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Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited

EWSD
SYSTEMS ARCHITECTURE
NETAJI SUBHASH CHANDRA BOSE TELECOM TRAINING CENTRE
KALYANI, NADIA, WEST BENGAL, PIN 741235
EWSD Ar!"#$#%r$
EWSD Architecture
Basic Hardware
Page No.
1.1 System Overview
1.! Digita" Line #nit !$
1. Line %run& 'rou( $1
1.) Switching Networ& 1)
1.* +oordinating Processor 1,-
1., .essage Bu//er !0$
1.- +entra" +"oc& 'enerator !
1.$ System Pane" !*)
2
S&'#$( O)$r)"$*
What is inside1
1. 2ntroduction
!. System 3eatures
. System Architecture
.1 DL#
.! Line4%run& 'rou(
. Switching Networ&
.) +oordination Area
.* +ommon +hanne" Signa"ing +ontro"
)5 Su6sscri6er4Administration /aci"ities in EWSD
Anne7. 15 System Data
Anne7. !5 A66reviations
Anne7. 5 Present status o/ EWSD e7changes in Do% networ&
3
EWSD S&'#$( D$'r"+#",-
1./ I-#r,0%#",-
After years of being treated as a luxury, telecommunications has come into its own in the Eighth
Plan. The Department of Telecommunications has announced ambitious plans for the addition of .!
million lines to the existing !." million by the end of the "th plan #$%%2&%' as compared to only 3.2
million in $%"2&%2.
To bridge the gap between the supply and demand DoT in(ited a tender for 2)),))) lines of digital
switching e*uipment on +upee payment. ,n the industrial policy of -uly $%%$, Telecom. e*uipment
was delicensed and thrown open to foreign in(estments. .onse*uently six new technologies were
planned to be (alidated. These foreign suppliers set up their (alidation exchanges, each of $),)))
lines capacity #including two +/0s of 21 each', at different places, e.g. E2/D of /iemens
#3ermany' at .alcutta, A4E&l5 of Ericsson #/weden' at 6adras, 7etex&$!) of 7u8itsu #-apan' at
9ombay, 5.9&2"3 of Alcatel #7rance' at Delhi etc.
Three new Digital /witching /ystems, i.e., E2/D', A4E&$), 7etex&$!), which got (alidated first,
were inducted in the ,ndian Telecom. :etwor; < three ,a;h lines were imported from these three
suppliers. ,n addition 3.! ,a;h lines were also imported on lease basis from these suppliers.
/ubse*uently four more switches, i.e., 5.9&2"3 of Alcatel #7rance'. !E// of AT<T #0/A',
/ystem&4 of 3PT #01' and :EA4&=$E of :E. #-apan' also got (alidated.
E2/D is one of the two technologies selected for TA4 and is also the technology for lntcllig>nt
:etwor; and 6obile .ommunicition. This article gi(es a general introduction to the E2/D' system,
its features. architecture and facilities.
2./ S&'#$( 1$2#%r$'3
E2/D Digital switching system has been designed and manufactured by 6?s /iemens, 3ermany.
The name is the abbre(iated form of 3erman e*ui(alent of Electronic /witching /ystem Digital
#Electronische 2heler /ysteme Digitale'. E2/D switch can support maximum 2,!),))) subscribers
or =),))) incoming, outgoing or both way trun;s, when wor;ing as a pure tandem exchange. ,t can
carry 2!,2)) Erlang traffic and can withstand $.@ million 9A.A. ,t can wor; as local cum transit
exchange and has ../ :o., ,/D: and ,: capabilities.
@
3./ S&'#$( Ar!"#$#%r$3
The main hardware units of an E2/D switch are as under B
#$' Digital line unit #DC0' & functional unit on which subscriber lines are terminated.
#2' Cine?Trun; 3roup #CT3' & Digital Trun;s and DC0s are connected to CT3s.
The access function determined by the networ; en(ironment are handled by DC0s and CT3s.
1"4%r$ 1 3 D"'#r"5%#$0 ,-#r,6' "- ESWD
!
#3' /witching :etwor; #/:' & All the CT3s are connected to the /: which inter connects the line
and trun;s connected to the exchange in accordance with the call re*uirement of the subscribers.
..:. and .P are also connected to /:.
#@' .oordination Processor #.P' & ,t is used for system&wide coordination functions, such as,
routing, Doning, etc. Aowe(er each subsystem in E2/D carry&out practically all the tas;s arising in
their area independently.
#!' .ommon .hannel /ignaling :etwor; .ontrol #..:.' 0nit & This unit functions as the
6essage Transfer Part #6TP' of ../&. The 0ser Part #0P' is incorporated in the respecti(e CT3s.
9loc; diagram of E2/D is gi(en in 7igure $. ,t also shows that the most important controls are
distributed throughout the system. This distributed control reduces the coordination o(erheads and
the necessity of communication between the processors. ,t results in high dynamic performance
standard
7or inter&processor communications, =@ ;bps seripermanent connections are set through /:. This
a(oids the necessity for a separate interprocessor networ;.
3.1 D"4"#26 L"-$ U-"# 7DLU89
Analog or Digital #,/D:' subscribers or P94 lines are tenninated on DC0 #7igure @'. DC0s can be
used locally within the exchange or remotely as remote switch unit, in the (icinity of the groups of
subscribers.
DC0s are connected to E2/D sub&systems (ia a uniform interface standardiDed by ..,TT, i.e.,
Primary Digital .arrier #PD.' to facilitate Cocal or +emote installation. A subset of ../E is used
for ../ on the PD.s.
5ne DC0 is connected to two different CT3s for the reasons of security #7igure2'. A local DC0 is
connected to two CT3s (ia two @ 6bps #=@ T/s' lin;s, each towards a different CT3. ,n case of
remote DC0s maximum @ PD.s of 2 6bps #32 T/!' are used per DC0, two towards each CT3.
Aence total $2@ channels are a(ailable between a DC0 and the two CT3s, out of which $2) channels
are used for user information #speech or data' and signaling information is carried in T/$= of PD.5
and PD.2.
2ithin the DC0, the analog subscribers are terminated on /C6A #/ubscriber Cine 6odule Analog'
cards #module'. /imilarly Digital #,/D:' subscribers are terminated on the /C6D modules. Each
module can support " subscribers, hence has " /C.As #/ubscribers Cine .ircuit Analog' and one
/C6.P #/ubscribers Cine 6odule .ircuit Processor'.
=
5ne DC0 can carry a traffic of $)) Erlangs. A standard rac; of DC0 #local or remote' can
accommodate one DC0 of %@@ subscribers or two DC0s of @32 subscribers each. /maller rac;s
#/helter' are also a(ailable for remote DC0s in which lesser number of subscribers can be e*uipped.
1"4%r$ 2 3 A++6"2#",-' :,r 2-0 ,--$#",- ,: D"4"#26 L"-$ U-"#
,n case the lin; between a remote DC0 and the main exchange is bro;en, the subscribers connected
to the remote DC0 can still dial each other but metering will not be possible in this case. 7or
emergency ser(ice DC0&controller #DC0.' always contain up&to&date subscribers data. /tand Alone
/er(ice .ontroller card #/A/.' is pro(ided in each +&DC0 for switching calls in such cases. This
card is also used for interconnecting a number of remotely situated DC0s #maximum =', in a cluster,
called a +emote .ontrol 0nit #+.0', so that subscribers connected to these remote DC0s can also
tal; to each other in case the lin; of more than one DC0 to the main exchange is bro;en. An E6/P

module #E6ergency /er(ice e*uipment for Push&button subscribers' is used to ma;e internal calls by
DT67 subscribers when the remote DC0 lin; is bro;en.
All DC0s are pro(ided with a Test 0nit #T0' for performing tests and measurements on /C.As,
subscribers lines and telephones. An ACE4 #ACarm E4ternal' module is used for forwarding
external alarms, i.e., fire, temperature, etc, to /ystem .ontrol Panel #/FP'. :umber of /C6As are
accordingly reduced to accommodate these modules. The main components of a DC0 as shown in
figure3 are
G/C6As and ? or /C6Ds
GTwo Digital ,nterface 0nits Digital #D,0D' for connections of the PD.s.
.Two DC0 .ontrols #DC0.'
GTwo @ 6bps networ;s for the transmission of user information between /C6s and the D,0Ds.
G Two control networ;s for the transmission of control information between /C6s and DC0.s.
G T0, E6/P, ACE4 modules.
"
1"4%r$ 3 3 M2"- C,(+,-$-#' ,: 2 DLU
%
1"4%r$ 4 3 L"-$ ; Tr%-< Gr,%+'
3.2 L"-$ ; Tr%-< Gr,%+
The line?trun; groups #CT3' form the interface between the digital en(ironment of an E2/D'
exchange and the switching networ; #/:'. The CT3s are connected in any of the following ways
#7igure @'B
#i' Hia 2?@ 6b?s PD.s with remote?local DC0s to which analogue or ,/D: subscribers are
connected
#ii' Hia 2 6bps digital access lines to other digital exchanges in the networ;, or
Hia /ignal .on(erter&6ultiplexer #/.&604' to analog trun;s from analog exchanges in the
networ;. /.&604 do not form the part of the E2/D exchange e*uipment
#iii' Hia Primary rate Access lines to ,/D: P94s #,/D: subscribers with PA'
3unctions
The primary functions of the CT3 are as followsB
#i' .all processing functions, i.e., recei(ing and analyDing line and register signals, in8ecting
audible tones, switching user channels from and to the switching networ;, etc.
#ii' /afeguarding functions, i.e., detecting errors in the CT3 and on transmission paths within the
CT3, analyDing the extent of errors and initiating countermeasures such as disabling channels or
lines, etc.
#iii' 5peration and maintenance functions, i.e., ac*uiring traffic data, carrying out *uality&of&
ser(ice measurements, etc.
The CT3s can wor; with all standard signaling systenis #e.g. ..,TT :o. !, +2, :o.'. Echo
suppressers can be incorporated in the , T3/ for the connection of long&haul circuits #e.g.. (ia
satellite'.
Although the subscriber lines and trun;s employ different signaling system, the CT3s Present
signaling&independent interface to the switching networ;. This facilitates the following B
$)
1"4%r$ 5 3 1%-#",-26 U-"#' ,: #!$ LTG
$$
& flexible introduction of additional or modified signaling procedures,
& a signaling independent software system in the .P for all applications.
The bit rate on all highways lin;ing the line?trun; groups and the switching networ; is "$%2 ;bps #"
6bps'. Each " 6bps highway contains $2" channels at =@ ;bps each. Each CT3 is connected to both
planes of the duplicated switching networ;.
The functional units of the line?trun; group as shown in figure ! areB
Cine ? Trun; 0nit #CT0' is a logical unit that comprises " number of different , functional units, i.e.
& Digital interface unit # D,035 ' for connection of 2 6bps digital trun;s and either DC0 or
PA. 5ne CT3 can comprise four D,03).
& .ode +ecei(ers #.+' are 6ulti&fre*uency code recei(ers :,r #r%-<' ,r DTM1 '%5'r"5$r'.
& .onference 0nit, module 9 #.509' for conference calls.
& Automatic Test E*uipment for Trun;s #ATEBT' chec;s trun;s and T,-$ 3enerators #T53'
during routine tests.
G /ignaling 0nit #/0' comprises Tone 3enerator #T53' for audible tones, .ode +ecei(ers
#.+' for 67. signaling and push&button dialing and R$$")$r M,0ule for .ontinuity .hec;
#+6B.T.', etc.
G 3roup /witch #3/' or /peech 6ultiplexer #/P64' are %'$0 :,r DLU' ,r Trun;s
respecti(ely. These are non&bloc;ing time stage switch controlled by the
GP.
G Cin; ,nterface 0nit #C,0' connects CT3 to /: (ia two parallel " 6bps /D.s.
G 3roup Processor #3P' controls the functional units of the CT3. The recei(ed signals from
CT0, /0, 3/?/P64 and C,0 are processed with the help of 3P software
,n CT33, 3/ and C, 0 ha(e been combined into 3/C module. 5nly CT33s ha(e been supplied to
,ndia. 5ne CT3 rac; can accommodate @) P.6s in fi(e CT33 frames, each containing two CT33s.
$2
1"4%r$ = 3 S*"#!"-4 N$#*,r<
$3
3.3 S*"#!"-4 N$#*,r<
Different peripheral units of E2/D, i.e., CT3s, ..:., 69 are connected to the /witching :etwor;
#/:' (ia "$%2 ;bps highways called /D.s #/econdary Digital .arriers', which ha(e $2" channels
each. The /: consists of se(eral duplicated Time /tage 3roups #T/3' and /pace /tage 3roups
#//3' #7igure =' housed in separate rac;s. .onnection paths through the T/3s and //3s are
switched by the /witch 3roup .ontrols #/3.' pro(ided in each T/3 and //3, in accordance with
the switching information from the coordination piocessor #.P'. The /3.s also independently
generate the setting data and set the message channels for exchange of data between the distributed
controls.
The switching networ; is always duplicated #planes ) and $'. Each connection is switched
simultaneously through both planes, so that a standby connection is always immediately a(ailable in
the e(ent of a failure.
Each T/3 can accommodate =3 /D.s from CT3s and one /D. to 69. 5ne /D. is extended from
/3. of each T/3 and //3 towards 69. Thus one T/3 can handle upto =3 CT3s. The switching
networ; can be expanded in small stages by adding plug&in modules and cables and if necessary by
assigning extra rac;s. 5ptimiDed switching networ; configurations are a(ailable in a range of siDes.
The smallest duplicated /:B=3 CT3 configuration which can handle 3),))) subscriber lines or ,!))
trun;s when fully e*uipped is installed in a single rac; and can handle ,!)) erlangs traffic. ,n its
maximum configuration, the E2/D switching networ; has " T/3s and @ //3s #in $2 +ac;s' to
connect !)@ CT3s and has a traffic &handling capacity of 2!,2)) erlangs. /:s for $2= CT3s and 2!2
C, #CT3s are also a(ailable which can handle =3)) and $2=)) erlangs traffic respecti(ely.
The /: supplied in first $$)1 order contains only se(en different types of module and each T/3 and
SSG "' accommodated in a separate full rac;. ,n the subse*uent supplies /:#9' has been supplied
which has only ! types of modules and each T/3 and //3 is accommodated in only two shel(es of
the respecti(e rac;s. +emaining four shel(es accommodate CT3s.
$@
1"4%r$ 7 3 S#r%#%r$ ,: CP 113
$!
3.4 C,,r0"-2#",- Ar$2
3.4. 1 C,,r0"-2#",- Pr,$'',r
The coordination processor #.P' handles the data base as well as configuration and coordination
functions, e.g.B
& /torage and administration of all programs, exchange and subscriber data.
& Processing of recei(ed information for routing, path selection, Doning. charges,
& .ommunication with operation and maintenance centers,
& /uper(ision of all subsystems, receipt of error messages, analysis of super(isory result
messages, alarm treatment, error messages, alarm treatment, error detection, error location and error
neutraliDation and configuration functions.
& Aandling of the man&machine interface.
.P $$3 is used in medium& siDed to (ery large exchanges. The .P$$3 is
multiprocessor and can be expanded in stages. ,t has a niaximuni call handiling capacity of o(er
$,))),))) 9A.A. ,n the .P$$3 as shown in figure , two or more identical processors operate in
parallel with load sharing. The rated load of n processors is distributed among nIl processors. This
means that if one processor fails. operation can continue without restriction #redundancy, node with
nI$ processors'.
The 9asic functional units of .P $$3 are as follows B
J 9ase Processor #9AP' for operation and maintenance and call processing,
J .ommon 6emory #.6F'&=@ to $)2@ 69 in @ memory ban;s consisting of @ 69 D+A6
chips.
J ,nput ? 5utput .ontroller #,5.' & 2 to @ l5.s coordinate and super(ise accessing of .6F by
,5Ps.
,nput?output processors #,5P' & Harious types of ,5Ps are used to connect the .P$$3 to the other
subsystems and functional units of the exchange as well as to the external mass storage de(ices #E6
i.e., 6DD, 6TD', the two 5<6 terminals #56T', to 56. (ia data lines, etc. #7igure "'. 6aximum
$= T5Ps can be connected to one l5..
$=
1"4%r$ > 3 S#r%#%r$ ,: I-+%# ; O%#+%# S&'#$( *"#! #*, IOC'
$
The other functional units of .P $$3 are call proccssors #.AP' which deal only with call processing
functions. Aardware wise they are similar to 9APs and form a redundant pool together with 9APs.
3.4.2 5ther units assigned to .P #7igure $' areB
? M$''24$ B%::$r 7MB8 for coordinating internal message traffic between the .P, the /:, the
CT3s and the ..:. in an exchange.
? C$-#r26 C6,< G$-$r2#,r 7CCG8 for the synchroniDation of the exchange and, where
necessary, #The networ;. The ..3 is extremely accurate #$)&%'. ,t can, howe(er, be synchroniDed
e(en more accurately by an external master cloc; #$)&$$'.
69s and ..3 are e*uipped in two rac;s in maximum configuration.
? S&'#$( P2-$6 D"'+62& 7SYPD8 to display system internal alarms and the CP load. ,t thus
pro(ides a continuous o(er(iew of the state of the system. The /FP also displays external alarms
such as fire and air&conditioning system failure for example. ,t is installed in the E*uipment +oom or
in the Exploitation +oom.
? O+$r2#",- and M2"-#$-2-$ T$r("-26' for ,nput?output. Two 56Ts are pro(ided for 5<6
functions.
? E@#$r-26 M$(,r& 7EM8, for
& Programs and data that do not always ha(e to be resident in the .P,
& An image of all resident programs and data for automatic reco(ery,
& .all charge and traffic measurement data.
To ensure that these programs and data are safeguarded under all circumstances, the E6 is
duplicated. ,t consists of two magnetic dis; de(ices #6DD', each of ") 69 capacity. The E6 also
has a magnetic tape de(ice #6TD', for input and output. These units are mounted in a separate de(ice
rac; #DEHD'.
$"
3. 5 C,((,- C!2--$6 S"4-26"-4 N$#wor; .on#r,6
The ..,TT& standardiDed signaling system :o. #../' is one of the systems that is used for
interexchange signaling in E2/D. To promote flexibility "-A the use of this system a distinction is
made between a message transfer part #6TP' and the user parts #0P'. The user parts (ary according
to the specific application #e.g. T0PB telephone user part, ,/D:&0PB ,/D: user part, 60PB mobile
user part'. The common 6TP functions in an E2/D exchange are handled by the common channel
signaling networ; control #..:.'. The 0P is incorporated in the software of the rele(ant C,3.
$%
1"4%r$ B 3 C,((,- C!2--$6 S"4-266"-4 N#$*,r< C,-#r,6
A maximum of 2!@ common signaling channels can be connected to the ..:. (ia either digital or
analog lin;s. The digital lin;s are extended from the CT3s o(er both planes of the duplicated
switching networ; and multiplexers to the ..:.. The ..:. is connected to the switching networ;
(ia two " 6bps highways #/D.s'. 9etween the ..:. and each switching networ; plane, 2!@
channels for each direction of transmission are a(ailable #2!@ channel pairs'. The channels carry
signaling data (ia both switching networ; planes to and from the CT3s at a speed of =@ ;bps. Analog
signaling lin;s arc lin;ed to the ..:. (ia modems.
7or reasons of reliability the ..:. has a duplicated processor #..:P' which is connected to the .P
by means of similarly duplicated bus system. The ..:. consists of #7igure %'B
0pto 32 signaling lin; terminal #/,CT' groups, each with " signaling lin;s and
& 5ne duplicatcd common channel signaling networ; processor #..:P'.
The functions of the ..:. depend on its position in a signaling lin;. ,n the originating or destination
exchange in associated signaling, it operates as signaling point #/P' and in transit exchange in *uasi&
associated /ignaling, it operates as a signaling transfer point #/TP'.
The ..:., e*uipped in one rac; can handle upto @" signaling lin;s. E*uipments handling upto %=
signaling lin;s can be e*uipped in additional rac;s.
2)
Su6scri6er 4 Administration 3aci"ities in EWSD
1 R2+"0 266 '$# %+
J Abbre(iated Dialing
J Aotline ,mmediate
J Aotline with Time 5ut
2. C266 R$'#r"#",- S$r)"$'3
J 5?3 +estrictions
J Administration .ontrolled
J /ubs controlled
J ,?. 9arring
3. A5'$-# S%5'r"5$r S$r)"$'
J ,mmediate di(ersion
J Di(ersion on no reply
J to 5perator
J to a number
J to announcement
4. C266 C,(+6$#",- '$r)"$'
J Di(ersion on busy
J .all waiting
J .all priority #originating < terminating'
!. 6ultiparty ser(ices
J .onference call
J Tele&meetirig
=. A62r( 266 5,,<"-4
J .asual
J +egular #number of consecuti(e days'
. /er(ices to P94
J Direct dialing in #for different P94 capacitics'
J Cine hunting
>. M"'$662-,%' S$r)"$'
J 6alicious call identification
J All calls
J /pecial subscriber signal
B. C266 !2r4$ '$r)"$'
J /eparate counters for Cocal .all charges, /TD?,/D calls charges, :umber of calls,
/er(ice acti(ation charges and /er(ice usage charges
J Transmission of meter pulses
J Pre(enti(e meter obser(ation #ad8ustable threshold'
2$
S&'#$( D2#2
.all&handling capacity :o. of /ubscriber lines max. 2,!),)))
:o. of Trun;s max. =),)))
/witchable traffic. 6ax. 2!,2)) E
/upply (oltage &@" H nominal direct (oltage
.loc; accuracy 6aximum relati(e fre*uency
de(iationB plesiochoronous $)&%,
synchronous $)&$$
/ignaling systems All con(entional signaling systems, e.g.
..,TT +2, :o.!, no.
Analog subscriber line Harious loop and shunt resistance possible.
and trun; accesses Push&button dialing, 6ulti&fre*. /ignaling
to ..,TT +ecommendation K.23
+otary dialing B ! to 22 pulse?s
$/D: accesses 9asic access $=) ;bps #29IDIsync'
9L=@ ;bps, DL $= ;bps
Primary rate access 2)@" ;bps#3)9IDIsync.'
Digital trun; accesses 2)@" ;bps
Traffic routing Per destination max. high&usage routes and one final r,%#$
/c*uential or random selection of idle trun; of a trun; group
:umber of trun; groups per exchangeB
6ax. $))) incoming and
6ax. $))) outgoing and
6ax. $))) bothway
22
.all charge registration Periodic pulse metering,
A6A Automatic 6essage Accounting or Detailed
9illing #.A6A, CA6A'
,A+/TAT #,nter Administration +e(enue
accounting and /tatistics'
6ax. $2 Dones
6ax. = tariffs per Done
Tariff switcho(er possible in $ !&minute timing inter(a$s
Transmission of communication data to
computer center #output on tape also possib$e'
/pace re*uirements ExampleB Exchange for 2@))) lines units
approx. $))m2
En(ironmental Ambient temperature !M. to @)M.
conditions +elati(e humidity $)N to "5N
23
ABB8E92A%2ONS
ACE4 External Alarm module
AP/ Application Program /ystem
ATEBTAutomatic Test E*uipment for Trun;s
9BO 9us for ..
9A 9us Arbiter
9AP 9ase Processor
.AP .all Processor
..3 .entral .loc; 3enerator
..:..ommon .hannel signaling :etwor; .ontrol
..:P .ommon .hannel signaling :etwor; Processor
.6F .ommon 6emory
.509.onference 0nit, 6odule 9
.P .oordination Processor
.+ .ode +ecei(er
.T. .ontinutiy .hec;
DEHDDe(ice +ac;
D,03)Digital ,nterface 0nit for 2 6bps digital trun;s
D,0D Digital ,nterface 0nit for DC0
DC0 Digital Cine 0nit
DC0..ontrol for DC0
E6 External 6emory
E6/P Emergency /er(ice e*uipment for Push&button subscribers.
2@
3P 3roup Processor
3/ 3roup /witch
3/C 3/ < C,0 module
,5. ,nput ? 5utput .ontrol
,5P ,nput ? 5utput Processor
,/D: ,ntergrated /er(ices Digital :etwor;
CD,D Cocal DC0 ,nterface 0nit module D
C,0 Cin; ,nterface 0nit between CT3 < /:
CT3 Cine ? Trun; 3roup
6 B O6odule forO
69 6essage 9uffer
6DD 6agnetic Dis; De(ice
6TA 6etallic Test Access
6TD 6agnetic Tape Dri(e
6TP 6essage Transfer Part
60 6emory 0nit
56T 5 < 6 Terminal
PD. Primary Digital .arrier
+BO +ac; for O
+.0 +emote .ontrol 0nit
/BO /helf for O
/A/. /tand Alone /er(ice .ontroller
/.&604 /ignal .on(erter 6ultiplexer
2!
/3. /witch 3roup .ontrol
/,CT /ignaling Cin; Terminal
/C.A?D/ubscriber Cine .ircuit Analog ? Digital
/C6A?D /ubscribe Cine 6odule Analog ? Digital
/C6.P Processor for /C6 for DC0
/: /witching :etwor;
/P64/peech 6ultiplexer
//3 /witch /tage 3roup
/0 /ignaling 0nit
/FPD /ystem Panel Display
TA Terminal Adapter
T53 Tone 3enerator
T/3 Time /tage 3roup
T0 Test 0nit
0P 0ser Part
2=
D$#2"6' ,: EWSD E@!2-4$' C,(("''",-$0;P62--$0
I- #!$ N$#*,r<
2
DIGITAL LINE UNIT
W!2# "' "-'"0$ C
$. ,ntroduction D DC0 featurePs
2. /tructure
2.$ DC0/ystem
2.2 +inging and 6etering Holtage 3eneration
2. 3 9us /ystem
2. @ Periphery
2.! Direct .urrent .on(erters
2.= /oftware
2. +ac; and 6odule frame layouts
3. +emote .ontrol 0nit
@. 66C commands for DC0
!. 5< 6 Aspects
Annex. $ . DC0 creation se*uence
Annex. 2 B .all setup under normal?emergency operation
Exercises
2"
Digita" Line #nit
1./ I-#r,0%#",-
/ubscriber lines and P94 lines in E2/D are connected to digital line units #DC0'.
The DC0s can be operated locally in an exchange or remotely #7ig.l'.
The DC0s are connected to the /witching :et(or; (ia CT3 #9&function A DC0 is connected to an
CT3 by 2 6bps Primary Digital carriers #PD. Aowe(er, the local DC0s #the DC0s located in the
main exchange 8 are connected to the CT3#9' by @ 6bps carriers.
7or security reasons, a DC0 is connected to two CT3s. A subset of ../ according to ..,TT is used
for signaling between a DC0 and the 3roup Process #3P' in the two CT3s.
+emote DC0s are installed in the (icinity of groups of subscribers. The resultant short subscriber
lines and the flexible concentration of subscriber traffic to the exchange 5nto digital transmission
lin;s ma;es for an economical subscriber line networ; with optimum transmission *uality.
The following are the important DC0 featuresB
G .onnection capacity of a single DC0 B up to %!2 subscriber lines #depending on type of
subscriber line #analog?,/D:',
functional units pro(ided and re*uired traffic (alues.'
G Traffic handling capacity B up to $)) Erlangs
G .onnecti(ity B Analog subscriber lines with
& rotary ? DT67 dialing
& call charge indication with $=?$2 ;AD
as well as access lines for
& .oinbox telephones
& analog P94s with?without D,D
& small and medium&siDed digital P94s
/ubscriber lines for
& ,/D: basic access
2%
1"4%r$ 1 3 A++6"2#",- D C,--$#",-' )"2 Pr"(2r& C2rr"$r' 7PDC'8
3)
G 3rowth capability in small modular stepsB
@,= or " subscriber line circuits #/C.s', according to module type.
G .onnection to line?trun; group 3 #CT33#9'' (ia one, two or four P.635 multiplex lines
#primary digital carriers, PD.'. The local connection to CT33 can be realised (ia two @)%=&;bps
multiplex lines.
6aximum number of channels a(ailable for transmission of user information between a DC0 and
two CT3s is $2).
G .ommon channel signalling #../' between the DC0 and the CT3s. T/ $= on PD.5 and
PD.2 used for this purpose.
G Aigh operating reliability
& due to the connection of the DC0 to two CT3s
& duplication and load sharing of DC0 modules handling central functions
7 DC0 system ) and $'
& continuous self&tests
G 7ull a(ailability between the connected subscriber lines and the channels to the exchange
G All E2/D features, regardless of whether the DC0 is operated locally or remotely.
G ,dentical e*uipment in all DC0s, both for local and remote operation.
G ,ntegrated test unit #T0' for automatic and manual testing of subscriber line circuits,
subscriber lines and analog telephone sets
G 6etallic test access #6TA' gi(ing external subscriber line testing systems access to the analog
subscriber lines connected to the DC0
3$
G DC0 emergency operation #in the e(ent of total failure of the transmission routes to the main
exchange'
G +emote control unit #+.0, /ec. 3' used for remote operation and consisting of upto six
remote DC0s. Each +&DC0 of the remote cluster has an /A/. module #/tand&alone /er(ice
controller' for emergency operation.
2.) S#r%#%r$
ln the ma8ority of cases, the modules belonging to a DC0 are arranged in moduleframes, with two
rows of modules. 6odule frames with one row of modules are only used in 2$3)&mm rac;s. ,n the
DC0 a row of modules in a module frame is termed as a shelf A shelf is subdi(ided into a left&hand
and a right&hand half&shelf #as seen from the module side of the module frame'.
To understand the architecture of the DC0, the DC0 structure will be discussed in the following
se*uence #+efer 7ig 2'B
G DC0 system comprising of central cards,
G +inging < 6etering Holtage G$-$r2#",-,
G 9us system comprising of
& .ontrol :etwor; for processors
& @)%=&;bits?s networ; for speech signals
G Peripheral cards which include Cine cards and Test cards,
G D..s, i.e., Direct .urrent .on(erters
2.1. DLU S&'#$(
A DC0 system contains the following functional unitsB
#a' a control for digital line unit #DC0.',
#b' a digital interface unit for DC0 #D,0D',
#c' a cloc; generator #...3' <
#d' two bus distributor modules #9D..'.
32
A DC0 system is a failure unit which is duplicated in the DC0 #7ig.2'. 9oth DC0 systems are
housed together in a module frame #7ig. $)&a'.
The DC0 system ) #DC0.5, D,0D5,...35 and 9D.)' are contained in the upper shelf #shelf )' of
the module frame and the DC0 system $ #DC0.,, D,0D,,...3$ and 9D.. $' are contained in the
lower shelf #shelf $'.
The functional units DC0., D,0D and ...3 are also referred to as central units. ,f a fault occurs in a
central functional unit of one of the DC0 systems, normal call handling is still possible (ia the other
DC0 system.
DLU C,-#r,66$r 7DLUC8
7or security reasons and to increase throughput, there are two DC0.s in the DC0. They wor;
independently in a tas; sharing mode. ,f one DC0. fails, the second DC0. can handle the tas;s
alone.
The DC0. controls the se*uence of DC0&internal functions and either distributes or concentrates the
signaling between the subscriber line circuits and theG DC0.. The DC0&internal control networ;
connects the DC0. with the shel(es. All functional units e*uipped with their own microprocessors
are addressed through this control networ;.
The units are polled cyclically by DC0. for messages ready to be sent, and are accessed directly for
the transfer of commands and data from DC0..
The DC0. carries out test and super(ision routines to detect errors.
CEDs on the DC0. indicate the operating mode < the status of the PD.s.
33
1"4%r$ 2728 3 S"(+6":"$0 B6,< D"24r2( ,: DLU
3@
1"4%r$ 2758 3 D$#2"6$0 B6,< 0"'4r2( ,: #!$ DLU
3!
D"4"#26 I-#$r:2$ U-"# :,r DLU 7DIUD8
The D,HD has two interfaces tbr the connection of two P.635 multiplex lines #PD.s' connecting
the DC0 with the CT3. Either balanced or coaxial cables can be connected. A total of $2" channel
pairs are a(ailable between the /C.As and the D,0Ds
& $2) channels for the transmission of user information.
& " channels for transmission of tones for routine loop tests as well as audible tones during
emergency ser(ice.
The following are the important functions of D,HD
$. Ta;es the control information arri(ing from the CT3 from channel $=, of a PD. #D,0D)
ta;es the control information from PD.5, D,0D, from PD.2'. The D,0D forwards the incoming
control information from this CT3 to the partner DC0. #i.e., the DC0. belonging to the same DC0
system as that of the D,0D.'. ,n the opposite direction the information coming from partner DC0. is
inserted in channel $= of the same PD. and transmitted to the CT3.
2. Pro(ides the interfaces to a DC0&internal @)%=&;bitts networ; to the indi(idual shel(es. The
user information is distributed to and from the /C6 modules (ia this @)%=&;bit?s networ;.
3. Deri(es a signal for synchroniDation of the cloc; generator from the line cloc; of the PD..
@. Performs test and super(isory routines and detects any occurring errors.
!. The channel contents of the PD. with ../ are forwarded to the e(en&numbered channels of
the @)%=&;hit?s networ;, the channel contents of the PD. will cut ../ to the odd channels. #+efer
7ig. 3'.
=. A test 6,,+, is switched (ia the D,0D for the cross office chec; #.5.' conducted by the
CT3.
. CEDs, in the module faceplate indicate the operating mode of the D,0D and the PD.s.
D"4"#26 I-#$r:2$ U-"# :,r L,26 DLU I-#$r:2$, (,0%6$ D 7DIU 3 LDID8
0sually the local DC0 is connected to the CT3 (ia a single @ 6bps interface ha(ing =@ time&slots
instead of 2 independent PD.s.
3=
7or conecting a local DC0 to CT3#9', the interface in theB DC0 is. D,0BCD,D in place of D,0D.
The D,0BCD,D has @)%=&;bit?s interface. 7or such a connection a balanced copper line is used. The
D,0BCD,D handles the transmissionB of the contents of =) user channels and a control information
channel (ia a single @)%=&6bps. multiplex line #instead of (ia two PD.s'. The main tas;s of the
D,0BCD,D are similar to those ofthe D,0D.
1"4%r$ 3 3 1%-#",-26 U-"# DIUD 3
M%6#"+6$@"-4 #!$ PDC' "-#, 2 4/B= <5"#;' -$#*,r<
3
A-0 0$(%6#"+6$@"-4 ,: !2--$6 1= #, DLUC
? B%' 0"'#r"5%#,r (,0%6$ *"#! 6,< 4$-$r2#,r :,r DLU 7BDCG8
The cloc;generator #...3' generates the system cloc; of @)%=&;AD re*uired by the DC0 and the
associated frame synchroniDation pulse. 7or security reasons the cloc; generator is also duplicated.
The two cloc; generators wor; according to the mastersla(e principle. 0nder normal operating
conditions the cloc; generator designated as the master is acti(e while the sla(e generator is in
standby mode.
The master supplies both DC0 system with cloc; signals. ,f the master fails, the system switches
o(er to the sla(e generator which then supplies both DC0 systems with cloc; signals.
The cloc; generator recei(es a synchroniDing signal from the D,0D in the same shelfQ the D,0D
deri(es this signal from the line cloc; of the related PD..
The functions of the bus distributor #9D..' are described in #the following sections on R+inging <
6etering Holtage 3eneratorP and R9us /ystemP # /ec. 2.2 and 2.3'.
2.2 RINGING D METERING EOLTAGE GENERATOR
The ringing and metering (oltage generator #+363' generates the sinusoidal ringing and metering
(oltages re*uired in the DC0 for analog subscribers, as well as a synchroniDing signal for ringing the
subscribers.
/e(eral different fre*uencies can be set for the ringing (oltage by means of switches. Another switch
allows two different (oltages to be set for each fre*uency selected.
Two diflerent fre*uencies #$2 or $= ;AD' can be set for metering (oltage by means of a switch. The
metering (oltage cannot be changed.
The ringing and metering A&. (oltage are monitored for under(oltage. ,f the (oltage drops below the
minimum (alue permitted, an alarm is signaled. Each 9D... unit can switch o(er to another +363
which then supplies the entire DC0 w,th ringing and metering (oltage.
7rom each +363, a ring bus system is used for the distribution of ringing and metering (o$tage.
+3635 supplies ringing and metering (oltage to all the mounting locations for /C6s in the left&
hand half&shel(es #/C65...' through the ring bus system ) and the 9D.. units in these half&shel(es.
+363, supplies ringing and metering (oltage to all the mounting locations for /C6s in the right&
hand half&shel(es #/C6"..$!', through the ring bus system $ and 9D... units in these half&shel(es
during normal operation. ,f a fault occurs in one of the +363s, the other +363 ta;es o(er the
entire load. #+efer 7ig @'Q
3"
The ringing (oltage is fed to the 9D.. units o(er a short&circuit safety circuit and is distributed
unamplified to theP /C6 mounting locations in the rele(ant half&shelf.
The metering (oltage is forwarded to an amplifier with balanced high&impedance input in the 9D..
units and distributed unbalanced and with , low impedance in the rele(ant half&shelf
1"4%r$ 4 3 D"'#r"5%#",- ,: #!$ R"-4"-4 C%rr$-#
3%
2.3 BUS SYSTEM
,nformation is exchanged in the DC0 (ia a duplicated bus system #7ig 2'. The exchange of
information between the DC0 system ) and the peripheral units ta;es place (ia bus system ),
between the DC0 system $ and the peripheral units (ia bus system $. ,f one bus system fails, the
other bus system is used for the exchange of information from both DC0 systems. Each bus system
includes a control networ; and a @)%=&;bit?s networ;.
G .ontrol networ; # 7or communication between DC0. and the processors o$ the peripheral
modules'
.ontrol. networ; ) and $ are associated with the DC0.5 and DC0.$ respecti(ely. ,A DC0. has
eight interfaces #one for each possible shelf', from which the control lines of the networ; lead to the
9D..modules in the indi(idual shel(es. 7rom the 9D.. units the control networ; branches further in
groups to the mounting locations of functional units with microprocessors.
.ontrol networ; ) and $ lead to all appropriate mounting locations in the shel(es, so that if one of the
control networ;s fails, the other one can ser(e all mounting locations. The signals are regenerated in
the 9D.. units and fanned out through further outputs to the periphery. /imilarly incoming signals
from the periphery are concentrated onto fewer lines. This networ; structure limits the fault
penetration range.
The control networ;s con(ey control information, i.e., subscriber signaling and commands from the
DC0. to the /C6s, and transmit subscriber signaling and messages in the opposite direction. ,n both
directions the bit rate of the control networ;s is,$".! ;bit?s, i.e., effecti(ely approximately $3=
;bit?s.
G @)%=&;bit?s networ; #7or =@ ;bps user channels '
The @)%=&;bit?s networ;s ) and $ are associated with the D,0D5 and D,0D$ respecti(ely. A D,0D
has eight interfaces #one for each possible shelf', from which the lines of the networ; lead to the 9D..
modules in the indi(idual shel(s. The networ; structure is identical to that of the control networ;.
