Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 53

Introduction to transport phenomena

Transport phenomena covers topics such as Transport phenomena covers topics such as
Transport in the solid state by diffusion
Transport of heat by conduction; transport of heat by
convection; transient heat flow; heat transport by thermal
radiation
Engineering units and pressure in static fluids g g p
Momentum transport and laminar flow of Newtonian fluids
Equations of continuity and conservation of momentum Equations of continuity and conservation of momentum
Fluid flow past submerged objects
T b l t fl h i l b l d it li ti Turbulent flow; mechanical energy balance and its application
to fluid flow; mass transport in fluids.
WHY STUDY DIFFUSION?
DIFFUSION IN SOLIDS
WHY STUDY DIFFUSION?
Materials often heat treated to improve properties
Atomic diffusion occurs during heat treatment
Depending on situation higher or lower diffusion Depending on situation higher or lower diffusion
rates desired
H t t ti t t d ti d h ti Heat treating temperatures and times, and heating
or cooling rates can be determined using the
mathematics/physics of diffusion p y
Example: steel gears are case-hardened by
diffusing C or N to outer surface
DIFFUSION IN SOLIDS
At i h i f diff i
DIFFUSION IN SOLIDS
Atomic mechanisms of diffusion
Mathematics of diffusion Mathematics of diffusion
Influence of temperature and diffusing species on
Diffusion rate Diffusion rate
INTRODUCTION TO DIFFUSION
Phenomenon of material transport by atomic or particle
transport from region of high to low concentration
What forces the particles to go from left to right?
Does each particle know its local concentration?
Every particle is equally likely to go left or right! Every particle is equally likely to go left or right!
At the interfaces in the above picture, there are more
particles going right than left this causes an average
flux of particles to the right!
DIFFUSION MECHANISMS
Diffusion at the atomic level is a step-wise migration of
atoms from lattice site to lattice site
Conditions for diffusion:
there must be an adjacent empty site
atoms from lattice site to lattice site
there must be an adjacent empty site
atom must have sufficient energy to break bonds with its
neighbors and migrate to adjacent site (activation energy)
Higher the temperature, higher is the probability that an
atom will have sufficient energy
h diff i t i ith t t hence, diffusion rates increase with temperature
Types of atomic diffusion mechanisms:
substitutional (through vacancies)
interstitial
A coppernickel
diff i l b f diffusion couple before
a high-temperature
heat treatment.
Cu (red circles) and Cu (red circles) and
Ni (blue circles)
atom locations
ithi th diff i within the diffusion
couple.
Concentrations of copper
and nickel as a function of
position across the couple position across the couple.
(a) A coppernickel diffusion couple
after a high-temperature heat g p
treatment, showing the alloyed
diffusion zone
(b) Cu (red circles) and Ni (blue
i l ) t l ti ithi th circles) atom locations within the
couple.
(c) Concentrations of copper and (c) Concentrations of copper and
nickel as a function of position
across the couple.
Interdiffusion: In an alloy or diffusion couple,
DIFFUSION
y p ,
atoms tend to migrate from regions of large to lower
concentration. The copper atoms have migrated or diffused
into the nickel, and that nickel has diffused into copper. This
process, whereby atoms of one metal diffuse into another, is
termed interdiffusion, or impurity diffusion. , p y
Initially (diffusion couple)
After some time
Self-diffusion: In an elemental solid, atoms also
DIFFUSION: PHENOMENA
,
migrate. Diffusion occurs for pure metal but all atoms
exchanging positions are of the same type this is
termed as self diffusion. Self diffusion is not normally
subject to observation.
Label some atoms
After some time
A
C
C
D A
D
A
B
D
B
B
DIFFUSION MECHANISMS
Vacancy Diffusion:
applies to substitutional impurities applies to substitutional impurities
atoms exchange with vacancies
rate depends on:
b f i -- number of vacancies
-- temperature
-- activation energy to exchange. gy g
increasing elapsed time
ACTIVATION ENERGY FOR
DIFFUSION DIFFUSION
Initial state Final state Intermediate state Initial state Final state Intermediate state
Energy Activation energy
INTERSTITIAL DIFFUSION
Applies to interstitial pp
impurities.
More rapid than vacancy
diffusion (Why?). ( y )
Interstitial atoms smaller
d bil and more mobile; more
number of interstitial sites
than vacancies
Diffusion flux (J) defined as the mass (or equivalently
MODELING DIFFUSION: FLUX
Diffusion flux (J), defined as the mass (or, equivalently,
the number of atoms) M diffusing through and perpendicular
to a unit cross-sectional area of solid per unit of time. In
th ti l f J M/(A t) mathematical form, J = M/(A t)

