Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 13

í∫’®Ω’-¢√®Ωç 1 -†-´ç-•®Ω’ 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Vatsalya: (Do) you know how to cook? 4) You should learn how to cook from my mother.
(Fèπ◊ ´çúøôç ᙫíÓ ûÁ©’≤ƒ?) 5) Just observe how my mother cooks.
Anuraga: What you've just tasted is my cook- 6) Enquire any one how my mother cooks.
ing. °j sentences ™E verbs †’ í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ. v°æA-
(É°æ¤púø’ †’´¤y ®Ω’* îª÷ÆœçC Ø√ ´çôØË.) ü∆E ûª®√yûª èπÿú≈ how ûÓ begin ÅßË’u clause
Vatsalya: That's really marvellous. I just can't ®√´ôç í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ (clause = A group of words
understand how you are able to with a verb). ≤ƒ´÷-†uçí¬ Ñ verbs ûª®√yûª how,
cook so well. what, when, where ™«çöÀ 'wh' words ûÓ v§ƒ®Ωç-¶µº-
(î√™« Å¢Á÷°∂æ’ç. Åçûª ¶«í¬ ᙫ ´çúø- ´’ßË’u clauses ´≤ƒh®·. ™‰èπ◊çõ‰, ¢√öÀûÓ v§ƒ®Ωç-¶µº-
í∫-©’-í∫’-ûª’-Ø√o¢Ó Ø√éπ®Ωnç 鬴ôç ™‰ü¿’.) ´’ßË’u phrases Å®·Ø√ ®√´îª’a, Oô-EoöÀ •ü¿’©’,
marvellous = ´÷¢˛-©Æˇ = Åü¿’s¥-ûª-¢Á’i†/ Ñ verbs ûª®√yûª noun/ ...ing form ®√´îª’a. Let's
study them more closely. wonder + how + he can do it (clause)
Å¢Á÷-°∂æ’-¢Á’i†. marvel = ´÷´™¸= Åü¿’s¥ûªç/ 5) observe = í∫´’-Eç-îªôç.
1) know: noun/ ...ing form wonder ûª®√yûª that + clause ´ÊÆh ã °æE a) The police have been observing the
Å¢Á÷°∂æ’ç. DE ûª®√yûª ´≤ƒh®·.
Anuraga: Why do you wonder how people can 'wh' words (how, when, where, what,
™‰èπ◊çõ‰ ïJ-T-†ç-ü¿’èπ◊ Ǩ¡a®Ωuç v°æéπ-öÀç-îªôç Å´¤-ûª’çC. movements of the suspects.
cook? It isn't that difficult. All that you etc) + clause/ phrase (phrase: a group of c) I wonder that he did all this =
words without a verb) (ņ’-´÷-E-ûª’© éπü¿-L-éπ-©†’ police ©’ éÌçûª-
need is the interest and a little prac- Éü¿çû√ Åûª†’ î˨»-úøçõ‰ Ǩ¡a-®Ωu-°æ-úø’-ûª’-Ø√o†’.
a) He knows English English wonder + that + he did ... (clause)
é¬-©çí¬ í∫´’-E-Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’)
tice. (Åûª-EéÀ ûÁ©’Ææ’)
knows (verb) + English (noun) have been observing (verb) + the move-
(á´-È®jØ√ ´çúø-í∫-©-®Ωçõ‰ Åçûª Ǩ¡a-®Ωu-§Ú-û√- (äéÓ\-≤ƒJ Ñ Å®ΩnçûÓ how èπÿú≈ ¢√úø-´îª’a,
b) He knows swimming (Ñü¿ôç ûÁ©’Ææ’) that •ü¿’©’) ments (Noun)
¢Áç-ü¿’èπ◊? Åçûª éπ≠d¢æ Ë’ç é¬ü¿C. Å´-Ææ-®Ω-
¢Á’iç-üË-N’-ôçõ‰ Åçü¿’™ ÇÆæéÀh/ ØË®Ω’a-éÓ-¢√- knows + swimming (...ing form) 4) learn = ØË®Ω’a-éÓ-´ôç/ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´ôç. Learn b) The medical students observed how the
©ØË éÓJé¬, éÌçûª Å©-¢√-ô÷†’.) c) He knows how to swim (ᙫ Ñü∆™ ûª®√yûª noun/ ... ing form/ wh clause ¢√úøû√ç. professor did the operation
Vatsalya: How did you learn it and who did you ûÁ©’Ææ’)knows + how + to swim (infinitive/ a) She learnt English at school. (Ç professor ᙫ operation î˨»®Ó, Ç ¢Ájü¿u
learn it from? phrase) learnt + English (noun) Nü∆u-®Ω’n©’ í∫´’-Eç-î√®Ω’)
(†’¢Áy™«, á´J ü¿í∫_-®Ω-†’ç* ØË®Ω’a-èπ◊- d) I know where we b) She is learning to observed + how ('wh' word) + the profes-
Ø√o´¤?) can meet him. cook/ cooking from sor did the operation (clause)
know (verb) + her mother.
Anuraga: Who else from? From my mother. 6) enquire =Nî√-Jç-îªôç/ Åúø-í∫ôç (Inquire ÅE
where ('wh' word)
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
You should learn how to cook from
(¢√∞¡x´’t ü¿í∫_-®Ω’oç* èπÿú≈ Åçö«ç)
mom; she is so good at cooking. + we can meet 377 ´çô/ ´çúøôç ØË®Ω’a-
a) He enquired about my brother's job =
him (clause) éÌç-öçC.)
(ÉçÈé-´J ü¿í∫_®Ω’oç*. Çߪ’† ´÷ brother
´÷ Å´’t ü¿í∫_-

Do you know how to cook?


ÖüÓu-í¬Eo í∫’Jç*
®Ω’oçîË. ´çúøôç ÅúÕ-í¬úø’.
´÷ Å´’t ü¿í∫_Í® enquired + about
ØË®Ω’a-éÓ-¢√L. ÇN- (ÉC ¢√ú≈-LqçüË) + job
úøçûª ¶«í¬ ´çúø’-
(Noun)
ûª’çC.) is learning + to cook (infinitive) +
Vatsalya: You don't suggest that I go now to Important: Know ûª®√yûª ¢ÁçôØË b) He enquired when the train would come
infinitive cooking (...ing form) Train
your mom hundreds of kilometres ´ÊÆh, äéπ®Ω’ îËߪ÷-Lq† °æE á°æ¤p-úÌ-Ææ’hç-ü¿E Åûª†’ ÅúÕ-í¬úø’/ Nî√-Jç-
c) Subhadra has learnt how to oper-
away just to learn how to cook! ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ ûÁ©’Ææ’ ÅØË Å®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçC, Ç î√úø’.
ate a computer =
(´çü¿© éÀ™-O’-ô®Ωx ü¿÷®Ωç™ Ö†o O’ Å´’t °æE ᙫ îËߪ÷™ ÅE é¬èπ◊çú≈. enquired + when ('wh' word) + the train
a) He knows how to do it = Computer
would come (clause)
ü¿í∫_-®Ω-ÈéRx ´çô ØË®Ω’a-éÓ-´’-†ôç ™‰ü¿’ éπü∆!) ᙫ ¢√ú≈™ Ææ’¶µºvü¿
Anuraga: Yea. That's what I suggest exactly. Åûª-E-éπC ᙫ îËߪ÷™ ûÁ©’Ææ’. ØË®Ω’a-èπ◊çC. c) He enquired whether the train would be
(knows + how + to do) has learnt + how + to operate
During the next vacation, do come M.SURESAN late =
b) He knows to do it = (infinitive)
down to our place, spend a few days Train
d) Sukumar is learning how he can live on a Ç©Ææu-´’´¤-ûª’çü∆ ÅE ÅúÕ-í¬-úø-ûª†’.
there and learn cooking.
enquired (verb) + whether + the train
Åûª-E-éπC îËߪ÷-©E ûÁ©’Ææ’. small budget =
would be late (clause)
(éπ*a-ûªçí¬ ÅüË îÁ°æ¤hØ√o. ´îËa ÂÆ©´¤™x ´÷ ûËú≈ îª÷¨»ç éπü∆? Å™«Íí– *†o/ ûªèπ◊\´ Çü∆-ߪ’çûÓ á™« •ûª-鬙
ÜJéÀ ®√. éÌEo ®ÓV-©’çúø’. ´çô ØË®Ω’aéÓ.) She knows how to cook =
Ææ’èπ◊-´÷®˝ ØË®Ω’a-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√oúø’. °j verbs ™ enquire ûª°æp, N’í∫û√ ÅEo
Vatsalya: (Do) you want me to wait till then?