9oth @)%=&;bit?s networ;s ha(e =@ channels for each direction of transmission with a bit rate of =@
;bit?s. The user information is transmitted in these channels to and from the /C6s. 7or the
transmission of user information a fixed relationship exists (ia the D,0D between the channels of the
@)%=&;bit?s networ;s and the chartnels of the PD.s.
@)
2.4 PERIPHERY
The subscriber line modules #/C6' build the interface to the subscribers. The /C6s are
accommodated partly in shel(es ) and $ with the central units and partly in shel(es 2.. . in the
extension module frames.
The subscriber line modules, analog #/C6A' ser(e to connect analog subscribers to the system.
Digital subscribers are connected (ia subscriber line, modules, digital #/C6D'.
S%5'r"5$r 6"-$ (,0%6$, 2-26,4 7SLMA8
The following subscriber line modules are used for the connection of analog subsribersB
& /C6AB.5/, for ordinary subscribers
& /C6AB.6+C, $2&;AD?$=&;AD meter pulse in8ection, line re(ersal and loop open
& /C6AB./+, with silent re(ersal for coinbox telephones
& /C6ABD,D, for direct inward dialing
& /C6AB7P9, feature programmable
The /C6As.... can ha(e four, six or eight analog subscriber line circuits #/C.A...', which are
controlled by the processor #/C6.P'. 5ne analog subscriber can be connected to the DC0 (ia each
subscriber line circuit. The /C.A. . ..contains the necessary indication and feeding circuits as well as
the analog&to&digital and digital&to&analog con(ersion for (oice information.
1"4%r$ 5 3 S%5'r"5$r L"-$ M,0%6$, A-26,4 7SLMA8
@$
I(+,r#2-# 1%-#",-' ": #!$ SLMA 2r$ 3
G Aigh impedance line monitoring for detection of e(ents in the idle state
G .onstant current in8ection with ad8ustable current (alues in the call condition with loop closure and
short&to ground detection
G +ecei(ingof pulse dialing
G 7orwarding of DT67 dialing to CT3
G 9alanced ringing in8ection, +ing tripping when subscriber answers
G /C.A with integrated range extension
G .onnection of the subscriber line and subscriber circuit side to a test multiple
G ProteStion against o(er(oltage and external (oltage
G D. decouping of the (oice signals
G Ad8ustable relati(e transmit and recei(e le(els
G Ad8ustable2&wire impedence
G .oding?decoding of speech signals according to A&law or &Caw with filter function
G 7ulfilling the ..,TT transmission re*uirements
G Pre&processing of signals in the /C6.P
G Aard re(ersal of speech wires
G /ilent re(ersal
G /ingle&wire disconnection of supply (oltage
G Coop open
G Transmission of dial pulses
G ,n8ection of meter pulses
G ,nterface to the @)%=&;bit?s networ;s
G ,nterface to the control networ;s
S%5'r"5$r 6"-$ (,0%6$, 0"4"#26 7SLMD8
The subscriber line module, digital #/C6D' is used to connect digital subscribers. A rnodule has
eight subscriber line circuits, digital #/C.D', which are controlled by a processor. Each subscriber
@2
line circuit pro(ides a basic access for ,/D: terminals for ome subscriber (ia the networ;
termination #:T, 7ig '
The data are transmitted between /C6D and :T (ia a balanced 2&wire line *"#! 2 total data rate of
$=)&;bit?s. The total data rate is made up of $@@&;bit?s user information and $= ;bit?s for
synchroniDation, monitoring and diagnostics. The user information a(ailable to the subscriber at $@@
;bit?s offers each subscriber simultaneous access to two 9&channels each with =@ ;bitls for bit&
transparent transmission of information #(oice, text, data and image' and access to a D&channel with
$= ;bit?s. The D&channel is used to transmit, among other things, the signaling between subscriber
and exchange and to transmit low transfer rate data #e.g. pac;et data, telemetry data'.
1"4%r$ = 3 S%5'r"5$r L"-$ M,0%6$, D"4"#26 7SLMD8
2m(ortant /unctions o/ the SL.D are
G ,nterface to the subscriber line
#7eeding of the subscriber line circuit with &=) H and for range extension with &%3 H or &% H.
7or test purposes, connection of the subscriber line citcuit and the subscriber line to the test unit #T0'
(ia the test matrix'
G +emote power feeding of the :T and digital telephone following failure of the local power
networ;
G 2&wire?@&wire con(ersion with ad8ustable line building&out networ;
G Echo compensation for fully duplex transmission on the 2&wire subscriber line.
G .on(ersion of the data recei(ed from the subscriber in @9?3T or 29?$K code to binary code
and le(el alignment
@3
G .on(ersion of the data to be sent to the subscriber from binary code into @9?3T or 29?,K code
and.le(el alignment
G /ignalling transmission according to the D&channel protocol
G Assignineiit of the incoming information from the subscriber in the 9$, 92 and D channels to
the allocated time slots of the @)%=;bit?s networ;
G Assignment of the information recei(ed (ia the (arious time slots of the @)%=&;bit?s networ;
to the 9,. 92 and D channels of the subscriber line.
@@
1"4%r$ 7 3 T$r("-26' C,--$#$0 #, ISDN B2'"' A$''.
T$'# U-"#
The test unit #T0' consists of two modules & 76T0 and C.66. These two modules can be plugged
into mounting locations for /C6s in the module frame with central units, i.e. 7BDC0#A'.
The test unit is pro(ided in the DC0 to test subscriber tclephones. subcribers lines and subscriber line
circuits #/, ..s'. ,t can be conectedB to each subscriber line or each /C. (ia a test bus. The test relays
for metallic access to the items to be tested are an integral part of the /C.s.
Testing of the subscriber lines connected to the DC0 is controllcd from the line wor;station #C2/'.
The C2/ can be located either centrally in the 56. or locally in the exchange. A special user
program #TC7,' in the 3P of the CT3 acts as the interface between the T0 and the C2/. The
program TC7, controls the T0 and therefore the subscriber line test in accordance with the inputs.
During such test, the 3P and T0 exchange commands #3P to T0' and results #T0 to 3P' (ia ../
channel pair $= of one PD. and (ia one DC0..
,n addition to the C2/, the subscriber line measuring system #/0C,6' can also be used to control
testing of analog subscriber lines. The /0C,6 measuring boards are located at the DC0 site, in
exchange or in the 56.. The user program TC79 in the 3P of the CT3 acts as the interface between
the T0 and the /0C,6 measuring boards.
6ore details on Cine 2or; /tations and /0C,6 will follow under 5b8. @.@ #Cine and Trun;
Testing'.
M$#266" T$'# A$'' 7 MTA D LTBAM8
The metallic test access #6TA' allows external subsriber line test systems to access the analog
subscriber lines connected to the DC0. The 6TA contains measurement and signaling interfaces.
The measurement interface pro(ide ides the metallic access for the local external test e*uipment and
measuring instruments connected to E2/D. Acti(ation and deacti(ation of the measurement
interface is controlled (ia a signaling interface.
To connect external test e*uipment, a Coop Test and 9us Access 6odule #CT9A6' is re*uired in
each DC0. This module pro(ides the lin; between the subscriber line module /C6A and the external
test e*uipment. A meditation function P. #67&P.' with interface card is also necessary.
@!
S#2-0926,-4 '$r)"$ ,-#r,6 7SASC8 R9DLU
During emergency operation the stand&alone ser(ice control #/A/.' is re*uired in remote DC0s for
the communication between the connected analog, ,/D: and .E:T+E4 subscribers. /A/.s are
also used in each DC0 of a remote control unit #+.0, /ection T 3'.
E($r4$-& '$r)"$ $F%"+($-# :,r +%'!95%##,- '%5'r"5$r' 7EMSP8 R9DLU
DC0 can be e*uipped with an E6/P instead of an /C6A. :ormally a maximum of two E6/Ps can
be pro(ided. Each E6/P contains TA+EE code&recei(er circuits.
0nder normal operating conditions an CT3 recei(es the dialed information from DT67 subscribers
and e(aluates it. ,n emergency ser(ice, pushbutton recei(ers are re*uired in the DC0 itself for these
subscribers. These pushbutton recei(ers are contained in the E6/P modules.
E@#$r-26 262r( '$# R9DLU
The external alarm set #ACE4' is used to relay alarms from external de(ices #e.g., air conditioning,
power supply, fire extinguishers etc.' to the /FPD. 6inimum one ACE4 module is re*uired per
remote cluster of DC0s. The ACE4 can connect upto $= external alarms to the main exchange.
A specific fault printout can be output by the system for e(ery external DC0 alarm. The commands
for defining these fault printouts is contained in the 66: for /FP 7 7register ,:T+5 8. The same
document also describes the le(el definition of these alarms. The pin assignments for the ACE4 are
described in 66: for DC0 #register TA9, chapter CED'.
2.5 D"r$# C%rr$-# C,-)$r#$r'
The DC0 power supply is decentraliDed. 7or each half&shelf in the module frame there is a separate
direct&current con(erter module #D..'. ,f a D.. fails, the conse*uences are relati(ely minor, as
only one half&shelf is affected.
The D.. modules supply all the operating (oltages re*uired in the shelf #including the (oltages
re*uired for any range extensions'. The (oltages generated are monitored for under(oltage, and some
also for o(er(oltage. ,f the specified tolerances are exceeded, an alarm is triggered and the D?.
@=
con(erter is disconnected electronically. All (oltage outputs of the D.. modules are short&circuit
protected.
I: #!$ (,0%6$ DCC/91 ,r DCC191 :2"6' 7".$. DCC' "- :r2($ A8, #!$ r$'+$#")$ DLU '&'#$( :2"6'.
T!$ DLU '&'#$( -,# 2::$#$0 #!$- #2<$' ,)$r #!$ *,r< ,: #!$ :2"6$0 '&'#$(.
The (oltage for the two D..s in a shelf is fed (ia a common fuse in the fuse panel. The exchange
(oltage supplied is unfiltered.
The (oltage for the subscriber line modules #/C6' in each shelf is fed (ia a fuse in the fuse panel. As
far as the power supply is concerned, the subscriber line modules are termed load circuits. The
(oltage supplied is filtered.
2.= S,:#*2r$
The application program system #AP/' of an E2/D exchange also contains the necessary software
for the DC0. This software comprisesB
G DC0 data
? DC0 data access programs
G 6aintenance programs
G /afeguarding programs
? .all Processing programs
? 5peration and maintenance programs
At initial system start the coordination processor #.P' initialiDes itself and loads the complete AP/.
Then the .P loads the group processors #3P' in the line?trun; groups with their programs and data.
The CT3s which control the DC0s also recei(e additional programs and data. 2hen loading of the
CT3s is completed, the .P sends configuration commands to the CT3s. These acti(ate the CT3s and
they can start to supply their periphery with data.
The DC0.s send load re*uests to the CT3s continuously (ia the common&channel signaling lin;.
2ithin the DC0s, the Processors in the /C6 cards 7SLMCP8 send load re*uests to the DC0.s.
@
The CT3s ac;nowledge the re*uests of the DC0.s and 6,20 #!$( *"#! 02#2. 2hen the DC0. is
loaded, the CT3s send corresponding messages to the .P.
1"4%r$ >728 3 L,20"-4 ,: DLU9S,:#*2r$ *!$- DLUC ; DLUMOD 2r$ ,-:"4%r$0 #, ACT
The .P sends configuration commands to the DC0.. ,n this way the DC0.s and conse*uently the
DC0s as a whole are acti(ated. 2ithin the DC0s. the load re*uests of the /C6 processors can now
be ac;nowledged. The DC0.s pass on all the necessary data to the /C6 processors. As soon as the
processors ha(e recei(ed all the necessary data, including the configuration data, call processing can
begin.
,rrespecti(e of whether a system initial start concerns the initial loading of the software to the system
or a system reco(ery, the procedure for loading the software is identicaU #7ig. "b'. 7or initial loading
of the software to #the system the .P loads the AP/ from magnetic tape, whereas for a system
reco(ery the .P loads the AP/ from magnetic dis;.
@"
,f an initial start #reco(ery' has to be performed for only part of the system, e.g. an CT3 initial start,
only the affected CT3 is loaded with programs and data from the .P. This is followed by the loading
of the DC0.s and /C6.Ps in the DC0s connected to this CT3 as pre(iously explained.
1"4%r$ >758 3 L,20 +2#! :,r +r,4r2(' 2-0 02#$
DLU S,:#*2r$ distribution o(er different processors
The DC0 software is mainly stored as distributed firmware. The firmware is contained in
& the DC0P and l5P in each DC0.
& the /C6.P in each /C6A
& the D,0D controller in each D,0D
& each E6/P module
& each 9D.3
& each ACE4 module
& each module of the T0
After power&up, the DC0 processors carry out the initialiDation tas;s in the units listed abo(e. The
DC0 is operational when it has recei(ed the appropriate semipermanent data from the CT3 and when
all data are loaded in the /C.As.
The software in all the DC0 processors operates in a similar manner. As an example the software in a
DC0P is described here. The DC0P software has three operating le(elsB
& start le(el
& real time le(el
9 tas; le(el
7ollowing the initialiDation tas;s in the DC0. and the setup of communication with the group
processor in the CT3 the DC0P software normally oeprates in the tas; le(el. The master scheduler
@%
endless loop determines the tas;s to be processed according to their priorities. /er(ice routines,
general routines and user programs are a(ailable in the main routines in the tas; le(el. The interrupt
programs are real&time programs which ha(e to be run immediately. To enable this the program
running in the tas; le(el is interruped and the interrupt program executed. After interupt program
completion, the interrupted tas; le(el program is continued.
9efore DC0 emergency ser(ice is begun new initialiDation has to be performed in the DC0P before
returning to the tas; le(el. The setting up of internal connections can then be controlled from the tas;
le(el At the end of ser(ice another initialiDation is carried out before returing to the tas; le(el and
normal , operational /er(ice.
Example of functions of other DC0 processors are as followsB
G ,5P #in the DC0. as well' /canning the /C6.Ps storage and distribution
of control information.
G /C6.P Aandling subscriber signalling
Aandling DC0. commands
G D,0D .ontroller .ontrolling the @)%=&;bit?s networ;
.ontrolling the common signaling channel
3eneration of tones
G Processor in the E6/P E(aluation of DT67 dialing information
during emergency operation
G Processor in the 9D.3 .ontrlling the @)%= ;bit?s networ;s
G Processor in the ACE4 6onitoring the alarm states
7orwarding alarm state transitions
G Processor in the T0 modules -unction testing
6easuring (oltages, impedances and
capacitances.
2.7 R2< 2-0 M,0%6$ :r2($ 62&,%#'
The DC0s are accommodated in rac;s. 7ig % shows different layout options. 5nly three types of
module frames are used fbr the entire DC0 program V7BDC0 #A', 7BDC0#9' < 7BDC0#.', 7ig $)W.
The module frames contain either one or two rows of modules that are referred to as Xshel(esY in the
following figures.
The DC0s are created and configured using 66C commands #see Annex. ,'. These 66C
commands apply to groups of functional units or to indi(idual modules #7ig $ )'. Data entered during
creation generate a memory map of the pre(iously un;nown functional unit in the coordination
!)
processor. 2hen configuration ta;es place the functional unit is placed in the desired operating state
#e.g., acti(e'.
!$
1"4%r$ B 3 RLU 7245/9(( r2< :,r DLU8
1"4%r$ 1/728 3 13DLU7A8 MODULE 1RAME 7A8 :,r %+#, 17= S%5G' L"-$'.
!2
1"4%r$ 1/758 3 13DLU7B8 M,0%6$ 1r2($ 7B8 :,r %+#, 25= S%5' L"-$'
3./ R$(,#$ C,-#r,6 U-"# 7RCU8
The remote control unit +.0 #7ig $2' can consist of up to six DC0s. Each DC0 of the +.0
contains a stand&alone ser(ice controller #/A/.' which can be plugged in place of two /C6s.
During normal operation the connection between the subscribers ser(ed by the +.0 are established
(ia the E2/D exchange.
3.$ Emergency ser(ice for remote DC0
#a' 7ailure of all connections to the exchange
,n this caseQ the /A/.s of the DC0s control the connection setup between the DC0s of the
+.0 and also internally in their own respecti(e DC0. During emergency ser(ice, all the
subscribers connected to the +.0 can communicate with one another. &
#b' 7uifure of the connections of one or moreDC0s #but not all' to the exchange
,n the case of the failure of the connections to the cxchange of one or more DC0s the
subscribers connected to these DC0s can communicate with one another. The /A/.s of the.
DC0s once again ta;e o(er the control of the connection setup. The DC0s of an +.0 not
operating in the cmergcncy ser(ice continue functioning in normal operation.
3.2 R2< 2-0 (,0%6$ :r2($ 62&,%#
The information and illustrations gi(en in /ection 2, e.g., the rac; and module frame + and .
layouts, also apply to the DC0s in the +.0. 7ig $$ shows the module frame A e*uipped with an
/A/..
!3
1"4%r$ 11 3 13DLU7A8 :,r RCU
!@
1"4%r$ RCU "-#$r:2$'
!!
4./ MML C,((2-0' :,rDLU
4.1 O)$r)"$* 3
CR DLU CR DLUMOD
DISPDLU DISP DLUEH DISPDLUMOD DISP DLUPORT
SEL SEL DLUPORT
STAT DLU STAT DLUEH STAT DLUMOD STAT DLUPORT
CON1DLU CON1 DLUEH CON1 DLUMOD CON1 DLUPORT
DIAG DLU DIAG DLUEH DIAG DLUMOD DIAG DLUPORT
CAN RCU 7C2-$6 RCU8
EIT RCU 7E@#$-0 RCU8
RED RCU 7R$0%$ RCU8
L"-$ T$'#"-4 C,((2-0'
TEST DLULC 3 L"-$ #$'# 7%'"-4 EF+#. N%(5$r8
TEST SLC 3 L"-$ #$'# 7%'"-4 D"r$#,r& -%(5$r8
ENTR TST SCHED 3 E-#$r T$'# S!$0%6$
DISP LN LCKOUT 3 D"'+62& -%(5$r' ,: PG ,-0"#",-
!=
4.2 I0$-#":"2#",- ,: "(+,r#2-# DLU +2r2($#$r' 3
DLU -,. 3 1/ #, 255/ 7"-'#$+' ,: 1/8
LTG -,. 3 #'496#4
W!$r$ #'4 J / #,7 7T"($ S#24$ Gr,%+ ,- *!"! #!$ 2'',"2#$0 LTG "'
#$r("-2#$08
T'4 J 1 #, =3
OST 3 O+$r2#"-4 S#2#$ 7ACT ; MBL ; CBL8
S!:9(,0 3 "0$-#":"2#",- -,. ,: S%5'r"5$r L"-$ M,0%6$'
S!: J S!$6: -,. 7/ #, 78
M,0 J M,0%6$ -,. 7/ #, 158
S!:90 3 I0$-#":"2#",- -,. ,: DC C,-)$r#$r'
D J DCC M,0%6$ -,. 7/ ,r 18
RCU ID 3 =54321
RCUMBR 3 &&&&9K
W!$r$ &&&& J DLU -,. 71/ #, 255/8
L J R$62#")$ -,. ,: DLU *"#!"- #!$ RCU 71 #, =8
!
..L +ommands /or O : .
1,r MML +%r+,'$, #!$ DLU "' '%50")"0$0 "-#, #!$ :,66,*"-4 6,4"26 ,-:"4%r2#",- %-"#' 3
M DLU '&'#$( 7DLU SYS8
M DLU $F%"+($-# 7DLU EH8
M DLU (,0%6$ 7DLU MOD8
M DLU +,r# 7DLU PORT8
DLUSYS ,-'"'#' ,: 3 DLUC
DIUD *"#! CCS
PDC
DIU 3 LTG *"#! CCS 2-0 SILC
DIU 3LTG *"#!,%# CCS
DLUEH ,-'"'#' ,: 3 RGMG O 2-0 RGMG 1
DCC'
DLUMOD ,-'"'#' ,: 3 SLM'
BDCG
1MTU 2-0LCMM 7T$'# U-"#8
SASC, EMSP 2-0 ALEI 7"- R9DLU8
DLUPORT r$:$r' #, 3 S%5'r"5$r 6"-$ "r%"#, SLC
7HW :,r "-0")"0%26 '%5'r"5$r' ,- #!$ SLM8
!"
#$' ,nterrogating the DC0 connecti(ity B
D,/P DC0 B DC0 L x B
DC0 /helf DC0.&) DC0.&$
$) A )&$&)&2 )&2&)&2
2) A )&$&2&@ )&3&)
3) A )&2&2 )&3&$
/TAT D,0 B CT3 L )&$ D,0 L xB
CT3 D,0 D,0TFP Applic 5/T CT3 5/T D,0 5/T P.6
)&$ ) D3) ../CD, A.T A.T A.T
)&$ $ D3) ../DC0 A.T A.T A.T
)&$ 2 D3) E4TCD, A.T A.T A.T
)&$ 3 D3) E4TDC0 A.T A.T A.T
/TAT D,0 B CT3 L )&@, D,0 L x
CT3 D,0 D,0TFP Applic 5/T CT3 5/T D,0 5/T P.6
)&@ ) D3) ../+.A A.T A.T A.T
)&@ $ D3) .A/ .A/ A.T A.T A.T
)&@ 2 D3) ../ ../ A.T A.T A.T
)&@ 3 D3) .A/ .A/ A.T A.T A.T
#2' /tatus ,nterrogation /TAT DC0
/TAT DC0 EK
/TAT DC0 65D
/TAT DC0 P5+T
/TAT +.0
!%
I-#$rr,42#"-4 DLU S&'#$( 3
/TAT DC0 B DC0 L x #dlu no.' Q
/TAT DC0 ExecPd
DC0 /,DE T) /,DE T$
Access Access
DC0.&5/T degrading CT3 CT3&5/T DC0.&5/T degrading CT3 CT3&5/T
$) A.T :5: )&$ A.T A.T :5: )&2 A.T
2) A.T :5: )&$ A.T A.T :5: )&3 A.T
3) A.T :5: )&2 A.T A.T :5: )&3 A.T
,nterrogating DC0 E*uipment B
/TAT DC0EK B DC0 L $), D.. L x&x
DC0 D.. 5/T Access T Degrading
/ide T) /ide T $
$) )&) A.T :5: :5:
)&$ A.T :5: :5:
$&) A.T :5: :5:
$&$ A.T :5: :5:
2&) PCA :5: :5:
2&$ PCA :5: :5:
< so on upto &$
/TAT DC0EK Q DC0 L $), +363 L x
DC0 +363 5/T Access T Degrading
/ide T ) /ide T$
$) ) A.T :5: :5:
$ A.T :5: :5:
=)
I-#$rr,42#",- DLU M,0%6$' 3
/TAT DC065D Q DC0 L $), 65D L )&x for interrogation shelf T ) modules
DC0 D.. TFPE 5/T Access&Degrading
Aside T) /ide T $
$) )&) /C6A.5/ A.T :5: :5:
)&$ /C6A.5/ A.T :5: :5:
)&2 /A/. A.T :5: :5:
)&3 /C6A.6+C A.T :5: :5:
)&" 9D.3 A.T :5: :5:
)&$$ 76T0 A.T :5: :5:
)$2 C.66 A.T :5: :5:
)&$! /C6D9A.T :5: :5:
/TAT DC065D B DC0 L no, 65D sft Tmod for a module
DC0 L no, 65D T shf&mod << shf&mod
7or a range of modules
DC0 L no 65D L x&x for all modules of a DC0
,nterrogating +.0 5perating /tatus B
/TAT +.0 Q +cum L 3omti.
+.069+ side T ) /ide T $ /ide T )
DC0.5 Access&Degarding 5/T Degrading
2)&$ A.T :5: A.T :5: A.T :5:
3)&2 A.T :5: A.T :5: A.T :5:
$))&3 A.T :5: A.T :5: A.T :5:
=$
!)&@ A.T :5: A.T :5: A.T :5:
+.0C:1
+.069+ T +.069+
/tatus
2)&$ 3)&2 A.T
2)&$ $))&3Act
2)&$ !)&@ A.T
3)&2 $))&3A.T
3)&2 !)&@ A.T
$))&3 !)&@ A.T
The command displays status information for all DC0.s < /A/. modules and also the status of all
the /A/. lin;s within an +.0.
=2
738 C,-:"4%r2#",-'
C,-:"4%r"-4 #!$ DLU S&'#$(
An acti(e DC0 system may be configured to 69C for maintenance only by way of .9C.
/uch configuration is necessary when, for example, subunits of the DC0 #DC0 modules,
DC0 e*uipment' are configured to D/T by the system. ,f the DC0 system is in D/T or if the
CT3 has no A.T?.9C operating state, the system can be configured directly to 69C. ,f this
occurs, no /TA+TED message or warning will be printed out. T
ExampleB ,nput for configuration from A.T to .9C, #CT3 L A.T?.9C'B &
.5:7 DC0 B DC0 L no, DC0.)Ly, 5/T L .9CQ
C,-:"4%r"-4 DLU EF%"+($-#
& DC0 e*uipment includes the current con(erter modules D.. and the +inging (oltage
generator modules +363. 5ne of the two +363s can be configured directly from
A.T to 69C and 69C to A.T.
.5:7 DC0 EKDC0 L no, +363 L ) or $, 5/T L ostQ
A D.. can be configured to 69C only if the dependent modules in the corresponding
half&shelf are not A.T. &
C,-:"4%r"-4 DLU M,0%6$'
,nput for configuration from A.T to .9C and then to 69CB
.5:7 DC065D DC0Lno, 65DLshf&mod, 5/TL.9CQ
DC0Lno, 65DLshf&mod << shf&mod, 5/TL.9CQ for a module area
,f a module or module area A..E//&DE3+AD,:3 L D/T o(er both sides, then a direct
configuration to 69C is possible. 2ith this configuration no caution is output.
6odules which are not used for switching operations can be directly configured from A.T JZ 69C
#e.g., ACE4, T0&6odule'.
=3
748 D"24-,'#"'
7ault analysis in the DC0 detects faults which occur within the DC0, while fault analysis in the CT3
detects interface faults. 7ault analysis in the .P ma;es the final interpretation of error messages
arri(ing from both CT3 and DC0.
The diagnostics determines the location of the fault within the faulty unit, ma;ing rapid fault
clearance possible.
R$F%"r$($-#' :,r S#2r#"-4 #!$ DLU D"24-,'#"'3
A diagnostics can be carried out only if associated peripheral units are in the following operating
statesB
& CT3[ LA.T or .9C
& 69 LA.T
& /: L A.T or /T9
The basic functions in the .P must also be intact.
Diagnostics of the entire DC0 #both DC0 systems' is implemented only on initial start&up, and is
these not described in the 66:.
D"24-,'"-4 2 DLU S&'#$(
The DC0 system concerned must be in 69C. Either the central and partially central sections, only
the central sections, or only the P.6 bus are tested, according to the input command.
D,A3 DC0 B DC0Lno, DC0.) L yQ
DC0 L :o, DC0.$ L yQ
D"24-,'"-4 #!$ DLU EF%"+($-#
A diagnostics of partially central e*uipment re*uires that both the DC0 systems be in A.T or .9C,
while the unit to be diagnosed must be in 69C.
D,A3 DC0EKB DC0Lno. D.. L shf&modB
3 DC0Lno, +363L,noB
=@
Diagnosing the dlu 6odules B
A diagnostics of the DC0 modules #/C6s' re*uires that at least one of the associated DC0 systems
be in A.T or .9C, while the module to be diagnosed must be in 69C.
D,A3 DC065D B DC0 L no, 65D L shf&modQ
B DC0 L no, 65D L shf&mod << shf&modQ
7or a module area
748 M2"-#$-2-$ ,: RCU
Cr$2#",- ,: RCU
.++.0B +. J \rcuZ,
+.069+ L \dluZ & \mbrZ < ...< \dluZ & \mbrZQ
ExampleB .reate an +.0 at +a8nagar using DC0 nos. 2), 3) and !)). &
.++.0 B+.0 L +a8nagar
+.069+ L 2)&$ < 3)&2 < !))&3Q
D,/P +.0 B +.0 L \rcuZ
DC0 L \dluZ
/TAT+.0 B +.0 L \rcuZQ
6odifications of +.0B
E4T +.0 VExample Q To add DC0 $!) in the abo(e cluster
E4T +.0 B +.0 L +a8nagar,
+.069+ L $!)&@Q
+ED +.0B +educe +.0 #Ta;e out and +&DC0 from the cluster'
.A: +.0 .ancellation of the cluster
=!
5.2.4 T$'#'
7or details of tests using the test unit T0, see 66:B TE, register T0.
5./ ODM ASPECTS 71,r (,r$ 0$#2"6', P1. r$:$r MMN.DLU9IN8
5. 1 G$-$r26 !"-#' :,r HW9M2"-#$-2-$
5perational /tatus OST
The a(ailability of the di different units is determined by their operational status. The basic slates are
as follows
$. The unit is ready for operation
2. The unit is not ready for operation
3. The unit is not present
This information is stored in the .P and sometimes in the effected unit itself or in the next higher
ran;ing unit #e.g. 3P ;nows 5/T of connected DC0.'. ,t can he displayed by /TAT&.ommands.
,n the DC0 and the ..:. a differentiation is made between the actual status and the target status of
the units.
1. +eady for operation means that the unit has one of the following operation status
& acti(eB A.T
& standby B /T9
#0nits which are not duplicated always ha(e the operational status A.T
#e.g. 6TD, CT3, D,0, /FP'.
7or duplicated units there are always two possibilities
N both units arc in the operation status A.T #e.g. 6DD, 60, 69'
J one unit is in the status A.T, the second unit is in the status /T9B
#e.g. /:. 6.A, ..3'
2. 0nits which are not ready B The following operation states arc possible
9 maintenance bloc;ed B 69C
==
9 conditionally bloc;ed B .9C
9 defecti(e B 0:A
& not accessible B :A.
#a' 69C B A unit that should be bloc;ed in order to execute maintenance tas;s #e.g. during the
fault clearance', must be configured to 69C.
#b' .9C B ,f a non&duplicated unit of the switching periphery is to be made 69C. #e.g. CT3' the
rele(ant unit must first be configured to .9C. ,n .9C status. the unit can no longer be used for new
connections. As soon as all subscribers or trun;s ha(e the status RidleP, a print out is gi(en at the
56T and this unit can then be configured to 69C.
7or example. CT3. being a non&duplicated unit must be configured first to .9C before configuring
to 69C. After .9C ac;nowledgment on the 56T the CT3 can be configured to 69C.
#c' 0:AB A unit ready lor operation which is recogniDed by the safe guarding /2 as faulty is
ta;en out of ser(ice, and configured to the operation status 0:A #e.g. ..3&fault with configuration'.
,f there is no redundancy the rele(ant unit is configured to 0:A only in the case of strong faults
#e.g., CT3&failure may be with?without configuration depending on the se(erity of the fault'.
#d' :A.B A unit whose higher unit is not ready for operation has the operation status :A., e.g.,
,f ,5P6TD L0:A #defecti(e'
status of 6TD becomes L :A. #not defecti(e but cannot be accessed'.
3. 0nits which 2r$ not present must be in operation status PCA. ,n this case no tests and
therefore no fault messages are produced for these units.
=
? S%((2r& R$:$r$-$ :,r S#2#%' ,: different %-"#'3
S$("9+$r(2-$-# '#2#%' 7O+$r2#,r ,-#r,66$08
A.T Acti(e .all processing running and unit is fault free
.9C .onditionally bloc;ed Acti(e for safeguarding, but bloc;ed for call processing
69C 6tce bloc;ed 55/ #5ut of ser(ice', but acesible for mtce, wor;
PCA Planned55/, possibly without hardware, but foreseen for later extension. /tatus after
creation of a unit.
0:A 0na(ailable 55/ due to fault
Tr2-'"$-# S#2#%'
:A. :ot accessible Aigher ran;ing unit is 55/
#Access degradation'
/E]D /eiDed for diagnostic
/E] seiDed by process other than diagnostic
D/T Disturbed 55/, but with automatic reacti(ation
P,''"56$ '#2#%' !2-4$'
.5:7 DC0 B DC0L $), DC0.5 L y, 5/TLnew stateQ
5ld statusAllowed Transition
PCA 69C
69C PCA, .9C, A.T
0:A .9C, 69C, A.T
A.T .9C, 69C
.5:7 DC0EKB DC0L$), D..Lx&y, 5/TL new stateQ
5ld statusAllowed Transition
PCA 69C
69C PCA, A.T
="
A.T 69C
5.2 S2:$4%2r0"-4 1$2#%r$'
R,%#"-$ T$'#
+outine tests in the DC0 are implemented in such a way as not to disturb or e(en interrupt call
processing operations.
The routine tests controlled by maintenance DC0 are implemented in the /2
& of the CT3[ and the DC0..
The following routine tests are performedB
& tsx routine tests to detect defecti(e speech channels
& +A6 routine tests of the DC0 memory
& DC0. loop test
& +363 test
& ,5P memory test for internal testing of ,5P memory areas.
,n addition, the DC0 emergency ser(ice control of the CT3[ has some routine test functions.
E($r4$-& S$r)"$
Emergency ser(ice is begun when the path to the .P is interrupted for both DC0 systems #DC0.&5
and DC0.&l'. During emergency ser(ice, telephoning is possible only between subscribers
connected to the same DC0.
A%0"#'
Audits are independent monitoring programs for detecting processor internal data inconsistencies.
They ser(e only to confirm the system software functions. #/ee 66:B/FP, +egister 7., 1apitel
/FP!!'.
=%
5.3 12%6# Pr"-#,%#'
There are four formats for DLU :2%6# +r"-#,%#'. Each format matches one of the following types of
printoutB
& DC0 failure with configuration
& DC0 failure without configuration
& +.0 lin; failure &
& External alarm DC0
DLU 12"6%r$ W"#! C,-:"4%r2#",-
This type of fault printout is output if the fault is so serious that parts of the DC0 recei(e a state other
than A.T.
DLU 12"6%r$ W"#!,%# C,-:"4%r2#",-
This type of fault printout is output for faults which do not cause configuration of the DC0. The
DC0 retains its current operating state. The format for this fault printout is the same as that for DC0
7A,C0+E 2,TA .5:7,30+AT,5:.
E@#$r-26 A62r( DLU
,n order to display alarms from external de(ices, #e.g. air conditioning, entry super(ision, power
supply' on the /FPD, an ACE4 module is included in the DC0. 0p to $= external alarms can be
connected to this module (ia the external DC0 alarm lines. 5ne ACE4 can he inserted per DC0. The
external DC0 alarms can also be forwarded to external alarm de(ices. A specific fault printout can he
output by the system for e(ery external DC0 alarm.
The commands re*uired for definition, display etc. of these fault printouts is contained in
66:B/FP, register ,:, chapter ,:T+5.
,n the same chapter the le(el definition on the external DC0 alarm line is also described. The fault
clearance procedures re*uired for the particular fault is to be written by the user. 7orms for this
purpose are contained in 66:B/FP, register 7., chapter /FP%%&DC0.
)
The 66: number for e(ery external DC0 alarm is /FP%%&DC0. The alarms are differentiated (ia
the indi(idual alarm message texts. The pin assignments for the ACE4 module are contained in
+egister TA9, chapter CEDBDC0.
5.4 12%6# 6$2r$0 M$''24$' 3
There are two formats for fault cleared messages. Each format matches one of the following printout typesB
- DC0 fault cleared with configuration
- DC0 fault cleared without configuration
- External alarm DC0 end
DLU 12%6# C6$2r$0 W"#! C,-:"4%r2#",-
This format is output after clearing a fault which resulted in configuration to D/T.
DLU 12%6# C6$2r$0 W"#!,%# C,-:"4%r2#",-
This type of format is output after clearing a fault which did not result in a change of operating state.
The format is same as abo(e.
E@#$r-26 262r( DLU $-0
This format is output after an external DC0 alarm has been cleared.
*.* 2SDN .aintenance Procedures
:o new DC0 maintenance procedures are re*uired for ,/D: basic access including p&data access to
the D&channel&:0.s or 9&channel&:0.s. Error detection and the location of faulty modules are
pro(ided together with the existing error messages and procedures.
7aults may occur in E2/D exchanges which lead to reconfigurations due to the failure or
disconnection of CT3, D,0, P.6 highway or Pac;et /er(er 6odule #P/6'. ,f :0.s are ta;en out
of ser(ice as a result of such faults, the :0. maintenance software is informed. The maintenance
software then informs the operating personnel of the state of the :0.s and ensures that the :0.s
are set up again when ser(ice is restored. This is standard procedure for con(entional :0.s.
The maintenance software defines which error message is output and pro(ides input to the re*uired
error procedures.
To comply with essential re*uirement for channel a(ailability, ,/D: P&channel&:0.s #,P:0.s' are
super(ised end&to&end between /C6D and P/6. The :0.s are super(ised using the 6aintenance
Cin; Access protocol #6&CAP' by the /C6Ds, which poll the P/6 e(ery 2) seconds. The P/6
responds to each polling re*uest from the /C6D with information on channel a(ailability. The
$
/C6D module is thus the acti(e diagnostic unit for testing ,/D:&:0.s. The terminal adapters also
contain loopbac; mechanisms with which the ,/D: subscriber ser(ice features can be tested. These
tests go beyond the scope of 66:BDC0 and are described in other documents.
The /C6Ds are responsible for collision detection #.D' within the DC0.
M2"-#$-2-$ :,r D9!2--$6 2$''
7ailure of a common p&data channel is detected by the /C6Ds when the 6aintenance Cin; Access
Protocol #6&CAP' fails to respond to polling. /ince both common p&data channels are usually used as
operating channels for all /C6Ds, both channels #4&way and F&way' are super(ised automatically.
End&to&end super(ision ta;es place (ia 6&CAP between the /C6Ds and P/6, which chec; the
operating channel at regular inter(als #2) seconds' with test messages. ,f an /C6D detects that its
operatng channel has failed, it switches automatically to the standby channel and performs
switcho(er. The /C6D sends the message RP&DATA :5T AHA,CA9CEP to the DC0..
After recei(ing the first /C6D switcho(er message, the maintenance circuit in the DC0. defines a
timer with a delay that is longer than the inter(al of the administration CAP of the /C6D #3)
seconds' and collects all P&DATA :5T AHA,CA9CE messages from the /C6Ds in this period.
2hen the timer expires, the DC0. attempts to locate the fault and to create an operable
configuartion. The DC0. determines whether one, se(erl or all /C6Ds on the operating channel
has?ha(e reported the fault. The DC0. reports the fault to the 3P, which forwards the signal to the
56T for output.
,f a P.6 highway is switched off or interrupted, the /C6D is automaticaly informed by the
a(ailable CT3. The messae P&DATA :5T AHA,CA9CE is output. The number of the faulty line is
also identified. ,f possible, the /C6D switches to the standby channel.