J =
1
A
dM
dt

kg
m
2
s






or
atoms
m
2
s







A dt
m
2
s

m
2
s

Directional Quantity
J
y
y
J
x
y
J
z
x
Flux can be measured for:
--vacancies
J
z
x
z
vacancies
--host (A) atoms
--impurity (B) atoms
Steady-State Diffusion: Fick's First Law of
Diffusion Diffusion
For steady state conditions, the net flux of atoms is equal
to the diffusivity times the concentration gradient.
d C
J = - D J D
d x


2
2
atoms
where J = flux or net flow of atoms
* s
m




2
m
D = diffusivity or diffusion coefficient
s
d C t




4
d C atoms
= concentrationgradient
d x
m



Rate of diffusion is independent of time; the diffusion flux does not change with
Steady-state diffusion across a thin plate
Rate of diffusion is independent of time; the diffusion flux does not change with
time.
The concentration profile shows the concentration (C) vs the position within
the solid (x); the slope at a particular point is the concentration gradient.
STEADY STATE DIFFUSION
Steady State: Steady rate of diffusion from one end to the other.
Implies that the concentration profile doesn't change with time.
J
x(left)
= J
x(right)
Steady State:
J
x(right)
J
x(left)
Concentration, C, in the box doesnt change w/time.
x
dC
Apply Fick's First Law:

J
x
= D
dC
dx
dC



=
dC




If J ) = J ) then
Result: the slope, dC/dx, must be constant
dx




left
=
dx




right
If J
x
)
left
= J
x
)
right
, then
Result: the slope, dC/dx, must be constant
(i.e., slope doesn't vary with position)!
3
STEADY STATE DIFFUSION
Steel plate at
700C with
geometry
C
1

=

1
.
2
k
g
/
m
3

=

0
.
8
k
g
/
m
3
g y
shown:
C
2

=

0
Carbon
rich
gas
Carbon
Steady State =
straight line!
Carbon
deficient
gas
D=3x10
-11
m
2
/s
Q: How much
carbon transfers
1
0
m
m
x
1
x
2
0
5
m
m
D 3x10 m /s
carbon transfers
from the rich to
the deficient side?
J
=
D
C
2

C
1
x
2

x
1
=
2.4

10

9
kg
m
2
s
Note: Steady state does not set in instantaneously.
Example: Chemical Protection Clothing
Methylene chloride is a common ingredient of paint removers.
Besides being an irritant, it also may be absorbed through skin.
When using, protective gloves should be worn.
If butyl rubber gloves (0.04 cm thick) are used, what is the
diffusive flux of methylene chloride through the glove? diffusive flux of methylene chloride through the glove?
Data:
D in butyl rubber: D = 110 x10
-8
cm
2
/s
surface concentrations: C = 0 02 g/cm
3
C = 0 44 g/cm
3
surface concentrations:
Diffusion distance:
C
2
= 0.02 g/cm
3
C
1
= 0.44 g/cm
3
x
2
x
1
= 0.04 cm
glove
C
D
t
b
6
2
l
=
C
1
C
skin
paint
remover
=1.16 x 10
-5