(Budget = •>ö¸/ •ïö¸ = Ö†o úø•’sûÓ verbs ûª®√yûª 'that' ûÓ begin ÅßË’u clauses
´çô ᙫ îËߪ÷™ Ç¢Á’èπ◊ ûÁ©’Ææ’.
(Å°æp-öÀ-ü∆é¬ wait îËߪ’-´’ç-ö«¢√?) (knows + how + infinitive) ᙫ ÆæJ-°-ô’d-éÓ-¢√L/ úø•’s ᙫ ê®Ω’a °ö«dL ¢√úÌa.
Anuraga: Yes. Just observe how my mother She knows to cook = ÅØË N≠æߪ’ç.)
cooks, and you've learnt cooking. Ç¢Á’èπ◊ ûª†’ ´çô îËߪ÷-©E ûÁ©’Ææ’. is learning (verb) + how ('wh' word) + he
(Å´¤†’. ´÷ Å´’t ´çúøôç ñ«ví∫-ûªhí¬ knows + to cook (infinitive) can live ... (clause)
í∫´’-Eç. Fèπ◊ ´çô ´îËa-Æœ-†õ‰x.) 2) understand (Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-éÓ-´ôç/ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´ôç/
v°æ¨¡o: 1. aisle
Vatsalya: Is that so? (Å´¤Ø√?) Å®Ωn-´’-´ôç) 3) Arsehole/
2. debut 3. arsehole
Anuraga: Enquire any of my relatives in our a) Kapil understands English Asshole
place how my mother cooks. You will 4. peninsula –
[Kapil English (American) -
èπ◊ Å®Ωn-´’-´¤-ûª’çC. OöÀE ᙫ °æ©-é¬L? ÉC
know.
understands + English (noun)]
Å®Ωnç èπÿú≈ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. •÷ûª’-°æü¿ç– DE
(´÷ ö«d™ x á´-J-ØÁjØ√ Nî√-Jç b) Kapil understands how to do it = 5. Has the cat has got your tongue? Å®Ωnç Ééπ\úø N´-Jç-îª-™‰-ç. Pronunciation - -
6. Some arsehole had parked. So I ÇÆˇ£æ«Ù-™¸. [English Å®Ωnç - Anus] Aôd-ö«-EéÀ
(Åúø’í∫’), ´÷ Å´’t ᙫ ´çúø’-ûª’çüÓ, ÅC ᙫ îËߪ÷™ kapil èπ◊ ûÁ©’Ææ’/ Å®Ωnç
Fèπ◊ ûÁ©’-Ææ’hçC.) Å´¤-ûª’çC couldn't get out. ¢√-úø-û√®Ω’, ´‚®Ω’^-ú≈ -Å-ØË Å®ΩnçûÓ.
Vatsalya: What are you talking? Don't I know
understands + how ('Wh' word) + to do 4) Peninsula- °æ-E-Ø˛-Ææu©/ °æE-†q©– 'E— ØÌéÀ\
how she cooks? Your cooking itself Ñ ¢√é¬u© Å®√n©’ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
(infinitive)
is good, so hers must be certainly °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç– ´‚úø’-¢Ë-°æ¤© F∞¡Ÿx, ´·êuçí¬
-ï-¢√-•’:
– Ø√T-È®úÕf XE-¢√-Ææ’©’È®úÕf, éπ©’-¢√®·
c) Dravid understands why he has been
better. Need I enquire how she Ææ´·vü¿ç ´’üµ¿u Ö†o- ¶µº÷-¶µ«í∫ç– ¶µ«®Ω-ûª-ü˨¡ç,
dropped = ã peninsula - ÅÍ®-Gߪ÷ Ææ´·vü¿ç, £œ«çü¿÷
cooks?
ûª†-ØÁç-ü¿’èπ◊ ´C-™‰-¨»®Ó vü∆N-ú˛èπ◊ Å®Ωn-´’-´¤-ûÓçC: 1) Aisle = ♸ – ÆœE-´÷-£æ…™¸q™, class rooms
(†’¢Ëyç ´÷ö«x-úø’-ûª’-Ø√o´¤? Ç¢Á’™« ´’£æ…-Ææ-´·vü¿ç, •çí¬-∞«-ë«ûªç ´’üµ¿u ¶µº÷¶µ«í∫ç,
understands + why (wh word) + he has busses/ planes ™, seats ´®Ω-Ææ© ´’üµ¿u India. So India is a peninsula.
´çúø’-ûª’çüÓ Ø√èπ◊ ûÁL-ߪ’ü∆? F ´çõ‰ ™,
been dropped (clause) ÖçúË-ü∆J. (bus -©-™èπÿú≈ W (window) seat,
î√™« ¶«í∫’çC 鬕öÀd ÇN-úøC Éçé¬ 5) Has the cat got your tongue? / Lost your
understand ûª®√yûª ¢ÁçôØË infinitive ¢√úøç. A (Aisle) seat ÅE Öçô’çC éπü∆. Aisle seat
¶«í∫’ç-ú≈L. ü∆EéÀ Åçü¿JF Åúø-í¬™«?) tongue? =
3) wonder = 1) Ǩ¡a-®Ωu-§Ú-´ôç 2) ÅE-Pa-ûªçí¬ Ö†o seats
Anuraga: Take a joke, girly. (àüÓ joke î˨»ØËx.)
Åçõ‰ ´’üµ¿u ÖçúË -ü∆-J- ¢Ë-°æ¤-C)
2) Debut – úÁß˝’•÷u/ úÁ•÷u = †®Ωh-èπ◊©, †ô’©
àçöÀ ´÷ö«x-úø-ôç ™‰ü¿’?/ †’¢Áyç-ü¿’èπ◊ ´÷ö«x-
☯ ☯ ☯ ☯
N≠æߪ’ç í∫’Jç* Ç™-*ç-îªôç.
a) I wonder at Sachin's batting talent = v°æ-ü∑¿´’ ®Ωçí∫ -v°æ-ü¿-®Ωz†. (First appearance on -úø-ôç ™‰ü¿’?/ ØÓÍ®-´’Ø√o ´‚í∫-¶-®·çü∆?
Look at the following sentences from the 6) á´úÓ ´‚®Ω’^úø’ (arsehole) Åúøfçí¬ ûª† car
batting the stage of a dancer/ actor, etc.) É°æ¤púø’
conversation above.
Ææ*Ø˛ v°æA¶µº Ø√é¬-¨¡a®Ωuç éπL-T-Ææ’hçC.
1) Do you know how to cook? wonder + at (about) + ... talent (Noun) Ñ ´÷ô†’ Éûª-®Ω- ®Ωç-í¬-©èπ◊ èπÿú≈- ¢√-úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’. -†’ park î˨»úø’. Åçü¿’-´©x ؈’ •ßª’-ôèπ◊
2) I just can't understand how you are able to b) I wonder how he can do it = Tendulkar made his test debut in 1989
®√™‰-éπ-§Úߪ÷.
cook so well. Åûª-ØÁ™« îËߪ’-í∫-©-úø¶«s ÅE ņ’-èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√o test match
(Çߪ’† 1989-™ ¢Á·ü¿öÀ≤ƒJí¬ Çú≈úø’)
3) Why do you wonder how people can cook? (îËߪ’-í∫-©ú≈ ÅØË ÆæçüË£æ«ç)
Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 4 -†-´ç-•®Ω’ 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
Vipul: (I) missed you for almost a week. Look at the following sentences from the
Where had you been? conversation above.