After switching to the standby channel, the affected /C6Ds continue to send messages e(ery 3)
seconds to the administration CAP of the faulty operating channel. ,f one of these messags is
ac;nowledged by the P/6, it can be assumed that the operating channel can be restored to ser(ice. A
hard switcho(er is then performed to restore the P.6 highway.
The RP&.AA::EC AHA,C9CEP message is sent to the DC0. which forwards it to the 3P and, in
some cases, to the .P for output at the 56T. The /C6D therefore switches automatically bac; to
the operting channel when the P.6 highway is restored and reports this to the :0..
The reasons for switcho(er as a result of failures in other exchanges can only be identified manually
by the operating personnel. Aowe(er, failures and restorals are recorded automatically as described
abo(e and reported to the 56T with the appropriate message.
.aintenance /or access on the B;channe"
Automatic switcho(er to standby channels in response to a failure is not a feature of the 9&channel
:0.. E(ery :0. is permanently assigned to a specific subscriber and has no redundancy.
2
The :0. maintenance software is informed of failures of peripheral hardware units that are the
conse*uence of failure or disconnection of CT3, DC0 P.6 highway, D,0, DC0, module, DC0 port
or P.6 etc.
:0. maintenance in the .P informs 3P administration, which starts release of the :0. on the
system side. ,n the case of failurs where the .P is unable to determine whether an :0. is affected,
:0. administration chec;s its :0. table to find this out. ,f an :0. is affectd, a failure message is
output at the 56T.
,f the D,0 with signaling fails all :0.s of this DC0 system half are usually released. 2hen the
peripheral units of affected :0.s.
DLU Cr$2#",-' 3
A--$@%r$ 9 I
DC0s are created and configured using 66C commands. These commands apply to groups of
functional units or to indi(idual modules #7ig $),$$'. Data entered during creation generate a
memory map of pre(iously un;nown functional unit in the .oordination Processor. The functional
unit can be placed in the desired operating state #e.g.A.T' by using the corresponding .5:7
command.
S#$+ 1 3 Cr$2#",- ,: 2 -$* DLU
.+ DC0 DC0Ldlu noO,
/helf LA.
DC0.) L lsg&itg&diu) \&diu $Z
DC0.$ L lsg&,tg&diua&2 \diu 3ZQ
.+ DC0 65DB DC0 L 2), 65D L )&2, TFPE L /A/.
.+ DC0 65D B DC0 L 2), 65D L )&$$, TF5E L 76T0
.+ DC0 65DB DC0 L 2), 65D L )&$2, TFPE L C.66
.+ DC0 65DB DC0 L 2), 65D L )&$@, TFPE L E6/P
.+ DC0 65D B DC0 L 2), 65D L )&$!, TFPE L ACE4
.+ DC0 65DB DC0 L 2), 65D L $&$$, TFPE L E6/P
.+ DC0 65DB DC0 L 2), 65D L )&=, TFPE L /C6A.5/
.+ DC0 65DB DC0 L 2), 65D L )&$ TFPE L /C6A.6+C
3
S#$+ 2 3 C,-:"4%r2#",- ,: 266 $F%"+($-# #, MBL
.onf DC0 B DC0 L 2), DC0.)Lyes, 5/T L 69CQ
.onf DC0 B DC0 L 2), DC0.$Lyes, 5/T L 69CQ
.onf DC0EK B DC0 L 2), +363 L), 5/T L 69CQ
.onf DC0EK B DC0 L 2), +363L$, 5/T L 69CQ
.onf DC0EK B DC0 L 2), D..L)&), 5/T L 69CQ
.onf DC0EK B DC0 L 2), D..L)&$, 5/T L 69CQ
.onf DC0EK B DC0 L 2), D..L$&), 5/T L 69CQ
.onf DC0EK B DC0 L 2), D..L$&$, 5/T L 69CQ
.onf DC0EK B DC0 L 2), D..L2&), 5/T L 69CQ
.onf DC0EK B DC0 L 2), D..L2&$, 5/T L 69CQ
.onf DC065D B DC0 L 2), 6odL)&2, 5/T L 69CQ
+epeat for all modules created at RAQ
.onf DC0 P5+T B DC0 L 2), C.L)&=&) < 5/T L 69C
)&=&,
.onfigure all the ports similarly
.aution B DonPt forget to configure the T0 ports as well.
Ste( 5 +on/iguration to A+%.
+epeat all the abo(e steps to bring the DC0, DC0EK, DC065Ds and the DC0P5+Ts to A.TQ
@
Anne7ure ; 22
1./ C266 S$#%+ U-0$r N,r(26 O+$r2#",-
Prere*uisite for normal operation of a DC0 is that it can communicate with at least one CT3 (ia a
PD. with ../. ,n order to achie(e a (ery high le(el of reliability for the DC0 and its connection
with the CT3s, the following measure ha(e been ta;en B
- duplication of the DC0 systems #DC0., D,0D and .3'
- two or four primary digital carriers #PD.'
- connection to two CT3s
- the use of one common channel signalling #../' lin; per CT3.
0nder normal operating conditions, a D,0D automatically forwards the information octets from a
specific subscriber terminal to a PD. channel. The same principle applies in the opposite direction of
transmission. 0nder normal operating conditions, a fixed allocation exists between the @)%= ;bit?s
networ; channels and the PD. channels (ia the D,0D #see also 7ig.3' which means that the D,0Ds
do not ha(e to perform any additional switching functions. At the same time, a DC0 control #DC0.'
only handles communication between the /C6.P in the DC0 and the group processor #3P' of the
associated CT3.
,n the following description of a connection setup, the functional units assigned to the calling party
are designated A&O. #e.g. A&CT3, A&DC0.' and the functional units assigned to the called party are
designated 9&O.#e.g. 9&CT3, 9&DC0.'.
1.1 O%#4,"-4 ,--$#",-
,f an outgoing connection is to be set up #e.g. calling subscriber goes off&hoo;', the A&/C.A
recogniDes this change of state and informs the A&/C6.P. A corresponding report is sent to the first
A&DC0. which interrogates #polls' the A&/C6.P. This A&DC0. is now responsbile for the setup
and later release of this outgoing connection. The A&DC0. forwards the report (ia the common
channel to the associated group processor #3P' in the A&CT3. The A&3P
- determines the calling partyPs class #e.g. subscriber with rotary dialing'
!
- specifies the time slot #channel' to be used in the A&DC0 and forwards. This (ia the common
channel to the A&DC0..
- ,nforms the .P of the seiDure and
- Through&connects the group switch #3/' in the A&DC0
The A&DC0. forwards the specified time slot to the A&/C6.P (ia the control networ;, the A&
/C6.P loads the A&/C.A with this time slot.
The A&3P causes a loop chec; to be carried out from the A&CT3 #A&CT3 T A&D,0D T A/C.A T
A&D,0D T A&CT3'. After a successful loop chec;.
- The A&3P sends a through&connect command (ia common channel and A&DC0. to the A&
/C6.P
- .auses the dial tone to be applied from the A&CT3 (ia one PD. channel, the A&D,0D and the
@)%= ;bit?s networ; in the rele(ant time slot to the A&/C.A
5n receipt of the through&connect command the A&/C6.P forwards the dial tone from the A&/C.A
to the calling party.
The A&/C6.P integrates the incoming dial pulses #con(ersion to digital information' and forwards
this information (ia control networ;, A&DC0. and common channel to the A&3P. The A&3P
disconnects the dial tone after the first digit has been recei(ed the complete dialed number is sent (ia
the switching networ; #/:' to the .P.
,f the A&3P indentifies the subscriberPs class as subscriber with push&button dialing, it causes a push&
button recei(er in the A&CT3 to be connected. ,n this case the calling partyPs dialed information is
forwarded (ia the A&/C.A, @)%= ;bit?s networ; in the rele(ant time slot, A&D,0D and a PD.
channel to the push&button recei(er in the A&CT3.
1.2 I-,("-4 ,--$#",-
The .P recei(es the complete directory number of the called party from the A&3P. ,t determines one
of the two 9&CT3s, to which the 9&DC0 is connected and lin;s this CT3 (ia the switching networ;
with the A&CT3. The 9&3P of the 9&CT3 assigns the time slot to be used in the 9&DC0 and
transmits a seiDe command and this time slot (ia the common channel, 9&DC0. and the control
networ; to the 9&/C6.P. The 9&/C6.P load the 9&/C.A with the specified time slot.
After a successful loop chec; from the 9&CT3 #9&CT3 T 9&D,0D T 9&/C.A T 9&D,0D T 9&CT3'
the 9&3P sends a ring command (ia the common channel to the 9&DC0.. The 9&3P also causes
ringing tone to be applied from the 9&CT3 (ia the switching networ; and the A&CT3 to the calling
party. The 9&DC0. causes the calld party to recei(e ringing (oltage and control splash ring and
periodic ringing (ia the 9&/C6.P.
=
2hen the called party accepts an incoming call by going off&hoo; #loop closure', the ringing current
and ringing tone are disconnected. The 9&DC0. sends an appropriate report (ia common channel to
the 9&3P and this is also forwarded to the A&3P of the A&CT3. The 9&3P causes the group
switching to through&connect to the switching networ;. The connection is then established.
2./ C266 S$#%+ U-0$r E($r4$-& S$r)"$
Prere*uisite for initiation of emergency ser(ice in a DC0 is that the DC0 is no longer able to
communicate with a minimum of one CT3 (ia a PD. with ../, e.g. total brea;down of the
connections to the CT3s. ,n this cse, the DC0 switches o(er to continue operation in emergency
ser(ice. Emergency ser(ice is not pro(ided for local DC0 connection to CT37s.
Emergency ser(ice pro(ides the subscribers connected to the same DC0 with facilities for setting up
connections to one another #DC0 internal traffic'. 0p to =) simultaneous connections can exist. :o
charges are registered during emergency ser(ice.
To enable control of connection setup during emergency ser(ice, it is necessary for the DC0.s to
contain all the latest, up&to&date subscriber data. 7or this purpose, the DC0.s constantly recei(e
during normal operation the rele(ant, changed or additional subscriber data from the CT3s.
0nder emergency ser(ice conditions, howe(er, the D,0Ds do not through&connect the information
octets of the @)%= ;bits? networ;s to the PD. channels, but loop them bac; to the /C.As. The
DC0.s are responsible for routing the octets in the channel originating from the calling subscribers
to the /C.A of the called subscribers and (ice (ersa.
During emergency ser(ice, the D,0Ds also supply the dial, ringbac;, ringing and busy tones. ,f a
DC0. detects that the directory number of a subscriber that is not connected to the DC0 has been
dialed, it tells a D,0D to send a busy tone to the calling subscriber.
0nder normal operating conditions, dialed information from a push&button subscriber is recei(ed and
e(aluated by an CT3. 7or emergency ser(ice, push&button recei(ers are pro(ided in the E6/P
functional units in the DC0 and these are connected if re*uired.
2.1 I-#$r-26 ,--$#",-
,f a connection is to be set up #e.g. calling subscriber goes off&hoo;', the associated A&/C.A
recogniDes this change of state and informs the A&/C6.P. A corresponding report is sent to the first
DC0. which interrogates #polls' the A&/C6.P. This DC0. is now responsible for the setup and
later release of this internal connection.
T!$ DLUC
- /eiDes a free push&button recei(er in an E6/P and
- 7orwards the fixed time slot for dial tone to the A&/C6.P.

The A&/C6.P loads this time slot into the A&/C.A.


The DC0. sends a through&connect command to the A&/C6.P
The A&/C6.P causes the calling party to recei(e dial tone from the D,0D (ia the @)%= ;bit?s
networ;.
728 C266"-4 +2r#& *"#! r,#2r& 0"26"-4
The A&/C6.P integrates the dial pulses #con(erts them into digital information' and passes
this information on to the DC0.s (ia the control networ;.
758 C266"-4 +2r#& *"#! +%'!95%##,- 0"26"-4
The A&/C.A forwards the dialed digits (ia the @)%= ;bit?s networ; and the D,0D to the
push&button recei(er in an E6/P. The push&button recei(er con(erts the dialed digits into digital
form and passes them on to the DC0.s (ia the control networ;.
As soon as the first dialed information in recei(ed, the DC0.
- /ends a command to the A&/C6.P to disconnect the dial tone and
- Determines the time slot for the speech connection.
The A&/C6.P disconnects the dial tone in the A&/C.A.
As soon as the DC0. has recei(ed all digits it releases the E6/P #if a subcriber has push&bialing'
and sends the fixed time slot for ringing tone to the A&/C6.P. The A&/C6.P loads this time slot
into the A&/C.A and the calling party recei(ers ringing tone from the D,0D (ia the @)%= ;bit?s
networ;.
The DC0. sends a seiDe command to the 9&/C6.P.The 9&/C.A is loaded with the time slot for the
speech connection and the subscriber loop is switched to low resistance.
T!$ 266$0 +2r#& r$$")$' r"-4"-4 %rr$-#.
The 9&/C6.P controls the ringing current.
2hen the called party accepts an incoming call by going off&hoo; #loop closure', the ringing current
is disconnected.
T!$ B9SLMCP
- through&connects the 9&/C.A to the @)%= ;bit?s networ; #specific time slot for speech
connection'
- sends an appropriate report to the DC0.
The DC0. forwards the time slot for the speech connection to the A&/C6.P.
"
T!$ A9SLMCP
- loads the time slot for the speech connction into the A&/C.A
- thereby disconnects the ringing tone.
The connection is now established.
=./ E@$r"'$' 7DLU91"-#",-26 S#r%#%r$ 2-0 M2"-#$-2-$8
E7ercise 1
2rite down all 66C&commands to get a printout of the operational status of the following unitsB
$. P.6&lin;
2. DC0&controller
3. D,0D
@. +363
!. 9D9
=. 9D.3
. 9DE
". D..
%. T0
$). E6/P
$$. /ubscriber modules
$2. /ubscriber Cine .ircuits.
E7ercise !
A new module /C6A for ordinary subscriber has to be added in DC0$), /helf 2, $
st
module
location. 2rite down all necessary 66Ccommands.
E7ercise
The controller for /tand&Alone&/er(ice #/A/.' is to be inserted in DC0 2). 2rite down all
necessary 66C commands to create and to display the /A/..
%
E7ercise < )
A new module frame for /ubscriber Cine 6odules is mounted.
2rite down all 66l commands necessary to prepare the new frame.
E7ercise *
.omplete the following table
/ituaion CED ,ndication of CED
#5n, 5ff, 7lashing'
:o access degrading #:ormal operation'
DC0. ) 3$
32
DC0. $ 3$
32
Emergency ser(ice
DC0. ) 3$
32
DC0. $ 3$
32
9D.35
6aster functions 6
E7ercise ,
/pecify the changes of the operational status and access degarding inside the DC0 in the case of a
failure of P.6&lin; side ) #with ../'.
E7ercise -
.reate an +.0 consisting of 2 +&DC0s #DC0&2) and DC0&3)'. .an you chec; the stand&alone
cluster operation when DC0&2) is cut&off from the main switch^
")
LINE;TRUNK GROUP
2hat is inside ^
$. ,ntroduction
2. .onnections
2.$ /ubscriber .onnection
2.2 6essage .hannel connection
3. 7unctional 0nit in CT3
3.$ Cine?Trun; 0nit
3.2 /ignaling 0nit
3.3 3roup /witch and ,nterface 0nit
3.@ 3roup Processor
@. 3roup Processor /oftware
!. Physical Design
=. 5 < 6 Aspects
Abbre(iations
Exercises
"$
Line 4 %run& 'rou(
1./ I-#r,0%#",-
The line?trun; group #CT3' is a subsystem of E2/D. The CT3 forms the interface between the
digital en(ironment of an E2/D exchange #7,3. $.$' and the switching networ; #/:'.
1"4%r$ 1.1 3 1%-#",-26 U-"#' ,: EWSD
1.1 C,-:"4%r2#",- O+#",-'3
Different possible configurations for an CT3 are as follows B
2ith digital transmission lin; #primary digital carrier, PD.'
- 7or digital line unit #DC0' operating at transfer rate of 2)@" ;bit?s. DC0s can be used to
connect analog as well as digital subscribers #e.g. with PD. at 2)@" ;bit?sQ ,/D: basic access 9A for
,/D: subscribes and small ,/D: P94s'. 2hen connected (ia PD., the DC0 is generally operated
as a remote unit with respect to the E2/D exchange.
"2
- 7or digital trun;s with transfer rate of 2)@" ;bit?s.
2ith digital transmission lin; for local operation of DC0s #i.e, DC0s within the main exchange' at
transfer rates of @)%= ;bit?s
2ith primary rate access #PA'B
7or medium&siDe and large ,/D: P94s #,/D: subscribers with PA' opeating at transfer rte of 2)@"
;bit?s.
1.2 LTG #&+$'3
Different hardware (ersions of CT3s exist for the (arious configurations abo(e. This document deals
only with line?trun; groups of type 3, i.e. CT33B
LTGG 7B9:%-#",-8 :,r DLU 2-0 PA
,t is possible to connect combinations of DC0 and PA to the same CT33. The transfer rate is 2)@"
;bit?s.
,t is also possible to connect trun;s #with or without multifre*uency code 67.', pro(ided they ha(e
the same transfer rates as DC0?PA. DC0s can be operated as local or remote. Cocal operation can be
con(erted to remote operation.
G CT33 #.&7unction'
Exclusi(ely for trun;s with ? without 67.. The transfer rates are 2)@" ;bit?/ec.
$.3 The transfer rate on the secondary digital carrier #/D.' from the CT3 to the /: and (ice
(ersa is "$%2 ;bit?s # " 6bps'. Each of these /D.s has $2" time slots
of =@ ;bit?s each, out of which $2 time&slots are used for user information and one time slot for
messages. 0ser information is the information rele(ant to the communication partners #(oice, text,
data, images'. 6essages are usedP for interprocessor communication in the E2/D system, e.g., in the
case of the CT3, for communication with #a' the coordination processor, #b' other CT3s and #c' the
..:.. 0ser information and messages are transferred together.
Cine?trun; groups can operate with all con(entional signaling systems and can therefore be easily
integrated into any switching system. /ignaling is the communication between exchanges. Analog
user information and analog signals are digitiDed by means of a signal con(erter, multiplexer
#/.?604' outside the E2/D exchange.
"3
1.4 LTG 1%-#",-'
The main functions of the CT3 are
728 C266 +r,$''"-4 :%-#",-' "-6%0$
J +ecei(ing and e(aluating signals from the trun; and the subscriber line
J /ending signals
J /ending audible tones
J /ending messages to the .P and recei(ing commands from the .P
J /ending?recei(ing reports to?from the group processors #3P'
J /ending? recei(ing orders to?from ..:.
J .ontrolling the signals to DC0, PA
J Adapting the line conditions to the " 6bps standard interface to the /:
J Through&conncetion of messages and user information
758 S2:$4%2r0"-4 :%-#",-' "-6%0$
JDetecting errors in the CT3 #without external test e*uipment'
JDetecting errors on the connection paths within the exchange (ia
cross&office chec;s and bit error ratio counting #9E+.'
& Transferring error messages to the .P
& E(aluating errors to determine penetration range
& ,nitiating measures corresponding to the penetration range of an error
#e.g., bloc;ing of indi(idual channels or bloc;ing of entire functional
units of the CT3'.
& Exchanging routine test messages with the .P, so that the .P can detect
a faulty CT3 if the CT3 itself is not able to send error messages.
78 A0("-"'#r2#")$ :%-#",-' "-6%0$
"@
& /ending messages to the .P for traffic measurements and traffic
obser(ation
& /witching of test connections
& Testing of trun;s and port&specific areas of the CT3 using the automatic
test e*uipment for trun;s #ATEBT' integrated in E2/D and the
automatic test e*uipment for transmission measuring #ATEBT6'.
J,ndicating important information
#e.g. channel assignments' to the functional units
J.reating, bloc;ing. releasing de(ices )"2 66C commands.
2./ C,--$#",-'
As indicated under /ec. $.2, two types of connections exist for the CT3 time&slots
#a' /ubscriber connections
#b' 6essage connections
2.1 S%5'r"5$r C,--$#",-'
A subscriber connection is a connection that carries user information. /ubscribers may include
ordinary telephone subscribers as well as telecopiers and facsimile e*uipment. To set up subscriber
connections, each CT3 has $2 time slots #$&$2', also called channels, per "&6bit?s multiplex
system. $2) time slots are used for transmission. /ubscriber connections are through&connected by
the /:. Each subscriber connection occupies one time slot in the forward direction and one time slot
in the bac;ward directionQ the two time slots are identical within their multiplex system 71"4 2.18.
The calling subscriber A is assigned time slot x, for example, by the 3roup Processor. 3P. This 3P is
located in the CT3 of the A&side #in 1"4. 2.13 LTG1'
The called subscriber 9 is assigned time slot y, for example, by the .P. The /: combines time slots
x and y in a time slot D.
The two switching networ;s #/:5 and /:$' wor; in hot standby mode. An CT3 always sends and
recei(es the user information on the /D. through both /:&hal(es #/:5 and /:$'. Thus, both /:&
hal(es contain the same user information. Aowe(er, an CT3 assigns only the user information from
the acti(e /:&half to the respecti(e subscriber #A& or 9&side'. The other /:&half is designated as
standby and, in the e(ent of a failure, is able to ta;e o(er immediately and send and recei(e the up&to&
date user information. To do this, it must be configured from standby to acti(e. The lin; interface
"!
unit #C,0' between the CT3 and /:, located in the CT3, then recei(es information from the other
/:&half
1"4%r$ 2.1 3 S%5'r"5$r C,--$#",- 7SN/ 2#")$8
2.2 C,--$#",-' ,: M$''24$9!2--$6'
The 3P of an CT3 exchanges messages #interprocessor communication with'
#a' the 3P of other CT3s in the same exchange,
"=
#b' with the ..:., and
#c' with the .P.
To do this, each CT3 uses time slot ) of each /D. to and from the /:. This connection is called the
message channel #6.A'. The message channel "' implemented as a semipermanent connection
which is set up when the system is placed in ser(ice or restarted and then remains connected. Ci;e
subscriber connections, message channels are always through&connected to the 2 6essage 9uffers
simultaneously through the respecti(e /:&half. The 3P or the message buffer for the .P, howe(er,
uses only the messages from the acti(e 6.AQ the other 6.A is designated as standby. /ince the
69&5 and 69&$ wor; on load&sharing basis #i.e. 3Ps of half CT3s communicate with the .P (ia
69&5Q the other half CT3s being handled by 69&$', the standard distribution of the A.T,HE
message channel of CT3s to the 69s is as belowB
CT3 Acti(e 6.A CT3 Acti(e 6.A
:o. (ia no. (ia
$2 /:&$
$ /:&$ $3 /:&)
2 /:&) $@ /:&$
3 /:&$ $! /:&)
@ /:&$ & &
/:&$
/:&)
! /:&)
= /:&) =) /:&$
/:&$ =$ /:&)
" /:&$ =2 /:&$
% /:&$ =3 /:&)
,n the e(ent of failure of an acti(e message channel, the CP initiates the configuration of the message
channel in the other /:&half to acti(e.
T256$ 2.1 3 S#2-02r0 0"'#r"5%#",- ,: ACTIEE ($''24$ !2--$6' ,:
LTG' "- SNN!26)$' / 2-0 1
Table 2.$ shows the /:&half in which the acti(e 6.As for each CT3 are located. The 6.As are
monitored by the CT3 as well as by the 69. Thus, the hardware of the /: is monitored at the same
time, since the 6.As are integrated in the /: hardware. 6essage distributor ) #695' is assigned to
/:5, message distributor $ #69$' to /: $. The method used in transferring messages on the 6.A
is an ADC. procedure.
"
The exchange of messages is illustrated in 7ig 2.2.
1. M$''24$' :r,( #!$ GP3
The messages originating in the 3P Vmessages to the .P, reports to the 3P and orders to the V..:.Q
#see /ect. @'W are transmitted in time slot ) on the 6.A through the /: and to the 69. All CT3s are
connected to the /: in parallel #7ig 2.3'. 9y design. each CT3 #is assigned to a specific /:&half for
message distribution # table 2. lists the standard assignments'. 7ig. 2.2 shows an example of a
.onfiguration with =3 CT3s #$&=3', using CT3&$ and CT3&=3 to illustrate how messages are
transmitted.
The 3P of CT3 $ sends a message through the C,0 to /: $. ,n the process, the C,0 inserts the
message in time slot ) to the /:. /:$ forwards the message in time slot x. 5n the 6.A from the /:
to the 69, /:$ transfers the messages of all CT3s serially to the 69 The /: transfers the message
from CT3 $ in time slot 2.
An analogous procedure is used fur a message that is to be simultaneotisl( transferred from CT3=3
to the .P. The difference is that CT3=3 is assigned to /:5 a different time slot #y' is used within
/:5, and a different time slot #$2=' is also used to transfer the message to the 69. .onse*uently
695 recei(es the message from CT3=3, 69$ recei(es the message from CT3$. The 69 buffers
this data until it is recei(ed by the input?output processors #,5P' in the .P. The corresponding ,5P
determines whetheer the data in(ol(es a message for the .P or a report for a 3P and, accordingly,
stores the messages in the input list and the reports in the output list of the .P.
,f one the units on time message transmission path becomes faulty #e.g. /:&half or 69, fault
detection mechanisms configure the defecti(e unit from acti(e to una(ailable. The unit that was
pre(iously standby then ta;es o(er the functions of the faulty unit. Assuming that /: $ was
configured to una(ailable, /:5 ta;es o(er all those CT3s. 2hich are normally assigned to /:$
#CT3$, CT33, CT3@, CT3=, etcQ /ee Table 2.$'. The 3P of CT3, then sends the message to /: ).
To do this it uses he 6.A represented by the bro;en line in CT3 $ in 7ig. 2.2 as the acti(e 6.A.
/:5 forwards the message in time slot x #the time slot is the same in both /:&hal(es'. 5n the
message channel from /:5 to the 69, this message is assigned to time slot 2. The l5P in the .P no
longer polls 69 $ as usual, but rather 695, from which it obtains the messages from CT3$ #as well
as from the other CT3s which pre(iously transmitted (ia /: $'.
""
1"4%r$ 2.2 3 E@!2-4$ ,: M$''24$' 5$#*$$- LTG 2-0
CP, LTG 2-0 LTG 7SN *"#! =3 LTG'8
"%
1"4%r$ 2.3 3 A''"4-($-# ,: ($''24$ C!2--$6'
7#"($ '6,#' :r,( LTG #, MB
2. M$''24$' #, #!$ GP
Data being sent to a 3P #e.g. commands from the . P or reports from other 3Ps' are read by theyQ
,5P from the .P memory unit. The ,5P forwards the data to the 69 associated with the respecti(e
CT3 #e.g., 69 , for CT3 $'. The 69 buffers the data and assigns the data to the assigned time slot
towards /:. 7or CT3&l, this is time slot 2. /: , transfers the message in time slot x and forwards it to
CT3&$ in time slot ) #the time slots in the /: are the same for the forward and bac;ward directions,
as are the time slots on the 6.A'. The other CT3s recei(e their messages in the same manner. The
C,0 extracts the messages from the information recei(ed from the /: #user information and
messages' and forwards the messages to the 3P. The abo($ description applies analogously for
CT3=3 #and other CT3s', as well as for reconfigurations in the e(ent of faults.
%)
3./ 1%-#",-26 U-"#'
The line?trun; group LTGG is made up of #!$ :,66,*"-4 :%-#",-26 %-"#'3
G 7unctional units in the line?trun; unit #CT0'
? 1%-#",-26 %-"#' "- #!$ '"4-26"-4 %-"# 7SU8
? 3roup switch and interface unit 7GSL8
? Gr,%+ +r,$'',r #3P'
1"4 3.1 shows the CT33 and its functional units and main interfaces. The subsections that follow
describe the indi(idual functional units and their interfaces. The figures associated with the
descriptions show the interfaces that are essential for the respecti(e functional unit.
T256$ 3.1 2-0 3.2 pro(ide an ,)$r)"$* ,: #!$ '+$$! and signal highways of an CT3. /peech
highways #/PA' transfer user information, signal highways #/,A' transfer messages.
T256$ 3.2 3 LTGG 3 S+$$! !"4!*2& 7SPH8 :,r %'$r "-:,r(2#",-
T256$ 3.2 3 LTGG 3 S"4-26 !"4!*2& 7SPH8 :,r ($''24$'.
%$
1"4%r$ 3.1 3 1%-#",-26 U-"#' ,: LTGG
%2
3.1 L"-$;Tr%-< U-"#
The line?trun; unit #CT0' is a logical unit which can ha(e a number of different functional units #7ig
3.2'. The purpose of these functional units is to adapt connected lines to the internal interfaces of the
CT3 and to e*ualiDe signal delays #synchroniDation of exchange bit rate and line bit rate'. They also
process the signals to and from the connected lines.
9y means of the signal highway output #/,A5', the CT0 recei(es commands from the 3P #e.g.
exchange codes to be transmitted'Q by means of the signal highway input #/,A,', the CT0 sends
peripheral&e(ent information to the 3P. Address signals #from the 3P to the CT0 and /0' control the
/PA and /,A used to lin; the CT0 with the 3/C and 3P.
The functional units listed below can be plugged into the CT0.
$.#a'Digital ,nterface 0nit #D,0'
Digital interface unit #D,0' is used for connection of remote DC0, PA, digital trun; V up to four
digital interface units #D,03), i.e 2 6bps' per CT33WQ and for connection of external test e*uipment,
such as the automatic transmission measuring and signaling testing e*uipment #AT6E' and the trun;
test e*uipment answer unit #TTE?A0'. The signaling methods used are channel associated signaling
#.A/' and common channel signaling #../'.
,n E2/D, an #external' digital announcement system #DA/' is connected to a D,0 on a single PD..
2ith the DA/, the operating company can store (ariable or permannent announcements and output
them on a channel specific basis. A DA/ is connected (ia a 2 6bps transmission lin;. The DA/
consists of a base unit with speech memory cards for annoucements. The number of announcements
can be increased through the use of an expansion unit containing additional speech memory cards.
.reation of database for announcement lines will be discussed under R+outing AdministrationP.
758 L,26 DLU "-#$r:2$, (,0%6 B 7DIU 3 LDIB8
Cocal DC0 interface, module 9 #D,0 B CD,9' is used for connection of local DC0. ,n the most
common application, each CT33 has two D,0 B CD,9 each D,0BCD,9 ha(ing =) channels on the
@)%= 1bit?s transmission lin; to the DC0. 5ther configurations, e.g. combinations of local and
remote DC0s connected to the same CT33, are possible. A D,0 B CD,9 replaces two 2)@" ;bit?s
transmissionlin;s with a @)%= ;bit?s transmission lin;. The D,0 B CD,9 of the CT33 communicates
with the functional unitD,0BCD,D in the DC0. The signaling method used is common channel
signaling #../'
%3
1"4%r$ 3.2 3 1%-#",-26 %-"#' ,: #!$ 6"-$;#r%< %-"# 7LTU8
2. C,-:$r$-$ %-"#, (,0%6$ B 7COUB8
The conferencing unit occupies the slot reser(ed for CT0s and hence, is configured as an CT0. A
single .509 module contains four indi(idual conference units. Each of the conference units can
connect up to " channels #e.g. " subscribers'. ,t is also possible to cascade two conference units, so
that as many as $@ channels can be connected.
%@
3. C,0$ r$$")$r 7CR8
The following type of .ode recei(ers can be used in the CT0 if the capacity for .+ in the /0 has
been exceededB
& 6ultifre*uency code recei(ers #.+6'
& .ode recei(ers for push&button #DT67' dialing #.+P'
.ode recei(ers are implemented as a digital signal processing module, extended #/P6E'. The /P6E
is programmed for the functions of .+P or .+6 #and module +6B.T. in the /0' &"2 the firmware .
An /P6E can accommodate " .+s.
4. A%#,(2#" #$'# $F%"+($-# 7ATE8
The ATE is used in one of two (ariants.
The automatic test e*uipment for trun;s #ATEBT' is used for routine testing of trun;s and tone
generators #T53'. The ATEBT consists of the test e*uipment module for le(el transmitting and
measuring #TE6BCE'.
The responder used with ATEBT can be, for example, the E2/D system&integrated end&to&end test
e*uipment, answer e*uipment #module' #ETEAE', another responder #e.g. implemented with
TE6BCE', or an automatic subscriber.
The automatic test e*uipment for transmission measuring #ATEBT6' is the e*uipment used for
manual demand testing of trun;s with the trun; wor; stations #T2/' and ser(es as director or
responder within the AT6E2 when testing international trun;s. The AT6E2 is specified by ..,TT.
The ATEBT6 consists of the module ATEBT6.
The modules of ATE, li;e the ETEAE, are plugged into the CT0 of CT3..
5. T!$ ,+$r2#",-266& ,-#r,66$0 $F%"+($-# :,r 2--,%-$($-# 7OCANEH8
7or an indi(idual digital announcement system #,:DA/', it can be plugged into slots of the CT0.
0sing ,:DA/, the operating company can assemble announcements from permanently stored
announcement fragments. The announcement fragment is stored in the memory unit of 5.A:EK.
An announcement can be an indi(idual #i.e. customiDed' announcement or a general&purpose,
standard announcement. An example of an indi(idual announcement would be a message regarding
the setting of an alarm ca$$, a standard announcement might be a message indicating that a directory
number has been changed.
%!
,:DA/ consists of 5.A:EK which is plugged into the CT3, and the .P software and 3P software.
,n its basic configuration, 5.A:EK contains a module 6B5.EB/P. and a module 6B5.EB60P.
5ne module is inserted for each CT0. Expansion is possible in increments of one module each, up to
a niaximum of four modules.
3.2 S"4-26"-4 U-"#
The signaling unit #/0' is a logical unit that can accommodate (arious functional units #7ig 3.3'. ,n
the CT33, these fuiictional units may beB T53, .+, +6B.T..
728 T,-$ 4$-$r2#,r 7TOG8
The T53 centrally generates the audible tones re*uired for all CT0s as well as the fre*uencies for
testing the code recei(er. These fre*uencies are stored as bit patterns in a replaceable memory chip.
9it patterns are con(erted into analog form in the functional unit re*uiring them.
758 C,0$ r$$")$r 7CR8
Depending on the type of CT3, the /0 contains code recei(ers for pushbutton dialing i.e. DT67
dialing #.+P' and?or for multifre*uency code recei(ers #.+6' for trun;s with channel associated
signaling #.A/'. The .+P or .+6 is assigned to DT67 subscriber line or 67. trun;s only for the
duration of the digit input.
78 R$$")$r (,0%6$ :,r ,-#"-%"#& !$< 7RM3CTC8
2hen trun;s with common channel signaling #../E' arc used, the recci(er module for continuity
chec; #+6B.T.' is re*uired.
After a connection is set up, an +6B.T. can he assigned to the incoming line. A signal transmitted
by the T53 on the outgoing line and looped bac; at the destination is detected and analyDed. ,t is
recogniDed whether the call setup has been successful and whether line attenuation is too high for
satisfactory transmission *uality. ,f the attenuation is too high, the connection is released, and a new
connection is set up.
The /0 is connected to the 3/C (ia /PA5?, and to the 3P (ia /,A5?l . The /0 recei(es commands
from the 3P (ia /,A5 and sends signaling characters to the 3P (ia /,A,. /PA5?, and /,A5?, are
controlled by address signals #from the 3P to /0'.
%=
,n the case of 67. signalingQ the inband signals from the D,0 are forwarded to the 3/C (ia /PA,.
7rom there, the signals are fed to the .+6 (ia /PA5. The .+6 e(aluaies the signals and sends the
iesults of the e(aluation to the 3P.
1"4%r$ 9 3.3 3 1%-#",-26 %-"#' "- #!$ '"4-26"-4 %-"#' 7SU8
%
3.3 Gr,%+ S*"#! 2-0 Cin; ,nterface 0nit 7GSL8
The functional unit X3roup switch and interface unit #3/C' is made up of
& a group switch #3/' part and
& a lin; interface unit #C,0' between CT3 and /:.
These two parts communicate with one another.
$. The GS +2r# ,: the GSL represents a non&bloc;ing time stage controlled by the 3P. The 3/ part
through&connects user information that was recei(ed from the /: or from the functional units in
CT0?/0. 0ser information can be attenuated on a channel specific basis as needed. Double&
connection chec;s can be performed.
Twel(e speech highway, output?input units #/PA5?,& ).... $$' connect the 3/ part to the 3P, CT0
and /0.
/PA5?,&$$ transfers test information between the 3/ part and the 3PQ the 3/C extracts /P,A&$l
from .D,6Q it in8ects /PA5& $$ into .DA6. .DA6 #.ontrol data Ac;nowledgment 6essage' and
.D,6 #.ontrol data ,nput 6essage' are used for exchanging messages between 3P and 3/C. 2ithin
the 3/C, both lines support the 3/ part as well as the C,0 part. The 3/C recei(es setting conimands
from the 3P (ia .D,6 and stores them in its input memory. The 3/C interprets the command, issues
the necessary settings for the hold memory, and writes the ac;nowledgment in its output memory.
The 3/C transfers the ac;nowledgment to the 3P on .DA6.
The 3/ part operates with up to ! CT0s #) .. @' and the /0. Each speech highway, output #/PA)'
and speech highway, input #/PA,' has 32 channels, each of which operates at a data rate of =@ ;bit?s.
The total bit rate on each /PA5?$&)... $$ is therefore 32x=@ ;bit?s L 2)@" ;hit?s, or 2 6bit?s.
The T53 in the /0 sends data to the 3/ part on /PA,&) and /PA,&$Q the .+s in the /0 recei(e data
on /PA5&$ #CT33 with .&function' or /PA5&) #9&functionQ see also 7igs !.2 and !.3'.
,n the case of CT33 with 9&function, CT0@ #with /PA5?$&=' replaces a logical unit /0 #with
/PA5&$'.
2. The C,0 part of the 3/C connects the /: to the CT3. The DAT5 lines lead to the duplicated /:
#DAT5&) to /:5, DAT5& $ to /:$', whereas the DAT, lines emanate from the /: #DAT$J) from
%"
/:5Q DAT$& $ from /:$'. The data stream on DAT5 and DAT, consists of user information and
messages. The multiplexer in the C,0 part through&connects the user information from the acti(e /:
part #/:5 or /:$ ' to the 3/ part on a channel&specific basis. The 3/ part is controlled by the C,0
part. The 3P #i.e. the /6 4 part of the .3/6 ' indicates to the C,0 part the appropriate settings for
the multiplexer. The process is analogous in the opposite direction #from the 3/ part to the /:'.
The C,0 part extracts the .P commands intended for the 3P arri(ing in time slot ) from /:5 or
/:$, and sends them to the .3/6 of the 3P on 6.A5.