g
cm
2
s
J
x
= -D
C
2
- C
1
x
2
- x
1
C
2
x
1
x
2
2 1
Q. Consider a gas inside a container maintained at a
constant pressure P. Let the concentration of the gas
at the inner wall of the container be 10 kg/m
3
. If there is
vacuum out side the container, there will be diffusion
of atoms inside the container to outside, across the of atoms inside the container to outside, across the
wall of the container. If the thickness of the wall is 5
mm and diffusion coefficient of the atoms in the mm and diffusion coefficient of the atoms in the
material of the container D=10
-9
m
2
/s. What will be the
flux of the atoms?
NON STEADY STATE DIFFUSION
concentration of diffusing species is a function of both time and position
Concentration profile,
C(x), changes
ith ti
J
(right)
J
(left)
dx
with time.
To conserve matter: Fick's First Law:
Concentration,
C, in the box
(right) (left)
To conserve matter: Fick s First Law:

dx
=

dC
dt
J
(left)
J
(right)
J
=
D
dC
dx
dJ
dx
=

dC
dt
dJ
dx
=

D
d
2
C
dx
2
(if D does
not vary
with x)
Governing Eqn.:
dC d
2
C
dx
dx
)
equate
dC
dt
=
D
d C
dx
2
Ficks second law
C t ti fil
dx
Non-Steady-State Diffusion: another look
Concentration profile,
C(x), changes w/ time.
J
(right)
J
(left)
dx
Concentration,
C, in the box
Rate of accumulation C(x)
C
t
dx = J
x
J
x+dx

C
t
dx = J
x
(J
x
+
J
x
x
dx) =
J
x
x
dx
Using Ficks Law:
C
t
=
J
x
x
=

x
D
C
x

Ficks
2nd Law
Fick'sSecond"Law"
c
t
=

x
D
c
x

D
c
2
x
2

If D is constant:
t x
x

x

2
2
x
c
D
t
c

=
Dt
x
erf B A t x c
2
) , (
x t


Dt 2
Solution to 2
o
de with 2 constants
determined from Boundary Conditions and Initial Condition determined from Boundary Conditions and Initial Condition
( )

2
( ) ( )

0
2
exp
2
du u Erf
Erf () = 1
Erf (-) = -1
Erf (0) = 0 f ( )
Erf (-x) = -Erf (x)
EX: NON STEADY STATE DIFFUSION
Copper diffuses into a bar of aluminum.
pre existing conc C of copper atoms
Surface conc.,
C
s
of Cu atoms
bar
pre-existing conc., C
o
of copper atoms
s
1. Before diffusion, any of the diffusing
solute atoms in the solid are uniformly
distributed with concentration of C
C
s
distributed with concentration of C
0
2. The value of x at the surface is zero
and increases with distance into the solid.
3 The time is taken to be zero the instant 3. The time is taken to be zero the instant
before the diffusion process begins.
These boundary conditions are simply
stated as
B.C. at t = 0, C = C
o
for 0 x
at t > 0, C = C
S
for x = 0 (fixed surface conc.)
C C f

=
Dt
x
erf B A t x c
2
) , (
C = C
o
for x =

Dt 2
EX: NON STEADY STATE DIFFUSION
Copper diffuses into a bar of aluminum.
pre existing conc C of copper atoms
Surface conc.,
C
s
of Cu atoms
bar
General solution:
C(x, t)

C
o
=
1 erf
x


pre-existing conc., C
o
of copper atoms
s
C
s
C(x,t)
"error function
( )
o
C
s

C
o
=
1

erf
2 Dt




C
o
position, x
t
o
t
1
t
2
t
3
error function
This equation is very useful for determining the
t ti f th l t t i th lid t concentration of the solute atom in the solid at
different depth, when the rod is exposed to the
solute atom for a known interval of time solute atom for a known interval of time.
Example: Non-Steady-State Diffusion
FCC iron carbon alloy initially containing 0 20 wt% C is carburized at an elevated FCC iron-carbon alloy initially containing 0.20 wt% C is carburized at an elevated
temperature and in an atmosphere that gives a surface C content at 1.0 wt%.
If after 49.5 h the concentration of carbon is 0.35 wt% at a position 4.0 mm below
the surface, what temperature was treatment done?
) ( f 1 f 1
20 . 0 35 . 0 ) , ( x C t x C
o


