiness skills. Daniel Okwach Kisumu

Egerton University has various postgraduate programmes of inter-

est to you. We offer in the Faculty of Agriculture, MSc in Agribusiness Management, Agricultural Value

Chain Management, Agricultural Economic and Collaborative Mas- ters in Agricultural Economics. You have to apply to registrar academic

affairs. Application forms can be downloaded from the website or obtained from Egerton campuses in Nairobi, Nakuru or Njoro at a fee of Sh2,000. Kindly get in touch with admission office or visit Egerton website at www.egerton.ac.ke for more details and contact informa- tion.

Charles Wanjohi, Research Assistant, Animal Science De- partment, Egerton University cwanjohi@egerton.ac.ke


Thank you for Seeds of Gold. I am kindly requesting for financial help besides banks since I don’t have security that can assist me start and grow my business. I have a business plan for poultry and rabbit farming. I have been doing pig farming. Frashia Kiarie

Most financial institutions request for collateral, however, you can try the following organisations Uwezo Fund, Women Fund or Youth Fund depending on your qualifications to each. Kindly note that you can also access loan through the traditional financial institutions without col- lateral if you are a member of a mi- crofinance group where members act as guarantors. Francis Kigen, Research Assistant, Animal Science Department, Egerton University. kigenfrancis@yahoo.com

Prof Omedo Bebe Prof J. Ondura ASK THE EXPERTS Do you have any question or

Prof Omedo Bebe

Prof Omedo Bebe Prof J. Ondura ASK THE EXPERTS Do you have any question or enquiry

Prof J. Ondura


Do you have any question or enquiry on agribusiness, marketing, logis- tics, processing, innovation, and technology? Our pool of experts from Egerton University will respond to your questions with proper advice. Please send your questions to: satnation@ke.nationmedia.com




Experts offer tips

SOIL FERTILITY Thank you for the good work. I am writing in response to your


Thank you for the good work. I am writing in response to your

article on soil fertility on April 26.

I come from a farming area in

Kirinyaga County and for sure our soils are dying. I am glad because there is hope as long as farmers are educated on how to replenish nutrients in the soils. Professor Nancy Karanja said something that caught my eye. That young people can be trained on how to make use of urban waste from harvesting, processing, bagging and selling it. I am one of those young people who would love to know where I can get this kind of training. Please give suggestions.

EDITOR: Please contact Prof Nancy Karanja on N.Karanja@cgiar.org or Dr Richard Onwonga on dronwonga@gmail.com.


I really want to appreciate the

experts from Egerton University for tirelessly answering our ques- tions. This magazine is rich with information. Rev Avudiko Geoffrey

EDITOR: We appreciate your support. Keep reading and ask questions on any problems you encounter in your agribusiness.

I would like to congratulate eve-

rybody who contributes to Seeds of Gold, especially Egerton Uni-

versity, the kiboko ya ukulima and Nation Media Group. The mes- sages are fascinating. It’s upon readers to take action.

I wish you all the best for your

hard work. May the Almighty God bless you and your families. Nyagah Mbogo

EDITOR: We deeply appreciate your support. Keep reading


I am an avid reader of Seeds

of Gold. I read your article “My natural honey from coconut juice” with keen interest. For your information, making ‘honey’ from coconut syrup is not new technology in Kenya. This technology has been used in Lamu for decades. My disappointment is on informa- tion you received from Kenya Coconut Development Authority acting managing director Ray- mond Kahindi that they bor- rowed the technology from Asia. My memory on this product goes back to my childhood in 1950’s

up to date. We have been using coconut syrup (ngizi) as a refresh- ment or as candy. In giving more flavour to ngizi, some people add cinnamon, cadi- mon and black paper.

Ngizi is commonly sold at Lamu Sea Front between Hapa Hapa and Mangrove Restaurants. You can also find this product from Shee Baoni Cold House in Lamu. Let us get it right in promoting the product. We cannot call it coco honey. This is misleading also. This product does already have a Swahili name, Ngizi. In- terpretation in English should be coco syrup.

Omar Bwana

EDITOR: We are grateful for helping us educate the Seeds of Gold family.

Kindly connect us with Renson Mbaji, who produces coconut honey in Kilifi County. We are interested in how we can borrow from his experience and expertise since we are in the same

business in Coast.

Esther Amani EDITOR: Kindly get in touch with Mbaji on 0729279232.