1"4%r$ 3.4 3 1%-#",-26 U-"# OGr,%+ S*"#! 2-0 "-#$r:2$ %-"# 7GSL8P :,r LTGG
%%
,n the re(erse direction, messages which are intended for the .P and which arri(e from the .3/6 on
6.A, are in8ected by the C,0 part into time slot ) of the data stream to the /:. Cines 6.A, and
6.A5 are redundant #6.A,&), 6.A,&, and 6.A5&), 6.A5&,'. ,n the e(ent of a failure on the
transmission path for messages #see /ect. 2.2', the standby line ta;es o(er the functions of the faulty
line.
After the call has been through&connected, the C,0 part performs a cross&office chec; #.5.' through
the /:&hal(es. The purpose of the .5. is to detect and, if possible, localiDe faults. ,n the .5., a test
bit pattern from the C,0 part of the CT3 of the calling subscriber is sent to the CT3 of the called
subscriber, where it is looped bac; and returned to the sending C,0 part. The CT3 at this end
compares the transmitted and recei(ed bit patterns and, if they match, confirm that the existing
conncetion will be used for transferring information. ,f the bit patterms do not match #error
condition', the CT3 releases the connection and initiates a second, independent call attampt. ,f the
second attempt also fails, the connection setup re*uest from the calling subscriber is re8ected.
Gr,%+ Pr,$'',r
The functional unit group processor #3P' is an independent control unit. The 3P controls the
functional units of the CT3 and comprises the following indi(idual modules #7ig. 3.!'.
$. .loc; generator and signal multiplexer #.3/6'
2. Processor memory unit #P60'
3. /ignaling lin; control #/,C.9', when DC0?PA are connected to CT3
1. CGSM M,0%6$ 7C6,< G$-$r2#,r 2-0 S"4-26 M%6#"+6$@$r8
The cloc; generator and signal m8ltiplexer #.3/6' in the 3P is made up of three parts B
- the cloc; generator part #.3 part',
- the message channel part #6.A part', and
- the signal multiplexer part #/6 part'.
The .3 part recei(es the cloc; pulses supplied from both /:&hal(es (ia the 3/C #C,0 part'. 0sing
the supplied frame mar; bit #769', the .3 part synchroniDes the CT3 cloc; with the /: cloc;. To
do this, the 3/C deri(es the synchroniDation pulses /F:, from the 769 on an /:&specific basis
#/F:$&) for /:), /F:,&l for /:$'. The .3 part selects one of the two synchroniDation pulses /F:,
and synchroniDes the CT3 cloc; to this pulse.
$))
The synchroniDation pulses /F:, 2r$ monitored by the .3 part. An alarm "' generated if more than
one period of this synchroniDation pulse is lost. /ynchroniDation of the CT3 cloc; with /F:, is also
monitored. The .3 part sends alarm data to the signal buffer of the P60. Alarm data includes
& Alarm in the e(ent of synchroniDation failure
& Alarms for CT3 cloc;s with reference to transfer rates of 2)@" ;bit?s
& ,ndication of which synchroniDation pulse is currently being used.
,t is also possible to transmit loop&bac; bits for test purposes. 7rom the signal buffer of the P60, the
.3 part also recei(es the control data for
& /election of synchroniDation pulse /F:,&) or /F:,&$
& Alarm test?alarm reset with reference to transfer rates of 2)@".
& /etting loop&bac; bits for test purposes
All other cloc; pulses and synchroniDation signals re*uired for the CT33 are generated internally by
the .3 part of the 3P. ,t is also the tas; of the .3 part to monitor the P60 and, in the e(ent of a
supply (oltage failure, to reset the P60.
The 6.A part sends and recei(es messages to and from the 3/C on the 6.A. 6.A, goes to the
C,0 part of the 3/CB 6.A5 comes from the C,0 part of the 3/C.
The /64 part recei(es the serial signaling data on /,95 from the signal buffer of the P60. ,t
distributes and transmits these data to the CT0s and the /0 on /,A5 and ad8usts the timing
accordingly.
The serial data arri(ing from the CT0s, the /0, the 3/ and the C,0 are recei(ed by the /64 part on
/,AlQ the /6 4 part ad8usts the timing and sends the combined data to the signal buffer of the P60
on a 2)@" 1bit?s highway #/,9,'. The data can also be filtered, if necessary. The signal buffer
forwards the data to the P60, where they are processed with the help of the 3P software and #if
applicable' buffered.
The /64 part controls the CT0s and /0 with address signals and has a loop&bac; function for /64
testing. ,t recei(es control data for the loop&bac; function from the signal buffer of the P60. The
interface to /0?CT0 is represented by the inputs /,A,6&)$, /,A,& 2...!, /,A,6& $$$2 and the
outputs /,A5&), $
$)$
1"4%r$ 3.5 3 1%-#",-26 U-"# QGr,%+ +r,$'',r 7GP8R
$)2
2. PMU M,0%6$ 7Pr,$'',r M$(,r& U-"# 8
5ne single module, the P60 replaces the functions of the P0B/,9 and 60 modules.
The Processor 0nit #P0' which uses a 32&bit microprocessor ta;es o(er data processing in the CT3.
The memory unit #60' is a(ailable to the P0 as program and data memory. The 955T/ bootstrap
program. which is stored in the P0Ps EP+56, control the loading of programs into the 60.
The P0 ta;es o(er #parallel' preprocessed information from the /ignal 9uffer #/,9' for further
processing and transmits #parallel' processed information to the /,9, which then passes it on to the
/64 in serial format.
During system start, the .P loads the programs and data of the CT3 software into the 6emory 0nit
#60'. The storage medium is organiDed by word #32 (alid bits and correction bits a corrcction
component detects and corrects $ &bit errors and detects 2Jbit errors. Programmable write protection
protects predefined storage areas against accidental o(erwriting. The memory capacity can be @
6byte or < 6byte.
/tatus indicators on the faceplate show which functions are acti(e during loading and operation.
The /ignal 9uffer #/,9' has an interface to the /64 (ia the 2)@" ;bit?s multiplex connection
#/,95?l' and an "&bit parallel interface to the P0. The /,9 ta;es o(er the serialJparallel and
parallel&serial con(ersion during data transmission between the /64 and the P0 buffering the
information to be transmitted. ,t only buffers information that has changed since the last transmission
#last loo;', thus relie(ing the P0.
3. SI LCB M,0%6$ 7S"4-26"-4 L"-< C,-#r,68
#+e*uired only in CT33 T 9 function'
,n the case of an CT33 with DC0?PA connected to it, the 3P contains an additional functional unit,
(iD /, C.9. The /,C.9 handles the exchange of messages with DC0?PA and also controls the ../
channels. The 3/C extracts the messages and sends them to the /,C.9 (ia /PA5&$). The /,C.9
edits the messages and adapts them to the transfer rate of the 3P. ,n the opposite direction, the
/,C.9 sends messages to the 3/C (ia /PA,&$) and the 3/C in8ects the messages. 7our /,C.
functional units are pro(ided by /,C.9.
$)3
4./ Gr,%+ Pr,$'',r S,:#*2r$
The 3P software controls the functional units of the CT3. ,t monitors the timing of se*uences in the
CT3 and processes e(ents from the CT3 and from the CT3 periphery. To properly perform their call
processing, administrati(e safeguarding tas;s, the CT3s are in constant communication with the .P
#interprocessor communication'. The following types of messages are exchangedB
G The .P, being higher in the processor hierarchy, sends commands to the 3P.
G .on(ersely, the 3P sends messages to the .P
G A 3P exchanges reports with other 3Ps,
G 2ith the common channel signaling networ; control #..:.', the 3P uses orders.
Table @.$ summariDes the (arious forms of interprocessor communication and the processors
in(ol(ed in each case.
DC0 3P
3P .P 6essage
3P DC0
.P 3P .ommand
3P 3P +eport
..:. #if used' 3P 5rder
4.1 I-#$r+r,$'',r ,((%-"2#",- "- EWSD
The 3P software performs the following tas;sB
[ ,nterproccssor communication
[ .ontrol funtional units of the CT3, particularly switching of CT3&internal time stages
3/C.
[ Administration of timers
6etering of charge pulses
Ensuring a(ailability #configuration, starting reco(ery, chec;ing (alidity, alarm
Aandling, routine tests and audits'.
Administration of Done tables, traffic measurement, etc. #administrati(e tas;s'
$)@
Administration of transient and semipermanent data.
T!$ GP ',:#*2r$ "' 0"'#r"5%#$0 2-",-4 #!$ :,66,")"-4 :%-#",-26 %-"#' 3
1. LTG 266 +r,$''"-4
2. LTG '2:$4%2r0"-4
3. CT3 Administration
@. CT3 operation
!. CT3 utilities
=. CT3 P.6 carrier processing
. CT3 test and measurement
The location ofPthe software functional units within the system is shown in 7ig @. $.
1"4%r$ 4.1 3 L,2#",- ,: ',:#*2r$ :%-#",-26 %-"#' "- #!$ '&'#$(
$)!
4.1 LTG C266 Pr,$''"-4 ',:#*2r$ (,0%6$
The functional unit XCT3 call processingY contains general routines and call processing
user programs.
G$-$r26 r,%#"-$'
A general routine implements functions which are used by se(eral 0ser programs, e.g. data accea
routines.
U'$r +r,4r2('
0ser programs are the main programs in the call processing 3P software. E(ery e(ent in e(ery call
processing state of a line is assigned a processing procedure #state?e(ent concept & see R.all /et&upP'.
E(ery line type is associated with a user program in the 3P software. Each user program contains, in
addition to procedures line type&specific con(ersion tables. The lin; between line type and 0ser
program is establislied by means of de(ice tables. 2ithin the user procedures, actions, which must be
carried out for the current state e(ent configeration of the line under consideration are executed or
initiated immediately.
P,''"56$ 2#",-' "-6%0$ .
- Transmission of line signals and dialing information.
& 9loc;ing and unbloc;ing of lines.
& Transmission of internal messages to other user programs.
- /etting and resetting of administrable and permanent timers
& /witching of 3/
- Tranmission of interprocessor messages #reports, messages, orders, etc.'
- Performing .5. #cross&officc chec;'
- 6aintenance of transient data areas #particularly call registers'
& +egistering state changes in the de(ice table.
$)=
4.2 LTG S2:$4%2r0"-4 ',:#*2r$ (,0%6$
The functional unit XCT3 safeguardingY detects hardware faults and software errors, 2hich may be
casual either due to any failures, or (ia routine tests, audits and self&super(ision, in which case
failture does not ha(e to occur. ,n both cases, safeguarding instructs the 3P or .P to initiate
appropriate measures. 7irst, a determination is made as to the effects of a fault in the operation of the
switching system #failure penetration range'. ,f a fault has already resulted in a failure, the failed
de(ice is bloc;ed or identified accordingly, and a corresponding alarin message is sent to the .P.
/er(ice routines are pro(ided for the transmission of alarm messages. An alarm message contains
data about the type of fault. The .P uses tables to determine which measures must be ta;en. These
measures may include B
& /ignal sent to system panel #/FPD'
& Error message output to printer
& Error message written to alarm files
& ,nitiation of configurations
,f the routine test or self&super(ision has detected an error the error has not yet become (isible.
+outine tests detect hardware faults which ha(e not yet affected normal operation. The tests are
executed periodically, thus a(erting failures before they occur. Audits chec; the interwor;ing and the
consistency of programs and data. /elf&super(ision detects errors in running programs by performing
(alidity chec;s. 7or fault clearance purposes, the faults de(ice is configured to a different operating
state. This can be done manually by entering an 66C #man&machine language' command, or
automatically by the .P. The possible operating states of the CT3 are
A.T acti(e
/E] seiDed
.9C conditionally bloc;ed
69C maintenance bloc;ed
:A. not accessible
0:A una(ailable
PCA planned
$)
After certain faults and failures, it is necessary to restart the CT3. This is initiated automaticilly by
the .P. The CT3 is then restored to its normal operating state.
4.3 LTG A0("-"#r2#",- ',:#9*2r$ (,0%6$
The functional unit XCT3 administrationY handles connection&related e(ents independent of the state
of the connection. Administration includes parameter administration, traffic measurement and
o(erload handling.
P2r2($#$r 20("-"'#r2#",-
The tas;s of parameter administration include
& .alling initialiDation routines, so that o(erload handling can be initialiDed during initial
starts and new starts
& Coading of & Done tariff tables for call charge registration
& digit pre&translation tables, to determine the number of digits that must be sent to the .P
for translation
- exchange data
& line termination data for setting up and releasing indi(idual lines for an acti(e CT3
& /ending o(erload messages to the .P
- Alle(iating o(erloads
- .ontrol traffic measurement
& .alling fault tables
Tr2::" ($2'%r$($-#
The tas;s ofPtraffic measurement include
- +ecording the load in the3P
- +eording e(ent on subscriber lines and incoming trun;s and
- e(ent at rcecei(ers
7or incoming trun;s and recei(ers, traffic measurement is initated by the user program. This is called
Xcollecti(e data registrationY. A traffic data memory is always a signed to a group of ob8ects
#subscribers, incoming trun;s, DT67 recei(ers, 67. recei(ers'
$)"
O)$r6,20 !2-06"-4
Tas;s ofo(erload handling include B
& Prompt detection of imminent CT3 o(erloads and the resulting .P o(erloads
- ,nitiation of o(erload control measures
- Discontinuation of control measurs as o(erload subsides
& 6aintenance of o(erload statistics and reporting o(erloads to the .P.
4.4 LTG O+$r2#",- S,:#*2r$ (,0%6$
The functional unit XCT3 operations #operating system'Y is subdi(ided into the following areasB start
le(el, processing le(el, and real&time le(el. These structure le(els are illustrated in 7ig @.2
Sr2r# L$)$6
The start le(el contains programs which initiate CT3 reco(ery. At this point, therePis still no on&line
connection to the .P. The bootstrap program is implemented in the firmware #72' and is stored in a
P+56 in the 3P. ,t starts when the supply (oltage for the CT3 is switched on or when the watchdog
unit #2D0' expires. The bootstrap program is the means by which the .P loads the 3P&software.
Then the initialiDation program is called. This program starts the master scheduler at the processing
le(el.
Pr,$''"-4 6$)$6
The processing le(el contains and the master and ser(ice routine. /er(ice routines assemble 8ob
bloc;, place them in success and connection functional units of the CT3. The master scheduler
executes in an endless loop and calls main routines on the basis of priority flags. The main routines
process pending
$)%
1"4%r$ 4.2 3 S#r%#%r$ 6$)$6' ,: ,+$r2#"-4 '&'#$(
O in accordance with their priority is set by the interrupt program, the ser(ice programs or by the
main routines themsel(es.
The real&time le(el is where interrupt programs execute. ,nterrupt programs process urgent real&time
tas;s by interrupting the master scheduler and the main routines.
- +eal&time scanner, for hardware&controlled interrupts at @&ms inter(als
& +ecei(e interrupt, sets priority flagsQ is called (ia DC..
- /end interrupt, sends ac;nowledgments for data lin; control.
- Error interrupt, called if write&protection of a memory area has been (iolated, e.gP,
instructs the safeguarding programs to process the error further.
4.5 LTG U#"6"#"$' ',:#*2r$ (,0%6$
The functional unit XCT3 utilitiesY pro(ides utility programs for detecting and correcting software
errors during the installation phase of the exchangeB
& The dump function is used to ma;e a copy of the contents in the CT3 memory.
& The brea;point function can be used to set brea;points in the code area of the 3P software, with
facilities to output data and modify transient data.
& The patch function is used for ma;ing on&line modifications in the code areas in the CT3.
$$)
& The CT3 tracer #PD7 tracer' function ma;es it possible to trace the se*uence of line&related e(ents
in the CT3. ,n this way, the .P obtains line&specific data for display?logging purposes.
& The call tracer function can be used to trace the dynamic se*uence of call processing traffic.
4.= LTG PCM C2rr"$r Pr,$''"-4 DIU3/ ',:#*2r$ (,0%6$
The functional unit XCT3 P.6 carrier processing D,03)_ performs the following tas;sB
& .ontrol of administrati(e and safeguarding tas;s
& ,nitialiDation of all states of the D,03) following a reco(ery
& Error detection within.a D,03) (ia routine test and diagnosis
C,-#r,6 ,: 20"-"-"'#r2#")$ 2-0 '2:$4%2r0"-4 #2'<'
The control manager program controls the administrati(e and safeguarding tas;s for the D,03). The
control manager can be used for all D,03) in (arious configurations #trun;s or digital line units
DC0'.
To a(oid undefined program states, administrati(e and safeguarding 8obs must not be processed in
parts. 0p to four 8obs per D,03) are stored in a memory assigned to the control manager. ,f
additional 8obs are pending, the program processes these only after the current 8ob has been
completed. The control manager processes the 8obs depending on the operating state of the D,03).
2hen processing a single D,03) or an entire CT3, the control manager instructs all connections for
subscriber lines or trun;s to execute call processing responses. All processes for the control manager
execute (ia a pseudo de(ice table for each D,03).
T!$ ,-#r,6 (2-24$r +$r:,r(' #!$ :,66,*"-4 #2'<'.
& 5<6 configuration of a D,03)
& 7ault&related configuration of aD,03)
& 5<6 configuration of an CT3
& 5(erload control
& /oftware reco(ery of a line?trun; group #,nitial &start CT3'
& :ew start of a line?trun; group #:ew start CT3'.
$$$
& +eco(ery handling #Data base reco(ery for CT0 data'
& .reation or deletion of a D,03)
& 9usy?idle indication on the faceplate of the D,03) module
& Alarm message to distant exchange
& .ontrol in accordance with P.63) alarms
I-"#"26"K2#",- ,: 266 '#2#$' ,: DIU3/ :,66,*"-4 2 r$,)$r&,
,nitialiDation of a D,03) comprises procedure&specific and dynamic initialiDation.
Pr,$0%r$9'+$":" "-"#"26"K2#",- +$r:,r(' #!$ :,66,*"-4 #2'<'3
& ,nitialiDing tables
& /ending a hardware reset to the D,03)
& ,nitialiDing the control channel to the D,03)
& /etting a counter to monitor initialiDation
D&-2(" "-"#"26"K2#",- +$r:,r(' #!$ :,66,*"-4, #2'<'3
& 2aiting for the message XD,03) initialiDedY from the D,03) or for expiration of the super(isory
counter.
- 6essage sent to D,03) indicating that the 3P is assuming control of the D,03)
- 6essage regarding correct settings for the interface between the D,03) and the 3P
- 6essage regarding the determination of the operating mode of the D,03)
- 6essage regarding control of CED displays on the faceplate of the D,03) modul.
- ,nitiation of routine test and diagnosis in the D,03) for handling statistics meters
- /eting a counter to monitor loopbac; tests during routine test and diagnosis.
$$2
Err,r 0$#$#",- *"#!"- 2 DIU3/ )"2 r,%#"-$ #$'# 2-0 0"24-,'"'
The primary tas; of routine test and diagnosis is to detect errors in a D,03). The tests used depend
on the indi(idual D$03) applications #D$03) for trun;s or D,03) for DC0 and PA'. Table logic is
used to adapt the D$03) to the corresponding application. /ome tests can be used in common by
se(eral different routine test of D$03).
The following types of tests are performed by routine test and diagnosis for
- +outine test of D,03) #initiated by the central routine of the process scheduler'
- Demand test of D,03) #initiated by alarm processing D,03) or by 66C command'.
,f the routine test or diagnosis detects a defecti(e D,03) or a faulty chanel within a D,03), it sends
an error message to the .P. ,n the e(ent of a central D,03) failure #se(eral channels defecti(e', the
routine test instructs the control manager to change the 5perating state of the D$03). 7or
channel&specific failures in a D$03), the routine test further identifies the faulty channel.
4.7 LTG T$'# 2-0 M$2'%r$($-# ',:#*2r$ (,0%6$
The functional unit, XCT3 test and measurementY is used for testing subscriber line and trun;s.
Appropriate user programs are a(ailable in the (arious CT3s. The following user programs belong to
the functional unit XCT3 test and measurementY within the 3P softwareB
U'$r +r,4r2( :,r #$'#"-4 '%5'r"5$r 6"-$'
The user programs for testing subscriber lines control the following
- the line wor;station #C2/'
& the test unit #T0' in the DC0
& the conference e*uipment #.E', used for setting up and accepting test connections at the
C2/.
0ser programs are also a(ailable for ring bac; ser(ice #+9/' and the subscriber line measuring
system #/0C,6'.
U'$r +r,4r2(' :,r #$'#"-4 #r%-<'
The user programs for testing trun;s control the following B
& the trun; wor;station #T2/'
& the automatic test e*uipment for trun;s #ATEBT, /ect. 3. $'
$$3
& the automatic test e*uipment for transmission measuring #ATEBT6, /ect. 3.$'.
& the end&to&end testing, answer e*uipment #ETEAE'
& the conference e*uipment #.E'. The .E is used to monitor the trun;s being tested and
for setting up and accepting test connections at the T2/. The ATEBT6 can be
connected, if necessaryQ
U'$r +r,4r2(' 2r$ 26', 2)2"6256$ :,r '&'#$( "-0$+$-0$-# #$'# $F%"+($-#. $.4.3
& Trun; test e*uiment #TTE' atid answer unit #A0'
& AT6E2
The user programs also contain the software supported answering e*uipment #e.g., test number
automatic subscriber' and other test e*uipment, e.g. the test phone and ring bac; ser(ice #+9/'.
This section may be referred again while studying RCine and Trun; TestingP #Training 5b8ecti(e @.@'.
5./ P!&'"26 D$'"4- ,: LTGG
The number and type of functional units of an CT3 depend on type of lines connected and the
transmission and signaling methods used. Different line types and their combinations re*uire CT3s
with (arious specific e*uipment configurations. 5nly a few standard types of module frames are
re*uired to meet all re*uirements encountered with the CT3 of the E2/D system. The pac;aging
method used allows module frames to be e*uipped with (arious combinations of functional units.
The following sections explain the physical design of an CT33. 7ig !.$ shows se(eral possible
configurations and combinations.
5.1 LTGG 7C9:%-#",-8
Digital trun;s can be operated with channel associated signaling #.A/' or with common channel
signaling #../'. ,f register signals are transmitted with multifre*uency code #67.', .+6s are used
in the CT33.
,f trun;s are connected exclusi(ely, the CT39 consists of the functional units in the /0 and
maximum of @ CT0s #for D,03), 7ig !.2', as well as the functional units 3P and 3/C.
$$@
5.2 LTGG 7B9:%-#",-8
7or connection of DC0?PA #with?without trun;s', the CT33 comprises the functional units 3P, 3/C
and the functional units in the /0 and in the CT0s. 0p to four CT0s #CT0&) to CT0&3' are pro(ided
for D,03) and fifth CT0 #CT0&@' can be used for .+s. ,n addition to .3/6 and P60, the 3P
contains an /,C.9 for connection of DC0 and PA. 7ig !.3 shows the functional unit of an CT33
with connection of DC0?PA, operating at transfer rates of 2 6bps.
7ig !.@ shows the functional units of an CT33 with local connection of DC0 (ia D,0BCD,9. The
configuration shown has two D,0BCD,9 in an CT33B each D,0BCD,9 has a @)%= ;bit?s lin; to a
DC0 # L 2 D,03)'. 5ther configurations arc possible #e.g. combinations ofPremote DC0s with local
DC0s'.
$$!
1"4%r$ 5.1758 3 P,''"56$ LTGG ,-:"4%r2#",-' 7C,-#0.8
$$=
1"4%r$ 5.2 3 1%-#",-26 U-"#' ,: LTGG 7C9:%-#",-8
$$
1"4%r$ 5.3 3 1%-#",-26 U-"#' ,: LTGG 7B9:%-#",-8
$$"
1"4%r$ 9 5.4 3 1%-#",-26 U-"#' ,: LTGG 7B9:%-#",-8
7:,r 6,26 ,--$#",- ,: DLU )"2 DUI3LDIB8
$$%
5.3 M,0%6$ 1r2($ L2&,%#
The module frame for CT33 #7BCT33' accommodates two CT33s. An CT33 #.&function'
contains #when trun;s are connected exclusi(ely' the functional units in the /0 and CT05 to CT03,
the functional units 3/C and 3P, and the D.. #7ig !.!'.
,n the CT33 #9&function' for connection of DC0?PA #with?&without trun;s', an CT33 contains the
functional units in the /0 and CT0) to CT03, the functional units 3/C and 3P #P60, .3/6
6B/,C.9', and the D.. #7ig !.='.
7ig !.= shows an CT33 with local connection of DC0 (ia D,0BCD,9Q the two D,0BCD,9 in
CT0) and CT0$ #in the configuration corresponding to 7ig. !.@' replace four D,03) in CT0) to
CT03. ,n other configurations, the CT0s may be e*uipped differently.
1"4%r$ 5.5 3 LTGG 7C9:%-#",-8 1r2($ L2&,%#
1"4%r$ 5.= 3 LTGG 7B91%-#",-8 1r2($ L2&,%#
$2)
5.2 R2< L2&,%#
A rac; for CT33 #+BCT33' can accommodate up to fi(e 7BCT33, i.e., up to $) CT3s #7ig !.'.
,n the exchanges ha(ing /:#9' (ersion of /witching :etwor;, /: is housed .in a composite rac;
+B/:#9'?CT33. ,n this rac; one T/3?//3 will be housed alongwith " CT33s. 6ore details will be
gi(en under /: rac; layouts.
1"4%r$ 5.7 3 L2&,%# ,: LTGG r2<
$2$
5.3. N$* )$r'",- ,: LTG 7LTGM8
Cine?Trun; 3roup of type 6 has recently been de(eloped by /iemens. An LTGM *"66 -$$0 ,-6& 3
(,0%6$' 2' 0$#2"6$0 5$6,*3
N$* (,0%6$ O60 (,0%6$ 7LTGG8 1%-#",-
$. lx3PC. lxP60. I lx/64 for trun;s
or
lx3PC/D lxP60D I lx/64 I ,x/,C. for remote DC0,
PA I trun;s
2. lx3/6 lx3/C I lx3.3 I
lxT53 I 2x.+#"' I lx+6B.T.
3. lxD,0$2)A @xD,03)D I lxD..DE for remote DC0,
PA I trun;s
or
lxD,0 CD,6 2xCD,9 I lxD..DE for local DC0
=./ O D M A'+$#' 71,r (,r$ 0$#2"6', +6$2'$ r$:$r MMN 3 LTG9IN8
=.1 MML C,((2-0' :,r LTG Cr$2#",-';M2"-#$-2-$
CR LTG .A: CT3 D,/P CT3
CR LTU .A: CT0 D,/P CT0
CR CRMOD CAN .+65DD,/P .+65D
/TAT CT3 .5:7 CT3 D,A3CT3
/TAT DIU CON1 DIU DIAGDIU
/TAT CR CON1 CR DIAG CR
/TAT COU CON1 COU DIAG COU
/TAT 5.A:EK .5:7 5.A:EK D,A3 5.A:EK
$22
=.2 I0$-#":"2#",- ,: LTG parameters
CT3 :o. B tsg T ltg
tsg L :umber of /: time stage group T/3 #) OOO '
tsg L :umber of CT3 #$ OOO =3,
5/T B 5perating status
e.g., PCA, A.T, /T9, 69C, .9C, :A., 0:A and /E]
.A) B .urrent operating status of message channel #/:&) side'
.A, B .urrent operating status of message channel #/:&$ side'
D,0 B D,0 :umber #)O.. 3'
D,0TFPB diu type, e.g., D3) L D,0 3)
APPC,. B Applicaion of the D,0, e.g.,
.A/ .A/ L Trun; with .A/
../ ../ L Trun; with ../
.A/ +.A L ,nterconnection Digital Announcement
#DA/'
../ DC0 L DC0 with ../
E4T DC0 L DC0 without ../
C.P5/ B ltu T mod T cr
ltu L CT0 number #) OOOO '
mod L module member #)OO=' in the CT0
cr L number of .+ #)OOOO. 3' on the module
.+P5/ B mod L module number #) OOO.. '
.r L number of .+ #)OO.. 3' on the module
.+TFP B .ode +ecei(er type L type of .+ #e.g .+6+2, .+P.'
.5 0 B .50 number #) OOOO 3'
.50TFP B .onference 0nit Type
5.:5 B 5.:5 L :umber of 5.A:EK #)OOOOOO3)
5.A:EKTFP B 5.A:EK e*uipment type
CDPA+P B Coad parameter, which indicates the type of software #e.g. 9&
function or .&function' that will be loaded into the CT3.
$23
=.3 S#2#%' "-#$rr,42#",- STAT LTG 3 LTG J #'4 9 6#4
/TAT D,0 CT3 L tsg Tltg
/TAT .+ B CT3 L tsg T ltg
/TAT .50 CT3 L tsg T ltg
/TAT 5.A:EK CT3 L tsg&ltg
$2@
$2!
=.4 C,-:"4%r2#",-
3eneral Principle
The unit to be diagnosed must be 69C for fault clearance. ,f the 0nit to be cleared is not 69C, it
must he configured to 69C before fitult clearance. ,f the unit is in A.T, it should be configured first
to .9C and then to 69C. 2hen the unit has been successfully cleared of faults it should be
configured bac; to A.T.
.onfiguration from A.T to .9C
.5:7 CT3B CT3 L tsg&ltg, 5/T L .9CQ
This command bloc;s the CT3 for call processing, i.e. new seiDures are no longer possible.
,f a nailed&up connection is set up (ia the CT3, the warning message is gi(en that nailed up
connections will be released if configured to 69C.
Possible configuration are B A.T to .9C
.9C?0:A to 69C
69C to A.T
=.5 D"24-,'#"'
CT3 diagnostics
The CT3 may be diagnosed only in 69C status.
D,A3 CT3B CT3 L tsg&ltg, TALACCQ
The CT3 must be put into operation to execute the CT3 diagnostic. Accordingly, when D,A3 CT3
is entered, first of all configuration of the CT3 to A.T is carried out and entered as operational state
/E] #seiDed by diagnostic'.
,f an CT3 goes into ser(ice, in many cases the code is not destroyed, or only partly so. ,t is therefore
sufficient 8ust to load the destroyed code. The summation chec; is used to test that the code is
correct. This configuration procedure is called conditional loading.
,f the CT3 was reset in the course of the fault clearance it has got to be reloaded because resetting
formatted the memory.
$2=
DIAG LTG #$'#' 266 $-#r26 2-0 +2r#"266& $-#r26 LTG %-"#' "- #!$ :,66,*"-4 ,r0$r3
T$'#
A55r$)"2#",- T$'#
3P0 Test of modules P0?/,9 or P60 #7,75, 5+A6, ,+A6' and /64 #Coop&
7unction. 6ultiplexer and CA/T C551'
3/6 Testing all !$2 control memory cell of the 3/
3E: Power supply test
+A6 Test of the super(isory circuits in memory module. 7or memory module P60x, all
memory bytes are chec;ed for $ and 2&bit errors.
..3 Test of the super(isory circuit in module 3.3BCT3F
/P/ Test of the 3/ super(isory circuit.
Through&conneetion test (ia /PA $$
.onference call test, when conference is created.
C,0 Test on the central C,0 functions
Test on all C,0 channels #Except for channel )'
T53 Test of the tone generator & test tones and idle tones
& software windows
.+2 .ode recei(er test for 67.B+2
.+P .ode recei(er Test for DT67 dialing
.T. Test of a recei(er for continuity chec; #+6B.T.'
D,0 Test of the central D,0 functions
Test of the speech channel
Test of the signaling channel
/,C /,C. module test
.50 Test of the central .50&7unctions
Test of the speech channels
,:D Test of the central 5.A:EK functions
Test of the speech channels
.hec; sum test of the speech fragments in the EP+56s
$2
D"24-,'#"' :,r '%59%-"#' ,: LTG
The following sub units of CT3 can be tested indi(idtrally
Digital ,nterface 0nit B D,A3 D,0
.ode +ecei(er D,A3 .+
.onference 0nit D,A3 .50
5perationally .ontrolled Announcement E*pt. B D,A3 5.A:EK
The prere*uisite for carrying diagnostics on any of the abo(e subunits is
CT3 L A.Tor.9C
D,0 ?.+?.50?5.A:EK L 69C
=.= .reation of CT3 ?CT0?.+
$. .reation of CT3
.+ CT3B CT3 L )&$ Type L CT39, CDPA+T L $2Q
2. .reation of CT0
#a' .reation of D,0 3) interface to DC0
.+ CT0Q CT3 L )&,, CT0 L ), Type L D3), APPC,. L../DC0Q
.+ CT3B CT3 L )&$, CT0 L $, Type L D3), .APPC,. L E6PC0B OO. DC0
#b' .reation of D,0 3) interface for trun;s using 67.+2 or DA/
.+ CT0B CT3 L )&@ CT0 L ) Type L D3),
APPC,. L .A/+.A #75+O'
.+ CT0B CT3 L )&$ C$0L $ Type T D3)
APPC,. L .A/.A/ # for Trun;'
#c' .reation of CT0 for purposes other than connecting PD.s
G .reation of code recei(ers for DT67 dialing in CT0
.+ CT0B CT3 L )&$. CT0 L@. TypeLH53.
G .reation of .onference 0nit
.+ CT0 CT3L)&. CT0 L 3 Type L y22.
G .reation of CT0 for ETEAE
.+ CT0 CT3L )&$, CT0L3, Type L H5@, 6od(arL$&)Q
.reation of CT0 for conference e*uipment for trun; line wor;station #TC2/'
.+CT0 B CT3 L )&$, CT0 L =, Type L H)"Q
.reation of CT0 for translation function #integrated' for TC2/
.+CT0 B CT3 L )&$, CT0 L !, Type L H)%, 6od(ar L )&) < $&
)Q
$2"
2. Cr$2#",- ,: CR "- SU
.+ .+65D B CT3 L 4 & 4, .+65D L 4, TFPE L .+6+2Q
=.7 T, 0"'+62& $@"'#"-4 LTG';LTU';CR'
D,/P C T3 C T3 L )&x
CT3 TFPE CDPA+P
)&$ CT39 $2
)&2 CT39 $2
)&@ CT3. $3
)&! CT3. $3
D,/PCT0BCT3)&$Q
LTG LTU TYPE APPLIC MOD EAR
)&$ )D3)../CD,)&l<$&$<2&$<3&$<@&l<!&$<=&l
)&$ $D3)../DCC-)&$ < $&$ < 2&$ < 3&$ <@&$ <!&$ < =&$
)&$ 2D3)E4TCD,)&$ <$&$<2&$<3&$<@&$<!&$<=&$
)&$ 3H)@ )&$<$&)<2&$<3&l<@&$<!&$<=&$
)&$ @H)3 )&,<$&$<2&$<3&$<@&$<!&l<=&$
)&$ !H)@ )&) < $&) < 2&$ < 3&$ < @&$ < !&$ < =&i
)&$ =H)" )&l<$&$<2&$<3&$<@&$<!&l<=&$
)&$ H$) )&3<$&$<2&$<3&$<@&$<!&$<=&$
D,/P .+65DB CT3Q )&$
CT3 .+65D TFPE
)&$ ) .+P.
)&$ $ .+P.
=.> S2:$4%2r0"-4
The CT3 safeguarding functions consist ofB
& routine test
& constant self&super(ision
& traffic&dependent self&super(ision
=.>.1 R,%#"-$ #$'#
+outine CT3 testing, in which central and decentral CT3 modules are tested, is performed
approximately e(ery 2 to 3 minutes. The test se*uence is as followsB
$2%
T$'# A55r$)"2#",- T$'#
3E: Power supply test
+A6 Test of the super(isory circuits in memory module. 7or memory module
P60x, all memory bytes are chec;ed for $ and 2&bit errors.
3.3 Test of the super(isory circuits in module 3.3BCT3F
/P/ Test of the 3/ super(isory circuits.
Through&connection test (ia /PA $$.
.onference call test, when conference is created.
C,0 Test of the central C,0 functions.
Test of an C,0 channel. ,f an C,0 channel is found faulty all C,0 channels are
tested #specia$ test'
T53 Test of the tone generator
& test tones and idle tones
& software windows
.+2 .ode recei(er test for 67.B+2
.+P .ode recei(er test for push&button dialing
.T. Test of a recei(er for continuity chec; #+6, .T.'
D,0 Test of the central D,0 functions
Test of a speech channel
Test of a signaling channel.
/,C /,C. module test
.50 Test of the central .50 functions
Test of a speech channel
,:D Test of the 5.A:EK functions
Test of a speech channel
.hec;sum test of the speech fragments in theEP+56s.
=.>.2 C,-'#2-# S$6:9'%+$r)"'",-
.onstant self&super(ision is carried out by the super(isory circuits in (arious CT3 modules, e.g.,
& super(isory circuit for frame synchronism #3.3, CT3F'
& super(isory circuit for cloc; failure #3.3, CT3F'
$3)
=.>.3 Traffic D$+$-0$-# /elf&super(ision
Actions triggered by call processing programs are monitored by super(isory circuits, e.g..
- super(isory circuit for setting errors #3/'
- super(isory circuit for COC errors.
7./ A55r$)"2#",-'
ATE Automatic Test E*uipment
ATEBT Automatic Test E*uipment for Trun;s
#End to End +outining'
ATEBT6 Automatic Test E*uipment for Transmission 6easuring
AT6E Automatic Transmission 6easuring and /ignaling Testing E*uipment
A0 Answer 0nit
9A 9asic Access
9E +. 9it Error +atio .ounting
.A/ .hannel Associated /ignaling
..3 .entral .loc; 3enerator
..,TT ,nternal Telegraph < Telephone .onsultati(e .ommittee
..:. .ommon .hannel /ignaling :etwor; .ontrol
..:P .ommon .hannel /ignaling :etwor; Processor
../ .ommon .hannel /ignaling
.DA .ontrol Data Ac;nowledgment
.D, .ontrol Data ,nput
.E .onference E*uipment #/oftware for Test Purposes'
.E: .ontrol Enable
.3/6 .loc; 3enerator and /ignal 6ultiplexer
.5. .ross&office .hec;
.509 .onference 0nit, 6odule 9
.P .oordination Processor
.+ .ode +ecei(er
.+6 6ultifre*uency .ode +ecei(er
.+P .ode +ecei(er for Push&button Dialing
.T. .ontinuity .hec;
DA/ Digital Announcement /ystem
D.. Direct .urrent .on(erter
D.+ Digital .ode +ecei(er
D, 0 Digital ,nterface 0nit
D,0BCD,9 Digital ,nterface 0nit for Cocal DC0 ,nterface, 6odule 9
D,035 Digital ,nterface 0nit, 2)@" ;bit?s
DC. Data Cin; .ontrol
$3$
DC0. .ontrol for DC0 #6odule'
D6A Direct 6emory Access
E6 External 6emory
ETEAE End&to&end Test E*uipment, Answer E*uipment #6odule'
E2/D Digital Electronic /witching /ystem
7 6odule 7rame for O..