Prapul: I've just returned from Chinnapalle. I 1) Have there been suicides there too?
was among our classmates who had 2) It's a pity that in a village of 6000 population,
been there on a social work project. there have been nineteen suicides.
We carried out some social work there 3) It's sad that the government hasn't done
for about a week. much about it.
(*†o-°æ™„x †’ç* É°æ¤púË AJíÌî√a†’. Åéπ\-úÓ 4) It's unfortunate that most of the schemes do
social service 鬮Ωu-véπ-´÷-EéÀ ´÷ é¬xÆˇ- not reach the poor.
5) It's obvious that corrupt officials and politi-
¢Ë’ö¸qûÓ Øˆ÷ ¢Á∞«x†’. ã ¢√®Ωç §ƒô’
Åéπ\úø ≤ƒç°∂œ’éπ ÊÆ¢√ 鬮Ωu-véπ´’ç E®Ωy- cians prevent the funds from going to the
EXERCISE
6) It's true...
£œ«çî√ç.) farmers. (ÅC Eïç)
Vipul: Have there been suicides there too? Practise the following aloud using introductory
6) It's true that middle men swindle most of the a) It's true that some land grabbers have
(Åéπ\úø èπÿú≈ Çûªt-£æ«-ûªu©’ ïJ-í¬ßª÷?) funds. government support = It/ there when possible.
Prapul: You mean of farmers? Oh, quite a Nakul:
7) It's probable that some poor farmers are not éÌçûª-´’çC ¶µº÷ éπ¶«b-ü∆-®Ω’-©èπ◊ v°æ¶µº’ûªy ´’ü¿lûª’ ¢√úÕ-éπ\-úÕéÀ ®√éπ-§Ú-´úøç Ǩ¡a-®Ωu¢Ë’.
good number. It's a pity that in a village
aware of these schemes. Öçü¿ØËC ¢√Ææh´ç/ ߪ’ü∆®Ωnç/ Ææûªuç. Manoj: à-N’ôçûª Ǩ¡a®Ωuç? ¢√úÌÊÆhØËç, ®√éπ-§Ú-
of 6000 odd population there have
8) Is it a fact that nearly Rs. 30 lakh meant for b) It was true that he had cheated the ûËØËç?
been nineteen suicides.
your village...? government = Nakul: ¢√úøçõ‰ Fèπ◊ É≠æd癉ü¿-ØËC ûÁL-Æ œçüË éπü∆?
(È®jûª’© Çûªt-£æ«ûªu© í∫’Jçî√ †’´y-ØËC? î√™«ØË. (clear ¢√úøçúÕ.)
-Ç®Ω’-¢Ë-© *©x®Ω ïØ√¶µ« Ö†o Ç ví¬´’ç™ Éçûª´- 9) It's not surprising if it has been. Åûªúø’ v°æ¶µº’-û√yEo ¢Á÷Ææç î˨»-úø-ØËC ߪ’ü∆®Ωnç.
éÀçü¿öÀ lessons ™ Introductory It/ there ûÓ 7) It's probable that... Manoj: †’´¤y ††’o Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-éÓ-™‰-éπ-§Ú-´úøç Nî√-®Ω-
®Ωèπ◊ 19 Çûªt-£æ«-ûªu©’ ïJ-í¬®·.)
begin îËÆœ† sentences ™ '...ing' form ¢√úøôç probable = ïJÍí/ ÖçúË Å´-鬨¡ç Öçúøôç éπ®Ωç. (sad ¢√úøçúÕ.)
Vipul: It's sad that the government hasn't
îª÷¨»ç. É°æ¤púø’ ´·êuçí¬ Introductory It ûÓ a) It's probable that he came here when I Nakul: ¢√úÕéà Fèπ◊ ÅGµ-v§ƒßª’ -¶µ‰-ü∆-©’ Öçúøôç
done much about it. They've
v§ƒ®Ω綵º¢Á’i, 'that' clause was away =
announced a number of schemes for Eïç é¬ü∆?
their welfare, though. (That ûÓ v§ƒ®Ω綵º´’ßË’u ؈’ ™‰†°æ¤púø’ Åûª-úÕ- Manoj: ÅC Eï¢Ë’. Ø√èπ◊ Å•-ü∆l¥©’ îÁÊ°p-¢√-∞¡xçõ‰
(¨îª-F-ߪ’-¢Á’i† N≠æߪ’ç à-N’ôçõ‰ v°æ¶µº’ûªyç clause) ᙫ ´≤ƒhßÁ÷ éπ\úÕéÀ ´*a ÖçúÌa/ É≠ædç ™‰ü¿-ØËC ߪ’ü∆®Ωnç.
îª÷ü∆lç. ÉC spoken ´îËa Å´-鬨¡ç ÖçC.
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 378 It's probable + that...
ü∆Eo í∫’Jç* °ü¿lí¬ àç îËߪ’-™‰-ü¿-ØËC. Nakul: Å®·ûË ¢√úø’ Å•ü∆l¥©’ Çúø-û√-úøç-ö«¢√?
English ™ very com-
î√™« °æü∑¿-鬩’ v°æéπ-öÀç-*-†-°æp-öÀéÃ.)
(That clause) Manoj: ؈C ¢ËÍ® îÁ§ƒp™«?
mon.
Prapul: It is unfortunate that most of the
ANSWER
schemes do not
Nakul: It's a surprise/

Have ther e been suicides ther e too?


reach the poor-
est farmers. surprising that
They are little he hasn't come.
benefited by Manoj: What's so sur-
these schemes prising about it?
though they are meant for them. àüÁjØ√ äéπ N≠æߪ’ç ÆæçûÓ-≠æ-éπ®Ωç/ b) Is it probable that he can pass? Nakul: It's clear that you don't like him.
(Ñ °æü∑¿-鬩’ î√™« Ê°ü¿¢√∞¡x-®·† È®jûª’©ü∆é¬ ü¿’®Ω-ü¿%-≠d-éæ π®Ωç/ Ǩ¡a-®Ωu-éπ®Ωç/ ¨îª-Fߪ’ç/ = Åûªúø’ §ƒÆˇ ÅßË’u Å´-鬨¡ç Manoj: It's sad that you can't understand me.
¢Á∞¡x´¤. Ñ °æü∑¿-é¬-©-´©x ¢√JéÀ v°æßÁ÷-ï†ç Nî√-®Ω-éπ®Ωç ÅØË Å®√n-©ûÓ ÉN áèπ◊\´ Öçü∆? Nakul: Isn't it a fact that you have differences
™‰†õ‰x, ÅN ¢√∞¡x éÓÆæç Å®·-†-°æp-öÀéÃ.) ¢√úøû√ç. ´’†ç É™«çöÀ sentences Is it probable + that... (That with him?
Vipul: It is obvious that corrupt officials and ¶«í¬ practice îËü∆lç. Manoj: It's true (that I have). It is clear that I
clause)
politicians prevent the funds from 1) Have there been suicides there don't like people who lie/ liars.
8) Is it a fact that...?
going to the farmers. too? M.SURESAN Nakul: (Do) you mean he lies? He is a liar?
fact = ¢√Ææh´ç
(ÅN-FA ÅCµ-é¬-®Ω’©’, ®√ïéÃߪ’ Ø√ߪ’-èπ◊©’ Ñ í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ: Ééπ\úø ¢Á·ü¿öÀ 'There' a) Is it a fact that you met him yesterday? =
Manoj: Need I say that again?