Seeds of Gold, you are doing great work in educating farmers. I must say that I never miss to read your articles. I come from Eldoret and on April 19, you featured Larry Keya who grows cucum-

bers. I would appreciate if you help me with his contacts since I reside in the area and wish to learn from him.


EDITOR: You can reach Larry

Keya on 0718423635.



Hi, please assist me get in touch with the biogas unit inventors. I have tried to get in touch with them through the telephone numbers and email addresses you gave us without success.

EDITOR: Please contact Do- minic Wanjihia (Flexi- biogas) on 0722 700530 or 0705 921611, info@biogas.co.ke


Hongera Seeds of Gold for your information on farming. Kindly inform me on how to get con- nected to Rabak to register for membership. I recently embarked on rabbit farming and would like to get market through them.

New farmer

Thanks for your features Seeds of Gold. I am interested in rabbit farming and I want to start small since I don’t have enough capital to venture into contract farming. Is there a place I can get the right breed at a fair price?

EDITOR: Kindly contact Rabak on 0721219092 or 0722277523. sungurakenya@gmail.com


Hi, my name is Gabriel from Nai- robi. I am inspired by your publi- cation. It has changed my way of thinking and may you continue with the good work. I am humbly requesting for contacts of the young farmers from Runyenjes namely Eric Maingi and Cosmas Kavinda, who are farming cour- gette, capsicum and coriander.

Hi, Seeds of Gold has made us think about farming. I would like to get in touch with Erick and Cosmos to learn more.

Many thanks for your continued enrichment. Please assist with Erick Maingi and Cosmus Kavin- da’s contacts.




am very much interested in

wanting to get into agribusiness, specifically in farming. Please link me up with the contacts of Erick and Cosmas to enquire more on the courgettes and probably be mentored by them.

Charles. EDITOR: Please contact Cos-

mas on 0711738512 or Erick on




am pleased about your re-

sponse. Thank you Seeds of Gold.

Thanks for your suggestion to see an agriculture extension officer.


am particularly drawn to plants

because of the lower maintenance as compared to livestock, which


can probably incorporate much

later when I can afford. About the level of investment, I have been researching around and I see the cost varies with location and proximity to water sources to the leased land. I’d prefer a location not too far away from where I re- side because of cost of movement during monitoring. EDITOR: Wish you success as you venture into agribusiness.



If yes, tell us on satnation@ke.nationmedia.com Your commodity/service (produce, farm inputs, animal feeds, farm machinery and agro- chemicals etc) Your quantity Your price Your location Your contact Seeds of Gold will publish this information every Saturday, FREE OF CHARGE, to link you up with potential buyers or sellers.


We get all our milk from soya beans


and fellow




of milk

every day

from soya,

which they

sell at

Sh60 per


milk every day from soya, which they sell at Sh60 per litre Margret Abich with soya
Margret Abich with soya beans she uses to make milk. Right: Farmers are taught how
Margret Abich with
soya beans she uses
to make milk. Right:
Farmers are taught
how to make
from soya beans at
Kirdi, Kisumu. EVER-



Every morning, as dairy farmers Sh100.


A litre of soya milk retails at

Sh60. On the other hand, residents

buy cow milk at between Sh80 and

across the country wake up to milk their cows, Margaret Abich, a resi- dent of Awendo in Migori County, normally wakes up too. However, the farmer does not wake up to milk cows, but to make milk from soya beans. “It’s very simple to make milk from soya beans. The procedure takes less than 15 minutes. It is easier than milking a cow,” says the farmer. Margaret is among dozens of farmers in the county, who have em- braced growing of the crop and they are making milk from it, and other products that include soya beverages and soya meat. To make milk, Margaret starts by boiling the soya beans for 10 min- utes to soften them. “I then pour the boiled beans into a small portable posho mill-like ma- chine called a mincer. I, thereafter, ground them until they turn into a


Margaret Abich

fine powder.” Thereafter, she mixes the powder with a little warm water and sieves for the milk to come out. “The powder is normally thick. So one must add some water. The prod- uct is then allowed to settle for five minutes and then sieved. The milk will be ready for consumption.” Margaret, 40, mainly sells the milk and other products she makes from soya at Nyakuru trading centre, over 5km away from her home. They are branded Awendo Soya Products and are sold to small-scale traders and individuals. They cost between Sh50 and Sh500. “Majority of residents buy my milk to make tea because it’s af- fordable and has more nutrients than cow milk. Some villagers also