72 7irmware
3.3 3roup .loc; 3enerator
3P 3roup Processor
3/ 3roup /witch
3/C 3roup /witch and ,nterface 0nit
ADC. Aigh&Ce(el Data Cin; .ontrol
,:DA/ ,ndi(idual Digital Announcement /ystem
,5 P ,nput ? 5utput Processor
,/D: ,ntergrated /er(ices Digital :etwor;
C,0 Cin; ,ntertace 0nit between CT3 and /: #6odule'
C, 0, C,0, input
C,05 C,0 5utput
C, 05?, C,0 5utput? ,nput
C6.P /ubscriber Cine 6easuring .ircuit processor controlled
CT33 Cine ?Trun; unit
C2/ Cine 2or; station
69 6essage buffer
6.A 6essage channel
6 7. 6ultifre*uency .ode
66 C 6an 6achine Canguage
60 6erroy 0nit
5.A:EK 5perationally .ontrolled E*uipment for Announcement
5.EB60P 5.A:EK for 6emory 0nit #P+56'
5.EB/P. 5.A:EK for /tored Program .ontrol
56. 5peration and 6aintenance .enter
56T 5peration < 6aintenance Terminal #5<6 Terminal'
PA Primary +ate Access
PD. Primary Digital .arrier
PD7 Peripherel Debugging 7acilities
P60 Processor 6emory 0nit
P+56 Programmable +ead&5nly 6emory
P/. Parallel&/erial .on(erter, 6odule of the 3roup /witch
P0 Processing 0nit
+B. +ac; for
+A6 +andom Access 6emory
+9/ +ing 9ac; /er(ice
$32
+6B.T. +ecei(er 6odule for .ontinuity .hec;
/.?604 /ignal .on(erter, 6ultiplexer
/.5?, /ingle .hannel 5utput?lnput
/D. /econdary Digital .arrier
/D6A /econdary Digital 6ultiplexer, 6odule
/3. /witch 3roup .ontrol #6odule'
/,9 /ignal 9uffer
/,9, /ignal 9uffer, ,nput
/,95 /ignal 9uffer, 5utput
/,95?, /ignal 9uffer, 5utput?,nput
/,A /ignal Aighway
/,A, /ignal Aighway, ,nput
/,A,6 /ignal Aighway, ,nput, 6ultiplexed
/,A5 /ignal Aighway, 5utput
/,A5?, /ignal Aighway, 5utput?,nput
/,C.9 /ignaling Cin; .ontrol. 6odule 9
/64 /ignal 6ultiplexer
/: /witching :etwor;
/PA /peech Aighway
/PA, /peech Aighway, ,nput
/PA,C /peech Aighway. ,nput C,0
/PA5 /peech Aighway. O%#+%#
/PA5C /peech Aighway. 5utput C,0
/PA5?, /peech Aighway, 5utput?,nput
/PA5?,C /peech Aighway, 5utput?,nput C,0
/P6D /ignal Processing 6odule, Digital
/P6E /ignal Processing 6odule, Extended
>./ E@$r"'$'
E@. 1.
7ind out the CT3s used for 9&function and the CT3s used for .&function.
E@.2.
2rite down the necessary 66C&.ommands to find out the current 5/T of all units of an CT39 and
an CT3..
$33
$. CT3
2. D,0
3. .+
@. .50
!. D,0&Ports
E@. 3.
Extend the .ode +ecei(ers of an CT39 by
728 one .ode +ecei(er 6odule in /0 and
#b' one .ode&recei(er module in CT0&position.
2rite dowr all necessary 66C&.6D to create and to acti(ate these additional .ode +ecei(ers.
E@. 4.
2rite down all the steps which are necessary to change the P60&module of an CT39.
E@. 5.
7ind out which CED of a D,0 inform you about call&set up and con(ersation
$3@
S*"#!"-4 N$#*,r<
What is inside 1
1. 2ntroduction
!. 'enera" 3eatures
. Position and 3unctiona" Structure
). +a(acity Stages
*. 3unctiona" #nits o/ SN
,. Switching Networ& =B>
-. 8ac& Assignment
$. .odu"e 3rame Layout
?. 2nterconnection o/ Switching .odu"es
10. 3unctions
11. O : . As(ects
E7ercises
$3!
Switching Networ&
1./ I-#r,0%#",-
/witching networ; #/:' performs the switching function for speech as well as for messages in an
E2/D exchange. 7or this purpose it is connected to CT3s and ..:. for speech?data and to .P
#through 69' for exchange of control information. /witching networ; with ultimate capacity upto =3
CT3s is called /: DE@. 7or larger exchanges /: DE!.$ is used which can connect upto $2= CT3s.
/imilarly /: DE!.2 can connect upto 2!2 and /: DE!.@ upto !)@ CT3s.
$3=
2./ G$-$r26 1$2#%r$'
/witching networ; is pro(ided in capacity stages /:B =3CT3 to /:B!)@CT3 i.e. upto =3 CT3s can
be connected, or (ia other intermediate capacity stages, upto !)@ CT3s can be connected. The
modularly expandable /: has negligibly small internal bloc;ing and can used in E2/D exchanges
of all types and siDes.
The self monitoring switching networ; uses a uniform through connection format. 5ctets #" bit
speech samples' from the incoming time slots are switched to the outgoing time slots leading to the
desired destination fully transparently. This means that each bit of all octets is transmitted to the
output of the switching networ; in the way that it appears at the input #bit integrity'. 7or each
connection made (ia the switching networ;, the octets ha(e the same se*uence at the output as at the
input #digit se*uence integrity'. The switching networ;Ps full a(ailability ma;es it possible for each
incoming octet to be switched at any time to any outgoing highway at the output of the switching
networ;. The time slots used in switching networ; for ma;ing through&connection ma;e up a =@
;bit?s connection path.
All of the switching networ;Ps internal highways ha(e a bit rate of "$%2 bits?s #/econdary Digital
.arriers, /D.s'. $2" time slots with a transmission capacity of =@ ;bit?s each #$2"x=@ L "$%2
;bits?s' are a(ailable on each "$%2 ;bit?s highway. /eparate cable each containing se(eral #eight or
sixteen' such internal highways, are used for each transmission direction. All externally connected
higheays also ha(e the same uniform bit rate.
The switching networ; combins the numerous switching networ; function in a few nmodule types.
These modules wor; at (ery high through connection bit rates "$%2 ;bits ?s and some e(en at 32="
bits?s . 7or example $)2! connections can be switched simultaneously through a space stage with $=
inputs and $= outputs. Although these highlyintegrated switching networ; modules switch a large
number of connections with a high degree of reliability, the E2/D switching networ;s are always
duplicated. The amount of space needed for the switching networ; in the E2/D exchange is still
(ery low despite this duplication
Two different switching networ; (ersions ha(e been supplied in ,ndia.
/witching networ; #/:' supplied with first $$)1 order
/witching networ; 9 V/: #9'W supplied with subse*uent order.
$3
3./ P,'"#",- 2-0 1%-"#",-26 '#r%#%r$
/witching networ; is connected to CT3s and ..:. for speech ?data and to .P #through 69' for
exchange of control information. 7igure $ shows the position of switching networ; in E2/D
exchange wth reference to other e*uipments.
7or security reasons entire /: is duplicated. The two sides of /: #/:) and /:$' are called planes.
The external highways for both transmission directions i.e between the switching networ; and one
CT3 or between the switching networ; and one 6essage 9(uffer 0nit #690' are identified as
follows as show in figure 2.
` /D.BCT3 interface between /: and CT3 a time slot ) for message exchange between
the CT3 and cordination processor #.P' as well as between two CT3s time slot $ to $2 for
subscriber connections.
` /D.B..:. interface between the /: and the common channel signaling networ;
#..:.' for common channel signaling.
` /D. T/3 interface between /: and a messsge buffer unit assigned to .P #690B CT3'
for message exchange between the .P and the CT3s as well as between the CT3s.
` /D. /3. between the /: and an 690B/3. of the .P for setting up and clearing
connection.
/witching networ; in E2/D exchanges uses time and space switching and therefore it is
functionally di(ided into Time /tage 3roup #T/3' and /pace /tage 3roup #//3'. /: DE@ with
capacity stage /:B =3CT3 has a T/T structure and T/3?//3 di(ision is not applicable in this case.
T/3s and //3s are interconnected through internal " 6b?s interfaces called /D.Q //3 T/3s of
both planes are connected to //3s of both planes and thus these pro(ide further security.
Each T/3 and //3 ha(e its own /witch 3roup .ontrol #/3.' that is connected to .P (ia 69
through interfaces /D.B/3..
$3"
1"4%r$ 2 3 SN I-#$r-26 2-0 E@#$r-26 I-#$r:2$
$3%
4./ C2+2"#& S#24$'
The present (ersion of /: is a(ailable in capacity stages /: B =3CT3, /: B $2=CT3, /: B 2!2CT3
and /: B !)@ CT3. 6odular structure permits partially e*uipped /:. 0pgradation from DE!.$ to
DE!.2 and from DE!.2 to DE!.@ is possible with the help of supplier. /: DE@ is not upgradabale to
DE!.$ as T/3 and //3 are not separately identified in /: DE@. The traffic handling capacity,
connectability for (arious capacity stages of /: are shown in Table $.
5./ 1%-#",-26 U-"#' ,: SN
5.1 S*"#!"-4 +2#!
The switching networ; is subdi(ided into time stage groupos #T/3' and space stae groups #//3'.
Due to its modular structure, the E2/D switching networ; can be partially e*uipped as needed and
expanded step by step. The switching networ;ing uses the following switching stages.
` one time stage incoming #T/,'
` three space stages #//' and
` one time stage outgoing #T/5'
These time and space stage #functional units', shown in figure 3, and located in the following module
typesB
` Cin; interface module between T/6 and CT3 #C,C'
` Time stage module #T/6'
` Cin; interface module between T/3 and //3 #C,/'
` /pace stage module "?$! #//6"?$!'
` /pace stage module $=?$= #//6 $=?$='
The switching networ; capacity stage /: B =3 CT3 howe(er has a T/T structure with only one space
stage as shown in figure @. 6odule types C,/ and //6 "?$! are not there in /: =3 CT3. 7urther the
modules and the T/3s?//3s are interconnected
A list of the (arious modules used in /: is gi(en in Table 2.
$@)
1"4%r$ 3 3 T!$ S$)$- M,0%6$ #&+$' "- SN 3 DE5
1"4%r$ 43 T!$ :")$ (,0%6$ #&+$' "- SN3DE4
$@$
*.1.1 L2L : L2S 5 The recei(er components of the C,C, and C,/ compensate for differences in
propagation times (ia connected highways. Thus, they produce phase synchroniDation between the
incoming information on the highways. These differences in propagation times occur because an
ExchangePs rac;s are set up at (arying distances to each other. 6odule C,C is connected on the
interface to CT3s and has @ inputs and @ outputs while module C,/ s connected on the interface to
//3 and has " inputs and " outputs.
*.1.! %S. 5 The number of T/6s in a switching networ; is always e*ual to the number of C,Cs.
Each T/6 contains one time stage incoming #T/,' and one time stage outgoing #T/5' #7igure !'.
The T/, and the T/5 handle the incoming or outgoing information in the switching networ;.
9etween input and output, octets can change their time slot and highway (ia time stages. 5ctets on
four incoming highways are cyclically written into the speech memory of a T/, or T/5 #@x$2" L !$2
location corresponding to !$2 different time slots' The speech memory areas ) and $ are used
alternately in consecuti(e $2! microseconds periods for writing the octets. The connections to be
made determine the octet se*uence during read&out. The stored octets are read&out to any one of !$2
time slots and then transferred (ia four outgoing highways.
*.1.. SS.$41* and SS. 1,41,5 The //6 "?$! contains two space stages as shown in figure =. 5ne
space stage is used for transmission direction C,/ Z //6 "?$! Z //6 $=?$= and has " inlets and $!
outlets while a second space stage is used for transmission direction //6 $=?$= Z //6 "?$!Z C,/
and has $! inlets and " outlets. Hia space stages, octets can change their highways between input and
output, but they retaian the same time slot. /pace stages "?$!, $=?$= and $!?" switch the recei(ed
octets synchronously with the time slots and the $2! microsecond peiods. The connections to be
switched change in consecuti(e time slots. ,n this process, the octets arri(ing on incoming highways
are XspatiallyY distributed to outgoing highways. ,n capacity stages with a T/T structure, the //6
$=?$= /witches the octets recei(ed from the T/,s directly to the T/5s.
1"4%r$ 5 3 T"($ '#24$
M,0%6$ 7TSM8
$@2
1"4%r$ 9= 3 S+2$ S#24$ M,0%6$' 7SSM 1=;1= 2-0 SSMB;158
T256$ 2 3 L"'# ,: M,0%6$' %'$0 "- SN
$@3
5.2 C,-#r,6 '$#",- 3
Each T/3, each //3 and with /: =3CT3 each switching networ; side has its own control. These
controls each consist of two modules (ia switch group control #/3.' and lin; interface module
between /3. and 690B/3. #C,6'
An /3. consists of a microprocessor with accompanying memory and peripheral components. The
main tas;s of an /3. are to handle .P commands #such as connection setup and cleardown',
message generation and routine test execution. A? part from the interface to the message buffer unit
#690 B /3.', an C,6 has a hardware controller #A2.' and a cloc; generator for cloc; distribution.
5.3 1"r(*2r$
The firmware for the switching networ; is permanently stored in the program memory of each /3..
7or this reason, it does not ha(e to be loaded or initialiDed by the coordination processor #.P' /:
firmware is organiDed in the following manner.
` executi(e control programs
` call processing programs
` maintenance programs
` startup and safeguarding programs
=./ S*"#!"-4 -$#*,r< 7B8
/witching networ;#9' is a special compact (ersion of switching networ; wherein a number of
functional units are integrated o(er a single module. This marragement has the following ad(antages.
` reduction in shelf space
` reduction in number of P.9 types
` utilisation of a(ailable space in /: rac; for accommodating CT3s
$@@
7unctionally /: #9' is entirely similar to /:. Aowe(er, only the following fi(e types of modules are
used in /: #9' as shown in table 3.
T/69 B Two C,Cs and two time stage modules T/6s are combined to form one T/69
C,/9 B This is formed by combining two C,/ functional units in a T/3
//6"9 B Two C,/ and two //6"?$! functional units in a //3 are combined to form one
//6"9.
//6 $=9 This is formed by combning eight //6$=?$= functional units.
/3.9B 7unctional units C,6 and /3. and combined to form one /3.9.
T256$ 3 SN 7B8 M,0%6$'
P.9 :o of cards in /: #9' =3C T3 :o of cards in T/3 of /: #9' DE! :o of cards in //3
of /: #9' DE! E*ui(alent modules in /:
T/69 " " & 24T/6
24C,C
C,/ & @ & 24 C,/ 57 T/3
//6"9 & & " 24C,/ 57 //3 L 24 //6 "?$!
//6$=9 $ & 2 "4//6$=?$=
/3.9 $ $ $ C,6 I
/3.
D..6/ $ $ $ Pro(ided in same shelf containing /n?T/3?//3
7./ R2< A''"4-($-#
9oth planes of /:B=3CT3 are accommodated in two frames of a single /: rac;. ,n case of /:B $2=
CT3, both planes of T/3 or //3 occupy one rac; each. Thus there are two rac;s for 2 T/3s and one
rac; for one //3. /:B2!2 CT3 and /: B !)@CT3 ha(e rac; assignment similar to /: B $2= CT3 and
occupy = and $2 rac;s respecti(ely. +ac; assignment for /: is shown in figure .
,n case of /: #9' both planes of /: #9' of /: DE@ and both planes of T/3 or //3 of /: DE! are
accommodateds in two frames of a single /: rac;. Aowe(er since each such frame consists of one
shelf only, the balance space in the rac; is utilised for accommodating CT3s. The //3 shelf can
accommodate two //3s The composite rac; is called rac; to /:#9' +ac; assignment for /:#9' ?
CT3 is shown in figure "
$@!
1"4%r$ 7 3 R2! S*"#!"-4 N$#*,r< 7RSN8
D%+6"2#$0 #"($ '#24$ 4r,%+ 7TSG8,
D%+6"2#$0 '+2$ '#24$ 4r,%+ 7SSG8, ,r
B,#! SN3=3LTG '"0$' 7SNO 2-0 SN18
$@=
1"4%r$ >. R2< :,r '*"#!"-4 -$#*,r< B 2-0 6"-$;#r%-< 4r,%+
7R3SN7B8;LTG8 *"#! 256$ 6$209"- :r,( #,+ 76$:#8 2-0 :r,( 5,##,( 7r"4!#8
>./ M,0%6$ 1r2($ L2&,%#
$@
>.1 SN 3 =3LTG
5ne plane of /:B=3CT3 is accommodated in one frame consistaing of two shel(es. The arrangement
of modules in module frame for /:B=3CT3 is shown in figure %.
1"4%r$ B 3 M,0%6$ L,2#",-' 7SN3=3LTG8
$@"
>.2 SN312=LTG 2-0 !"4!$r 2+2"#& '#24$'
5ne T/3 or one //3 of /:B$2= CT3 or abo(e occupies one frame consisting of two shel(es. The
arrangement of modules in module frame from /:B$2=CT3 or abo(e is show in figure $) #a' and #b'.
1"4%r$ 1/728 3 M,0%6$ L,2#",-' 7TSG8
$@%
1"4%r$ 1/758 3 M,0%6$ L,2#",-' 7SSG8
$!)
1"4%r$ 11728 3 M,0%6$ 1r2($ :,r TSG7B8 713TSG7B8
1"4%r$ 11758 3 M,0%6$ :r2($ :,r #*, SSG7B8 713SSG7B88
$!$
>.3 SN7B83 12=LTG 2-0 !"4!$r 2+2"#& '#24$'
5ne T/3 or two //3s of /:#9' B DE! #$2=CT3 or higher capacity' occupy one frame consisting of
one shelf only. The arrangement of modules in module frame for /:B$2=CT3 or abo(e is shown in
figure $$ #a' and #b'
>.4 SN7B83=3LTG
5ne plane of /:#9'B=3CT3 re*uires one frame consisting of only one shelf. The arrangement of
modules in the module frame for /: #9'B =3CT3 is shown in figure $2.
1"4%r$ 12 3 M,0%6$ 1r2($ :,r SN7B83=3LTG
$!2
1"4%r$ 133 T"($ S#24$ Gr,%+ I-#$r-26 ,--$#",-'
$!3
B./ I-#$r,--$#",- ,: S*"#!"-4 M,0%6$'
/witching modules in E2/D switching networ; are connected in a manner so as to ensure nearly full
a(ailability. 5ne module C,C, which can handle highways coming from @ CT3s is connected to @
inlets of a module T/6 on one&to&one basis. Thus these @ highways coming from @ CT3s undergo a
T&switching function and are then connected to inlets of @ different C,/ modules. The " inlets of a
C,/ module are connected to outlets of " different T/6s. Two such groups form a Time /tage 3roup
wherein =3 CT3s can be connected. The T/3 has =@ outlets coming out of " C,/ modules. The
interconnection arrangement is shown in figure $@.
Eight outlets of C,/ modules in T/3 are connected to " inlets of C,/ modules in //3 on one&to one
basis. 5ne //3 consist of $= C,/ modules and therefore two T/3s can be connected to one //3.
There is again one&to one connection between " outlets of C,/ modules and " inlets of //6"?$!
modules. 7ifteen outlets of //6"?$! and $= inlets of //6$=?$= are cross connected. /imilarly $=
outlets of //6$=?$= and $! inlets of //6$!?" are cross connected. The interconnection arrangement
within //3 is shown in figure $@.
All theT/3s of /: are connected to all the //3s in such a manner as to ensure nearly full
a(ailability. The interconnection of T/3s with //3/ in case of /:B!)@ CT3 is shown in figure $!,
and that for /: B 2!2 CT3 and /:B $2= CT3 are shown in figure $=.
,nterconnection of the modules in /: DE@ is simpler as there are no T/3 or //3. The T/6s are
directly connected to //6$=?$= as show in figure $.
$!@
1"4%r$ 143 S+2$ S#24$ Gr,%+ I-#$r-26 ,--$#",-'
$!!
1"4%r$ 15 3 TSG9SSG "-#$r,--$#",- :,r SN35/4LTG
$!=
1"4%r$ 1=3 TSG9SSG "-#$r,--$#",- :,r SN3252 2-0 12= LTG
$!
1"4%r$ 173 I-#$r,--$#",- ,: (,0%6$' "- SN3=3LTG
$!"
1"4%r$ 1>3 S+$$! +2#! ,: 2 #!r,%4! ,--$#",-
$!%
1"4%r$ 1B 3 E@2(+6$ ,: +,''"5"6"#"$' :,r !2-4$,)$r #, '#2-05& "- #!$ '*"#!"-4 -$#*,r<
2+2"#& '#24$ SN35/4 LTG, SN3252LTG 2-0 SN312= LTG.
$=)
1/./ 1%-#",-'
Three essential functions of switching networ; namely speech path switching, message path
switching and changeo(er to standby are described belowB
1/.1 S+$$! +2#! '*"#!"-4
The switching networ; switches single channel and broadcast connection with a bit rate of =@ ;bit?s
and multichannel connection with nx=@ ;bit?s. Two connection paths are necessary per single
channel connection #e.g. from calling to called party and from called to calling party'. 7or a
multichannel connection, nx2 connection paths are necessary. ,n broadcast connections, the
information is passed from one signal source to a number of signal sin;s #no opposing direction'.
The coordination processor #.P' searches for free paths through the switching networ; according to
the busy status of connection paths stored at that moment in the switching networ;Ps memory. The
path selection procedure is always the same and is independent of the capacity stage of the switching
networ;. During path selection, the two connection paths of a call are always chosen so that they will
be switched (ia the same space stage section. A space stage section is a *uarter of the space stage
arrangement, with an /:B2!2 CT3, for examaple, this corresponds to half a space stage group //3
After path selection, the .P causes the same connection paths to be switched through in both
switching networ; sides of an /:. The /3.s are responsible for switching the connection paths. ,n a
capacity stage with =3 CT3/, one switch group control paticipates in switching a connection pathQ
howe(er in a capacity stage with !)@, 2!2 or $2= CT3s, two or three switch group controls are
in(ol(ed. This depends on whether or not the subscribers are connected to the same T/3. The .P
gi(es e(ery in(ol(ed switch group control a setting instructions necessary for the through&
connection. These setting instructions always ha(e the same data format.
An /3. recei(ed the setting instruction from the .P (ia the message buffer unit 690B/3., the
secondary digital carrier /D.B/3. and its dedieated lin; interface module C,6. The commands and
messages between an /3. and the .P are exchanged (ia an C,6. The /3. calculates the setting
data using the call processing programs and ser(ice routines. The /3. loads the data into registers in
the hardware controller #A2.' of the C,6 and, (ia the A2.. controls the setting of desired
connection paths in the time and space stage modules #T/6 and //6'. The speech path of a through
connection is shown in figure $".
$=$
1/.2 M$''24$ +2#! '*"#!"-4.
Apart from the connections determined by subscribers by inputting dialing information, the switching
networ; also ma;es connections between the CT3 and the .P. These connections are used to
exchange control informationQ they are setup only once, and then they are always a(ailable. 7or this
reason, they are called semipermanent connections. Hia these same connections, the CT3s also
interchange message without ha(ing to burden the .PPs processing unit. ,n this manner, separate line
netwo; for the exchnage of messages within an exchange is not necessary. :ailed&up connections
and connections for common channel signaling are made on a semipermanent basis as well.
1/.3 C!2-4$,)$r #, '#2-05&
All connection paths are duplicated, i.e. switched through in /:) and /:$. This pro(ides an
alternati(e route for each connection in case of failure.
7igure $% pro(ides a simplified illustration of the (arious alternati(e routes possible in capacity
stages with !)@, 2!2 and $2= CT3s. The connection paths are switched in the same manner o(er both
switching networ; sides #/:) and /:$' The CT3s accept the incoming octets of the effecti(e
connections #subscriber?subscriber connections' from only one switching networ; side. ,n figure $%,
the effecti(e connections lead o(er /:). 5f note is the duplicated routing between the time stage
groups #T/3' and space stage group #//3'. This ma;es it possible for the T/3s and //3s to be
indi(idually switched o(er to standby. /witching o(er to standby is implemented only if errors occur
simultaneously in both switching networ; sides. The effecti(e connections are then lead o(er routed
T/3s and //3s of both switching networ; sides ) and $ . ,n the switching networ; capacity stage
with =3 CT3s, it is only possible to route the connections o(er /:) or /:$.
,f an error occurs in the switching networ;, the .P initates corresponding measures for switching
o(er to standby and issues the corresponding messages. .hangeo(er to standby do not interrupt
existing connections. Than;s to this duplication principle, all operational measures are easily carried
out without impairing traffic #e.g. adding new modules or replacing defecti(e modules.'
$=2
11./ ODM A'+$#A
The following 66C commands are used during operation and maintenance of switching networ;.
Display and 6odification in number of T/6s.
D,/P T/3 65D T/3
/tatus display and .onfiguration commands
/TAT /: .5:7 /: .5:7 T/3 .5:7 //3
Diagnosis and Test commands T /: DE! and DE!
D,A3 /: TE/T /:
Diagnosis and Test commands T /: DE! only
D,A3 T/3 D,A3 //3
TE/T T/3 TE/T //3
11.1 S2:$4%2r0"-4 C,-$+#
The switching networ; #/:' is duplicated. :ormally one /: side is acti(e #the //3 and both T/3s
in A.T' and the other /: side is standby #the //3 and the T/3s in /T9'
,n the e(ent of a malfunction in a switch group #//3 or T/3' in the acti(e /:, the affected switch
group is configured to 0:A and the other switch groups in the pre(iously standby /: are configured
to A.T.
,n the e(ent of a malfunction in a switch group in the standby /: only the effected switch group is
configured to 0:A.
:one of these reconfigurations affect switching traffic.
11.2 12%6# Pr"-#,%#'
An /: fault printout is the result report of the fault analysis program for the /: or for a switch group
#//3 or T/3'. ,t complements the more general alarm signaling with /FP etc. i.e. whene(er the
$=3
safeguarding system detects a malfunction in the /:, an appropriate fault printout is formulated,
typically as followsB
/: 7A,C0+E 2,TA .5:7,30+AT,5: 66:B/:5xx)))
/3. DE7E.T
7A0CT C5.AT,5:B T/3 side&tsg /3.
.5:7,30+AT,5:B T/3&side&tsg 7+56 BDDD T5 B0:A
/0PPCE6E:TA+F ,:75+6AT,5:B
AP DDDDDDDD DDDDDDDD DDDDDDDD DDDDDDDD
AP DDDDDDDD DDDDDDDD DDDDDDDD DDDDDDDD
7aults affecting the /: can be di(ided into two groups which are clearly distinguishable in terms of
the system responseB
U-,-0"#",-26 :2%6#
These are serious faults. The switch group in which such a fault occurs is always reconfigured to
0:A. 2ith unconditional faults, the following codewords may be outputB
& /3.?/3. 7A,C0+E
& /3.?A2. 7A,C0+E
& PATA /ET?A2.&7A,C0+E
& .F.CE DE7E1T
& :5 .F.CE
& /3. .AA::EC E++5+
C,-0"#",-26 :2%6#'
These are not serious. ,f such a fault occurs in a switch group with no redundancy #i.e. where the
partner switch group is in :A., 0:A or 69C' then the affected switch group is not configured to
0:A. ,f the switch group is duplicted, then it is configured to 0:A, e(en for a conditional fault.
.odewords for conditional faults are B
& /3.?PCC0&7A,C0+E
& /:&PCC 7A,C0+E
& PATA /ET?T/6&7A,C0+E
& PATA /ET?//6"&7A,C0+E
& PATA /ET?//6$=&7A,C0+E
$=@
& /3.&DE7E.T
& all .5.&7A,C0+E
& all 6.A&7A,C0+E
& all 604&7A,C0+E
11.3 0"24-,'"#"'
D,A3 T/3 B/:L side, T/3 L tsg, TA L area, /090:T L T/6?//6?./6 T xQ
D,A3 //3B /: L side, //3Lssg, TA L area, /090:T L T/6?//6?./6 T xQ
E@+62-2#",- 3
` D,A3 T/3
This command starts a test program, to be specified under parameter TA, for a time stage group
#T/3'.
` D,A3 //3
This command starts a test program to be specified under parameter TA, for a space stage group
#//3'
[ side /: plane, either ) or $
[ tsg :umber of T/3, ) to
[ TA #test area L test program'
` area
The identifier entered for the parameter TA specifies the test program to be called up. The following
test programs are possible B .AACC, ACC ,A2., T/6, //6, ./6, PCC.
,n test program T/6, //6 and ./6, in the diagnostic command, a subunit must also be specified.
& .AACC #chec; all'
& for T/3, tests central sections,
& .P0 with program and data memory
& PCC super(ision circuit
& hardware controller
$=!
& tests decentral sectionsB
& control memory of T/6 modules
& for //3, tests central sections B
.P0 with program and data memory
PCC super(ision circuit
hardware controller
tests decentral section B
control memory of //6$=?$= and //6"?$!
ACC #chec; all control memories'
&for T/3, The control memories of modules T/6 are tested. Each bit in a control memory is
chec;ed for $ and ). The addressing of each +am chip in a control memory is also chec;ed.
&for //3 The control memories of modules //6$=?$= and //6"?$! are tested. Each bit in a
control memory is chec;ed for $ and ).
The addressing of each +A6 chip in a control memory is also chec;ed. 2hereas modules //6"?$!
are only tested according to the /: capacity stage specified in the .P command, all $! //6$=?$=
modules are tested.
& A2. #A2. test' &for T/3 and //3
The A2. registers are chec;ed. A good or bad message gi(es the states of the A2.
registers and the inteface between /3. and A2.. The A2. interface to the switching modules is
not tested.
& T/6 #T/6 test'
The addressing and functioning of each bit in the control memory of a T/6 module are tested.
& ./6 #//6$=?$= test'
The addressing and functioning of each bit in the control memory of an //6$=?$= module are tested.
& //6 #//6"?$! test'
The addressing and functioning of each bit in the control memory of an //6"?$! are tested.
& PCC #PCC super(ision circuit test'
$==
` & /090:T
7or diagnositc identifiers T/6, ./6 < //6, the subunit must be specified.
Possible subunits are B T/6 L functional unit T/6?C,C
//6 L functional unit C,/?//6"?$!
./6L //6$=?$=
& T/6 number #) to $!'
//6"?$! number #) to $!'
//6$=?$= number #) to $@'
11.4 T$'#
The /: speech path test ma;es a cross&office chec; per /: side, switch group or subunit, depending
on the command.
This in(ol(es setting up connections (ia /:, which are then tested with a test pattern. ,f the /:
speech path detects a .5. error in such a connection path, the test is repeated with a new path setup
attempt #with the same parameters'. ,f the test again detects .5. error, it is terminated with
7A,C0+E DETE.TED. The 66C command used is as follows, where sysmbols?parameters are
same as in D,A3 /:.
TE/T T/3B/: L side, T/3Ltsg, TA L area, /090:T L T/6 ? //6 ? ./6 TxQ
TE/T //3 B /: L side, //3 L ssg, TA L area /090:T L T/6 ? //6 ? ./6 TxQ
12./ E@$r"'$'
$. ,nterrogate and find out the capacity stage of /: in your exchange. ,dentify its rac;s, frames and
modules.
2. 7ind out the number of CT3s and T/6s in your exchange and correlate. Aow many additional
CT3s can be pro(ided with the existing /: configuration.
3. .hange status of both planes of /:s, one by one, using all possible combinations cf 5/T and
tabulate the results.
@. A fault in /6 plane ) has affected the third CT3 connected to T/3$. 2hat functional unit in /:
could be faulty^ 2rite 66C commands to configure and diagonose the faulty unit.
$=
C,,r0"-2#",- Pr,$'',r
What is inside 1
1. 2ntroduction
!. Structure
!.1 Base (rocessor@ +a"" (rocessor@ 2O+
!.! Bus to +ommon .emory
!. +ommon .emory
!.) 2n(ut4Out(ut (rocessors
. So/tware
). 8ac& and .odu"e /rame "ayout
*. 3unctions
,. ..L commands /or +P11 maintenance
-. 3au"t Printout =a"arm message>
E7ercise on +P11 maintenance
1./ I-#r,0%#",-
The E2/D system consists of number of largely autonomous subsystems. The subsystems each
ha(e their own microprocessor controls, for example the controls for the digital line units #DC0.'
and the groups processors #3P' in the CT3s.
The distributed microprocessor controls and the data transfer between them are coordinated by the
coordination processor #.P'. 7ig $.$ shows the position of the .P in the E2/D switching system.
$="
1"4%r$ 1.1 3 P,'"#",- ,: #!$ CP113 "- EWSD
The .P performs the following coordination functions B
C266 +r,$''"-4
& digit translation
& routing administration
$=%
& Doning
& path selection in the switching networ;
& call charge registration
& traffic data administration
& networ; management
O+$r2#",- D (2"-#$-2-$
& inputs ? outputs to and from external memories #E6'
& communication with the opepration < maintenance terminal #56T'
& communication with data communication processor #D.P'
S2:$4%2r0"-4
& self T super(ision
& error deterction
& fault analysis
The coordination processor $$3 #.P$$3' is supplied for all siDes of switching center. The .P$$3 is a
multiprocessor which can be expanded progressi(ely #by adding call processors'. ,t satisfies all
safeguarding and performance re*uirements exceptionally well.
The .P area also includes the system panel #/FP'. The /FP indicate alarms #audio < (isual' and
ad(isories from system&internal and systm&external super(isory units.
5ther important functions in the .P area are handled by B
& message buffer #69'
& central cloc; generator #..3'.
2./ S#r%#%r$
The .P$$3 consists of a modular multiprocessor system with a processing width of 32 bits and an
addressing capacity of @ 3bytes. ,t is formed by the following functional units #7ig. 2.$'
$)
1"4%r$ 2.1 3 S#r%#%r$ ,: #!$ CP113
& base processors #9AP'
& call processors #.AP, not included in the basic capacity stage'
& input?output controls #,5.'
& bus to the common memory #9.6F'
& common memory #.6F' and
$$
& input?output processors #,5P' #for the call processing and operation < maintenance
periphery'
The modular design of the .P$$3 means it can be easily adapted to different siDes of switching
center. ,ts current growth capability is show in Table 2.$.
7unctional 0nit 6inimum 6aximum
9AP 2 2
.AP ) =
,5. 2 @
.6F =@ 69 $)2@ 69
#9ase L @ 6bit D+A6'
,5P B 69 #CT3?/3.' 2 "
,5PB69 #..3' 2 2
,5P B 69 #/FP' 2 2
,5P B69 #..:.' 2 2
,5P B TA 2 2
,5PB 6DD 2 2
,5P B 6TD $ @
,5P B /.DH 2 = #o(er
,5P B /.D4 & all'
,5P /.DP & $2
T256$ 2.1 3 Gr,*#! C2+2"#& ,: #!$ CP 113
5ne of the two base processors operate as the master #9AP6' and the other as a spare #9AP/'.
During normal operation the 9AP6 handles all operation and maintenance functions and its share of
the call processing functions. The 9AP/ only deals with call processing function. ,f the 9AP6 fails,
its functions are handled by the 9AP/ instead.
$2
The call processors #.AP' deal only with call processing functions. They form a redundant pool
together with the 9AP/. E(en if one processor fails #either a 9AP or .AP', the .P$$3 can thus still
pro(ide the full nominal load #nIl redundancy'. There is no .AP in the basic capacity stage.
The two buses to the common memory #9.6F5, 9.6F$' transfer and sa(e identical information
during normal operation. ,f a fault occurs in one of the functional units, it is disconnected from the
trouble free units.
The .P$$3 has a 2&le(el memory concept. This is one of the main reasons for its high switching
performance. A separate local memory #C6F' is a(ailable to each processor, in addition to the
common memory #.6F'. Distributing the data and programs between processor&specific memories
and a common memory for all processors results in short access times. The local processor memories
contain the dynamically rele(ant programs and the data which is only re*uired by their own
processors. The common memory contains all the common data, as well as programs and data which
are not re*uired (ery often.
The common memory also handles data exchanges between the processors. The stored data is
super(ised in the .6F and the C6Fs on the basis of a chec; code. This code enables $&bit errors to
be corrected automatically and all 2 bit errors to be detectd, and with a high probability it also enable
greater bit mutilations to be detected.
The input?output controls #,5.' coordinate and super(ise accessing of the .6F by the input ? output
procssors #,5P'. The connection between each ,5. and its associated ,5Ps is set up by a separate
bus system per ,5. for input?output control #9B,5.'. 0p to $= ,5Ps can be connected to a 9B,5..
The ,5.s and the ,5Ps ha(e been designed so that they can assume responsibility for the functions
of the partner units if these fail. The redundant 5<6 data e*uipment #5<6 periphery' is always
connected to different ,5.s. ,f one ,5. or the corresponding input?output processors fail, all inputs
and outputs are di(erted (ia the partner ,5. #to or from the redundant 5<6 and data e*uipment'
The 5<6 perophery comprises the following e*uipmentB
& magnetic tape de(ices
& magnetic dis; de(ices
& operation < maiantenance terminal
$3
& data communication de(ices with H.2@, H.2" 42$?H.$$ and 9x 2!?x2! interfaces
2.1 B2'$ Pr,$'',r, C266 Pr,$'',r', I-+%#;O%#+%# C,-#r,6
1"4%r$ 2.2 3
9AP, .AP and ,5. are constructed with the same hardware components. #fig. 2.$.$' They can
therefore all be described together. Each processor comprisesB
& processing unit #P0'
$@
& local memory #C6F'
& coupling logic #.C'
& common interface #.,'
The ,5. additionally includes B
&interface for the bus system for input?output control #9B,5.'
The hardware components of the processor are connected together by means of a local bus. This bus
consists of 32 data line and 32 address?control lines, and has an addressing capacity of @ 3bytes.
The processing unit #P0' is duplicated. This redundancy enables rapid error detection and fault
analysis, and thus pre(ents faults from spreading. The central feature of the P0 is a 32&bit processor
with a data width and an address width of 32 bits each. ,t executes the system&specific software and
the function&oriented user software. ,t also controls the data flow to and from the input?output
processors #,5P' in the ,5.. P0 is implemented as .PE4 module.
The local memory #C6F' consists of dynamic +A6 chips. ,t has maximum storage capacity of 32
6bytes in the 9AP, .AP and ,5. #depending on the number of modules and the siDe of the memory
chips'. The C6F is organiDed in words with width of 32 bits. There are se(en chec; bits for each
word. The chec; bits are generated and chec;ed by the cycle control card #implemented as .P..
module'. The C6F is implemented as 60A module.
The C6F sa(es the data and the chec; bits in two separate memory areas. A separate control is
pro(ided for each memory area.