f( ) 0 8125
) ( erf 1
2
erf 1
20 . 0 0 . 1
) , (
z
Dt
C C
o s
o
=

erf(z) = 0.8125
z erf(z)
find z where erf(z) = 0.8125.
0.90 0.7970
z 0.8125
0.95 0.8209
7970 . 0 8209 . 0
7970 . 0 8125 . 0
90 . 0 95 . 0
90 . 0

z
z = 0.93 So,
Now solve for D
Dt
x
z
2
=
t z
x
D
2
2
4
=
x
2

(4 x 10
3
m)
2
1h

D =
x
4z
2
t

=
(4 x 10 m)
(4)(0.93)
2
(49.5 h)
1h
3600 s
= 2.6 x 10
11
m
2
/s
Solution (cont.):
To solve for the temperature at which D
has the above value, we use a rearranged
form of Equation
) ln ln ( D D R
Q
T
o
d

=
D=D
0
exp(-Q
d
/RT)
for diffusion of C in FCC Fe
D
o
= 2.3 x 10
-5
m
2
/s Q
d
= 148,000 J/mol D = 2.6 x 10
11
m
2
/s
T =
148,000 J/mol
(8.314 J/mol-K)(ln 2.3x10
5
m
2
/s ln 2.6x10
11
m
2
/s) ( )( )
T = 1300 K = 1027C
Diffusion and Temperature
Diffusivity increases with T exponentially
Q
D
=
D
o
exp




Q
d
RT
= pre-exponential [m
2
/s]
= diffusion coefficient [m
2
/s] D
D
o
= activation energy [J/mol or eV/atom]
= gas constant [8.314 J/mol-K]
= absolute temperature [K]
Q
d
R
T absolute temperature [K] T
Activation energy - energy required to produce the movement of 1 mole of
atoms by diffusion.
ln D = ln D
0

Q
d
R
1
T

log D = log D
0

Q
d
2.3R
1
T

Note:
atoms by diffusion.
DIFFUSION AND TEMPERATURE
Diffusivity increases with T.
pre-exponential [m
2
/s] (see Table 5.2, Callister 6e)
activation energy
D
=
D
o
exp

Q
d


diffusivity
[J/mol],[eV/mol]
(see Table 5.2, Callister 6e)
gas constant [8.31J/mol-K]
D D
o
exp
RT




diffusivity
( , )
Remember vacancy concentration: N
V
= N exp(-QV/kT)
QV is vacancy formation energy (larger this energy QV is vacancy formation energy (larger this energy,
smaller the number of vacancies)
Qd is the activation energy (larger this energy, smaller
the diffusivity and lower the probability of atomic diffusion)
DIFFUSION AND TEMPERATURE
pre-exponential [m
2
/s] (see Table 5.2, Callister 6e)
activation energy
D
=
D exp
Q
d




diffusivity
[J/mol],[eV/mol]
(see Table 5 2 Callister 6e)
Experimental Data:
gas constant [8.31J/mol-K]
D
=
D
o
exp

d
RT




diffusivity
(see Table 5.2, Callister 6e)
NOTE: log(D) = log(D0) Qd/(RT)
Experimental Data:
C

i
n
10
-8
T(C)
1
5
0
0
1
0
0
0
6
0
0
3
0
0
D has exp. dependence on T
NOTE: log(D) = log(D0) Qd/(RT)
D (m
2
/s)
C

i
n

-
F
e

i
n

-
F
e
Z
n
10
-14
p p
Recall: Vacancy does also!
D
interstitial
>> D
substitutional
C in -Fe
Cu in Cu
A
l