Margaret also makes soya nuts popularly known as ‘‘njugu soya’’. Soya nuts are made by frying the beans and adding salt for taste and flavour. She also makes soya man- dazi (doughnut). “I make the mandazis and sell them daily at Sh5 each. I also sell between 20 to 30 litres of soya milk daily.” In a month, she earns between Sh30,000 to Sh50,000 from selling the products. Margaret and other farmers in the region got the knowledge from Kenya Industrial Research and De- velopment Institute (Kirdi), which trained farmers on how to add value to the food crop in 2008. From her five-acre farm, she harvests about eight tonnes of soya beans after every four months. Johnson Agwaya, 49, is another soya beans farmer in Migori. From his five-acre farm, he har- vests nine tonnes of soya beans in four months. “Soya takes only four months to mature and offers better returns than sugarcane, which we used to grow,” says Agwaya, who started growing the crop in 2011 and also processes milk from soya. Sugarcane and tobacco have been the dominant crops in Awendo for many decades. But due to falling prices and delay in payments, farm- ers have switched to soya. Daniel Midoda of Migori County Soya Beans Farmers Cooperative says soya changes the fortunes of farmers in a short time. “Since we have identified ready market for farmers, we encourage them to grow soya on large-scale,” he tells Seeds of Gold. Elisha Onyango, a research scien- tist at Kirdi, says 40 per cent of soya nutrients are proteins. “The milk processed from soya has 9.5 per cent nutrients than cow milk, which has only 3.9 per cent,” says Onyango. He adds that soya is a legume crop that adds fertility to the soil.






How to pick breed for semen extraction



not obtain


from a bull with a big frame and inseminate it in a




S ome drivers of the livestock sec-

tor such as globalisation, population and income growth are bound to change the dynamics in the livestock sector. The rise in demand for animal products will boost productivity as well as competi- tiveness. But how can smallholder farmers con- tribute to growing livestock markets? Can this be made possible by utilising tech- nologies such as artificial insemination to improve and increase production? Artificial insemination (AI) is a com- monly used practice in animal breeding. This reproductive technology has slowly taken root in many developing coun-

tries and governments as well as private companies, which are preserving semen collected from a varied range of beef and dairy cattle breeds. It is no longer uncommon to spot agri- cultural extension officers out in the fields carrying out AI on local or indigenous animals. A percentage of smallholder farmers have embraced this technique. The desire to improve their production is evident. Artificial insemination offers a relatively ‘quicker’ option for farmers who would like to improve their herd but do not have a good performing bull.



Dr Muchunguh
A crossbreed bull.
AI offers a relatively
‘quicker’ option for
farmers who would
like to improve their

It also gives the farmer a chance to choose her preferred breed. AI is advanta- geous as the semen is collected from se- lected bulls with high genetic potential. With the latest improvements in sexing technologies, ‘female’ and ‘male’ semen can be isolated and provided to farmers thereby influencing the sex percentage in their herd. Unfortunately, this is still a relatively new technique and a considerably expen-

sive service to source. More often than not, however, farmers are inadequately equipped with the knowl- edge to choose from which breed’s semen to serve their cows. Important factors to consider include:

Matching genotype to phenotype: One should ensure that the desired crossbreed can survive or easily adapts to the prevail- ing environment and is productive. It is important to note that high-yield-

ing animals can be reared but will require intensive management that comes with huge financial requirements to ensure the desired outputs are realised. However, in situations where a small- holder farmer is keen on undertaking AI services, then one must consider the pre- vailing environment as well as the produc- tion systems in place before selecting the desired bull’s genetic material. Dystocia: This is a condition commonly associated with difficulties in calving. The common cause of dystocia is a small- framed cow trying to give birth to a large calf. For example, the common Small East African Zebu, which is typically small- framed inseminated with Holstein Frie- sian or the improved Kenyan Boran semen would be recipe for disaster. However, the Boran x Angus cross would pose no difficulties in calving for a Boran cow. AI is a reproductive technology that should be encouraged and supported as its huge benefits are evident in some developed countries such as France and Brazil, which have embraced the technique nationally. These countries are presently placed among the top 10 milk producers. In- creased advocacy on the increased and guided utilisation of this technique should be undertaken more extensively.