The coupling logic #.C' connects the two P0s of the processor together. ,ts main function is to
compare the processing results of these P0s. ,f the coupling logic establishes a di(ergence between
the two P0s, it disables the common interface #.,' of the processor to the bus to the common
memory #9B.6F' and resets the processor. .C is implemented as .P.C module.
The display?control panel of the coupling logic module has four hexadecimal displays for (isualiDing
information, as well as the some controls for the processor, namely reset button a 955T button, a
test swich and a diagnosis diplay switch.
The processor is connected to the two buses to the common memory (ia the common interface #.,'.
All common memory accesses and all interprocessor communication are effected (ia this interface.
., is implemented as .P., module.
$!
,n addition to the hardware components common to all the processor, the input?output control #,5.'
contains an interface to the bus system for input?output control #9B,5.'. The input output processors
are connected to the local bus of the ,5. (ia this interface. Ci;e the ,5., the input?output processors
therefore address the (arious memory areas (ia the access control. 9B,5. is implemented as ,5.,7
module.
M,0%6$ :r2($ :,r BAP;IOC
D..6/ L Direct .urrent .on(erter 6odule
.P.,A L .ommon ,nterface #A' 6odule
.P.,9 L .ommon ,nterface #9' 6odule
.P.. L .ycle .ontrol 6odule
.PA. L Access .ontrol 6odule
.PE4 L Processor 6odule
60A L Cocal 6emory 6odule
,5.,7 L 9us ,nterface for ,5. #9B,5.' 6odule
1"4%r$ 2.1.2 3 M,0%6$ :r2($ :,r +r,$'',r 2-0 "-+%#;,%#+%# ,-#r,6 713 P;IOC8
2.2 B%' #, C,((,- M$(,r&
The bus to the common memory #9B.6F' connects all the processors #9AP, .AP, ,5.' both to one
another and to the redundant common memory. The 9.6F has been made redundant to impro(e
safeguarding. The two 9.6Fs operate in parallel and handle indentical information. They may
operate asynchronously in exceptional situations #split state'.
$=
The 9B.6F has an addressing capacity of @ 3bytes and a transmit data width of @ bytes. The read
cycles are @ bytes long. The write cycle length is between $ and @ bytes.
The 9B.6F operates according to a time&di(ision multiplex method with four time slots, which can
be used for information transfer. The four time slots are permanently assigned to the four ban;s of
the common memory. /ince the time slot length correspons to a *uarter of the memory cycle time, all
four memory ban;s #6F9' can be addressed during each time slot frame.
The 9B.6F also handles inter processor communication #,P.' ,P. cycles are not implemented
using the time&di(ision multiplex method. A menory cycle thus cannot be incorporated in an ,P.
cycle.
The main functional bloc;s of the 9.6F are as followsB
& processor interface unit #one for each processor and input?out control'.
& 9B.6F arbiter #one decentraliDed stage for e(ery four processors or ,5.s and one central
stage',
& 9.6F controller #one',
& 9.6F buffer #one',
& memory interfacc #one' and cloc; system #one'.
The modular design of the 9.6F allows it to be adapted to any capacity stage of the .P$$3. The
functional bloc;s are shown in the fig. 2.2.$
$
1"4%r$ 2.2.1 3 1%-#",-26 56,<' ,: B3CMY
$"
1"4%r$ 2.2.2 3 M,0%6$ :r2($ :,r ($(,r& "-#$r:2$ 713MI, B3CMY "- 52'" 2+2"#&
D..?D..6/ L Direcct current con(eroer modules
P,AD+ L Processor interface for address module
P,DAT L Processor interface for data module
DA+9 L Decentralised arbiter module
.A+9 L .entralised arbiter module
9.T, L 9us control and tracer interface module
6,AD L 6emory interface module
.6,9 L 9B.6F controller module
9.C1 L 9us .loc; system module
1"4%r$ 2.2.3 3 M,0%6$ :r2($ :,r +r,$'',r "-#$r:2$ 713PI, B3CMY "- $@+2-'",- '#24$ r2<8
$%
2.3 C,((,- M$(,r&
The common memory #.6F' incorporates the common database for all processors and the
input?output lists for the ,5Ps. ,t has been made redundant to ensure a high le(el of a(ailability. The
two .6Fs #.6F5, .6F$' are accessible from all the processors and input?output controls (ia the
two buses to the common memory #9B.6F5, 9B.6F$'. During normal operation all read and write
cycles are performed synchronously by the two .6Fs. ,t is howe(er also possible for the .6Fs to
be operate independently of the another #split mode'.
The .6F is subdi(ided into four memory ban;s #6F9' and two memory con trols #6F.'. The
storage capacity of the .6F is currently =@ 6bytes. Each memory ban; has a capacity of $= 6bytes
and is made up of @ 6bit D+A6 chips. The .6F can be expanded progressi(ely. ,ts capacity limit
on the basis of @ 6bit D+A6 chips is $)2@ 6bytes.
,n terms of the hardware, each memory ban; is subdi(ided into a useful bit area and a chec; bit ares.
/eparate address and data buffers are pro(ided for each memory ban; area. 5ne of the two memory
controls is assigned to the user bit area and one to the chec; bit area.
,n addtion to the memory control, the common memory contains partiy chec; circuits and circuits for
chec;ing and gnerating the chec; bit.
Data protection in .6FB
/torage modale for $= 69 #60A' with @6bit chips
Data word E.. bits
)&3$ 32&3"
/toring data #2rite cycle', Error correction .ode bits are calculated before storing the data word. ,f a
processor detects a failure during a write cycle it switches o(er to the other bus. ,f still it fails then
one bit error correction is performed. ,f two bit failure is there then a :E2/TA+T is started.
$")
+eading data, by recalculation of the E.. bits for the read data word and comparing these new E..
bits with the stored E.. bits the .6F can detect hardware failures in its storage modules. ,n the
read cycle also if there is a failure then a retry of read cycle is made. /till if it fails reading is
performed from the other bus. ,f "# fails again then one bit correction is done. ,n case of two bit error
once again a :E2/TA+T is started. T
D.. L Direct current con(erters module
60A L 6emory modules
.6F6P L .6FPs main processor module
.6F$. L .6F controller module for controlling the memory cycles
.6F2. L .6F controller module for interfacing .6F6P and 60A
.6FA L 6odule containing circuits for addressing the .6F
.6FD L 6odule for controlling the data flow between 9B.6F < 60A
1"4%r$ 2.3.1 3 M,0%6$ :r2($ :,r ,((,- ($(,r& 713CMY8
$"$
2.4 I-+%#;O%#+%# Pr,$'',r'
E2r",%' #&+$' ,: "-+%#;,%#+%# processors 7IOP8 2r$ %'$0 to connect the CP 113 #, #!$ ,#!$r
'%5'&'#$(' 2-0 :%-#",-26 %-"#' ,: #!$ '*"#!"-4 $-#$r, 2' *$66 #, #!$ $@#$r-26 mass storage
0$)"$', #!$ ODM #$r("-26, #!$ ,+$r2#",- D (2"-#$-2-$ $-#r$. #56., (ia data 6"-$'8 and #!$
,(+%#$r' $-#$r' 7)"2 02#2 6"-$'8. T!$ :,66,*"-4 ,5P #&+$' 2r$ %'$0 "- the CP 113 71"4. 2.4.183
J input?output +r,$'',r for message buffer 7IOP3MB8,
J input?output processor for time and alarms #,5PBTA',
J input?output processor for magnetic dis; de(ice #l5PB6DD',
J input?oulput processor for magnetic tape de(ice #,5PB6TD',
J input?omput processor for serial, data communication de(ices #l5PB/.D'
The minimum and maximum numbers of the (arious ,5Ps which can he connected to the .P 113 are
shown in Table 2. $. ,f more than one ,5P of the same type is used, they must be connected to
different IOC' to impro(e safeguarding #e.g. connect the two ,5PBTAs to ,5.5 and ,5.,'.
Apart from the microprocessor, the main components ot the ,5Ps are the EP+56 and +A 6, the
timers, the interrupt handlers, the interface to the 9 B,5. and one or more interfaces #, the peripheral
units.
The ,5Ps are initialiDed by the 9AP6. The control programs of the ,5PB69 and the ,5PB/.DP are
reloaded from the .6F. The control programs of all the other ,5Ps are stored in the EP+56. The
9AP6 issues commands to the ,5Ps, which process and executc them 2%#,-,(,%'6&.
$"2
1"4%r$ 2.4.1 3 S#r%#%r$ ,: "-+%#;,%#+%# '&'#$( *"#! IOC'
$"3
M I-+%#;,%#+%# +r,$'',r :,r #!$ ($''24$ 5%::$r
The "-+%#;,%#+%# processors for message buffer #,5PB69' ser(e as the interfaces between the
CP$$3 and the other subsystems and functional units ,: the exchange. The following functional units
are connected to ,5PB69.
& messag buffer groups #693',
& center crec; generators #..3',
& common channel signaling networ; controls #..:.' and
& system panel #/FP'.
All the subsystems and functional units are supplied (ia two ,5PB69s to impro(e safeguarding. ,f
one of the two ,5PB69s fails, all data exchanges are handled by its partner.
[ I-+%#;,%#+%# +r,$'',r #"($ 2-0 262r('
The input?output processor for time and alarms #,5PBTA' contains the hardware cloc; of the .P$$3
and interfaces to the .P rac;s, (ia which it can record alarms, e.g. fan alarms.
M I-+%#;,%#+%# processor :,r magnetic dis; de(ice
A magnetc dis; de(ice is connected to the .P$$3 (ia the input?output processor for magnetic dis;
de(ice #,5PB6DD'. The ,5PB6DD has an A:/, /./, interface for controlling the de(ice.
[ I-+%#;,%#+%# +r,$'',r :,r (24-$#" #2+$ 0$)"$
A magnetic tape de(ice is connected to the .P$$3 (ia the input?output processor for magnetic tape
de(ice #,5PB6TD'. The ,5PB6TD has an industry standard interface #Pertec' for controlling the
de(ice. ,t allows magnetic tape de(ices to be read and written using either the phase encoding
recording method #PE' or the group&coded recording method #3.+'.
[ I-+%#;,%#+%# +r,$'',r :,r '$r"26 02#2 ,((%-"2#",- 0$)"$'
The input?output processor far serial data communication de(ices controls data exchanges between
the .P$$3 and the data e*uipment. Three different (ersions are a(ailable namely.
$"@
& with H.2@?H.2" interface #,5PB/.DH'
The input?output processor for serial data communication de(ices with a H.2@?H.2" interface
#,5PB/.DH' can he used to connect either four data lines or three data lines and one operation <
maintenance terminal to the .P$$3. The data lines can be operated at a transmission speed of up to
%.= ;bit?s. The operation < maintenancc terminal 72-& P. using processor ")3"= or abo(e' is used to
operate the system in local mode. ,t is combined with a printer.
J with 4.2 $?H.$$ interface #,5PB/.D4'
The input?output processor for serial data communication de(ices with an 4.2$?H.l $ interface
#,5PB/.D4' can be used to connect four data lines to the .P$$3. The data lines #ADC. 0:.&2&@
procedure' can be operated at a transmission speed of up to =@ ;bit?/ec.
& with 94.2!?4.2! interface #,5PB/.DP'
The input?output processor for serial data communication de(ices with a 94.2!?4.2! interface
#,5PB/.DP' can he used to connect two data lines or 56T&P.s. to the .P$$3. The data lines #CAP9
procedure' can be operated at a transmission speed of up to =@ ;bit?s. ,5PB/.DP is not a single card
but a set of cards ;nown as CA09 < C.09.
M,0%6$ :r2($ :,r IOP
1"4%r$ 2.4.2 3 M,0%6$ :r2($ :,r "-+%#;,%#+%# +r,$'',r 713IOP8
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1"4%r$ 2.4.3
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1"4%r$ 2.4.4
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1"4%r$ 2.4.5
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3./ S,:#*2r$
The E2/D software is $))N modular. The software functional units form the top le(el of the
hierarchy. Each software functional uuit is made up of logically related subsystems. The subsystems
are in turn subdi(ided into one or more modules. The modules are the smallest software units. They
implement the procedures, processes and data.
The processor concept of the .P$$3 is based on a distribution of functions between the base
processors #9AP' the call processors #.AP' and the inputloutput controls ,5.. The 9AP6 and the
9AP/ ha(e the same software functional units #7ig. 3.$'. The .APs contain mainly software for
performing their call processing functions. The ,5.s only contain firmware.
1"4%r$ 3.1 3 S,:#*2r$ "- #!$ +r,$'',r ,: #!$ CP113
The .P organiDation functional unit of the .P software comprises the operating system and the
loader. Each processor in the E2/D has its own operating system. The capabilities of the operating
system are dependent on the functions performed by the processor and the resources it is re*uired to
administrate. All the operating systems must perform their functions under real&time conditions. They
are therefore interrupt dri(en under real time conditions The software necessary to operate an
exchange is stored in load libraries #loadlibs' on the system dis;s, and must he transferred to the .P
using the loaders in the programs. /ome of the loades are loaded in the common memory of the .P
during the bootstrap procedure. The other programs re*uired to start the processor are stored in a
P+56 #programmable read&only memony'
The .P input?output control functional unit of the .P software is responsible for physical
input?output #P,5', logical input?output #C,5', message exchanges between the .P user processes
and the call processing periphery #,5.P', file control #7.P' and the update function.
$"%
The functions of the .P safeguarding functional units of the .P software are firstly to isolate and
eliminate faults in the system, and secondly to set a wor;able configuration after system reco(ery.
The .P call processing functional unit of the .P software is responsible for the central call
processing functions #e.g. digit translation, routing administration'. ,ts tas;s include sending setting
instructions to the switch group control and to the 3Ps in the CT3s.
The .P administration functional unit of the .P software processes the administrati(e 66C
commands and sa(es. The charge, statistical and traffic data in the external memories. This data is
made a(ailable by the call processors. The .P sends messages to the peripheral processors for further
processing.
The .P maintenance functional unit of the .P software processes messages concerning
measurement, test and diagnostic results of the CT3s. ,t processes the system&internal alarm
messages and 66C commands which ensure trouble&free operation. This functional unit is also
responsible for indicating faults on the system panel #/FP' and generating audible alarms if
necessary.
The .P utilities functional unit of the .P software ma;es test programs a(ailable for error location,
analysis and correction in the software.
$%)
4./ R2< 2-0 M,0%6$ 1r2($ L2&,%#
7ig. @.) shows the e*uipment in the .P $$3 rac;s.
All the rac;s are compact and designed to allow heat dissipation. The slide&in fan modules in the
rac;s ta;e in ambient air either through the slits in the rac; doors or through a raised floor, and blow
it up between the modules.
1"4%r$ 4./ 3 R2<' :,r CP113
$%$
5./ 1%-#",-'
5.1 C266 Pr,$''"-4 1%-#",-'
The most important call processing functions of the .P are as followsB
& digital translation,
& routing administration,
& Doning,
& path selection in the switching networ;,
& call chage registration,
& traffic data administration,
& networ; management.
The call processing functions are implemented in the .P call processing functional unit of the
software. The results of the call processing acti(ities, such as the charge and traffic data, are recorded
and administrated by the .P administration functional unit.
The call processing process in the .P is run in an endless loop. ,t recei(es the messages which are
sent to it, processes them and sends commands to the appropriate de(ices. 6ost of the time, the call
processing process is re*uired to deal with se(eral parallel tas;s.
2hen handling se(eral calls simultaneously, the call processing process uses memory areas to store
the transient data for future call control. The transient data includes the states of the current calls.
The messages, e.g. XseiDe calling partyY, are supplied from a group processor (ia the input?output
processor for the messages buffer to the input list for call processing messages. The current process
in the .P is interrupted at regular inter(als, and a call processing message is transferred from the
input list to the call processing process. The message is processed by means of a state?e(ent
combinationB the stored state of a subscriber line or a interoffice trun; is combined with the new
e(ent, and the corresponding processing procedure is in(o;ed. The state changes if the e(ent is
processed successfully.
The next call processing e(ent encounters the new state. This combination causes another processing
procedure, which corresponds to the new state change, to be in(o;ed. The connection is set up
progressi(ely in this manner and finally completed. ,t is cleared down again analogously.
$%2
The call processing functions are described in detail belowB
2hen a connection is set up a digit bloc; #of the dialed digit' is transferred to the .P by the CT3.
The .P performs a digit translation using these digits. The result of digit translation is the desired
destination. ,f the call is an external one, the .P subse*uently determines an idle trun; to the
destination with the aid of the routing administration function.
The Doning function of the .P determines the Dooe in which the destination is located. The current
tariff for call charge registration is determined from the Done in the line?trun; group.
A connection must then be set up from the calling subscriber line to the desired destination (ia
switching networ;. The busy or idle status of the switching networ; is sa(ed in the database of the
.P for this purpose. The path through the switching networ; is determined by path selection
function. The switch group control is informed of this path data by means of command (ia an output
list and the input?output processor for the message buffer.
The call charge registration function is distributed between the line?trun; groups and the .P. The
line?trun; group sums up the meter pulses during a call. The meter pulses determined in the
line?trun; groups are transmitted to the .P either at the end of the call or at regular inter(als in the
case of long call. The .P sa(es the meter pulses in the ca$ling subscribers personal meter. ,t ma;es
the charge data a(ailable for further processing when instructed to do so by the operating personnel.
The traffic data administration function are subdi(ided into traffic measurement, traffic super(ision.
traffic obser(ation and traffic structure measuremnent. The traffic data is crucial to the carrier for
traffic handling and traffic forecasting. /e(eral traffic data administration programs are a(ailable in
the .P. These programs gather and process the traffic data of all the different areas of the switching
center and the trun; groups.
The networ; management function protects the networ; and the switching center against o(erload
condition, or if they do become o(erloaded, ta;es suitable steps #traffic restrictions' to pre(ent the
networ; from collapsing. The function also permits traffic to be distributed flexibly between the
a(ailable paths and trun; groups, according to specific criteria.
$%3
5.2 O+$r2#",- D M2"-#$-2-$ 1%-#",-'
The operation < maintenance terminals #56T' in the operation and maintenance center #56.' are
the access points for all operation and maintenance functions. A local 56T is pro(ided in the
switching center for performing these tas;s.
The 56Ts in the operation < maintenance center are connected to the .P$$3 either (ia the data
communication processor #D.P' and data lines or directly (ia the ,5PB/.DP. The local 56T is also
connected to the .P directly.
The standard man&machine language #66C' of the ..,TT is used for the dialog between the
operating personnel and the CP. The .P controls the dialog with 56T and chec;s that commands
are entered correctly
The operation and maintenance functions are incorporated in the .P administration and .P
maintenance functional units of the software.The operating
- procedures for the many different tas;s which can he handled (ia the 56T are
described in separate operation manuals.
5.3 S2:$4%2r0"-4 functions
The .P contains, number of safeguarding programs the .P safeguarding functional 0nit of the
software, which are designed to ensure the operability and a(ailability of the switching center. These
safeguarding programs analyDe both faults affecting the .P itself and faults in the other subsystems.
The safeguarding software in the .P does not merely respond to faults, but also starts test and
diagnostic programs. The functions of the safeguarding programs are toB
- determine and set a wor;able configuration after system reco(ery,
- record and process safeguarding messages from the periphery and the .P processes.
- &control the perodic test procedures,
- e(aluate the alarm messages from the super(isory circuits in the.P,
- gather and sa(e fault symptoms,
- analyDe and localiDe faults,
$%@
- restore a wor;able system configuration after a hardware fault,
- eradicate the conse*uences of software errors by means of ade*uate reco(ery actions, if these errors
cannot be cleared by the user programs themsel(es.
Three different reco(ery types are implemented in E2/D. They are as followsB
* I-'#2662#",- r$,)$r&
An installation reco(ery is performed when the system is put into ser(ice during an initial
installation, AP/ change or restoral procedure #e.g. after a power failure'.
* .entral reco(ery
A central reco(ery is performed in order to restore call processing operation after fault in the
coordination processor area. ,t includes reco(ery action which clears a fault during operation #both
hardware faults and software errors' and restores the full call processing capabilities immediately.
* Peripheral reco(ery
A peripheral reco(ery is performed when units belonging to the call processing periphery are
returned to ser(ice after a fault. ,t includes all reco(ery action which clears a fault during operation
#software errors' and ma;es the unit concerned a(ailable to the system again. The call processing
peripheral units in which a peripheral reco(ery ta;es place include CT3, DC0 and ..:..
=./ MML C,((2-0' :,r CP 113 M2"-#$-2-$
=.1 S#2#$ I-#$rr,42#",- ,((2-0'3
.ommand STAT SSP is used to interrogate the operating states of all .P&$$3 units #.entral units,
peripheral units, input?output processors, air circulators'. The result is a list, in columns, showing the
units and their states. 7unctional units that ha(e been ta;en out of system operation #due to an alarm
or manually' are mar;ed with star in the list.
.ommand SRCH SSP is used to search for units in one of the operating states gi(en in the command.
5utput is in the form of a list.
/yatax of the command isB
/+.A //PB 5/T = A.T?69C?/E]?:A.?0:A?/P+Q
$%!
=.2 C,-:"4%r2#",- C,((2-0'3
The configuration handler is responsible for assigning an operating state to configurable units that
corresponds to the physical a(ailability of the unit. The configuration commands are used to set the
operating states of .P units.
* .onfigurable central units commandsB
CONF BAP Base processor
CONF CAP Call/processor
CONF IOC Input/Output Controller
CONF CMY Common memory
CONFBCMY Bus to common memory
* .onfigurable peripheral units commandsB
CONF IOP Input/output processor
CONF IOPG Input/Output processor roup
CONF CSC Central ser!"ce c#annel
CONF M$$ Manet"c d"s% dr"!e
CONF MT$ Manet"c tape de!"ce
CONF OMT Operat"on & Ma"ntenance term"nal
/yntax of the commands will be
.5:7 \unitZB unit L no., 5/TL ost VD,A3L-W V /0PW Q
unit L no :umber of unit to be configured
5/T A.T?69C 5perating state
D,A3 FE/?:5 ,f FE/ is input, daignosis is performed
/0P LFE/?:5 ,f FE/ is input, output of progress message is
supressed
.5:7 6OP3 6OP \ioptypeZ J \iopnoZ, 5/T L ostQ
iop type
iop type L ,5P/.DH ,5P for56Tand./.
,5P/.D4 ,5P for csc
,5P6DD ,5P for magnetic dis;
,5P6TD ,5P for magnetic tape
,5P69 ,5P for message buffer
,5PTA ,5P for time and alarms
5/T L A.T?69 C?PCA 5perating state
$%=
,f a unit could be configured as specified in the command, the associated output contains the
ac;nowledgment E4E.D and the operating states before and after configuration.
The outputs from executed .5:7 commands are also written into the A7. A+.A,HE file.
,t is possible for units to be mar;ed as :A. in the system&internal configuration table. This means
that unit in *uestion is in A.T but is not accessible because the preceding unit has a state other than
A.T.
:o test is executed when the de(ices are configured bac; to A.T.
.56 9AP
This command is used for switcho(er. ,t is a dangerous command. 9efore the execution of time
command a *uestion will be sent to operator tbrough 66l.
$%
,. C,((2-0' :,r IOP3MB r$2#",-3
The table gi(en in the prepage is used for the creation of ,5PB69s in the .P$$3. As mentioned in the
table the physical address and logical address of the 69 will be used for creation of ,5PB69s.
Cet us ta;e the example of the training exchange. ,n the training exchange we ha(e to pro(ide
,5PB69s for following units.
$. ,5PB69 for the one message buffer group #693'
2. ,5PB69 for the one ..:.
3. ,5PB69 for the ..3
@. ,5PB69 for the SYPC
$%"
These ,5PB69. has to be created according to the physical < logical address relation ship as
explained in the table gi(en on the prepage. Cet us now see the 66C commands re*uired for the
creation of (arious ,5PB69s.
M Cr$2#",- ,: IOP3MB :,r CCG 9
/ince we ha(e got two ,5.s we ha(e to create two ,5PB69 for CCG, The commands used will be.
.+ ,5PB ,5. L ), 9,5. L )%, ,5PL,5P69&@), /09/TL,5P69&@$Q
.+ ,5PB ,5. L $' 9,5. L )%, ,5P L ,5P69&@$, /09/TL ,5P69&@)Q
,n the abo(e commands the (alue of parameter 9,5. indicbte the physical address of the ,5PB69
whereas the (alue of the parameter ,5P < /09/T #substitute IOP8 "-0"2#$ the logical address of
the ,5PB69.
[ Cr$2#",- ,: ,5PB69 :,r SYPC
.reation of ,5PB69s for the /FP. will be done with the help of following commands.
.+ ,5PB,5.L), 9,5.L$), ,5P L ,5P69&@2, /09/TL,5P69&@3
.+ ,5PB,5.L$, 9,5.L$), ,5P L ,5P69&@3, /09/TL,5P69&@2Q
,n these commands also the parameters 9,5. and ,5P < /09/T ha(e the (alues of physical and
logical address as explained in the table at the prepage.
[ Cr$2#",- ,: IOP3MB :,r 693
,n E2/D system we can ha(e maximum four 693s. This means we will re*uire four sets of
,5PB69 to be created. ,n our training model exchange since we ha(e only one 693 so we ha(e to
create only one set of ,5PB69. 7ollowing commands will be used.
.+ l5PB ,5.L), 9,5.L)), ,5PL,5P69&32, /09/TL ,5P69&33Q
.+ l5PB ,5.Ll, 9,5.L)), ,5PL,5P69&.33, /09/TL ,5P69&32Q
5nce again all the parameters ha(e usual meanings as explained earlier. ,f we ha(e more number of
693s the other sets of ,5PB69 can be created with the help of table explained earlier.
$%%
[ .reation of ,5PB69 for ..:.
At present in the E2/D only one ..:.# duplicated' is pro(ided. 2e ha(e to create only one set of
,5PB69 for ..:. using following commands.
.+ ,5PB ,5.L), 9,5.L)@, ,5PL,5P69&)), /09/TL ,5P69&)lQ
.+ ,5PB ,5.L$, 9,5.L)@, ,5PL,5P69&)), /09/TL ,5P69&)lQ
All the parameters ha(e the usual meanings.
After we create all these ,5PB69s # for ..3, ..:., 693, /FP.' we ha(e to configure them in
69C state and then in A.T state.
=.4 S&'#$( S+6"##"-4 C,((2-0'
[ SP(IT SSP
This command is used to split the system. 2hen the system is split the 9AP spare is the non
switching 9AP. The syntax of the command will be
/PC,T //P B V, VTE/TLW V, /0PLWWB
TE/T L FE/ ? :5 ,f FE/ is input all acti(e .P units are tested before the system is
split.
/0P L FE/?:5 ,f FE/ is input, output of progress message is suppressed.
6E+3E //P
This command is used to cancel the split state of the system. An automatic short test is
performed on the input?output processors before they are reunited with the system, peripheral de(ices
are reunited without diagnosis. The syntax of the command will be B&
6E+3E //PB V, V TE/T L W V, /0PLW WQ
TE/T L FE/ ? :5 ,f FE/ is input, the central units of the non&switching part of the
system are diagnosed before it is merged with the OOOof the system.
/ L FE/ ? :5 ,f FE/ is input, output of progress message is suppressed.
2))
De(ice .ommands B
,:,T 6D
This command is used to format dis;s on 6DD. The de(ice must be 69C. ,t is a
dangerous command. The syntax of the command will be.
,:,T 6DB 6DD L )?$Q
D,/P 6D
This command is used to display the contents of the dis;s on both 6DDs.
,:,T 6T
This command is used to initialiDe a magnetic tape de(ice i.e. generate the H5C label. The
syntax of the command will be
,:,T 6T B H/: L O., .D L O.., V, 52:E+ L 4 W, H/: L O.. 6TD L xx
H/: L Holume serial number
.D L E6.D,.?,/5.ode
52:E+ L 5wner
6TD L )?$ 6agnetic tape de(ice no.
D,/P 6T
This command is used to display the H5C label of the specified magnetic tape de(ice. /yntax of the
command will be
D,/P 6TB H/: L , 6TD L no.Q
H/: Holume /erial number
6TD )?, 6agnetic tape de(ice number
=.= D"24-,'#" C,((2-0'3
The diagnostic command starts single or multiple diagnostic runs or a permanent test #cyclic' of the
central units and some of the peripheral. :o diagnostic command is executed unless the unit in
*uestion is in 69C.
) Diagnosable central units commands
$IAG BAP Base processor
$IAG CAP Call processor
2)$
$IAG IOC Input/Output control
$IAG CMY Common memory
$IAG BCMY Bus to common memory
[ Diagnosable peripheral units command B
$IAG IOP Input/output processor
$IAG IOG Input/output processor roup
$IAG M$$ Manet"c $"s% $e!"ce
$IAG OMT Operat"on & Mtce* Term"nal
M N,-0"24-,'256$ +$r"+!$r26 %-"#'3
./. .entral ser(ice channel
6TD 6agnetic Tape de(ice
=.7 T$'#"-4 ,((2-03
5nly units in A.T can be tested. These units are configured to /E] by the test programs, i.e. the unit
is ta;en out of ser(ice.
There are four different type of testsB
& demand test
& routine test
& consistency test
& system status analysis
All test commands except those for the ,5P are treated as dangerous. There is no test command for
the central ser(ice channel.
D$(2-0 T$'#3
The demand test is used in fault clearance. .ommands used for demand test areB
2)2
T+ST SSP
This command is used to test all the units in A.T.
T+ST IOP
This command is used to test the ,5Ps.
R,%#"-$ T$'#3
The actions ta;en for fault detection are based on the assumption that only one, fault can occur in a
unit at any one time. To concept of fault detection is to reduce the probability of simultaneous
occurrence of se(eral faults by periodically testing unused or seldom used units by routine test
programs
+outine tests run automatically at predefined times. ,nputs at the 56T determines which test should
be run when. Examples of commands for routine test areB
C,T SSPRT +e& enable inhibited routine test
MO$ SSPRT 6odify routine test data
A((O- SSPRT Allow routine test
$.SP SSPRT Display routine test data
INHIB SSPRT ,nhibit routine test
C,-'"'#$-& C!$<3
The consistency chec; chec;s the consistency of A2?/2 settings. .ommand used /or this purpose
isB
ACT SSPCONC0
This is a dangerous command. ,n the e(ent of error, an /2/3 #safeguarding software' call to system
status analysis may cause a :E2/TA+T.
/ystem /tatus Analysis //AB
2)3
/ystem status analysis ser(es to detect faults which ha(e not been detected by a demand test.
5ne of the tas;s of system status analysis to maintain the performance of the system by attempting to
restore failed units to ser(ice
7ault patterns handled by system status analysis areB
& too many call processors failed
& inconsistency between A2 switches #inhibit bits' and the corresponding /2 image in the
configuration table
/ystem status analysis is startedB
& automatically after e(ery configuration that impairs the a(ailability of the system.
& periodically at fixed inter(als
0nits which ha(e failed due to statistics crash caused by sporadic errors are not configured to A.T
0nits that ha(e pre(iously been configured to 0:A are also not configured to A.T
.ommand used for this purpose areB
A((O- SSA
This command is used to allow system status analysis to ma;e attempts to reinstate failed units.
MO$ //A
This command is used to modify the time between cyclic reconnection attempts. ,nter(als between
$! and 3)) minutes can be specified.
2)@
7./ 12%6# Pr"-# O%#' 7A62r( M$''24$'8
Aardware fault analysis initiates the output of trouble messages with indication on the system panel .
This pro(ides a reference to a fault clearance procedure 7 a(ailable in the rele(ant maintenance
manual e.g. 66:B.P'. All faults lead to an entry in the alarm register of the affected unit and to the
inhibit bits to be set for the unit.
A .P$$3 fault print out always contain an 66: number, which refers to the fault clearance
procedure in the 66:, # register 7.', with which the fault clearance should be started.
9efore starting fault clearance, the .P $$3 unit identified as faulty must be configured to 69C,
because fault clearance can only be performed on units in this operating state.
5perating state 69C is also the prere*uisite for starting and executing diagnosis. Diagnostic
command are only accepted by the system for unit in69C.
Ana$ysis of the diagnostic results in the fault clearance procedure pro(ides a selection of suspect
modules. Diagnosis is called again at later stages of fault clearance to chec; whether the trouble is
still present or has changed or has been eliminated by the pre(ious fault clearance step 7 e.g. module
replacement'.
2)!
E@2(+6$ ,: 2- A62r( ($''24$ 3
2)=
E@+62-2#",- ,: #!$ '2(+6$ :2%6# ($''24$ # +r"-#,%#8
[ 66:&.P!)&)))
.P!) is number of the fault clearance procedure to be used
[ P52E+ 7A,C0+E
This is the cause of the fault. ,t will consist of maximum 3) characters
[ .5:7,30+AT,5: 9.6F&$ 7+56 A.T T5 0:A
The unit configured and the change in its operating state are shown here
[ /09/EK0E:T 0:,T/
5ther affected units due to this fault will be shown here with their unit members
[ 7A0CT ,:75+6AT,5:
The fault information output here is in hexadecimal code and is used as reference for special fault
clearance.
0:,T 5/T AC+
The suspect unit is gi(en under 0:,T, the operating state at the time of the alarm under 5/T and the
contents of the alarm register in hexadecimal code under AC+ #reference for special fault clearance'.
2)
EIERCISES ON CP113 MAINTENANCE
$. Display all subunits of .P $$3
2. Perform following configuration 8obs.
a' 9AP6 to 69C
b' ,5P6DD) from the A.T to 69C
c' 56T) from A.T to PCA.
Display all subunits of .P$$3 which are in 69C
7ind out the units which are in status :A..
.hec; the CED of the 9B.6F which indicate disconnected processors.
Put bac; the units into A.T state.
3. 3i(e the following commands
a' D,/P ,5PB ,5PL ,5P/.DH&4
b' D,/P ,5PB ,5P L ,5P6DD&4
c' D,/P ,5PB ,5P L ,5P69&4
E(aluate the output of the command.
2)"
M$''24$ B%::$r
What is inside1
1. 2ntroduction
1. 1 .essage 8outes in EWSD
1.! 3unctions /or hand"ing message tra//ic
1. +onnection o/ .B to other units
1.) Some s(ecia" /eatures o/ .B
!. Structure
!. 1 .essage Bu//er 'rou(
!.! 2nter/aces 6etween .B' and +P4'P4S'+
!. +ommand and .essage %y(es
!.) 3irmware
!.* +a(acity Stages
!., 8ac& and .odu"e /rame 2ayout
. O:. As(ects
. 1 2denti/ication o/ .B# Num6ers
.! 8e(orting .B 3unds
. Sa/eguard"ing and 3au"t c"earance
.) ..L commands /or O:.
.* %ests
.,. Preventive .aintenance
). E7ercises
So"utions
2)%
Messae Bu//er
1./ I-#r,0%#",-
The message buffer 9 #69#9'' is assigned to the .f. area of the E2/D.
7unctional units of the message buffer 69' #a!e the 8ob of controlling
message exchanges between the following subsystems.
1 2et3een t#e .P and t#e (TGs4
.all processing messages to set up c"rcu"t connections,
administrati(e and safeguarding or maintenance messages
1 2et3een t#e (TGs t#emsel!es4
.all processing messages
1 2et3een (TG and t#e ..:.B
.all processing messages between exchanges
(ia common channel signaling lin;s
1 2et3een CP and s3"tc# roup contro5 #/3.'B
/etting instructions for switching networ;.
Depending on the source and destination of the control information, the following terms are used to
describe the exchange of data.
J Data transfer from the CP to a 3P B .ommand
& Data transfer from a 3P to the .P B 6essage
& Data transfer from a GP to another 3PB +eport
J Data transfer between CCNC 2-0 GP 3 Or0$r
2$)
1.1 .essage 8outes in EWSD =3ig 18
The message routes in E2/D form a two&layer star networ;, with the input output processor for
message buffer #,5PB69' representing the central point.
The processors of the /FP, ..:., 690, ..3 and .P de(ices are interoconnected (ia the first
layer of the star -$#*,r<. The ,5PB69 has output lists in the common memory #.6F' of the .P.
Aere there are output lists for /FP, ..:., 690 and ..3. There is an "nput l"st for input from the
call&processing periphery and an o!er/lo3 l"st for messages.
The second layer of the star networ; is located after the 690BCT3. ,n this layer, message arc
distributed between or collected in the 690 and CT3 with the aid of the /:. The 690B/3.s
implement the exchange of messages with up to three /3.s.
.ommunication between the 3Ps or DC0. and the ..:. #without the participation of the .P
processing unit #P0' is made possible by a transfer list for the ..:. and for each 690 in the
common memory #.6F' of the .P.
The IOP4 MB #as d"rect access to t#e CMY o/ t#e CP*
2$$
1"4%r$ 1 3 T*, L2&$r$0 S#2r N$#*,r< :,r M$''24$ R,%#$' "- EWSD
2$2
1.2 1%-#",-' :,r H2-06"-4 M$''24$ Tr2::"
All processors participating in the transport of messages perform the following functions for handling
messages B
& transport
& distribution and collection
& buffering
& sa(ing
Distribution and collection re*uire a speed ad8ustment to be made between message inflow and
outflow. This ad8ustment is made with the aid of buffers in the 690 and ,5PB69.
6essages to be processed may ha(e to wait for processing, since the processing processes can be Xin
progressY. 7or this reason, buffers for the processes are also needed to ad8ust the transport speed to
the processing speed.
6essage *ueues can form in the buffers. This ensures flexible speed ad8ustments between message
transport, distribution and processing.
The 69#9' has been designed to meet the higher performance demands of the .P$$3.
The 69#9' in itself is fully redundant and is made up of an 69#9') and an 69#9'$. These operate
on a load&sharing basis. 7ig. 2 shows the tie&in of message buffer to its en(ironment.
1.3 T!$ MB7B8 "' ,--$#$0 #, #!$ ,#!$r %-"#' 2' :,66,*' 3
[ with the CT3s each (ia one =@&;bit?s channel on the secondary digital carriers
#/D.BT/3, /D.BCT3'.
The rele(ant multiplex highway channels are lin;ed to each other in the switching
networ; (ia semipermanent connections. :ormally the connected CT3s are distributed e*ually o(er
both system hal(es #69&$?/:?side $'.
[ 2ith the /3.s (ia multiplex highways #/D.B/3.'
2$3
[ with the input?output processors #,5PB69' of the .P
(ia the bus systems 9B693) and 9B693$.
& ,n the input direction, the 69#9' can recei(e
& message from the CT3s and the /3.s #for the .P'
& reports from CT3s #for other CT3s'.
& orders from the CT3s #for the ..:.'
,t processes these for transmission to the ,5PB69 of the .P, stores them and passes them to the
,5PB69 on re*uest.
,n the output direction, the 69#9' can recei(e
& commands from the .P #for the CT3s and /3.s'
& reports from the CT3s #for other CT3s'
& orders from the ..:.s #for the CT3s'
,t processes these for transmission on multiplex highways to the CT3s and /3.s.