i
n

A
l
C
u

i
n

C
u
n

i
n

C
u
F
e

i
n

-
F
F
e

i
n

-
F
e
10
20
10
14
C in -Fe
Al in Al
Zn in Cu
Fe in -Fe
Fe in -Fe
1000K/T
u
F
e
0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
10
-20
Adapted from Fig. 5.7, Callister 6e. (Date for Fig. 5.7 taken from E.A.
Brandes and G.B. Brook (Ed.) Smithells Metals Reference Book, 7th
ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 1992.)
Factors that influence diffusion
The diffusing species, host material and temperature
influence the diffusion coefficient.
For example, there is a significant difference in magnitude p , g g
between self-diffusion and carbon interdiffusion in iron
at 500 C.
Example: Comparing Diffuse in Fe
Is C in fcc Fe diff sing faster than C in bcc Fe? Is C in fcc Fe diffusing faster than C in bcc Fe?
(Table 6.2)
fcc-Fe: D
0
=2.3x10
5
(m
2
/2)
Q=1 53 eV/atom
T(C)
5
0
0
0
0
0
6
0
0
3
0
0
Q 1.53 eV/atom
T = 900 C D=5.9x10
12
(m
2
/2)
bcc-Fe: D
0
=6.2x10
7
(m
2
/2)
Q 0 83 V/ t
D (m
2
/s)
10
-8
T( C)
11
63
Q=0.83 eV/atom
T = 900 C D=1.7x10
10
(m
2
/2)
10
-14
1000K/T
0.5 1.0 1.5
10
-20
FCC Fe has both higher activation energy Q and D
0
(holes larger in FCC).
BCC and FCC phase exist over limited range of T (at varying %C).
Hence, at same T, BCC diffuses faster due to lower Q.
Cannot always have the phase that you want at the %C and T you want! Cannot always have the phase that you want at the %C and T you want!
which is why this is all important.
Example 2: At 300C the diffusion coefficient and activation energy for Cu in Si
are:
D(300C) = 7.8 x 10
-11
m
2
/s
Q
d
= 41,500 J/mol
Wh t i th diff i ffi i t t 350C? What is the diffusion coefficient at 350C?
Q
transform data
D
ln D
D
=
D
o
exp




Q
d
RT

1 1 Q Q
Temp = T
1/T

=
350
0 350
300
0 300
1
ln ln and
1
ln ln
T R
Q
D D
T R
Q
D D
d d

350 1 1
l l l
Q D
D D
d
33

= =
300 350 300
350
300
350
1 1
ln ln ln
T T R
Q
D
D
D D
d
Example 2 (cont ) Example 2 (cont.)

=
1 2
1 1
exp
T T R
Q
D D
d

1 2
T T R
T
1
= 273 + 300 = 573K
T
2
= 273 + 350 = 623K

K 573
1
K 623
1
K - J/mol 314 . 8
J/mol 500 , 41
exp /s) m 10 x 8 . 7 (
2 11
2
D
D
2
= 15.7 x 10
-11
m
2
/s
34
Applications of Diffusion
Doping by Diffusion
Integrated circuits (ICs), found in
numerous electronic devices
have been fabricated using have been fabricated using
doping techniques.
The base material for these ICs
is silicon that has been doped
with other materials.
More precisely controlled More precisely, controlled
concentrations of impurities have
been diffused into specific
regions of the device to change
the properties (improve electrical
conductivity). conductivity).
PROCESSING USING DIFFUSION (2)
Doping Silicon with P for n-type semiconductors:
0 5mm
Process
1. Deposit P rich
layers on surface.
0.5mm
silicon
magnified image of a computer chip
2. Heat it.
3. Result: Doped
semiconductor
light regions: Si atoms
regions.
silicon
light regions: Al atoms
Hot-dip galvanizing is a form of
galvanization. It is the process of coating iron,
steel, or aluminum with a thin zinc layer, by steel, or aluminum with a thin zinc layer, by
passing the metal through a molten bath of zinc
at a temperature of around 860 F (460 C).
When exposed to the atmosphere, the pure
zinc (Zn) reacts with oxygen (O ) to form zinc zinc (Zn) reacts with oxygen (O
2
) to form zinc
oxide (ZnO), which further reacts with carbon
dioxide (CO
2
) to form zinc carbonate (ZnCO
3
),
a dull grey, fairly strong material. g y y g
In many environments, the steel below the
coating will be protected from further corrosion.
Galvanized steel is widely used in
applications where rust resistance is needed applications where rust resistance is needed.
A hot-dip galvanizing 'kettle' with fume hood
Galvanized steel and coils
popular for applications in popular for applications in
industrial goods, automobile
components, precision
tubes, consumer durable
and many more.
Galvanized i-beams.
PROCESSING USING DIFFUSION (1)
Case Hardening:
-- Example of interstitial
diffusion is a case
hardened gear.
-- Diffuse carbon atoms
into the host iron atoms
at the surface.
Result: The "Case" is
--hard to deform: C atoms
"lock" planes from shearing lock planes from shearing.
--hard to crack: C atoms put
the surface in compression.
PROCESSING QUESTION
Copper diffuses into a bar of aluminum.
10 hours at 600C gives desired C(x).
How many hours would it take to get the same C(x) y g ( )
if we processed at 500C, given D
500
and D
600
?
Key point 1: C(x,t
500C
) = C(x,t
600C
).
Key point 2: Both cases have the same C
o
and C
s
(Dt) (Dt)
Result: Dt should be held constant.
Key point 2: Both cases have the same C
o
and C
s
.