Dr Muchunguh is a livestock expert.

EGERTON UNIVERSITY “Transforming Lives through Quality Education” Baringo Campus (Classes start May 26, 2014 and
“Transforming Lives through Quality Education”
Baringo Campus
(Classes start May 26, 2014 and Registration for September 2014
intake is in progress)
Egerton University has responded to access to higher education by establishing a Campus in Kabarnet, the headquarters of
Baringo County. The campus is located 140 Km from Nakuru Town, in Kabarnet CBD, one (1) km along Kabarnet- Kabortonjo
road opposite Kabarnet Hotel.
Self-Sponsored Certificate, Diploma, Degree Programmes for Sept 2014
Faculty of Commerce
Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences
1. Master of Business Administration
(Option: Entrepreneurship. Global Business Mgt.
Human resource Mgt, Insurance and Risk mgt,
Marketing, Strategic management, Accounting, Project
management, Finance, Operations management, MIS,
Procurement and Supplies Management)
1. Bachelor of Arts (General)
2. Bachelor of Arts in Library and information Science
3. Diploma in Library and Information Science
4. Certificate in library and Information sciences
2. M.Sc. in Human resource Management
Institute of Women, Gender and Development
3. Bachelor of Commerce (Options: Marketing,
Accounting, Finance, Operations management,
Procurement and Supply Chain Management,
Business Information, Cooperative and Micro financing,
Entrepreneurship, Human resource management,
Insurance and Risk management)
1. Bachelor of Arts in Gender, Women and Development
2. Diploma in Gender, Poverty and development
3. Certificate in Gender, Peace and Security
Faculty of Science
4. Bachelor of Procurement and Supplies
1. Certificate in Computer applications
2. Bridging Courses in Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics
5. Diploma in Procurement and Supplies
6. Diploma in Business Management
Faculty of Education and Community Studies
1. Bachelor of Education (Arts)
2. Bachelor of Education (Primary)
3. Bachelor of Education in Early Childhood Development
and Education (ECDE)
and Physics
More programmes coming soon in the Faculties of Science;
Agriculture, and Environment and Resource Development.
Egerton University currently offers 20 Diplomas, 68 Bachelors,
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4. Bachelor of Science in Community Development
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The Director
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P.O. Box 100 30400, KABARNET – KENYA, Tel: 254 726 698 699
Email: baringocampus@gmail.com or bck@egerton.ac.ke
Website: www.egerton.ac.ke




A herd of elephants in a farm in Burgret, Nanyuki FILE | NATION
A herd of
elephants in a
farm in Burgret,


Bees save crop farmers from elephants


insects are

all farmers

need to

save their

crops from

the beasts,


finds out

green pea or green grams gar- dens,” he says. This was before 2012 when

Nzumu and other farmers

adopted the elephant deterring

bee-hive booby-trapped fencing

The herd of elephants raise around the borderlines of their


The fence consists of hives interlinked with trip wires every 30 feet, so that if an elephant at- tempts to go through any of the

wires, then beehives all along the fence swing and release the stinging insects, which in turn attack and chase them away. The beehives are suspended on wires between posts with a flat thatched roof above to protect the bees from the sun. The initiative by Dr Lucy King, which started as a trial for her PhD work, has become a trail- blazer. She is the leader of the El- ephants and Bees Project having started research on the concept in 2007 in Samburu and Laikipia,

both of which have game re-



their ears after hearing the sound

of buzzing bees. Fearing danger,

they scamper in the opposite direction. This incidence recorded in

a documentary as part of re-

search findings is guiding the implementation of a conserva- tion programme in parts of the country where elephant habitats and agricultural land overlap, to ensure co-existence. The story of conflict between farmers and elephants as they compete for limited land and water is not new in Kenya. But thanks to this innovation, farm-

ers are putting this interesting fact about the beast being scared stiff of bees to good use through

a programme dubbed Elephants

and Bees. One of the beneficiaries, Hezron Nzumu, a farmer in

Sagalla, Taita Taveta in the envi- rons of the Tsavo Game Reserve recounts of sleepless nights watching over his crop against elephants’ incursions. “We used to stay awake most nights in the hope that we will hear elephants approaching our farms, especially when crops have matured,” he recounts. “Once we heard them, we would beat drums, light fire- crackers around the edges of the shambas, and use whistles to scare away the elephants. It was

so much work.”