2$@
1"4%r$ 2 3 P,'"#",- ,: 0%+6"2#$0 MB "- EWSD
1.4 S,($ '+$"26 :$2#%r$' ,: #!$ MB7B8 3
` Coad sharing and a high le(el of reliability due to redundancy
` .ontrol of broadcasting and collecti(e connections B
A specific software #load type' is carried simultaneously to all CT3s with the same functional
structure (ia broadcast lin;s during initial start or system reco(ery. ,n the case of collecti(e
connections, the same commands are sent simultaneously to certain CT3s, e.g. tariff switcho(er.
` .ontrol of multi&broadcast connections, i.e.up to $= load types can be simultaneously
distributed to the CT3s.
` Aigh transmission performance #$3)) 6/0?s for each transmission direction, $2"
byte?message'
` 6odern technology #TTC&AC/ and TTC&7A/T'
` 6icroprocessor control with permanently stored software #firm ware'
` /elf&monitoring
` /imple growth capacity in stages
2$!
2./ S#r%#%r$
Depending on the capacity stage, the 6 9#9' will consist of one to four duplicated message buffer
groups #693'. 69&) contains the 693&)),)$,)2,)3 and 69&$ contains the 693&$),$$,$2,$3.
Each non&duplicated 693 is installed in one module frame.
2.1 M$''24$ B%::$r Gr,%+ 7MBG8
An 693 is made up of the following functional units #fig. 3' B
[ 2 nos. of 690BCT3 #6essage buffer unit for CT3s'
[ 690B/3. #6essage buffer unit for /witch 3roup .ontrol'
[ .3 #3roup cloc; generator'
[ 604 #6ultiplexer T forming the interface to the /:'
[ ,nterface adapter to ,5PB69
2$=
1"4%r$ 3 3 S#r%#%r$ ,: 2 M$''24$ B%::$r Gr,%+ 7MBG8 ,: 2- MB
728 MBU3LTG 7M$''24$ 5%::$r %-"# :,r LTG'8
The 690BCT3 consists of a maximum of four transmitter?recei(er controls #T?+.' and a message
distribution module #6D6'. The T?+. module can supply up to a maximum of $= line?trun; groups
#CT3s'. 5ne 690BCT3 will therefore allow expansion of an exchange in stages of $= CT3s. A
maximum of four T?+.s of an 690BCT3 can be interconnected (ia a message distribution module.
This module distributes the messages arri(ing from the ,5PB69 to a particular T?+. module and
collects the messages in8ected by the CT3 into T?+. modules, in order to transmit them to the ,5P.
The 690BCT3 has the following tas;s B
& Distributing and forwarding outputs #commands, reports, orders' from the .P to the CT3s.
& .ollecting inputs #messages, reports, orders' from the CT3s and forwarding these to the ,5PB69
and thus to the input and transfer lists of .P.
& Detecting and executing internal 690 commands from the .P, e.g., disconnecting a specific
message channel.
& 7orwarding messages relating to internal 690 processes to the .P, e.g., a specific message
channel has been disconnected.
& .arrying out the special broadcasting function. During broadcasting, the same information can be
transmitted with only two broadcasting commands from the .P to all the CT3s. A case in point
might be, for instance, where software is reloaded into the +A6 memory of the 3Ps in the CT3s.
& .arrying out the special collecti(e command function. 9y means of a collecti(e command, the same
messages can be transmitted to certain CT3 groups, e.g. switching to a new tariff.
758 MBU3SGC 7M$''24$ 5%::$r %-"# :,r '*"#! 4r,%+ ,-#r,68
The 690B/3. is combined into a common module #,5P.' with the interface adapter to the
,5PB69. ,n principle, an 690B/3. has the same structure as an 690BCT3. 9ut because it only
supports a maximum of three control channel pairs, the message distribution module #6D6' in this
case is dispensed with. The three channel pairs, one for each transmission direction on three different
2$
highways can be associated with up to three different switch group controls #/3.' in the switching
networ;. ,ncoming and outgoing messages (ia the three channels #control information and
ac;nowledgments' are exchanged directly with the ,5PB69 (ia output or input 7,75s.
T!$ MBU3SGC +$r:,r(' #!$ :,66,*"-4 #2'<' 3
& buffering commands from the .P and distributing and forwarding these to a maximum of three
switch group controls.
& 9uffering messages from the switch group controls and forwarding these to the .P.
& ,dentifying and executing internal 690 commands from the .P.
& 7orwarding messages relating to internal 690 operations to the .P.
78 Gr,%+ 6,< 4$-$r2#,r 7CG8
E(ery 693 contains a group cloc; generator #.3'. ,t is accommodated in one module #.3?604'
together with the multiplexer and performs the following tas;s B
& 3enerating the exchange cloc; pulse of "$%2 ;AD and the 2&;AD frame mar; bit #769' used for
synchroniDation.
& +ecei(ing the master cloc; #"&;AD' from one of the two central cloc; generators #..3#A''. The
master cloc;s synchroniDe the cloc;s generated in the .3. The first 690BCT3 of an 693 monitors
the .3 and signals alarms to the .P.
The exchange cloc; and the frame mar; bit are forwarded to the 690BCT3 or the 690B/3., which
in turn transmits these together with the transmit data to the switching networ; for onward routing to
the CT3s or the switch group control #/3.'. The 3.3 in the /3. synchroniDes the cloc;s it has
generated with the aid of the incoming cloc;s and transmits these to the switching networ;. 7rom
here they are retransmitted to the 690BCT3 with the data recei(ed by the CT3.
The following cloc;s are carried (ia strip lines to indi(idual modules of the message buffer B
"6AD B "$%2&;AD&$B$ cloc;
@6AD B @)%=&;AD$B$ cloc;
2$"
/F: " B 2&;AD synchroniDing pulse #pulse width $22 ns'
/F: @ B 2&;AD synchroniDing pulse #pulse width 2@@ ns'
708 M%6#"+6$@$r
The multiplexer #604' is lin;ed (ia two secondary digital carriers to the switching, networ;,
6essages are exchanged with corresponding CT3s (ia =3 incoming and =3 outgoing channels on
these carriers. As can be seen in 7ig. 2, the multiplexer concentrates the data stream of two
690BCT3s. E(ery one of the maximum four T?+.s of a 690BCT3 feeds two times eight channels
(ia a @&6bit?s highway into the multiplexer. The =3 incoming channels from the switching networ;
of the two digital carriers are distributed by the multiplexer to the four T?+.s of the corresponding
690BCT3.
7$8 I-#$r:2$ 202+#$r
E(ery 693 is connected with a separate data bus #9B693' to the ,5PB69) and the ,5PB69$. The
two ,5P cables are 8unctioned in the 693 and lin;ed to the respecti(e transmitters and recei(ers.
Transmitter outputs and recei(er inputs are connected to an internal 693 bus. The interface adapter
has the tas; of con(erting the ,5PB69 push&pull signals to TTC form and (ice&(ersa.
2.2 I-#$r:2$' 3 MBG )'. IOP3MB 7CP8 ; GP 7LTG8 ; SGC 7SN8 ; CCG
728 B"#9+2r266$0 "-#$r:2$ 5$#*$$- 266 MBU' ,: 2- MBG 2-0 #!$ IOP3MB
E(ery message buffer group #693&) to 693&3' is lin;ed to the ,5PB69) or ,5PB69$ with a
separate bus system 9B693 #interface A in 7ig. 3' B
6essage exchange between ,5PB69 and 690 is controlled by the ,5PB69 and the accessed 690.
6essages are transmitted bidirectionally, in byte&serial and asynchronous form. Asynchronous means
that the data bytes are exchanged by means of handsha;ing procedures. The handsha;ing procedure
is an asynchronous data transfer procedure in byte&serial form and triggered by ac;nowledgment.
6essage exchange between ,5PB69 and 690 is structured in two parts B
& scanning
& input and output
2$%
Two ,5PB69s are re*uired per duplicated 693 for complete redundancy #to impro(e safeguarding'.
,f one of the two ,5PB69s fails, all data exchanges are handled by its partner ,5PB69. ,n the
ultimate configuration for E2/D #i.e. @ duplicated 693s for !)@ CT3s', " ,5PB69s will be
re*uired.
Please note B As shown in figure $, ..:P, ..3 < /FP are directly connected to the .P #not (ia
69', i.e. ,5PB69 is the only unit used as buffer to?from the .P for their processors. Aence for each
of these three units two ,5PB69s will be re*uired. Aence the re*uirement of ,5PB69s in an E2/D
will be as follows B
6odule :ame 6inium 6aximum
,5P B 69 for 693s 2 #7or $2= CT3s' " #7or !)@ CT3s'
,5P B 69 for ..:P 2 2
,5P B 69 for ..3 2 2
,5P B 69 for /FP 2 2
758 MBU "-#$r:2$ ,: 2- MBG #, #!$ CCG
All 690s obtain their cloc; pulses from the group cloc; generator #.3'. 7or the purpose of
synchroniDation with the master cloc; pulse, the group cloc; generator selects one of the two central
cloc; generators (ia a switch&o(er logic #interface . in 7ig. 3'. 7or monitoring and testing, the .3 is
connected to the first of the maximum of two message buffer units for CT3s of a message buffer
group #693, interface 9 in 7ig. 3'.
22)
1"4%r$ 4 3 MB I-#$r:2$'
78 B"#9'$r"26 "-#$r:2$ 5$#*$$- MBU3LTG 2-0 LTG
Please refer to section 2.2 under CT3 Architecture also.
E(ery 690BCT3 is connected to the switching networ; (ia two secondary digital
carriers #/D.BT/3', one in transmit and one in recei(e direction #interface D in 7ig. 3'. 9oth carriers
transmit $2" channel time slots. This corresponds to a bit rate of the $2" 4 =@ ;bit?s L " 6bit?s. 5f
the $2" channels of the /D.BT/3, only =3 #.hannel 2,@,=,"O.' are used to carry messages to or
from =3 CT3s.
,n the /D.BCT3s, between CT3 and /:, .hannel ) is reser(ed for the transport of messages.
,n the transmission direction CT3JZ 690BCT3, the switching networ; passes the messages sent by
the group processors of the CT3s on channel ) of the highway /D.BCT3 to the 690BCT3 (ia the
channel assigned to a particular CT3 on the multiplex highway /D.BT/3.
7or example, channel ) of the /D.BCT3 of CT32 is connected (ia :ailed&
22$
1"4%r$ 5 3 M$''24$ !2--$6' "- EWSD
7B"#9'$r"26 "-#$r:2$ 5$#*$$- LTG 2-0 MBU3LTG8
U+ ,--$#",- 7NUC8 #, !2--$6 4 ,: #!$ SDC3TSG ,: MBU3LTG.
The effecti(e message exchange between the CT3s and the .P is normally realiDed in two e*ual
parts (ia both switching networ; sides #/: side ), /: side $' and (ia both message #buffer groups
#693), 693$'. ,f a fault occurs in one of the switching networ; sides message exchange for all
CT3s is carried out (ia the other switching networ; side. ,f one 693 fails, the partner 693 handles
the complete message exchange.
During system start&up, the semipermanent connections between the 690BCT3 and the CT3s are set
by the switch group controls #/3.' in the switching networ; and remain stable during the entire
running time. /ince these semipermanent connections are always a(ailable, the CT3s and the .P
interchange messages without ha(ing to burden the processing unit in the .P. ,n this manner a
separate line networ; for exchange of messages within an exchange is not necessary.
7$8 B"#9'$r"26 "-#$r:2$ 5$#*$$- MBU 3 SGC 2-0 SGC
222
The 690B/3. in a module ,5P. can be connected to up to three different switch group controls
#/3.' in the switching networ; (ia up to three different highways #/D.B/3., interface E in 7ig. 3'.
Therefore, up to three different /3.s can be controlled by the 690B/3. in an ,5P. (ia three
different highways. 5ne =@ ;bit?s channel pair for both the recei(e and transmit direction of
transmission are used for this purpose on each highway. ,n the first highway channel pairs number 2
is used, in the second highway channel pair number @ and in the third highway channel pair number
=.
The 690B/3. transmits commands it has recei(ed and bufferd from the .P (ia the ,5PB69 to the
connected /3. (ia each transmit channel of the three highways.
The 690B/3. recei(es messages from the /3.s (ia the recei(e channels of the three P.6
highways which it buffers and subse*uently relays to the .P.
,n addition, the 690B/3. transmits the "$%2&;AD exchange cloc; and the 2&;AD frame mar; bit
#769' in the transmit directionQ these are in8ected by the group cloc; generator. ,n the recei(e
direction, the 690B/3. recei(es the =@&;AD cloc; necessary to recei(e incoming data with a bit
speed of =@&;bit?s. Cine protocols, the (arious bloc; types #synchroniDation bloc; etc.' and data
formats are the same as for the 690BCT3.
2.3 C,((2-0 A-0 M$''24$ T&+$'
.ommand types
A distinction is made between two main groups of commands B
& transfer commands
& 690 commands
Transfer commands are directed from the .P to the CT3s and /3.s. The 690BCT3 ad8usts the data
format of the command in accordance with the ADC. transmission method.
690 commands are directed by the .P to the message buffer control itself and contain tas;s relating
to monitoring, testing and operation of the 690. 2ith the exception of +E/TA+T, 690 commands
223
ha(e the same format as transfer commands. They are assigned to the pseudochannel $2% as a
difference criterion.
6essage Types
A distinction is made between two main groups of messages B
& transfer messages
& 690 messages
Transfer messages are B
messages from the CT3s to the.P #messages',
between CT3 and CT3 #reports',
between /3. and .P #ac;nowledgements' and
between CT3s and the ..:., and (ice (ersa #orders'.
690 messages are generated by the 690 and ser(e e.g. as error and response messages etc. The
format is the same as for transfer messages.
Ci;e 690 commands, 690 messages are identified with the pseudochannel number $2%.
2.4 1"r(*2r$
The entire control of the message buffer is built up of single controls, which consist of a
microprocessor, a program memory and a data memory. The associated firmware is permanently
stored in the program memory. ,t does not, therefore, ha(e to be loaded or initialiDed by the
coordination processor #.P'.
2.5 C2+2"#& S#24$'
The 69#9' is designed to handle the following exchange capacity stages B
& capacity stage for =3 CT3s
& capacity stage for $2= CT3s
& capacity stage for 2!2 CT3s #7ig. ='
& capacity stage for !)@ CT3s
22@
1"4%r$ = 3 C2+2"#& '#24$ :,r 252 LTG'
!., 8ac& And .odu"e 3rame L2&,%#
A basic rac; and an extension rac; is pro(ided #7ig. ' for the capacity stages of an exchange up to
!)@ CT3.
The basic r2< can contain a duplicated module frame 7B69 ?..3#9' #7ig. "' e*uipped with central
cloc; generator A #..3#A'', a duplicated 7B69?..3#9' without ..3#A' and a module frame for
the system panel control and cloc; distributors external #7B/FP.#A''.
0p to two duplicated 7B69?..3s without #..3#A'' can be e*uipped in an $@#$-'",- r2<.
22!
1"4%r$ 7 A R2< 62&,%# :,r ($''24$ 5%::$r
22=
1"4%r$ > 3 M,0%6$ :r2($ :,r MB 2-0 CCG 713MB;CCG7B88
3./ ODM A'+$#' #7or more details, please refer 66:B 69&,:'
22
3.1 I0$-#":"2#",- ,: MBU -%(5$r'3
E(ery 690 is duplicated #E2/D redundancy principle', which means that the entire 69 is
duplicated, 69&) and 69&l. This is referred to as ha(ing an 69on each side of the system #side ) or
$'.
The 690s on each of the two 69 sides can be di(ided into two groups (iD 690BCT3s <
690B/3.sQ
690BCT3s control the exchange of information between .P < CT3. 690B/3.s control the
exchange between .P and the /3. in the /:.
Each 690 is identified by two parameter (alues. The following con(entions apply for these
parametersB
3eneral designation E@2(+6$
690B CT3&side&no B 690B CT3&)&@
690B /3.&side&no B 690B /3.&$&5
side B ) or , L system side to which this 690 is assigned
no B )... for 690BCT3,
)...3 for 690B/3.
L consecuti(e numbering within each system side
0p to three 690s are combined in an 69 gruup #693' in an 69 frame. The 690s of an 693
ha(e a shared power suppy and a shared lin; interface module to the .P.
,n normal operation, all 690s on both system sides are in operating state A.T, with both partners
sharing the information traffic load. Partners are always the 690BCT3&)&4 < 690BCT3&l&4 and
similarly tne 690B/3.&)&F : the 690B/3.&l&F. $f one of the two 690s fails, the partner on the
redundant side handles all traffic. Each of the two 690s is designed to handle the total load, the load
distribution during normal operation merely reprsents optimal utiliDation of system capacity.
3.2 R$+,r#"-4 MB 12%6#'
22"
7or the 69 there are three possible ways of reporting 2 0$#$#$0 fault
7ault printout B after internal fault indicators ha(e detected a
malfunction or after the periodic C55P from .P has detected a malfunctionQ
G Error messageB following a re8ected configuration 8obQ
The diagnosis progress message and result message
after diagnosis initiated from the 56T, has found fault in the 69.
7or all intet(entions in the system it must be noted that the standard system
configuration re*uires all 690s to be A.T.
2hen the exchange is at full capacity, the modules of the indi(idual
690BCT3s are each in different module locations #65C5.s', since one 690B/3. and.two
MB,4(TGs are always present in an 69 module frame.
2hen determining suspect modules, therefore, in the case of a faulty 690BCT3 pay attention to the
no. of the 690BCT3&side&no. The suspect modules are in the fault list uuder the specified fault list
number and with the faulty 690 BCT3&side&no.
3.3 S2:$4%2r0"-4 2-0 12%6# 6$2r2-$3
/witching off a redundant 690 does not degrade the system, therefore system software usually
immediately remo(es the 690 in(ol(ed from ser(ice by configuring it to 0:A when an 690 fault
is detected.
The first step in the fault clearance procedure is to configure the faulty 690 to 69C, since it is only
in this operating state that fault clearance is permitted.
The last step in e(ery fault clearance procedure, where an 69 #or 690' has been cleared of faults is
to return the unit to ser(ice by configuring it to A.T.
3.4 M$''24$ B%::$r 3 MML C,((2-0' :,r ODM
22%
728 S#2#%' I-#$rr,42#",- 3
/tatus interrogation of the 6essage buffer units #690BCT3 A:D 690B/3.'
23)
758 C,-:"4%r2#",-3
Con/"urat"on o/ an MB, to MB( status4
/ince 690 fault clearance can only be done in 69C. it may be necessary to configure the 690 to
69C as the initial step in fault clearance.
,f all 690s of an entire 69
CONF MB4 are to be configured simultaneously MB6s"de' OST6MB(*7
7or an 690BCT3
CON+ MB,(4 MBs"de' MB,(6no' OST6MB('
7or an 690B/3.
CONF MB ,S4 MB6s"de' MB,S6r OST6MB('
ExplanationB side L ) or $
no. L )
no. ) 3 #indicates 69&) or 6E&,' L number in case of the
690BCT3 L number in case of the 8r 690B/3.
78 D"24-,'"'3
7or an entire 69 $IAG MB4 MBs"de' TA 6A((7
7or an 690B CT3
$IAG MB,(4 MB6s"de' MB,(6no' TAA((7
7or an690B/3. $(9G MB,S4 :
!IB6s"de' MB,S6no' TA6A((7
Aere RTALACCP & LZ Test of the entire 690 or the 69
#no other parameter is possible here for the 69'
The diagnosis of an entire 69 is permissible only if certain re*uirements are fulfilled. ,f in doubt,
test the 690s of the 69 indi(idually one after the other, always starting with the 690B/3..
As soon as the diagnosis has found a fault, the command is repeated with PA+T, E4E.D #partially
executed'. 7ollowing this, a P+53+E// 6E//A3E is output containing the entire diagnosis
informationB
23$
D,A3690/B
69Lside, 690/Lno, TALACC Part ExecPd
Progress 6essage 66:B69xxx&DDDD
TE/T +E/0CT 9AD TE/TED 0:,T L 690/ T side& no
7C:L690/&y
Error ,nformationB
TE/T 9C5.1 :5 L xxxx
Additional ,nformation, AP DD DD DD DD DD DD AA DD DD DD AA AA
AP DD KK KK DD DD DD DD DD AA AA AA AA
3.5 T$'#'
5n&line testing for the 69 by the operator is not possible.
This is unnecessary, since the test is automaticalty carried out e(ery 2) seconds by the cyclically
output C55P command from the cxchange .P.
3.= Pr$)$-#")$ M2"-#$-2-$
Pre(enti(e maintenance in the 69 area is not necessary.
.onstant monitoring or regular testing of the 69 by the operator is not re*uired either.
6essage transmission between the 690BCT3 and the CT3 functions in handsha;ing mode, i.e. the
command sent form 69CBCT3 to CT3 must be ac;nowledged by the CT3.
A periodic 6.A test #CT3 routine test' is performed by the .P. E(ery l)s, the .P alternately tests
the two message channels assigned to all CT3s in A.T or .9C, for fault&free transmission. ,t uses
test command TE.5 which is transmitted at $)&s inter(als to all CT3s, alternati(ely (ia the 6.As in
A.T and in /T9.
4./. E@$r"'$' # MB & 1%-#",-26 S#r%#%r$ 2-0 M2"-#$-2-$8
232
E@$r"'$ 1
.hec; the current configuration of all 690s, /: and 6essage channels
#6.As'.
E@$r"'$ 2
#i' Cocate the cables for #i' 690BCT3 )&)
#ii' 690BCT3 $&)
#iii' 690B/3. )&)
#i(' 690B/3. $&)
#AintB 5ne end of the cable is from /:.
The other end is at the 69.'
E@$r"'$ 3
6.A&$ for CT3 )&$ to )&=3 is in 0:A status. ,t means
#a' T/&$ of these CT3s is not accesible.
#b' T/&) of these CT3s is not accesible.
#c' These CT3s are not accesible.
#d' There could be a problem with /:&,
#e' There could be a problem with 69&)
E@$r"'$ 4
2hat will be the status of CT3)&) to )&=3 in the abo(e case^
E@$r"'$ 5
.hec; the side effects in T/3 ? //3 ? 6.A ? 690 in case of pulling the
cable connecting 695 and T/6 )&) of T/3 )&).
= In case o/ SN & $+9 con/"urat"on' e** "n t#e NSCBTTC model e;c#ane4 >
= .hec; the side effects in /: ? 6.A ? 690 in case of pulling >
= the cable connecting 695 and T/6 )&) of /:). >
Perform all measures to clear the failure.
233
S,6%#",-' #, E@$r"'$' # MB & 1%-#",-26 S#r%#%r$ D M"$.8
E@$r"'$ 1.
/TAT 69Q
/TAT /:Q
/TAT CT3B CT3 L 7;7B
E@$r"'$ 3. 708
E@$r"'$ 4.
,t should normally be A.T. #5f course, if the 6.A&) of these CT3s is A.T'
E@$r"'$ *.
/TAT /:Q
/TAT 69Q
/TAT CT3B CT3Lx&xQ
After pulling out the said cable,
/TAT /:Q #Herify that /: plane&) goes out of ser(ice'
/TAT 69Q #Herify that the 69 status remains unaffected'
/TAT CT3B CT3Lx&xQ #Herify that 6.A&) for RallP the CT3s goes into 0:A.
K. Do the 6.A&) go into 0:A for all CT3s or only a group
of CT3s^'
After restoring the cable in its original place,
.5:7 /:B /:L), 5/TL69CQ
/:), 5/TL/T9Q
23@
C$-#r26 C6,< G$-$r2#,r
What is inside 1
1. 2ntroduction
!. Structure@ 3unctions@ O(erationa" 9ariants
. +"oc& distri6ution in the E7change
). +"oc& SynchroniAation in +entra" +"oc& 'enerator =A>
*. O : . As(ects
E7ercises
+entra" +"oc& 'enerator
23!
1./ I-#r,0%#",-
,n order to switch and transmit digital information the se*uence of operations must be synchronous
throughout the e*uipment in(ol(ed. This re*uires a clos; supply with a high le(el of reliability,
precision and consistency for the exchanges in the digital networ;. ,n E2/D exchanges, this function
is performed by the central cloc; generator A #..3 #A' 7ig. $.$'
1"4%r$ 1.1 3 P,'"#",- ,: #!$ $-#r26 6,< 4$-$r2#,r CCG 7A8 "- EWSD
,n (iew of its (ital role in the exchange, the ..3 #A' is always duplicated. 5f the two ..3s V..3
#A' ) and ..3 #A' $W, one is always switched as master and the other as sla(e. 5nly master ..3 #A'
supplies the connected e*uipment #message buffer #69', coordination processor #.P' and cloc;
distributors external #.DE4, if pro(ided' with the synchroniDation cloc;. The sla(e ..3, howe(er,
controlled by the master ..3, operates in phase synchronism. This ensures that in the e(ent of a
23=
malfunction or failure affecting the master ..3, the master sla(e roles can be switched o(e
immediately and automatically, and that the cloc; supply to the connected e*uipment continues
uninterrupted.
.loc; distribution within the exchange also proceeds on a master?sla(e basis, i.e. each e*uipment unit
shown in 7ig. $.$ generates fresh synchroniDation pulses, which it synchroniDes with the output pulses
of the e*uipment preceding it, in order to then synchronise the e*uipment following it. This ensures
that brief interruptions to the cloc; supply can be safely bridged, the cloc; generators of the affected
e*uipment units remain free running until the synchroniDation cloc; pulse is restored.
The cloc; pulse generated in each e*uipment unit sysnchronise the information exchange on three
le(els within the e*uipment unit, from one e*uipment unit to another, and from one exchange to
another. The precision and stability of these cloc; is consistently so high that reference from them are
perfectly sufficient for the synchronisation of national networ;s. 7or international digital traffic,
howe(er, the ..,TT has stipulated an e(en higher le(el of precision and stability, and the reference
fre*uencies in(ol(ed here ha(e to be deri(ed directly from atomic fre*uency standards and fed to the
exchanges operating as master #7ig.$.2'.
23
1"4%r$ 3 1.2
2./ S#r%#%r$, 1%-#",-', O+$r2#",-26 E2r"2-#'
23"
2.1 1%-#",-'
S&-!r,-,%' ,+$r2#",- 3
,n synchronous operation #7ig. 2.$' each of the two central cloc; generators #..3&) and ..3&$'
comprises three modules B
[ module 44A ..344A'
[ module 9 #..39' and
[ module D #..3D'
.loc; generation, synchroniDation and transfer functions are distributed on modules ..344A,
..39 and ..3D as follows B
6odule ..344A the reference cloc; #75$' for module ..39 and synchroniDes it to one of the two
external reference fre*uencies #7+' fed in at its input. The cloc; generated in module ..39 #f52' is
returned to module ..344A and with f,$ as reference cloc; similarly synchroniDed to the selected
f+. The ..3 #A' output cloc; #/F.C1' is thus also synchroniDed to this reference cloc; #f+'
2ith ..3&) as master and ..3&$ as shla(e, further tas;s are shared as follows B
,n the ..3#A' ), 6odules ..39 and ..3D) amplify the output cloc; #/F.C)' and transfer it to
the following e*uipment.
- /F.C1) to the duplicated message buffer 69 #9' ) and 69 #9'$.
- /F.C1) to the coordination processor $$3 #.P $$3' and
- /F.C1) to two cloc; distributors external switche as master #e.g. .DE45 A:D
.DE4$' if pro(ided.
,n the ..3#A'$ modules ..39, synchroniDes the output cloc; signal #/F.C1 $ ' to the master
cloc; #/F.C/5' supplied by module ..395. .loc;s are supplied to the connected e*uipment,
howe(dr, from the ..3&) only. The ..3#A'$ runs in phase synchronism, but is bloc;ed on the
output side,
23%
1"4%r$ 2.1 3 CCG 7A8 :,r '&-'!r,-,%' ,+$r2#",-
2@)
P62'",!r,-,%' 7:r$$ r%--"-48 ,+$r2#",- 3
,n plesiochronour operation #7ig. 2.2' the ..3s operate without external reference fre*uencioes #f+'.
,n 7igure. 2.2 for example, the ..3#A' ) is free&running, and module ..344A$ symchroniDes the
reference clos; #f5$' to reference cloc; @ #+@) traffered from mode ..344A).
1"4%r$ 3 2.2 3 CCG 7A8 :,r +6$'",!r,-,%' ,+$r2#",-'
2@$
2.2 O+$r2#",-26 E2r"2-#'
Depending on the accuracy re*uired, the following operational (ariants can be realiDed B
#a' /ynchronous operation with two external reference fre*uencies #f+'
per module ..344A, the precision of the ..3 output cloc;s here depending on the tolerance of 7+,
which is as follows B
- ,n national synchronous networ;s with international digital traffic and synchroniDation of
the master exchanges by .s standards B Of+ ?f+ \$) T$$ and
- ,n national synchronous networ;s without international digital traffic and synchroniDation
by plesiochronously operated ..3s in the master exchanges B f+ ? f+\ $) " to $) T%
#b' Plesiochronous operation without external reference fre*uencies #f+'
for the master exchanges in national synchrronous networ;s without international digital traffic, the
precisio of the ..3 output cloc;s here depending on the tolerance of oscillator fre*uency $ #f5$'
generated on module ..344A of the master ..3#A' B f5$ ? f5$\$)" to $)&%Q
#c' Plesiochronous operation without external reference fre*uencies #f+)
and without modules ..344A, for island exchanges without digital traffic from and to other
exchanges, the precision of the ..3 output cloc;s here depending on the tolerance of oscillator
fre*uency 2 #f52' generated on module ..39 of the master ..gZ f52?f52\$)&! to $)&=.
7or further details regarding cloc; genertion, synchroniDation and transfer by..3#A', se @.
2@2
2.3 R2< 2-0 M,0%6$ L2&,%#
The rac; for housing the ..3#A' along with the message buffer #69 #9'', system panel control
#/F5.' and cloc; distributors external #.DE4' of pro(ided, is shown in 7ig. 2.3.
The ..3#A' is accommodated at the top of therac; in two module frames 7B69?..3#9' alongwith a
message buffer ground 7ig. 2.@'. The module frame containing the cloc; distributors external
alongwith the system panel control is shown in 7ig 2.!.
1"4%r$ 2.3 3 R2< MB CCG7A8, '&'#$( +2-$6 ,-#r,6 2-0 6,< 0"'#r"5%#,r'.
2@3
1"4%r$ 2.4 3 M,0%6$ :r2($ :,r MB 7B8 2-0 CCG 713MB;CCG 7B88
1"4%r$ 2.5 3 M,0%6$ :r2($ A :,r S&'#$( P2-$6 C,-#r,6 2-0 C6,< D"'#r"5%#,r' E@#$r-26,
713SYPC7A88
2@@
3./ C6,< 0"'#r"5%#",- "- #!$ E@!2-4$
The generation, synchroniDation and transfer of cloc;s within the exchange ta;es place in a number of
consecuti(e stages. The ..3 generates the output cloc; #/F.C1, 7ig 3.$' which in synchronous
operation, it synchroniDes to one of the two external reference fre*uencies #f+' fed in at its input. The
..3#A', switched as master transfers these output cloc;s as follows B
- /F.C1 to thee two cloc; generators #.3) and .3, in the modules .3?604&) and $' in
the duplicated message buffer #69&) and 69&$',
- /F.C1 to the two cloc; generators for the realtime cloc; in the functional units ,5PBTA&
) and $ in the coordination processor #.P$$3), and
- /F.C1 to the two cloc; distributors external switched as master #e.g. .DE4) and
.DE4$) if pro(ided.
- The outputs of the ..3#A) switched as sla(e are bloc;ed.
The .3s in the 69 generate two new output cloc; signalsB the exchange cloc; #.C1' and the frame
mar; bit #769' which they synchroniDe to the output cloc; #/F.C1' supplied by the master
..3#A' and then transfer to the cloc; generators of the switching networ; #contained in the functional
units C,6 in /: and /3.9 in /:#9' in the associated switching networ; side #/:) or /:$'. The
assignment 69&) to /:) and 69&$ to /:$ is permanent.
The /: cloc; generators generate exchange cloc; #.C1' and frame mar; bit #769' anew,
synchroniDes them with the .C1?769 pair supplied, and then transfers them (ia the associated
switching networ; side #/:) or /:$'
- to the 3roup .loc; 3enerators for Cine?Trun; 3roups #.3/6' in the CT3 and
- to the associated cloc; generator functions #contained in the functional units 6046' in
the common channel signaling networ; control #..:.'. 5f the four 6046 two are assigned to 69&
)?/:) and two to 69&$?/:$, the assignment is permanent.
9oth the .3/6 and the cloc; generator functions in the 6046 also generate new output cloc;s,
which they synchroniDe to one of the two .C1?769 pairs they recei(e.
CT3s connected to digital line units #DC0' transfer the output cloc;s as line cloc; #C.C1' and line
frame signal #C7/', to the associated cloc; generators #contained in the functional unit 9D.3' in the
associated digital line unit #DC0'. Each DC0 contains two 9D.3s, each permanently assigned to one
of the two associated CT3s.
The .3s in the DC0 generate new output cloc; signals which they synchroniDe with C.C1?C7/ pair
supplied.
,n a similar fashion the .DE4s switched as master generate new output cloc;s #/T and 6/T' which
they synchroniDe to the output cloc; /F.C1 supplied by the master ..3.
2@!
The ,5PBTA synchroniDes the associated real&time cloc;. The .DE4 switched as master transfers the
/T as control cloc; to groups of four external #non&E2/D' unit and the 6/T as master control cloc;
to all sla(e .DE4s. The .DE4 switched as sla(e generates the control cloc; #/T' anew,
synchroniDes it to one of the two master control cloc; #6/T' supplied and transfers it, similarly, to
groups of four external e*uipment units.
The process of cloc; regeneration and synchroniDation through se(eral stages is necessary for the
following reasonB
,f the ..3 were to supply cloc;s to all connected e*uipment units directly #without ontermediate
cloc; generators', a total brea;down of the ..3 would lead to an immediate brea;down of the entire
cloc; supply system. The process adopted howe(er bridges any such supply gaps, because the cloc;
generator in each e*uipment unit, as soon as the cloc; generator preceeding it fails, continues to run
free until the synchronis, of all the cloc; generators in all connected e*uipment has been completely
restored.
2@=
1"4%r$ 3.1 3 C6,< 0"'#r"5%#",- "- $@!2-4$' 7$@2(+6$8
W"#! CCG7A8/ 2' (2'#$r 2-0 CCG7A81 2' '62)$ 2-0
C6,< D"'#r"5%#,r' E@#$r-26 CDEI/ 2-0 CDEI1 244 2' (2'#$r 2-0 CDEI2 #, CDEIB 2' '62)$ CDEI'
The cloc;s generated by the indi(idual e*uipment units and transferred to the succeeding e*uipment
unit#s' are uniform for all exchanges and stipulated as follows Q
2@
- the synchroniDation cloc; #/F.C1' at a rated fre*uency of " ;AD
#corresponding to a period of $2! us' and a pulse duty ratio of $B$
- the exchange cloc; #.C1' at a rated fre*uency of ", $%2 ;AD
#corresponding to a period of $22 ns' and a pulse duty ratio of $B$
- the frame mar; bit #769' at 2,))) pulses per second with a pulse length of $22ns.
- The line cloc; #C.C1' for P.63) multiplex lines at a rated fre*uency of 2,)@" ;AD
#corresponding to a perod of @""ns'
-
- The control cloc; #/T' at a rated fre*uency of 2,)@" ;AD #corresponding to a period of
@"" ns' and a pulse duty ratioof $.$ and
- The master control cloc; #6/T' at a rated fre*uency of " ;AD #corresponding to a period
of $2! us) and a pulse duty ratio of $B$.
4./ C6,< '&-!r,-"K2#",- "- C$-#r26 C6,< G$-$r2#,r 7A8
There are two inputs a(ailable on each of the central cloc; generators ) and $ #two on ..344A) and
two on ..344A$' for the purpose of feeding in external reference fre*uencies #f+, 7ig. @.$). The
input options #7ig. $.2' areas follows B
- Analog pilot fre*uencies (ia the associated carrier fre*uency terminating units
Standard !alues o/ <== or <=> %H?
- Digital control cloc;s (ia the associated digital interface units,
Standard !alues o/ @'=9> %H? A/or PCM<=B or 5'C99 %H? A/or PCM@9B
- /tandard fre*uencies, for master exchanges, direct from the atomic fre*uency standard
#e.g. .s standards'
Standard !alues o/ C or 5= M#?*
Depending on the ..344A switch setting one of the two f+s is used for ..3 synchroniDation. ,f
theused f+ fails, the ..344A automatically uses the
5ther f+ for synchroniDation purposes. ,f both supplied, f+s fail, the ..3 continues to operate in
plesiochronous mode.
Harious pluggable input modules #,6' are used on the ..344A for the connection of the direrent
reference fre*uencies.
2@"
The selected ,6s, corresponding to the f+s connected, are specified by the 2&character code 44 in the
module designation ..344A. The first 4 corresponds to the first module input, the second 4 to the
second module input. The possible (alues of 4 and their meaning are listed belowB
& 4 L ) for free running #no f+'
& 4L$ for f+ L 3)) ;AD and 2,)@" ;AD,
& 4 L 2 for f+ L ! 6AD and $) 6AD, and
& 4 L 3 for f+ L 3)" ;hD and $,!@@ ;AD #for P.62@'
7or the (arious possible applications a subset of all 44 combinations is defined.
Two test output on theface&plate of module ..344A enable the measurement of the le(els and
fre*uencies at the output of the ,ms. The through&connected f+ is indicated by the lit green CED on the
face plate of module ..344A #+E7) or +E7$'
1"4%r$ 4.1 3 C,--$#",- ,+#",-' :,r #!$ $@#$r-26 r$:$r$-$ :r$F%$-"$' #, #!$ CCG 7A8
2@%
5./ CCG 3 ODM A'+$#' 71,r (,r$ 0$#2"6' +6. r$:$r MMN3CCG9IN8
5.1 S+$"26 1$2#%r$' ,: CCG 12%6# C6$2r2-$
#a' There are se(eral different central cloc; generators #..3' used in
exchanges, to cater for differing re*uirements in terms of the *uality and running characteristics of the
oscillators. These must be handled differently during fault clearance.
,n order to ta;e all of these ..3s into account, there are a number of decision points in 66:B..3 at
which an interrogation of the hardware actually present in the exchange ta;es place.
The exchange&specific configuration documentation is therefore essential for fault clearance.
#b' 2hen a ..3 is configured during fault clearance, cloc; fluctuations
may occur, and these may lead to fault printouts from 69, /: and ? or CT3.
7or CT3 B 2,TA50T .5:7,30+AT,5: with reference to cloc; or PCC failureQ
7or 69 B 69 ,:75+6AT,5: with reference to cloc; or PCC failureQ
7or /: #in some cases' the fault printout B
/: .5:7,30+AT,5: in which an A.T?/T9 switcho(er is carried out for the two sides #or units' of
the /:.