Eüµ¿’-©†’ Ê°ü¿ È®jûª’-©èπ◊ îÁçü¿-èπ◊çú≈ îËÆæ’h-Ø√o- introductory. Åçõ‰ Ñ there sentence v§ƒ®Ωç-
¶µ«-EÍé. Question 鬕öÀd verb ûª®√yûª ´*açC.
v°æ¨¡o:
®Ω-ØËC ûËô-ûÁ©xç.) †’´¤y ÅûªúÕE E†o éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´úøç ߪ’ü∆-®Ωn-
Prapul: It is true that middlemen swindle most (Ñ question èπ◊ answer: Yes, there have ¢Ë’Ø√?
been suicides there (= in that place - Ñ Is it + a fact + that... (That clause) We reached home after
of the funds too.
there èπ◊ Å®Ωnç É™« ´Ææ’hçC) too.) b) It is not a fact that he came here = the sun had set. -Ñ -¢√éπuç-
(ü¿∞«-®Ω’©’ Ñ Eüµ¿’™x î√™«-¢√-öÀE é¬ñ‰-Ææ’h-Ø√o- correct
2) It's a pity that ... = ÅC ¨îª-Fߪ’ç
®Ω-ØËC Eïç.) Åûª-E-éπ\-úÕéÀ ®√´úøç Eïç é¬ü¿’. -Å-Ø√o®Ω’. -Ñ -¢√éπuç--
It is (not) + a fact + that (That clause) ™ - after before
•-ü¿’-©’
swindle = é¬ñ‰-ߪ’ôç It's a pity that he couldn't pass =
9) It's not surprising that ....
-¢√-úÌ-a éπ-ü∆! -N-´-®Ωçí¬
Vipul: It is probable that some poor farmers ¢√úø’ §ƒÆˇ 鬙‰éπ-§Ú-´úøç ¨îª-Fߪ’ç/ ¶«üµ∆-éπ®Ωç. -ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’í∫-©®Ω’.
are not aware of these schemes at all. It's (It is) a pity + that he couldn't pass (that = ÅüËç-°ü¿l Ǩ¡a®Ωuç é¬ü¿’
clause)
-ï-¢√-•’:
It's not surprising that/ it's no surprise that
– °œ.-vÊ°-¢˛’-îªç-ü˛, -*-©éπ-©÷-JÊ°-ô.
(éÌçûª´’çC Ê°-ü¿ È®jûª’-©èπ◊ -Ñ °æü∑¿-é¬-©
3) It's sad .... = ÅC Nî√-®Ω-éπ®Ωç =
1) We reached home before the sun has
í∫’Jç* ûÁLߪ’-éπ-§Ú-´úøç èπÿú≈ ≤ƒüµ¿u¢Ë’). ÅüËç Ǩ¡a®Ωuç é¬ü¿’
a) It's sad that Dravid has been dropped. Kesav: Most people here have lung dis-
Prapul: Is it a fact that nearly Rs 30 lakh set. 2) We reached home after the sun
(Dravid eases.
meant for your village has been divert- had set.
†’ ïô’d-™éÀ BÆæ’éÓ-éπ-§Ú-´úøç Nî√-®Ω-éπ®Ωç.) -O-öÀ-E °æ-J-Q-L-ü∆lç:
ed to the MLA's village? b) It's unjust that Dravid has been ignored. (Ééπ\úø î√-™«-´’ç-CéÀ ¨»yÆæ-éÓ¨¡ ¢√uüµ¿’-©’- 1) We reached home before the sun has
(Dravid
set- Main clause verb- reached- past
(O’ ví¬´÷-EéÀ ÖüËl-Pç-*† 30 ©éπ~© ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’- †’ °æJ-í∫-ùÀç-îª-éπ-§Ú-´úøç ÅØ√uߪ’ç.) Ø√o®·.)
c) It's clear that injustice has been done to Arjun: It is not surprising that they have tense; subordinate cl verb- has set- pre-
©†’, MLA ví¬´÷-EéÀ ´’Rxç-*† N≠æߪ’ç the south.
Eï-¢Ë’Ø√?) the diseases. The factory here pol- sent tense- sen-
É™« -Öç-úø-ôç-´©x, Ñ
Vipul: It is not surprising if it has been.
(ü¿éÀ~ù ¶µ«®Ωûª Çô-í¬-∞¡xèπ◊ ÅØ√uߪ’ç ïJ-Tç-ü¿-ØËC lutes the atmosphere. tence We reached home
ûª°æ¤p-éπü∆.
Ææp≠ædç.) (¢√∞¡xé¬ ¢√uüµ¿’-©’ç-úøôç Ǩ¡a-®Ωu¢Ë’ç é¬ü¿’. before the sun had set ÅØ√o ûªÊ°p éπü∆?
(Å™« ïJ-TûË NçûËç é¬ü¿’.) It's + sad/ unjust/ clear + that... (that clause) Ééπ\úø earlier past action- reaching
Prapul: Let's hope that India will see better 4) It's unfortunate that...
Ééπ\úÕ §∂ƒuéπdK ¢√û√-´-®Ω-ù«Eo éπ©’-≠œûªç
home. reach, past perfect
Åçü¿’-´©x
days. It's unfortunate that we lost the match.
îËÆæ’hçC.)
It's not + surprising + that... (That clause) form, had reached Setting of
Öçú≈L.
(¶µ«®Ω-û˝èπ◊ ´’ç* ®ÓV©’ ´≤ƒhߪ’E ÇPü∆lç). = ´’†ç ´÷uî˝-™ ãúÕ-§Ú-´úøç ü¿’®Ω-ü¿%≠ædç. the sun- later past simple- set
It's a surprise that Dravid has been dropped
Öçú≈L.
It's + unfortunate + that ... (that clause) correct sentence, We had
   
Å°æ¤púø’
5) It's obvious. obvious = = Dravid
reached home before the sun set
Ææp≠ædç/ ûËô-ûÁ©xç †’ ûÌ©-Tç-îªúøç Ǩ¡a-®Ωu¢Ë’.
éÀçü¿öÀ lessons ™ îª÷¨»® éπü∆– It ûÓ, There a) It's obvious that Tennis is a game for the It's + a surprise + that.... (Ææ÷®√u-Ææh-´’ߪ’ç ´·çüË -¢Ë’-´· -É-©’x -îË®√ç
ûÓ ¢√é¬u©’ v§ƒ®Ωç-Gµç-îª-´-îªaE, Å™«çô°æ¤púø’ ¢√öÀéÀ rich = õ„EoÆˇ üµ¿†-´ç-ûª’©’ ´÷vûª¢Ë’ Çúø-í∫© (That clause) ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ).
Å®Ωnç àç Öçúøü¿-E. Sentence v§ƒ®Ωç-¶µ«-EéÀ ´÷vûª¢Ë’ véÃúø ÅØËC Ææp≠ædç/ ûËô-ûÁ©xç. (ÉC îª÷úøçúÕ: It's a surprise, Dravid losing 2) We reached home after the sun had
¢√úø-û√-´’E, ¢√öÀE Introductory There/ It Åçö«- It's + obvious + that ... (That clause) his place in the team. Introductory It †’ É™« set = Ææ÷®√u-Ææh-´’ߪ’ç ûª®√yûª É©’x îË®√ç–
´’E ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-Ø√o®. b) It was obvious that it was a murder and èπÿú≈ ¢√úøû√ç. °j sentences ÅEoçöÀE É™« sentence correct
Ñ Å®ΩnçûÓ Â°j éπü∆? É©’x
É°æ¤púø’ Introductory 'It' ûÓ spoken English not a suicide = ´÷®Ωaú≈-EéÀ v°æߪ’-Aoç-îªçúÕ. had reached.