Despite this, says the farmer with a six-acre piece of land, they often lost entire crops to the ravenous beasts. “I think the animals can smell mature crops from afar. They particularly love maize, but they will uproot even cassava and ravage an entire



Dr Lucy King

Dr Lucy King in Tsavo East National Park where the bee technology is used to
Dr Lucy King in Tsavo East
National Park where the bee
technology is used to stop
elephants from invading farms.

serves. With support from the University of Oxford in the UK, the charity Save the Elephants, the Disney Worldwide Conserva- tion Fund and the Kenya Wildlife Services, she has been able to complete studies on how to use honey bees (Apismelliferascutel- lata) to prevent elephants breach- ing farmland boundaries. The farm-based trials were conducted in two small Turkana farming communities that are within the elephants’ range. The communities are located 2km apart, within the greater Ngare Mara Community, Meru North. Elephants here migrate be- tween Shaba, Samburu and Buf- falo Springs National Reserves and Meru National Park to the south. Her involvement was steered by research done earlier pro- claiming that elephants avoid feeding on acacia trees with beehives. “This was followed by behavioural experiments demonstrating that not only do elephants run from bee sounds, but they also have an alarm that alerts family members to retreat from a possible bee threat,” she

says. According to research find- ings, upon monitoring elephant raids over three crop seasons, it was discovered that 97 per cent of raids were aborted if the field was protected by a fence contain- ing a beehive every 10 metres. She says that a pilot study she led involving 34 farms on the edge of two farming communities in northern Kenya found beehive fences to be an effective elephant deterrent compared to traditional thorn bush barriers. Dr Lucy says in the study which was published in 2011 in the African Journal of Ecology that elephants made 14 attempts to enter farmland and 13 of these were unsuccessful. In each case, the elephants were forced to turn away from the area after con- fronting a beehive fence or walk the length of the fence to choose an easier entry point through a thorn bush. Only once did elephants break through a beehive fence to eat crops, according to the paper. It is this that is informing the progressive roll out of the measure. She has rolled it out in

the coastal region with additive financial support from individu- als with more being built in five African countries, including neighbouring Uganda, Tanzania, Botswana and Mozambique. “In Samburu and Laikipia, 18 farms have benefitted from the project and now we have 12 in Tsavo,” she says of the strategy, which not only keeps the destruc- tive animals off the farms but is also complementing farmers’ livelihoods through apiculture. Dr Lucy says the concept is an attractive one. Not only do farm- ers benefit from reduced crop- raiding but such beehives offer an additional income through the sale of honey and wax products. Nzumu, who has 12 hives, har- vests at least 10 litres of honey from each hive in four months. Every one kilogramme unproc- essed honey is bought back by the project at Sh200. Dr Lucy notes that, in Kenya, electrification projects often fail because of poor maintenance, spiralling costs and the lack of buying capacity among the com- munities where the elephants are common.




the scientist


Ininda, the scientist with a knack for turning every seed into gold

Dr Jane Ininda has produced and commercialised 26 different maize strains and 180 other crop varieties with fellow scientists, which are planted in Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda, Malawi and South Africa, and she is not about to stop

Malawi and South Africa, and she is not about to stop I FOUND MAIZE STREAK VIRUS


Dr Jane




S oft-spoken and humble, you can easily surmise that she is a no

huckster, but just an earnest, pas- sionate scientist, keen on making

a difference.

Dr Jane Ininda is a plant breeder and has been doing the work for 30 years in a career straddling science and agriculture worlds. The researcher has produced and commercialised 26 different maize strains on her own and in partnership with other scientists, released over 180 improved crop varieties. These hybrids provide different tastes, give resistance to crops and pests and result in increased yields. Apart from coming up with the new breeds, the wide networking, which her job as a programme officer with Association of Genealogists and Researchers in Archive (Agra) and founder of the Maize Breeders Network for Eastern and Southern Africa (it also incorporates rice, beans, cassava, sorghum and mil-

let), have seen her add value to the lives of farmers all over the continent. Ininda cites a project in land- scarce Rwanda where farmers sought to grow bush beans in a way that they could maximise space. The experiment took place in Ruhengeri, a region in the northern part of the country and the result- ant seed ended up spreading across the country. “We introduced some bean varieties, which grow upwards, produce more yield and take less space. You just stake it on a stick and it produces four times more than the regular type. Now it has transformed the food situation. This means that Rwanda has four times the amount of food it had; families there are even more food secure than Kenya.” The agriculturalist also cites