The abo(e fault printouts may be ignored.
The following fault printouts may also be issued for /: #or units of the /:BT/3 and ? or//3'B
2,TA .5:7,30+AT,5:
They ha(e the condeword /:&PCC 7A,C0+E and in(ol(e configuration of an /: side #or unit' being
configured to 0:A.
,n this case, the /:&side concerned #or the T/3?//3 concerned' can be restored to ser(ice B
2!)
.5:7 /: B /: L side, 5/T L /T96 0:.5:D L FQ
5r
.5:7 T/3 B /: L side T/3 L no, 5/TL/T9, 0:.5:DLF
5r
.5:7 //3 /: L side, //3 L no, 5/T L /T9, 0:.5:D L F
There is no hard fault in the /:.
#.' 5f the two ..3s #..3&) and ..3&$' ..3&) has the higher priority
This means B
- ,f there are different reference fre*uencies, the ones with the highest priority are always
applied to ..3&)
- ,n plesiochronous mode, ..3&) synchroniDes ..3&$
0nder normal operating conditions #i.e no fault or fault clearance endedQ no test' the normal
configuration B
..3&) is A.T?6A/TE+
..3&$ is /T9?/CAHE
must always be ;ept or must be established.
5.2 R$+,r#"-4 ,: CCG 12%6#'
7or the ..3 there are two principal options for reporting faults at the 56TB
7ault printouts are output when internal fault indicators ha(e detected a
malfunction or when the periodic +50T&TE/T or the test following a configuration 8ob has detected
a malfunction.
Error messages are output when a configuration 8ob has been re8ected
#Exception B in connection with 7A,C,:3 57 E4T. +E7. 7+EK0E:.F the configuration is
executed. The fault doesnPt 8ustify ta;ing the ..3 out of ser(ice, since in most cases the origin of the
fault lies outside the reporting ..3.'
,f there are no printouts or messages concerning a ..3 fault but a fault is suspected, the operating
personnel can perform a chec; of one or both ..3s with c configuration. A configuration is started by
entering commands on the 56T.
2!$
7or details of this se*uence and for further action to be ta;en if a fault has been detected see register
7., procedure P+B..3.
2hene(er inter(ention in the system is necessary, it must be noted that standard configuration means
that ..3&) is A.Tg and ..3&$ is /T9.
After fault clearance has been completed, the two ..3s must be in these operating states.
5.3 S2:$4%2r0"-4
The two ..3s independently super(ise all ..3 functions with the aid of internal fault indicators. ,n
particular, this in(ol(es constant inser(ice super(ision of the accuracy, stability and le(el of the
fre*uencies of all cloc;s entering and lea(ing the ..3 and those used internally.
,n addition, the .P as central coordinating unit tests both ..3s, with emphasis on the internal fault
indicators, e(ery 2@ hours during the low&traffic period #between @B)) and @B)! a.m.) by means of an
automatic routine test #+50T&TE/T'.
The first part of this test starts with a simulated error, which the .P applies to ..3&) and ..3&$ in
turn. This acti(ates all the internal fault indicators in the ..3Q the super(isory circuits respond to this
with the corresponding alarm messages, which are then e(aluated by the .P. Then all indicators are
reset, to restore the original conditions.
,n the second part of the test the .P executes a 6A/TE+?/CAHE switcho(er of the two ..3s. After
a gi(en time, allowing any error messages to be output, the original 6A/TE+?/CAHE configuration
is restored, thus ending the test.
,f the system detects a fault during the +50T&TE/T, it initiates a ..3 fault printout, in which all
a(ailable information on the type of error is summariDed. ,f necessary, it automatically ta;es the
defecti(e ..3 out of ser(ice.
The defecti(e unit must then be cleared of faults and restored to ser(ice by the maintenance personnel.
This is done according to the fault clearance procedure named in the fault printout.
/ince ta;ing a redundant ..3 out of ser(ice does not cause system degradation #the ..3 in /T9 is at
the same time configured to A.T and ta;es o(er the cloc; supply for the exchange', the system
software normally remo(es the defecti(e ..3 from ser(ice by configuring it is 0:A as soon as a
..3 fault is detected.
E@$+#",- 3 ,n the case of B 7A,C,:3 57 E4T. +E7. 7+EK0E:.F an ,:75+6AT,5: is output
without the ..3 concerned being configured.
2!2
5.4 MML9C,((2-0 :,r CCG M2"-#$-2-$.
/TAT ..3 #/tatus of ..3)
D,/P ..3 #Display contents of ..3 fault register'
.5:7 ..3 #.onfigure ..3'
1. I-#$rr,42#",- ,: CCG ,+$r2#"-4 '#2#$ 3
/TAT ..3 B
/TAT ..3Q E4E.PD
..3&)..3&$
A.T /T9
,f one of the ..3s is in 0:A or 69C, enter 66:B..3 at procedure P+B..3 in register 7.. This
procedure pro(ides the reference to the correct fault clearance procedure for each fault location.
2. I-#$rr,42#",- ,: CCG 12%6# R$4"'#$r 3
D,/P ..3
D,/P ..3
E4E.D
/TAT0/ A:D E++5+ ,:75+6AT,5: B ..3&) ..3&$
+E7. 7+EK0E:.,E/ AT ..344A B P+E/E:T P+E/E:T
..344A&65D0CE 7A0CT 7+EE 7A0CT 7+EE
..344A&P+5.E//5+ B 7A0CT 7+EE 7A0CT 7+EE
..39&65D0CE B 7A0CT 7+EE 7A0CT 7+EE
..39&P+5.E//5+ B 7A0CT 7+EE 7A0CT 7+EE
,:TE+7A.E ..344A?..39 B 7A0CT 7+EE 7A0CT 7+EE
..39 6/&/TAT0/ B 6A/TE+ /CAHE
..39 .C5.1 D,/T+,90T5+ B E:A9CE E:A9CE
5PE+AT,5:AC /TAT0/ B A.T /T9
+E7E+E:.E 7+EK0E:.F ) B 355D 355D
+E7E+E:.E 7+EK0E:.F $ B 355D 355D
0/ED +E7E+E:.E 7+EK0E:.F B ) $
/TAT0/ 7+EK0E:.F /T5+A3E B :5+6AC :5+6AC
/F:.A+5:,]AT,5: /TAT0/ B /F:.A+5: @ /F:.A+5: @
2!3
3. CON1 CCG 3
#i' .onfiguration of ..3 to 69C B
A ..3 may only undergo fault clearance when it is in 69C.
.5:7 ..3B ..3 L side, 5/T L 69CQ
#side L ) for ..3&), side L , for ..3&$'
,f the redundant ..3 is already in 69C or 0:A, the following caution will be displayed by the
system B
.A0T,5:B This re*uest may destroy the networ; synchronism U
D5 F50 2A:T ,T T5 9E E4E.0TED #FE/ B I?:5B &'\
Apart from special cases, such as during the commissioning of an exchange or in connection with
certain types of special fault clearance, this configuration must not be executed. The uniform system
cloc; for this exchange would be lost and would ha(e to be substituted in emergency mode by the
in(ididual group cloc; generators #mainly in the 690s'. The result would be a flood of alarm
messages from the system periphery, referring to cloc; failures and transmission losses on the P.6
lin;s.
/o always enter #&'. ,n this case the redundant ..3 must undergo fault clearance first.
#ii' .onfiguration of ..3 to A.T?/T9B
.onfiguration to A.T can be done only indirectly for ..3s. ,f an A.T ..3 is configured to another
operating state, the system automatically switches the redundant ..3 to A.T, assuming that the
reundant ..3 was pre(iously in /T9.
.onfiguration to /T9 is of special significance in the case of ..3.
2hen a ..3 is configured from 69C to /T9, a general chec; of ..3 functions and safeguarding is
triggered. ,n the ..3, this chec; replaces the diagnosis and similar functions.
7or this reason, configuration to /T9 is used at the start of fault clearance procedures to (erify a fault.
,n the further course of fault clearance it ser(es as an indication of whether a fault is still present, has
changedor has been eliminated.
.5:7 ..3 B ..3 L side, 5/T L /T9Q
5.5 D"24-,'"'
,t is not possible for operating personnel to start a ..3 diagnosis. The diagnostic functions for ..3
ae carried out during configuration from 69C #or 0:A' to /T9. During this state transition, the first
part of the ..3&+50T&TE/T is triggered, which performs a general chec; of ..3 functions and the
..3Ps internal fault indicators #/ection !.3, /afeguarding'.
2!@
5.= T$'#'
,t is not possible for the oparating personnel to perform an on line test of the ..3. This would be
superfluous, since a test of this ;ind is already performed by the .P, with the internal fault indicators,
the inser(ice super(ision and the daily +50T&TE/T #/ection !.3, /afeguarding'.
5.7 Pr$)$-#")$ M2"-#$-2-$
7or a digital ..3#A', pre(enti(e maintenance is only necessary for the leading ..3#A' of an
exchange operating as networ; master. ,t should be carried out e(ery six months #for module
..344A K"""' or once a year #for module 6B ..344A K$)!'. This can only be done by a
trained specialist with the necessary tools and e*uipment #synthsiDer, atomic fre*uency standard' and
therefore falls into the category of special fault clearance.
=./ CCG 3 1%-#",-26 S#r%#%r$ 2-0 M2"-#$-2-$
E7ercise 1
.hec; the operational status, the mode of synchroniDation and the current status of the reference
fre*uencies of the ..3. 0se for this purpose the /TAT?D,/P command and the CED of the ..3
modules.
E7ercise !.
After chec;ing the fault free operation of both ..3 pull off the internal cable which transports the
master cloc; to the sla(e ..3for super(ision purpose.
.hec; the status changes inside the ..3 by using the concerned 66C T command and interpreting
the CED 57 ..3.
Pull the modules of the 0:A&..3 and chec; the position of the switches concerning the mode of
external synchronisation used for the ..3
Perform all measures to reacti(ate the disturbed ..3
2!!
S&'#$( P2-$6
What is inside 1
1. System Pane"
!. Structure o/ the SCP
!.1 SCPD
!.! SCP+
!. 8ac& and 3rame "ayout
. O(eration o/ the SCPD
). A"arm Priorities
*. A"arm .ode
,. E7terna" A"arms
,.1 Assignment o/ EALs to 8.5EA (ins
,.! De/ining A"arm %e7ts
,. Assigning A"arm %e7ts and de/ining a"arm Priorities
,.) Leve"s /or E7terna" DL# A"arms
). A"arm and Archive 3i"es
2!=
1./ S&'#$( P2-$6 2-0 C$-#r26 S&'#$( P2-$6
The function of the system panel #/FP' is to pro(ide audible and (isual indications of alarms and
ad(isories from system&internal and system&external super(isory units. 0nli;e the detailed error
messages which can be obtained from the .P at the operation < maintenance terminal if a fault
occurs, thesystem panel pro(ides a constant o(er(iew of the current functional status of the system.
The functional states of the exchanges in an entire area can be super(ised at a higher&ran;ing 56.. A
central system panel #./FP', which indicates all the alarms and ad(isoies generated by the switching
centers, can be installed in the 56. for this purpose.
1"4%r$ 1 3 S&'#$( +2-$6
2!
2./ S#r%#%r$ ,: #!$ SYP
The system panel #/FP' signals critical alarms, ma8or and minor alarms, ad(isories and system data
coming from the exchange or elsewhere. This signaling may be (isual or audible.
T!$ SYP ,-'"'#' ,: 3
a /ystem Panel .ontrol #/FP.', which is housed in the .B69?..3 rac;,
and
A maximum of " /ystem Panel Displays #/yPDs'.
The /FPDs can be located in the exchange, in an 5<6 centre, or at any other site from which the
exchange is to be montored.
2.1 S&'#$( P2-$6 D"'+62& 7SYPD8
/FPD displays the data recei(ed from and processed by the /FP.. ,n addition to the &segment
displays in the header line, there are two groups of displays B
- system displays and
- external alarms.
The system displays are combined in framed functional groups. They are preset as far as their
function is concerned. /tandard alarm piorities #critical alarm, ma8or alarm, minor alarm' are defined
for the system displays. These priorities can be changed within certain limits by means of the
command E:T+ ACP+,5.
The external alarms are located in the upper right&hand corner of the /FPD front panel. The external
alarms can be set as desired. 7or external exchange alarms, alarm priorities are set by programming in
the user EP+56. 0ser&specific alarm texts can be assigned to external alarms.
Ad(isories can be output as well, e.g. if a functional unit is bloc;ed due to testing or repair wor;. 7or
output of ad(isories command is D,/P ,:D,..
The alarms and ad(isories are indicated on CED panels with a pair of CEDs and a single CED for each
indication, and on three &segment decimal displays #for the date, time and call processing .P load'.
The alarms are signaled audibly by means of a horn in the housing of the /FPD. A second horn can be
connected if necessary (ia a cable.
2!"
A62r( Pr",r"#"$' :,r S&'#$( D"'+62&'
Three alarm priorities can be represented on the /FPDB
- .ritical alarm, e.g. caused by a functional unit failure with no possibility of switching o(e
to standby.
- 6a8or alarm, e.g. caused by a functional unit failure with possibility of switching o(er to
standby,
- 6inor alarm, e.g. caused by a fault on a P.6 lin;.
2.11 H,* 262r(' 2-0 20)"',r"$' 2r$ '"4-26$0 2# #!$ SYPD 2-0 #!$ OMT
D%r"-4 %+02#"-4 7%+02#$ <$&8 !,r- 0,$' -,# ',%-0.
2!%
,f a critical alarm is already set for a unit, a new ma8or or minor alarm
which applies to the same unit will be suppressed.
,f units are duplicated #e.g. /: ' and /:$', /FPD will not show which of
the two units caused the alarm.
The traffic load display is updated e(ery @ seconds.
Date and time of the .P cloc; are corrected with an 66C command.
/ubse*uently, the /FP cloc; is automatically synchroniDed.
The three;eys in the /FP display field ser(e to operate the /FP,
UPDATE 3 This ;ey updates all displays on all connected /FPD/. The CED abo(e the update ;ey
lights up during the updating process.
TEST 3 ,f the test ;ey is pressed, all CEDs should light up and the horn should sound for ")) ms. The
horn only sounds if it has not been switched off in the /FPD and if the /FPD dusplays are not
currently being updated. The test ;ey only affects the /FPD to which it belongs.
ACEPT 3 Each new alarm is signaled at the /FPD by the acti(ation of the horn and the fast
blin;ing of the corresponding CED. The alarm must then be accepted by pressing the accept the alarm.
This is done by entering the processing codes for a specific alarm in procedure /FP$)) with the
command /ET AC/TAT.
5ne /FPD, usually the /FPD in themaintenanced center, is a master panel #there can be se(eral
master panels'. Pressing the RacceptP ;ey on a master panel results in acceptance at all other /FPDs.
Aowe(er, presssing the accept ;ey on the /FPD which is not a master panel only affects that /FPD,
not any other.
,f an alarm is not accepted within ! minutes, the horn is set to its maximum (olume.
Aow long the horn sounds can be set with the command E:T+ AC65DE.
2=)
2.$.2 /FPD Displays
&segment displays B
65:TA&DAF Date
T,6E Time
P+.E//5+ C5AD .all processing load on the .P
Push 9utton 1eys B
A..EPT Accept ;ey for /FPD
TE/T Test ;ey for /FPD
0PDATE 0pdate ;ey for /FPD
/ystem displays B
$. E4TE+:. EK0,P6 #External E*uipment' Digital Cine 0nits
#DC0s'
2. /E+H,.E ACA+6
3. 6A,:TE:A:.E ACA+6
@. C,:E T+0:1 3+50P
!. /2,T.A,:3 :ET25+1
=. .56. .AA:. /,3:ACC,:3
. 6E//A3E 9077E+
". .E:T+AC 0:,T/
%. .C5.1
$). /F/TE6 PA:EC
$$. T+0:1 3+50P ACA+6
$2. C,:E C5.150T
$3. /,3:ACC,:3 C,:1 :5.
$@. .ACC ,DE:T,7,.AT,5:
23. E4T. DC0 ACA+6
2@. AD6,:.ACA+6/
2!. +E.5HE+F
2=. T,6E ,:/E.0+E
2. T+0:1 3+50P 9C5.1
2". .AT $ .atastrophe le(el $
2%. .AT 2 .atastrophe le(el 2
3). /FTE6 5PE+AT5+
3%. A2&0:,T/ 69C Aardware 0nits #,ndication for Aardware
0nits which are in the operating states
.9C, 69C or /PC,T'
2=$
@) /,3:ACC C,:1 :5. 9C5.1ED
@$ ACA+6 ,:D,.AT,5: /0P+E//ED
$!&22 and 3$&3"
E4TE+:AC ACA+6/ , e.g. Air .onditioning
Dc Power /upply
Entry /uper(ision
7ire
6ain Power /upply
2.2 SYPC
The /FP. is not duplicated. Ci;e the message buffers #69s', the /FP. is connected to the input?out
processors #,5Ps' of the .P. Hia this interface #,5PB/FP.', the /FP. recei(es the necessary data
from the .P. The /FP. uses these data to determine what it signals, for example, critical?ma8or?minor
alarms, ad(isories, date, time, and processor load.
A second interface #+6BEA' supplies the /FP. with data on the operating states of external
e*uipment. These operating states can be displayed on the /FPD.
A third interface #T4A B /FP.', allows /F5D signaling to be forwarded to external fault signaling
de(ices.
The /FP. can be installed in either a 7B/FP. type or a 7B/FP.#A' type frame. ,n contrast to frame
7B/FP., frame 7B/FP.#A' can accommodate $) .DE4 modules in addition to the /FP. modules.
The .DE4 modules pro(ide the system cloc;, which controls and synchroniDes external de(ices.
Also, instead of the two (oltage con(erters D...A and D...9, the 7B/FP.#A' hbas the (oltage
con(erter D...+, which supplies the /FP. modules with D. power. ,f .DE4 modules are
installed, an additional D...C (oltage con(erter must be present which supplies power to the .DE4
modules. The standard configuration of an /FP. includes only one T?+6B/FP. module
#T?+6B/FP.', which can ser(e up to four /FPDs #/FPD) to /FPD3'. A second T?+6B/FP.
module #T?+6$ /FP.' is only needed when more than four /FPDs are used.
2=2
2.3 M2@"(%( C,-:"4%r2#",- ,: #!$ 1r2($' 13SYPC 2-0 13 SYPC 7A8
The following table shows the maximum configuration and the appropriate 65C5.s for the modules
in the 7B/FP. and 7B/FP. #A'.
2=3
1"4%r$ 2 3 M,0%6$ :r2($ A :,r '&'#$( +2-$6 ,-#r,6 B13SYPC7A8
1"4%r$ 3 3 R2< *"#! '&'#$( +2-$6 ,-#r,6.
2=@
1"4%r$ 4 3 S#r%#%r$ ,: #!$ '&'#$( +2-$6
3./ O+$r2#",- ,: #!$ SYP
3.1 N,#$' ,- O+$r2#",-
/ignaling at the /FPD ser(es to inform operating personnel of alarms or ad(isories. After a new alarm
occurs, the horn must be switched off by pressing the accept ;ey on the /FPD.
Each alarm is the basis for a fault clearance action. 2ith the help of the CED designation of the new
alarm, the general fault clearance procedure /FP$)) must be used to begin fault clearance. ,n this
fault clearance procedure, the new alarm must be accepted by entering a processing code. 2hen this is
done, the CED will flash only half as fast. /ubse*uent to procedure /FP$)), fault clearance continues
with appropriate maintenance manual. The unit which caused the alarm is placed bac; in ser(ice by
executing this procedure in its entiretyQ and only then will alarm display at the /FPD be canceled.
During the /P$)) fault clearance procedure, fault listings which corrspond to the signaling at the
/FPD are selected from the alarm file. This is done with the comands.
2=!
D,/P ACA+6 and
/+.A ACA+6
2hen using these commands, the term 59-E.T occurs as a parameter. This parameter directly names
the unit signaled at the /FPD. The following table shows which abbre(iations must ta;e the place of
59-E.T in order to match /FPD or 56T signaling.
O5G$# #256$
Cable on /FPD 59-E.T CED number
Admin Alarms AD6,:AC 2@
.om. .han. /ignaling ../ =
.loc; .C5.1 %
.entral 0nits .0 "
Extern. E*uipm. DC0 $ and @
Ext. DC0 Alarm EACDC0 23
External Alarms EACE4.A $!&22, 3$&3"
Cine Coc;out C:C.150T $2
Cine?Trun; 3roups CT3 @
6aintenance Alarm 6AC 3
6essage 9uffer 69
+eco(er +E.5H 2!
/er(ice Alarm /AC 2
/ignaling Cin; :o. /,3C,:3$3
/witching :etwor; /: /: !
/ystem 5perator /F5P 3)
/ystem Panel /FP /FP $)
Trun; 3roup Alarm T3AC $$
Time ,nsecure T,6,:/E. 2=
2==
3.2 C,-:"4%r2#",- ,: SYP
/TAT /FP
.5:7 /FP
O+$r2#"-4 S#2#$' ,: #!$ SYP
Three operating states are defined for the /FPQ these operating states indicate the following B
A.T B The /FP. is functioning properly.
The /FPD may or may not be fault&free.
7aulty /FPDs do not influence the operating state of the /FP.
The /FP continues to be in the A.T state.
7ailure of one /FPD is signaled at the remaining /FPDs.
0:A B The /FP is either defecti(e or has been ta;en out of ser(ice manually.
69C B The /FP is out of ser(ice due to testing or maintenance.
P$r("''"56$ '#2#$ #r2-'"#",-' :,r SYP 3
5ldcnew A.T 0:A 69C
A.T & yes yes
0:A yes & yes
69C yes & &
3.3 S2:$4%2r0"-4
5f all possible faults, most are detected in the /FP are itself by B
+outine test programs in the /FP. and the /FPDs
/afeguarded data transmission between .P?/FP. and /FP.?/FPD
Halidity chec;s in the/FP.
+outine polling of /FP. by the .P
,f an error is detected in an /FPD, the processor in the /FPD is stopped and the interface to the /FP.
is bloc;ed. A /FP alarm is displayed at the affected /FPD and the processor load display is blac;ed
out.
A failed /FPD is detected by the /FP. and reported to the .P. Also, an alarm is signaled in the/FP
display field of the remaining /FPDs. ,f four /FPDs fail within the specified time period, the .P
ta;es the /FP. out of ser(ice.
2=
After a failed /FPD has been repaired, the /FP. automatically returns it to ser(ice and reports this to
the .P.
/FP. errors are detected by an internal routine test and reported to the .P in the form of spontaneous
error messages. This displayed as an /FP failure at the /FPDs.
The interface between .P and /FP. plays a special role. The transmission of Xprocessor loadY is
timed in the /FP.. ,f this transmission does not ta;e place within a predefined time, then /TP failure
and total failure of the processor are signaled. ,f transmission resumes, this alarm is automatically
canceled.
The .P issues test commands in short inter(als to test /FP. operation.
All error messes lead to initiation of /FP fault analysis #7AB/FP' 7AQ/FP distinguishes among errors
which lead to /FP. total failure and thus to total failure of the /FP area #unconditional power Toff',
errors which do not terminate operation #e.g. /FPD failure', and errors which only cause an /FP.
reset.
4./ A62r( Pr",r"#"$'
The standard alarm priorities are pro(ided in the system. This assignment of the three alarm priorities
critical alarm, ma8or alarm and minor alarm is permanently set in normal ser(ice and can only be
changed during the installation phase. Alarm priority can be changed with E:T+ ACP+,5.
D"'+62& A62r( Pr",r"#"$'.
All alarm priorities set in the system for alarm signaling on the /FPD can be displayed with the
command D,/P ACP+,5. The display is dependent on the alarm unit. 5nly the CED E4TE+:.
EK0,P6 is not displayed, as this CED does not indicate an alarm priority, but only the supplementary
information, that the CT3 alarm signaled is a DC0 alarm.
,n response to the command D,/P ACP+,5B AC0:,T L xxxxxxxxQ only those alarm priorities are
output which belong to the alarm unit specified. ,n response to the command D,/P ACP+,5Q #without
any parameter' a complete list of all alarm units together with their respecti(e alarm priorities is
output.
$ISP A(PRIO 4A(,NIT D ;;;;;;;;
ACA+6 P+,5+,T,E/
AC0:,T /D3 ACP+,5
xxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx
Explanation B
ACP+,5 B Alarm priority .+,T,.AC critical alarm
6A-5+ ma8or alarm
6,:5+ minor alarm
2="
/D3 #/er(ice Degradation' :5 :o degradation of ser(ice is possible for the
alarm unit specified in AC0:,T.
FE/ Degradation of ser(ice is possible for the alarm
unit specified in AC0:,T i.e on the failure of
both alarm units, the .+,T,.AC ACA+6
priority is signaled instead of that specified in
ACP+,5.
AC0:,T #Alarm unit' 7or the parameter AC0:,T the following (alues are allowedB
A,. air circulator
A::AC announcement trun; alarm
9AP base processor
9.6F bus to common memory
9D.3 bus distribute and cloc; for DC0
.ACC,D$ 6., immediate
.ACC,D2 6., on subscriber re*uest
.ACC,D3 6., o(er trun;
.AP call processor
..3 control cloc; generator
..:P common channel signaling networ; control
../C common channel signaling lin;
.A channel
.6F common memory
.+ code recei(er
./. central ser(ice channel
.01 central unit ;ernel
D.. direct current con(eter
D,0 digital interface unit
D,06AC D,0 maintenance alarm
D,0/AC D,0 ser(ice alarm
DC0. digital line unit control
EACDC0 external DC0 alarm
EACE4.A external exchange alarm
E6/P emergency ser(ice e*uiment for push&button subscribed DC0
A/P high speed printer
A/7. high speed printer control
,5. input output control
,5P.DD ,5P for cartridge dis; de(ie
,5P69 ,5P for message buffer
,5P6DD ,5P for magnetic dis; de(ice
,5P6TD ,5P for magnetic tape de(ice
,5P/.D ,5P for serial data communication de(ices.
,5P/.DH ,5P for serial data communication de(ices (
,5P/.D4 ,5P for serial data communication de(ices x
,5PTA,5P ,5P for tape dis; de(ic
2=%
,P. interprocessor channel
,/09 subscriber ,/D:
CTg line trun; group
CT3.ED line trun; group central
CT3PA7 line trun; group partial
69 message buffer
690C 6E//A3E 9077E+ 0:,T 75+ ltg
690/ message buffer units for CT3
690/ message buffer unit for /3.
6DD magnetic dis; de(ice
6DD. magnectic dis; de(ice control
6TD magnetic tape de(ice
6TD. magnetic tape de(ice control
60 processing unit
+AE recorded announcement e*u8ipment
+A63 ringing gemeratpr amd metering (oltage generator for DC0
/,CT signaling lin; terminal
/,CT. signaling lin; terminal control
/C6 subscriber line module
/: switching networ;
//3 space stage group
/09 subscriber analog
/FP system panel
/F/5P call for system operator
T3AC trun; group alarm
T,6,:/E. time insecure
T/3 time stage group
Tu test unit
5./ A62r( M,0$
The alarm mode for the /FP consists of the two ser(ice features /TAT0/ and AC,6. 7or the ser(ice
feature /TAT0/, three different alarm statuses can be defined in the user /P+56 in the /FP.B
AC/TAT ), AC/TAT $ and AC/TAT2.
E-#$r A62r( M,0$
0sing the command E:T+ AC65DE, the /FP can be brought into one of the three alarm statuses
alstat&), alstat&$ or AC/TAT&2 and the ser(ice feature AC,6 can be switched on or off.
E:T+ AC 65DE. #Enter alarm mode'
/TAT0/ L xxxxxxxx Alarm status
AC,6 L xxx Aooter alarm limit #FE/ ? :5'
2)
S$r)"$ :$2#%r$ HLIM 3
,f an alarm is not confimed on the /FPD within ! minutes, the audible signal is set to maximum
(olume.
,f AC,6L:5 is then entered for this ser(ice feature, this characteristic is retained.
,f, howe(er, AC,6 T FE/ is entered, the audible signal is switched off automatically after the time
programmed in the user EP+56 #audible signal time can be programmed between $ and 2!! seconds
in $ second steps'. At the same time,the flashing fre*uency is hal(ed, i.e the alarm is thereby changed
from the unconfirmed form to the confirmed form.
After each new start of the /FP, the audible signal time limit is switched off. ,t is only switched on
again in a subse*uent update procedure, or if entered by 66C command.
/er(ice feature /TAT0/ B
The following (alues are allowed for the /TAT0/ parameter B
AC/TAT ), AC/TAT $, AC/TAT 2
ACA/TAT ) B 5utput of alarms to external fault signaling de(ices (ia module T4AB/FP. is bloc;edQ
5ther characteristics as for AC/TAT $.
AC/TAT $ B This status determines
- which /FPDs are master displays.
- which alarms are forwarded (ia module T4AB/FP. to external fault signaling de(ices.
- 2hether, in the e(ent of an alarm being forwarded (ia module T4AB/FP., a continuous
alarm is output on a master display, with or without cancellation on confirmation,
- 5r whether a pulsed alarm with a specific pulse duration is formwarded (ia module
T4AB/F0P..
AC/TAT 2B The same options are a(ailable in this status as in status $, although different
combinaions are allocated for status 2 than for status $, enabling a switcho(er from status $ to status 2,
e.g. a daytime ? night&time switcho(er.
After e(ery new start, the /FP. is in alarm status $. 5nly in thee(ent of a subse*uent Xupdating
procedureY is a change of alarm statuscarried out, if necessary by means of an 66l .ommand.
D"'+62& A62r( M,0$
The current alarm mode of the /FP can be displayed at any time with the command D,/P AC65DE.
2$
D,/P AC 65DE B
ACA+6 65DE Q
/TAT0/ AC,6
xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx
the (alues for parameters AC,6 and /TAT0/ are the same as those described abo(e.
1"4%r$ 5 3 E@#$r-26 A62r( L"-$ 7'"#$ J $@!2-4$8
@.$ Alarm Texts for External Exchange and DC0 Alarms and Alarm Priorities for
External DC0 Alarms
,n the E2/D system, fault printouts are generated for all faults occurring in system e*uipment and are
stored in alarm files. Apart from information identifying the system e*uipment affected, each fault
printout also contains a code word, which is a short text describing in greater detail the fault which has
occurred.
The /FP gi(es the suer the option of displaying not only alarms and indications of system e*uipment,
but also from e*uipment outside the exchange #external alarm units'. 7or this purpose, a maximum of
$= CEDs or pairs of CEDs are pro(ided on the /FPD in the E4TE+:AC ACA+6/ panel. ,n
addition, up to $= external alarm units can be connected to each DC0. The external DC0 alarms are
indicated by the Ext. DC0 ACA+6 pair of CEDs. 0sers can create fault printouts containing rele(ant
information for each of these external alarms, which they ha(e defined themsel(es, by entering fault&
specific texts in the system. These texts can also be chec;ed, canceled and assigned to external alarm
22
lines #EAC'. 7or the external DC0 alrms, the le(els on theindi(idual EACs can be set by means of an
66C command. These commands are described on the following pages.
The external alarm units of an exchange are routed directly #or (ia an 6D7' to the /FPc #module
+6BEA'. The exact description of how the external alarm units are connected can be found in section
CEDB/FP of register TA9 in the 6aintenance 6anual 66:B/FP.
EDL N,. P"- N,. EDL N,. P"- N,.
7EAL N,.8
$ 3 $3 @3
2 @ $@ @@
3 ! $! @!
@ = $= @=
! $ @
= " $" @"
% $% @%
" $) 2) !)
% $$ 2$ !$
$) $2 22 !2
$$ $3 23 !3
$2 $@ 2@ !@
Assignment of ,ndi(idual External Alarm Cines #EAC' to the Pins of the 6odule +6BEA
The external alarm units of a DC0 are connected (ia DC0 module ACE4. The exact description of
how these external alarm units are connected can be found in section CEDQDC0 of register TA9 in
maintenance 6anual 66:BDC0.
4.2 E-#$r A62r( T$@#
The E:T+ ACTE4T command can be used to enter a text of up to3) characters which may ha(e any
structure, but must not be empty. This command is also used to assign a text number to the text which
has been entered. ,f a text already exists in the system under the number entered, this text is
o(erwritten. A maximum of @) different texts may be entered.
The command D,/P ACTE4T pro(ides an o(er(iew of which alarm texts already exist in the system
and which text numbers are assigned to them.
E:T+ AC TE4TB #Enter alarm text'
TE4T:5 L xx Text number #$ to @))
TE4T L X xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxYQ Alarm text which represents an external alarm in a fault
listing. This text must be no longer than 3) characters and must be enclosed in *uotation mar;s.
23
.ancel Alarm Text
To cancel an alarm text, identified by its text number B
.A: AC TE4T B TE4T:5 L xxQ
The cancellation is performed only if the alarm text in *uestion is no longer assigned to an external
alarm line #EAC'.
Display Alarm Text
7or displaying a single alarm text, identified by its text number, or all alarm texts B
D,/P AC TE4TB TE4T:5 L xxQ
TE4T:5 TE4T
xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx O xxx
,f the parameter TE4T:5 is specified, the alarm text stored under that number is displayed and if no
text exists in the system under that number, an empty text is displayed .
,f the parameter TE4T:5 is not specified, then all alarm texts in the system are displayed with their
text numbers. Text numbers to which no alarm text is assigned are not displayed.
4.3 A''"4- A62r( T$@# 2-0 D$:"-$ A62r( Pr",r"#& :,r DLU
Each external alarm unit is connected (ia its own external alarm line #EAC'. ,n order that the correct
alarm text is displayed on the 56F or the HD0 for an alarm which has occurred externally, an
assignment of EAC to alarm text must be created by means of the 66C command .+ EAC.
.+ EAC B #.reate external alarm line'
/,TE L xxx, Aardware ,nstallation /ite.
/,TE L E4.A if the EAC in *uestion is connected to an exchange.
/5TE L DC0, if, howe(er, the EAC is connectedto a DC0.
,f the (alue E4.A is entered for this parameter, the priority is not specified as it must already be
specified in the user EP+56.
EAC L xx, External alarm line $ to 2@ for /,TE L E4.A
$ to $= for /,TE L DC0
TE4T:5 L xx Text number $ to @)
2@
ACP+,5 L xxxxxxxQ Priority of external DC0 alarm. The re*uired priority of the external DC0
alarm is entered in this parameter only in cases where /,TE L DC0. Possible (alues are B
.,T,.AC L critical alarm
6A-5+ Lma8or alarm
6,:5+L minor alarm
.ancel Alarm Text Assignment
An existing assignment of an alarm text to an external Alarm Cine #EAC' can be canceled by B
.A:EAC /,TE L xxx, Aardware installation site
/,TE L E4.A if the EAC in *uestion is connected to an exchange.
/,TE L DC0, if,. Aowe(er, the EAC is connected to a DC0.
EAC L xxQ External alarm line $ to 2@ for E4.A
$ to $= for DC0
1"4%r$ = 3 O)$r)"$* ,: A0("-"'#r2#",- ,: E@#$r-26 A62r( L"-$' 2-0 T$@#'.
D"'+62& A62r( T$@# A''"'4-($-#
2!
The assignments existing in the system between the alarm texts and the indi(idual EACs can be
displayed on the 56T 0sing the command.
D,/P EACB /,TE L E4.A or DC0
EAC L xx Q
Depending on whether the (alue E4.A or DC0 is specified for parameter /,TE, different mas;s are
displayed in response to this command. The parameter EAC may also be omitted, in which case all
alarm textsexisting in the system ardisplayed with reference to the specified hardware installation site.
=.4 L$)$6' ,: E@#$r-26 DLU A62r('
The user can determine, bymeans of an 66C command, which (oltage le(el on the rele(ant EAC
should be e(aluated as Xno alarmY for external DC0 alarmsQ These le(els, determined by an 66C
command, can then be displayed indi(idually or collecti(ely on the 56T.
Cr$2#",- ,: L$)$6' :,r E@#$r-26 DLU A62r('
The command .+ EAC CHC can be used to determine which le(el on each indi(idual EAC is to be
e(aluted as X no alarm_ for each DC0.
.+ EAC CHC B #.reate external alarm line le(el'
DC0 L xxxx, The number of the rele(ant DC0 is specified #possible range of (aluesB $) T 2!!)'
EAC L xx, External alarm line #$ to $='
CHC L xxxxQ This parameter specifies which le(el is to be e(aluated as Xno alarmY on the
corresponsding EAC.
A,3A B Either a le(el on the EAC which de(iates from ) or the open EAC is interpreted as Xno alarm
presentY.
C52 B 3round potential on the EAC is interpreted as Xno alarm presentY.
D"'+62& L$)$6' :,r E@#$r-26 DLU A62r('
The command D,/P EACCHC is used to display the le(el which is to be e(aluated as Rno alarm
presentP for one specific EAC or for all EACs.
D,/P EAC CHC B #Display EAC le(el'
DC0 L xxxx, The number of the rele(ant DC0 is specified #range of (alues B $) to 2!!)'
2=
EAC L xxQ External alarm line #$ to $='
D,/P EAC CHCB DC0 L xxxx, EAC L xxQ
DC0 EAC :on&Alarm Ce(el
,3A #Example'
7./ A62r( 2-0 Ar!")$ 1"6$' I(+,r#2-# :,r ODM S#2:
7.1 H1 ARCHIEE S&'#$( Ar!")$ 1"6$
- stores all maintenance messages of the system
- contains also additional information which is re*uired for special fault clearance by the
system specialist e.g. reco(ery messages, audit messages.
A+. ACA+6 is a duplicated cyclic file.
To read the contents of any A+.A,HE file B
D,/P AE:T+F Q A7,CE L
V AE:T+F LW
VT5. L W
/EC AE:T+F B A7,CE I
VT,6E L W
VDATE L W,
6/3 L
VACP+,5 L WQ
VD,+ L WU
+emar; B Additional A+.A,HE files can be created with .+ A 7,CE. They can be used for customer
specific message routing.
7.2 AM. ALARMA62r( 1"6$
- contains all fault messages which belong to no yet cleared /FPD alarms
- can only be read by the operator with the command D,/P?/+.A ACA+
- is a duplicated /ystem 7ile automatically created by the system.
To read the contents of A6. ACA+6 file B
D,/P ACA+6 B V59-E.T L W
VAC/TAT L W
VACP+,5 L WQ
/+.A ACA+6 B V59-E.T L W
VAC/TAT L W
2
VACP+,5 L W
V6/3:5 L W
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited
EWSD
SYSTEMS ARCHITECTURE
2"
NETAJI SUBHASH CHANDRA BOSE TELECOM TRAINING CENTRE
KALYANI, NADIA, WEST BENGAL, PIN 741235
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