C t C ) (
(Dt)
500C
=(Dt)
600C
13 2

Dt
x
erf
C C
C t x C
s
2
1
) , (
0
0
Answer:
Note: values
of D are
t
500
=
(Dt)
600
D
=
110
hr
5.3x10
-
13
m
2
/s 10hrs
provided here.
500
D
500
4.8x10
-14
m
2
/s
A steel rod has a uniform concentration 0.25W% of A steel rod has a uniform concentration 0.25W% of
carbon. One end of the rod is kept in contact with an
atmosphere of carbon concentration of 1.2W%. The
rod is heated at 950
0
C. What will be the concentration
of carbon at a depth of 0.5mm after a time interval of 7
0
hours? Diffusion coefficient of carbon in steel at 950
0
C
is 1.6x10
-11
m
2
/sec and also find how long will it take to g
get a concentration of 0.7W% at a depth of 0.5 mm?
The diffusivity of gallium in silicon is 8x10
-13
cm
2
/sec at The diffusivity of gallium in silicon is 8x10 cm /sec at
1100
0
C and 1x10
-10
cm
2
/see at 1300
0
C (a) Determine
the value of diffusion coefficient D
0
and activation
energy Q, assuming the Arrhenius rate law is obeyed energy Q, assuming the Arrhenius rate law is obeyed
for this diffusion system (b) Calculate the diffusivity of
the system at 1200
0
C?
Consider the gas carburizing of a gear of 1018 Consider the gas carburizing of a gear of 1018
steels (0.18wt%) at 927
0
C. Calculate the time
necessary to increase the carbon content to
0 30wt% at 0 60 mm below the surface of the gear 0.30wt% at 0.60 mm below the surface of the gear.
Assume the carbon content at the surface to be
1.00 wt% and that the nominal carbon content of
the steel gear before carburizing is 0.18wt% the steel gear before carburizing is 0.18wt%
where D at 927
0
C =1.28x10
-11
m
2
/sec
SUMMARY:
STRUCTURE & DIFFUSION
Diffusion FASTER for... Diffusion SLOWER for...
STRUCTURE & DIFFUSION
open crystal structures
lower melting T materials
close-packed structures
higher melting T materials lower melting T materials
materials w/secondary
bonding
higher melting T materials
materials w/covalent
bonding bonding
smaller diffusing atoms
bonding
larger diffusing atoms
lower density materials higher density materials
Surface of Ni plate at 1000
0
C contains
Example: Diffusion of radioactive atoms
Surface of Ni plate at 1000 C contains
50% Ni
63
(radioactive) and 50% Ni (non-radioactive).
4 microns below surface Ni
63
/Ni = 48:52
Lattice constant of Ni at 1000 C is 0.360 nm.
Experiment shows that self-diffusion of Ni is 1.6 x 10
-9
cm
2
/sec
What is the flux of Ni
63
atoms through a plane 2 m below surface? g
C
2
=
(4Ni /cell )(0.48Ni
63
/Ni )
(0.36x10
9
m)
3
/cell
41 1 10
27
Ni
63
/
3
C
1
=
(4Ni /cell )(0.5Ni
63
/Ni )
(0.36x10
9
m)
3
/cell
27 63 3
J
=
D
C
2