îË®Ωôç ´·çü¿’, Åçü¿’-éπE,
™ Ææ®Ωy-≤ƒ-üµ∆-®Ω-ùçí¬ NE-°œçîË ´’JéÌEo- ®Ω-鬩 pattern ÅC £æ«ûËu, Çûªt-£æ«ûªu é¬ü¿-ØËC ûÁ©’-Ææ÷hØË ÖçC/ It's a pity/ surprise/ sad, etc + somebody/ the sun
Ææ÷®√u-Ææh-´’ߪ’ç, ûª®√yûª, Åçü¿’-éπE,
ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊çü∆ç. Ææp≠ædç. something + ...ing form) set.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


-´’çí∫-∞¡-¢√®Ωç 6 -†-´ç-•®Ω’ 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
Sita: Where can we meet Indira? Study the following:
(´’†ç ÉçC®Ω†’ áéπ\úø éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-í∫©ç?) a) I want to Know that =
Gopal: That's what I want to know too. Don't ÅC ؈’ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o†’.
you have any idea? b) That's what I want to know =
(ÅüË Øˆ’ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-†oC èπÿú≈. ÅüË Øˆ’ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-†oC.
FÍéç ûÁL-ߪ’ü∆?) ûËú≈ í∫´’-Eç-î√®Ω’ éπü∆, (a)éÀ (b) éÀ. (a) ™ ÅC
Sita: I'm afraid, no. Wait. I remember now. ÅØË-Ææ’hØ√oç. (b) ™, ''ÅüË—— ÅE, ü∆Eo ØÌéÀ\ îÁ°æ¤hØ√oç.
She told me she was going to Mr.
Raju's. That's where we can find her.
É™«, Åçõ‰ (b) ™ ´÷C-Jí¬ äéπ N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo ØÌéÀ\
îÁÊ°pç-ü¿’èπ◊, That's what, that's where, that's
when and that's how ™«çöÀ clause ©’ spoken
(™‰ü¿-†’-èπ◊çö«. Öçúø÷. É°æ¤púø’ í∫’®Ìh-≤ÚhçC
English ™ ûª®Ωîª÷ NE-°œ-≤ƒh®·. OöÀE ¢√úøôç ´©x
Ø√èπ◊. ®√V ÉçöÀéÀ ¢Á∞¡Ÿh-Ø√o-†E îÁ°œpçC.
´’†ç Ç¢Á’†’ Åéπ\úø îª÷úÌa.) b) He wants me to sweep. That's (exactly)
´’†ç stress îËߪ÷-©-†’-èπ◊†o ¢√öÀE Ææp≠ædçí¬ what insults me =
Ææ*-Ø˛èπ◊ í∫®Ωyç-™‰ü¿’. Åçü¿’-éπØË Åûª-†çõ‰ ØËE-≠d-æ
Gopal: Why on earth did she want to go to Mr.
Raju's?
îÁ°æpí∫©ç. ÉC practice îËߪ’çúÕ. ¢√öÀE O’ con- ††’o Üúø-¢√-©ç-ö«úø’. ÅüË Ø√èπ◊ Å´-´÷-†-éπ-
°æ-úø-û√†’/ Ø√éÀ≠dçæ , éÌEo-≤ƒ®Ω’x ¶«í¬ Çúø-éπ-
versation ™ ¢√úøçúÕ. î√™« effective í¬ §Ú-®·Ø√.)
(®√V ÉçöÀéÀ áçü¿’èπ◊ ¢Á∞«x-©E ņ’-èπ◊çC ®Ωçí¬ ÖçúËC. (§Ú©açúÕ. I like him for/ because of it)
Öçô’çC. (compare that insults me)
ÅÆæ©’?) b) She has the same opinions as I. That's
Look at the following sentences from the 2) That's where we can find her =
Sita: She wanted to learn from Mrs Raju how why I support her =
dialogue above.
to make Jangri. That's why she went Åéπ\úø/ Åéπ\úË üÌ®Ω’-èπ◊-ûª’ç-ü∆¢Á’ ´’†èπ◊/ ´’†-鬢Á’
1) That's what I want to know too.
Ø√™«çöÀ ¶µ«¢√™‰ Ç¢Á’N. Åçü¿’-éπØË ØËØ√¢Á’èπ◊
there. üÌJ-Íé-ü¿-éπ\úË. ´’ü¿l-A-≤ƒh†’.
2) That's where we can find her. a) Go to the first shop on the left of the road.
(X´’A ®√V ü¿í∫_®Ω ñ«çvU îËߪ’úøç ØË®Ω’a-éÓ-¢√- 4) That's when = Å°æ¤púø’/ Å°æ¤púË.
3) That's why she went there. That's where you get any book. =
a) You remember his uncle coming in.
©-†’-èπ◊çC. Åçü¿’èπ◊ ¢ÁRxç-ü¿-éπ\-úÕéÀ.)
Gopal: How do you know that she went there 4) That's how I know she went there. Road èπ◊ áúø´’¢Áj°æ¤†o ¢Á·ü¿öÀ shop èπ◊ ¢Á∞¡Ÿx. That's when I left the place. =
for that? 5) That's when both of them left for Mr. Raju's. Åéπ\úË üÌ®Ω’-èπ◊-ûª’çC Fèπ◊ à °æ¤Ææh-éπ-¢Á’iØ√.
§Ú©açúÕ: You get any Fèπ◊ ¢√∞¡x uncle ®√´úøç í∫’®Ω’hç-C-éπü∆? Å°æ¤púË
(Åçü¿’-éπØË ¢ÁRxç-ü¿E FÈ陫 ûÁ©’Ææ’?) °jsentences ™
book there.
؈-éπ\-úÕoç* ¢ÁRx-§Ú-®·çC.
Sita: Just yesterday she was telling me that underline expres-
îËÆœ†
Mrs Raju was good at making Jangri, sions practice
¶«í¬ îËÆœ b) Oval? I know. That's (§Ú©açúÕ: I left the place then)
b) That's exactly when I entered =
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
and that one of these she should learn O’ conversation ™ where Indians played
it from her. That's how I know she went ¢√úøçúÕ. 379 their first match. = Correct í¬ Å°æ¤púË Øˆ’ v°æ¢Ë-Pç-*çC.
for that. (§Ú©açúÕ: I entered
(X´’A ®√V ñ«çvU then)

That's what I want to know too 5) That's how =


¶«í¬ îËÆæ’hç-ü¿E, Å™«(Íí).
ûª†’ ØË®Ω’a-éÓ-¢√©E a) That's how he built
E†oØË Ø√ûÓ ÅçC. his house = ûª†’ Ç
Å™« ûÁ©’Ææ’ ûª†ç- É©’x éπöÀdç-ü¿-™«Íí.
b) People came up in life the hard way.
ü¿’-éÓÆæç Åéπ\-úÕéÀ
1) That's what I want to know = Oval N≠æ-ߪ’´÷ †’´y-ØËC? Ø√èπ◊
That's how he came up too =
¢ÁRxç-ü¿E.)
Gopal: Can you tell me when Indira left here? ؈’ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-†oC ÅüË. ûÁ©’Ææ’. Åéπ\-úË-í∫ü∆ Indians ûª´’
(Ééπ\-úÕoç* ÉçC®Ω Åéπ\úÕéÀ á°æ¤púÁ-RxçüÓ îÁ°æp- ('ÅüË— èπ◊ v§ƒ´·êuç) ¢Á·ü¿öÀ match ÇúÕçC? éπ≠d-°æ æ-úø-ôç-´™‰x @N-ûªç™ °jéÀ ´≤ƒh-È®-´-È®jØ√.
c) That's where we met for the first
Åûª†’ °jéÌ-*açD Å™«Íí.
í∫-©¢√?) (I want to know that ÅØÌa. (§Ú©açúÕ: He came up like that too)
Sita: We were watching a serial, and in came Å®·ûË, Ééπ\úø that èπ◊ stress ™‰ü¿’, time, isn't it? = Åéπ\úË éπü∆, ´’†ç
our friend Ramu. That's when both of ¢Á·ü¿-öÀ-≤ƒJ éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊çC. (§Ú©açúÕ! îª÷¨»®Ω’ éπü∆: 1) That's what èπÿ that èπÿ,
Åçõ‰ ÅüË ÅE Å®Ωnç ®√ü¿’. 'ÅC— éÀ, 2) That's where èπÿ there èπÿ, 3) That's why éÃ,
them left here for Raju's. We met there for the first time,
'ÅüË— éÀ ûËú≈ î√™« ÖçC éπü∆!) M.SURESAN because/ for èπÿ, 4) That's how èπÿ, like that èπÿ,
(¢Ë’´· TV serial îª÷Ææ’hØ√oç. Å°æ¤púø’ ´’† Some more examples: didn't we?)
and 5) That's when èπÿ, then èπÿ Ö†o ûËú≈?