a farmer in Githunguri, who had

given up on her millet farm. “We started doing some trials and if you go there now, it’s different. Before, she was harvesting barely half a basket of millet; now she is harvesting six. Before we went, she believed that she had been cursed.” Ininda’s main role at Agra is to offer technical expertise and over- see the authorisation of new seed strains in conjunction with other scientists. Her zest in seeing pro- ductive farms was born out of the precarious food situation she had faced as a child. Her parents were peasant farm- ers in the dry Mbeere District. “I remember as I was growing up that there wasn’t enough food; we used traditional methods and you

could never be sure there would be enough food in the year.” The alumna of Kaaga Girls High School, therefore, chose to study agriculture once she joined the University of Nairobi for her un- dergraduate course, to find a way to help her community get more food. She then proceeded into the world

of research, focusing on wheat at a Kenya Agricultural Research Insti- tute station in Njoro between 1983 and 1985 before returning to her alma mater for a Master’s degree, where her focus was on amaranth. The scientist attained her PhD in Plant Breeding at Iowa State University in the US, where she focused on maize seed. “I found maize streak virus had ravaged the crop in the then Central, Rift Valley and Eastern provinces. That is why I chose to focus on it.” Her efforts have led to the exist- ence of crop varieties that provide higher yields and hence increased production. “This way, the goal to- wards food security is made more viable on a national level, and farm- ers can get higher profits from their crops at individual level,” she says. Apart from maize, wheat and soya bean breeding are also her pet specialisations. Ininda worked on getting early maturing varieties because of drought. Many of the hybrids she introduced have been adapted by farmers and are stocked by com- mercial firms such as East Afri- can Seed Company, Olerai Seed Company, Dryland Seed Company, Freshco, Leldet Seed Company and in Uganda, Victoria Seed Company. “They are resistant to diseases, are higher yielding, have good taste and some are early maturing,” she says.

have good taste and some are early maturing,” she says. 30 The number of research papers


The number of research papers the agricultural scientist has published in different respected journals locally and abroad.

to helping her determine what experiments and projects she will take up. “We meet farmers and they tell us issues on the farm. They want maize that can be processed eas-

ily, tastes good and can grow in their areas. You have to work with them. That way, you’ll always be up to date with what’s going on.” Looking at the current situa- tion of food security, Ininda men- tions the impact climate change has had on local farmers. “It has caused the weather to

change and we tend to have drier seasons. We, therefore, need to focus on drought-tolerant and early maturing crops. We look at long-term aspects of things, to tailor our research to fit the present. You can’t tell farmers to use the same seeds they were us-

ing 40 years ago.”

Symbol of quality

The scientist’s improved and certified breeds, however, go for a higher price than regular seeds, retailing at Sh150 per kilo as compared to uncertified regular

seeds, which would sell at Sh30 per kilo in the market. Ininda, however, says that the difference is vast between the two. “What they sell is not seed but grain. The word seed is a symbol of quality and po- tential. Improved seed is always expensive because it has to be produced and packaged hygi- enically and ensure it meets the standards. It must be certified by the Kenya Plant Health In- spectorate Services (Kephis).” For products so cutting edge, it would appear that the seeds are only to be found in exclusive and reserved institution. This is actually not so. “Farmers can find the seed at their local agro-dealers where the seed companies stock them. For farmers to know which vari- ety they need in their village and region, they can go to their local agro-dealer and get the informa- tion or get in touch with Kephis,” Ininda says. In addition, farmers can also send an SMS to Kephis to inquire what variety would work best in their area. To receive an SMS for the recommended maize varie- ties in their division, “They go to ‘Write message’ on their hand- sets, type MAIZE#DIVISION (Maize#Lanet) and send the message to 20354 after which they will receive the details of seed varieties,” she says. Some farmers want quirky preferences, Ininda says on a light note. “In Uganda, they tell us that the aroma and taste of the rice is the most important thing; in Malawi they say they need bit- ter tasting cassava with a very pronounced flavour.” As for the magic that has ena- bled her succeed in plants inno- vation, she cites determination, passion and hard work as the key attributes, as well as encourage- ment from parents and family.