C
1
=

= 41.15x10
27
Ni
63
/m
3

= 42.87x10
27
Ni
63
/m
3
= (1.6x10
13
m
2
/ sec)
(41.15 42.87)x10
27
Ni
63
/m
3
6
J D
x
2

x
1

(4 0)x10
6
m
= +0.69x10
20
Ni
63
/m
2
s
DIFFUSION DEMO: ANALYSIS
The experiment: record combinations of
t and x that kept C constant.
t
o
t
o
t
1
t
2
t
3
x
o
x
1
x
2
x
3


C(x
i
, t
i
) C
o
C
s
C
o
= 1 erf
x
i
2 Dt
i








= (constant here)
Diffusion depth given by:
x
i

Dt
i
i
i
Diffusivity -- the proportionality constant
between flux and concentration gradient
depends on:
1 Diff sion mechanism S bstit tional s interstitial 1. Diffusion mechanism. Substitutional vs interstitial.
2. Temperature.
3. Type of crystal structure of the host lattice.
Interstitial diffusion easier in BCC than in FCC.
4. Type of crystal imperfections.
(a) Diffusion takes place faster along grain (a) Diffusion takes place faster along grain
boundaries than elsewhere in a crystal.
(b) Diffusion is faster along dislocation lines
than through bulk crystal than through bulk crystal.
(c) Excess vacancies will enhance diffusion.
5. Concentration of diffusing species.
S d d ti l diff ti l ti Second order partial differential equations
are nontrivial and difficult to solve.
Consider diffusion in from a surface where the
concentration of diffusing species is always
constant This solution applies to gas diffusion into constant. This solution applies to gas diffusion into
a solid as in carburization of steels or doping of
semiconductors.
Boundary Conditions
For t = 0, C = C
o
at 0< x
For t > 0 C = C
s
at x = 0 and
C = C at x =oo C = C
o
at x =oo
Q. The diffusion coefficient for Li in Ge at 500
0
C is
of the order of 10
-10
m
2
/sec. What is its
i t di t f t ti i 1 h ? approximate distance of penetration in 1 hour?
Q. The diffusion coefficient for Li in Ge at 500
0
C
is of the order of 10
-10
m
2
/sec. How much time it
should take to penetrate a distance of 2 mm? should take to penetrate a distance of 2 mm?
Q. What is the diffusion coefficient for Cu in Al
at 550
0
C assuming Q=121kJ/mol and
D0=0 25x 10
-10
m
2
/sec What is approximate D0=0.25x 10
-10
m
2
/sec. What is approximate
distance of penetration of Cu atoms in 1 h?
Q Th i ti i i Q. The vacancy migration energy in copper is
0.8 eV. The self diffusion coefficient at 700 K
and 1000 K are 3.43x10
-15
and 1.65x10
-11
m
2
/sec
ti l D t i th respectively. Determine the vacancy
concentration at these two temperatures.
The wear resistance of a steel gear is to be improved
by hardening its surface. This is to be accomplished by
increasing the carbon content within an outer surface
layer as a result of carbon diffusion into the steel; the
carbon is to be supplied from an external carbon rich carbon is to be supplied from an external carbon-rich
gaseous atmosphere at an elevated and constant
temperature. The initial carbon content of the steel is temperature. The initial carbon content of the steel is
0.20 wt%, whereas the surface concentration is to be
maintained at 1.00 wt%. For this treatment to be
effective, a carbon content of 0.60 wt% must be
established at a position 0.75 mm below the surface.
S if i t h t t t t i t f Specify an appropriate heat treatment in terms of
temperature and time for temperatures between 900
0
C
and 1050
0
C and 1050 C.