N’vûª’úø’ ®√´· ´î√aúø’. Å°æ¤úø’ ¢√Rx-ü¿®Ω÷ a) That's what I don't like = Ø√èπ◊ †îªa-EC ÅüË/ 3) That's why = Åçü¿’Íé/ Åçü¿’-éπØË. That's ûÓ ´îËa expressions, Éçü∆éπ Ææ÷*ç-*-†ô’x
éπLÆœ ®√V ÉçöÀéÀ ¢Á∞«x®Ω’.) ÅüË Ø√èπ◊ †îªa-EC. §Ú©açúÕ. I don't like that a) Sachin is not proud. That's why I like him, emphasis èπ◊ ¢√úøû√ç. ÉC conversation ™
Gopal: Are both of them there? That's good. In ÅC Ø√èπ◊ †îªaü¿’. even if he doesn't play well sometimes = ´·êuç. Practice îËߪ’çúÕ.
fact I've been trying to meet Ramu for
some time now. Shall we go there
then? -v°æ-¨¡o: 1. Lay, lie, laid, lied, Í®°‘-§ƒ-öÀéÀ/ Í®°æ¤ °æ-Céπ-™«x ¢√Rx-éπ\úø ÖçúÕ He need not have been there= Åûª-†-éπ\úø
(¢√Rx-ü¿l®Ω÷ Åéπ\-úø’-Ø√o®√ Å®·ûË? ¶«í∫’çC. weigh, weight, by, Öçö«®Ω’. Öçú≈-Lq† Å´-Ææ®Ωç -™‰-ü¿’ = -Å-ûª-†éπ\-úø -Å-†-´Ææ®Ωçí¬
ÅÆæ©’ ؈’ ®√´·†’ éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√-©-†’-èπ◊ç- bye- OöÀ pronun- b) By this time next year, I shall have been -Ö-Ø√o-úø’ – -Å-ûª-†éπ\-úø Öçú≈Lq† Å´-Ææ®Ωç ™‰ü¿’–
ô’Ø√o. Å®·ûË ¢Á∞¡-ü∆´÷ Åéπ\-úÕéÀ?) ciation ûÁ-©’°æí∫-©®Ω’. out of India/ in the US = Åûª-†-éπ\úø ÖØ√oúø’ í∫ûªç™– Å™« Öçúøôç
Sita: We shall. Let me clean up the mess on 2. Will have been, shall ņ-´-Ææ®Ωç)
´îËa Ææç´-ûªq®Ωç Ñ Ææ´’-ߪ÷-EéÀ (= Ñ Ææ´’-
the dining table. I won't be a minute. have been, can have 3) i) In the light of = Ç v°æ-鬮Ωç îª÷ÊÆh/ ü∆E/ -¢√öÀ
ߪ÷-EéÀ ´·çüË) ؈’ ¶µ«®Ωû˝ •ßª’ô/ US ™
(¢Á∞¡ü∆ç. Dining table O’ü¿ í∫çü¿-®Ω-íÓ-∞¡çí¬ been, may have Öçö«†’. (Åçõ‰ Ñ time èπ◊ ´·çüË, ¶µ«®Ωû˝ Çüµ∆-®Ωçí¬/ ü∆E °∂æL-ûªçí¬
ÖçC. ÅC ¨¡Ÿv¶µºç îËÆœ ´≤ƒh. äéπ\ éπ~ùç.) been, dare have ´CL/ US èπ◊ îËJ Öçö«†’.) a) In the light of his remarks it is clear he
mess = éπçí¬S, í∫çü¿-®Ω-íÓ-∞¡çí¬, Å°æ-J-¨¡Ÿ-v¶µºçí¬ been, need have won't be here for long =
Can have been - ÖçúÕ Öçúøí∫©í∫ôç–
Ö†o. I won't be a minute = äéπ\ éπ~ùç èπÿú≈ been- OöÀ Å®√n©’,
He can have been the President- ÅûªE ¢√uêu-©†’ •öÀd îª÷ÊÆh, Åûª-E-éπ\úø áèπ◊\´
Öçúø†’. They won't be five minutes = âü¿’ ¢√úø’éπ ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’í∫-©®Ω’.
EN’-≥ƒ©’ èπÿú≈ Ç©Ææuç îËߪ’®Ω’ ¢√∞¡Ÿx. 3. i) In the light of, ii) lighter movement -
Åûª†’ president í¬ Öçúø-í∫-LÍí-¢√-úø’. 鬩ç Öçúø-úø-ØËC Ææp≠ædç.
b) In the light of what has happened, I have
ÉC O’ English ™ practice îËߪ’çúÕ. Å®·ûË ÉC î√-™« Å®Ω’-ü¿’í¬ ¢√-úø-û√®Ω’. can have
to change my opinion of things =
Å®√n©’, ¢√úø’éπ îÁ°æpçúÕ.
been Å®ΩnçûÓ can be ØË áèπ◊\-´í¬ ¢√-úø-û√®Ω’.
É°æ¤púø’
   
-ï-¢√-•’:
– öÀ.Ææ÷-®Ωu-Ø√-®√-ߪ’ù, ®√´¤-©-§ƒ™„ç ïJ-T†ü∆Eo •öÀd, ؈’ éÌEo N≠æ-ߪ÷© í∫’Jç*
May have been - ÉC èπÿú≈ é¬Ææh Å®Ω’ü¿’. ÖçúÕ
Daily real life situations ™ spoken English
Ø√ ÅGµ-v§ƒ-ߪ÷©’ ´÷®Ω’a-éÓ-¢√Lq ´≤ÚhçC.
Öçúø-´îª’a ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ – He may have been
™ ÅüË (ÅüË Ø√é¬\-¢√-LqçC ™«çöÀ sentences ™), 1. lay- ™„ß˝’, lie- ©ß˝’; laid- ™„ß˝’ú˛; lied- ™„jß˝’ú˛; ii) lighter moments (lighter movements é¬ü¿’)
there = Åûª-†-éπ\úø Öçúø-´îª’a – ÉüË Å®ΩnçûÓ may
Åéπ\úË (Åéπ\úË ÅC ïJ-TçC ™«çöÀ sentences ™), weigh= In lighter moments = (á´-È®jØ√ Ææ®Ω-ü∆í¬/
¢Áß˝’ (¢Á–°-ü¿-´¤-©†’ í∫’çvúøçí¬ A°œp be áèπ◊\´ ¢√-úø-û√®Ω’. ÅüË may have + past
Å°æ¤púË (Å°æ¤púË ÅC îª÷¨»†’ ™«çöÀ sentences ™), serious í¬ ™‰E Ææçü¿-®√s¥-©™)
ü¿í∫_-®Ωèπ◊ BÆæ’-èπ◊-®ΩçúÕ); weight= ¢Áß˝’ö¸ (¢Á–°j† participle (been •ü¿’©’) - He may have
Å™«Íí (Ç¢Á’ Å™«Íí îËÆœçC ™«çöÀ sentences ™), îÁ°œp-†õ‰x) by, bye= ¶„j. gone- ¢√úø’ ¢Á∞¡Ÿxç-úÌa– DE-éπØ√o He might a) In his lighter moments he is very jovial =
´®Ω’-Ææí¬ what, where, when, how ©†’ ¢√úø’- have gone áèπ◊\´ ¢√-úø-û√®Ω’. serious
2. Will have been/ shall have been- future ™
Åûª†’ í¬ ™‰†-°æ¤púø’, î√™« Ææ®Ω-ü∆í¬,
ûª’çö«ç. ÉN ¢√úø-èπ◊çú≈ Éçé¬ simple í¬ îÁ°æp-´îª’a. jokes
Dare/ need have been- ÉN áèπ◊\´ not ûÓ
äéπ Ææ´’-ߪ’ç™ ´·T-Æœ†/ Öçô’ç-ü¿-†’-èπ◊†o ÆœnA ¢ËÆæ÷h Öçö«úø’.
O©-®·-†ç-ûª-´-®Ωèπÿ Å™« îÁ°æp-ô¢Ë’ ´’ç*C. b) In her lighter moments, we can persuade
(A state of being likely to have been/ to be ¢√-úø-û√®.
her to do any thing = serious
He darenot have been there= Åéπ\úø ÖçúË
Å®·ûË éÌEo Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x ÅüË, Åéπ\úË, Å°æ¤púË, Å™«Íí continuing by some time in future)
Ç¢Á’ í¬
ÅØË N≠æ-ߪ÷©’ ØÌéÀ\ îÁÊ°p Å´-Ææ®Ωç (stress îËÆœ ™‰†-°æ¤púø’, ´’†ç Ç¢Á’ îËûª à °æØÁjØ√ îË®·ç--
a) They will have been here by this time
üµÁj®Ωuç ¢√úÕéÀ ™‰ü¿’/ Åéπ\úø Öçúø-í∫© ≤ƒ£æ«Ææç
îÁÊ°p Å´-Ææ®Ωç) ´*a-†-°æ¤púø’, what, where, when éÓ-´îª’a/ à °æØÁjØ√ îËÊÆ Nüµ¿çí¬ †îªa-ñ„°æp-´îª’a.
tomorrow / by ten tomorrow morning =
Åûª†’ îËߪ’-™‰úø’ (Åçõ‰ Åéπ\úø ™‰úø’ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ)
and how ™«çöÀ ´÷ô© ¢√úøéπç ûª°æp-E-ÆæJ. persuade = †îªañ„°æpôç.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


í∫’®Ω’-¢√®Ωç 8 -†-´ç-•®Ω’ 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
Bhargav: Didn't you say you'd be back on Sourabh: Not at all. I only feel bad if I'm not at
saturday itself? Why this delay? home when he comes. If he comes
(†’´¤y ¨¡E-¢√-®Ω¢Ë’ AJ-íÌ-≤ƒh-†-Ø√o-´¤-éπü∆? when I am there I feel happy.
áçü¿’éà ǩÆæuç?) (ÅüËç ™‰ü¿’. Åûª-ØÌ-*a-†-°æ¤púø’ ؈’ ™‰éπ-
Sourabh: I thought I could but my cousin §ÚûË ¶«üµ¿-°æ-úøû√. Åûª†’ ؈’†o°æ¤p-úÌÊÆh
Anand ... ÆæçûÓ-≠æ-°æ-úøû√.)
cousin
(®√í∫-©-†ØË Å†’-èπ◊-Ø√o†’ é¬F, Ø√ Bhargav: I understand. (Ø√ éπ®Ωn-´’-´¤-ûÓçC.)
Anand ...)    
Bhargav: ..didn't let you. I know you would say
Observe the difference between sentence
that. Last time too, it was Anand that
stopped you, wasn't it? A and sentence B below:
(E†’o ®√E-´y-™‰ü¿’. Å™« îÁ§ƒh-´F Ø√èπ◊ A. Maoists killed him. (´÷N-Æˇd©’ ÅûªEo îªç§ƒ®Ω’) 3) It is his business that is in the way. Kavita: Why do you waste money?
B. It is Maoists that killed him.
ûÁ©’Ææ’. éÀçü¿-öÀ-≤ƒJ èπÿú≈ džçüË E†’o 4) After all, it is this togetherness that makes (úø¶„sç-ü¿’èπ◊ §ƒúø’-îË-≤ƒh´¤?)
ǧƒúø’, Å´¤Ø√?) (ÅûªEo îªç°œçC ´÷N-Æˇd©’) human beings different from animals. Kanaka: Is it your money that I am spending?
Sourabh: Yes. í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ: A ™ äéπ N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo ´÷´‚-©’í¬ 5) It is his warmth and hospitality that draws me Why are you worried?
Bhargav: What holds you together, so fast? îÁ°æ¤hØ√oç. ÅüË B ™ ÅûªEo îªç°œçC ´÷N-Æˇd©’ to him. (؈’ ê®Ω’a-°-úø’-ûª’-†oC F úø¶«s? †’¢Áyç-ü¿’èπ◊
ņo-°æ¤púø’, ´÷N-Æˇd-©èπ◊ v§ƒüµ∆†uç. (We stress,
(O’ Éü¿l-JF Åçûª í∫öÀdí¬ éπöÀd-°æ-úË-ÊÆ-üËC?/
Maoists, ÅûªEo îªç°œçC ´÷NÆˇd q, ÉçÈé-´®Ó é¬ü¿ØË 6) It is the uncertainty of his programme that ¶«üµ¿-°æ-úøôç?)
O’ Éü¿lJ ´’üµ¿u Åçûª í∫öÀd •çüµ¿-¢Ë’çöÀ?) irritates me. Conversation ™E sentences í∫´’-Eü∆lç:
fast= í∫öÀdí¬. áèπ◊\-´í¬ fast Åçõ‰ ¢Ëí∫çí¬ ÅØË
Å®ΩnçûÓ) 1) It was Anand that stopped you, wasn't it? =
Look at the following pairs of sentences Introductory It †’ É™« ¢√úË-ô-°æ¤púø’, sentence
Å®ΩnçûÓ ¢√úø’-ûª’çö«ç.
again.
EØ√o-°œçC džçüË éπü∆? (ÉçÈé-´®Ó é¬ü¿’)
Sourabh: It's our closeness in our childhood
®Ω÷°æç í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ:
(Compare: Anand stopped you)
that keeps us so together. We spent A) India won the match because of Sachin. It is Shekhar that got the prize.
It clause + that clause
our childhood together for about four (Ææ*Ø˛ ´©x ¶µ«®Ωû˝ match ÈíL-*çC) It + 'be' form + subject + 'that' clause.
years at our grand dad's. 2) It is our closeness in childhood that keeps us
B) It is because of It + be form clause
so together =
(*†o-ûª-†ç™ ¢Ë’ç éπLÆœ Öçúøôç Sachin that India ûª®√yûª 'that' ûÓ
begin
won the match.
´÷ *†o-°æpöÀ ≤ƒEo-£œ«ûªuç ´’´’t©oçûª ü¿í∫_-®Ωí¬
´’´’tLo Åçûª ÆæEo-£œ«-ûªçí¬ Öç-ûÓçC. ÅßË’u clause (agroup
Öç-ûª’çC.
of words with a verb)
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
ü∆ü∆°æ¤ Ø√©’-Íí-∞¡x-§ƒô’ *†o-°æ¤púø’ ´÷ ¶µ«®Ωû˝ ÈíL-*ç-ü¿çõ‰
It is our closeness ('It' clause) + that keeps
380
û√ûªßª’u Éçöx éπLÆœ °Jí¬ç.) Ææ*Ø˛ ´©xØË. (ÉçÈé-´-J-
closeness = ≤ƒEo-£œ«ûªuç
´Ææ’hçC. us so together (that clause)
´™«x é¬ü¿’)
Bhargav: He doesn't 3) It is his business
visit you as

It is ... that is in the way


that is in the way.
often as you
It is his business (It
visit him, does
he? clause) + that is in
(†’´y-ûªE ü¿í∫_-®Ωèπ◊ the way (that
¢ÁRx-†çûª ûª®Ω-í¬, clause)
Åûª-Eo†’o îª÷ÊÆç-ü¿’èπ◊ ®√úø’ éπü∆?) Åçõ‰ ûÁ©’-≤ÚhçC éπü∆: àüÁjØ√ N≠æ- Sunil: I'm sorry that you've lost the 4) It is this togetherness that makes human
Sourabh: True. It's his business that's in the ߪ÷Eo/ ã sentence ™ àüÁjØ√ ¶µ«í¬Eo ring. No use worrying. Forget beings different from animals.
way. Whenever he can, he visits me ØÌéÀ\ îÁÊ°pç-ü¿’èπ◊ Introductory 'It' ¢√úø-û√- it. It is this togetherness (It clause) + that
overnight and is back in the morn- ´’-†o-´÷ô. ÉC ¢√úøôç ¶«í¬ practice (F Öçí∫®Ωç §Ú®·-†ç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¶«üµ¿í¬ makes human ... (That clause)
ing. îËÊÆh, ´’†ç v§ƒ´·êuç É¢√y-©-†’-èπ◊†o N≠æ- ÖçC. Worry Å®· v°æßÁ÷-ï†ç 5) It is his warmth and hospitality that draws me
to him.
(ÅûªE ¢√u§ƒ®Ωç ÅûªEo ®√E-´yü¿’. ߪ÷Eo ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’-´îª’a. ™‰ü¿’. ´’®Ω-*§Ú.)
A) Prasad helped me, not you = Suman: (It's) easy for you to say It is his warmth ... (It clause) + that draws
Å®·ûË O©’-†o-°æ¤p-úø™«x/ ®√í∫-L-T-†-°æ¤p-úø™«x
M.SURESAN
®√vA-°æ‹ô ´*a §Òü¿’l† ¢ÁRx-§Ú-ûª’ç-ö«úø’.) Ø√èπ◊ ≤ƒßª’ç îËÆœçC v°æ≤ƒü˛, †’´¤y that. After all, it is not your me to him. (That clause)
Bhargav: After all, it is this togetherness that é¬ü¿’. ring that is lost, it's mine. 6) It is the uncertainty of his programme that
makes human beings different from B) It is Prasad that helped me, not you =
(Å™« ņôç Ææ’©-¶µº¢Ë’. àüË-¢Á’iØ√, §Ú®·çC irritates me.
animals. Ø√èπ◊ ≤ƒßª’ç-îË-ÆœçC v°æ≤ƒüË. †’¢Ëyç-é¬ü¿’. F Öçí∫®Ωç é¬ü¿’ éπü∆, Ø√C./ It's my ring It is the uncertainty ... (It clause) + that irri-
Now look at the following sentences from
that is lost, not yours. (§Ú®·çC Ø√
(àüË-¢Á’iØ√, É™«çöÀ •çüµ∆™‰ éπü∆, ´÷†-´¤-
©èπÿ, ïçûª’-´¤-©èπ◊ ûËú≈ îª÷°œç-îËC) the dialogue above: tates me (That clause).
'It' clause + That clause combination
1) ... it was Anand that stopped you, wasn't it?
Öçí∫®Ωç, FC é¬ü¿’-éπü∆?)
Sourabh: It's his warmth and hospitality that Ñ O’
draws me to him. 2) It was our closeness in childhood that keeps
ÉC not ûÓ (°j sentence ™™«) ØË é¬èπ◊çú≈ conversation practice
™ ¶«í¬ îËߪ’çúÕ.
us so together. question ™ ¢√úøû√ç.
(ÅûªE Çü¿®Ωç, ÇAü∑¿uç ††’o ¶«í¬ Çéπ-J{-
v°æ¨¡o: -ï-¢√-•’: -ï-¢√-•’: 1. Have you seen the movie?
≤ƒh®·.)
warmth= Çü¿®Ωç/ ǧƒu-ߪ’ûª
1) I'll get them to do the work = I will make 2. Don't see movies
hospitality = ÇAü∑¿uç à ®Óñ„jØ√ äéπ ´uéÀhE ¢Á·ü¿-öÀ- (ÆœE-´÷©’ îª÷úøèπ◊)/
≤ƒJ éπL-Æ œ-†-°æ¤púø’ good them do the work = I'll have them do the Don't see the movie (àüÁjØ√ °∂晫-Ø√ movie
hospitable= ÅA-ü∑¿’-©†’ ¶«í¬ îª÷ÊÆ
morning ÅE greet îÁߪ’uúøç work = I'll have the work done by them. îª÷úÌ-ü¿lçõ‰).
draw = attract = Çéπ-J{ç-îªôç 3. See the movie.
ÆæÈ®j-†-üËØ√? 2) I will get/ make them done the work-
Bhargav: You are as warm and hospitable to 4. What's the use of seeing the movie?
Wrong seeing movies?
him, aren't you?
– °œ. íÓNç-ü¿-®√V,
3) I got them to do the work = I made them 5. What do you lose if you don't see the
-ï-¢√-•’:
(†’´‹y ÅûªE °æôx ÅçûË Çü¿-®Ωçí¬, ¢Ëí¬-ߪ’-´’t-Ê°ô
do the work. movie?
ÇAü∑¿uç îª÷Ê°ô’xí¬ Öçö«´¤ éπü∆?) Got/made done - Wrong 6. Do you see movies? (
Good morning, á°æ¤p-úÁjØ√, ´’üµ∆u£æ«oç 12 í∫çô© ÆœE-´÷©’ îª÷≤ƒh¢√?)
Sourabh: That I am. I like him very much. Will you see the movie?
´®Ωèπ◊ ´÷vûª¢Ë’. ûª®√yûª 4, 4.30 ´®Ωèπ◊ good Get/ Got + somebody + to do = make/ made (Ç ÆœE´÷ îª÷≤ƒh¢√?)
(؈÷ ÅçûË. Åûª-†çõ‰ Ø√èπ◊ î√™« somebody + do. Past Doing Word 7. Don't you see movies? (´÷´‚-©’í¬
afternoon, Ç ûª®√yûª ®√vA Evü¿-§Ú-ßË’-´-®Ωèπ◊, good ®√ü¿’.
v°æ¨¡o: éÀçC ¢√é¬u-©†’ ÉçTx-≠ˇ-™ -á-™« -îÁ-§ƒp-L. Won't you see the movie
É≠ædç.) îª÷úø¢√?)/
evening, ®√vA-°æ‹ô, Evü¿-§Ú-ßË’-´·çü¿÷, ®√vA *´-
Bhargav: When is he coming here next time? (Ç ÆœE´÷ îª÷úø¢√?)
J-≤ƒ-Jí¬ éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊çõ‰, good night. 8. Are you watching the movie?
v°æ¨¡o: 1. I will get/ make them do the work.
(Åûª-F-≤ƒJ Ééπ\úÕéÀ á°æ¤p-úÌ-Ææ’h-Ø√oúø’?) 1. ÆœE´÷ îª÷¨»¢√?; 2. ÆœE´÷ -îª÷úøèπ◊;
9. Show me/ Take me to the movie.
Sourabh: His programme is uncertain. It's the 3. ÆœE´÷ îª÷úø’; 4. îª÷ÊÆh ™«¶µº-¢Ë’-N’öÀ?;
10. Will you show?
uncertainty of his programme that 2. I will get/ make them done the work. 5. îª÷úø-éπ-§ÚûË †≠æd-¢Ë’-N’öÀ?; 6. îª÷≤ƒh¢√?; 11. Do you want to/ like to/ wish to see a
some times irritates me. I want to be 3. I got/ made them do the work. 7. îª÷úø¢√?; 8. îª÷Ææ’h-Ø√o¢√?; movie/ feel like seeing/ watching a
sure that I'm at home for him. 4. I got/ made them done the work. 9. ÆœE´÷ îª÷°œç; movie?
(ÅûªE programme î√™« ÅE-Paûªç. Ñ Â°j ¢√é¬u©’ ÆæÈ®j-†-¢ËØ√? ¢√öÀ Å®√n©’ N´-Jç-îª-í∫- 10. îª÷°œ-≤ƒh¢√?; 12. Don't you want to/ wish to/ like to see
the movie?
ÅEPaûË Ø√é¬\Ææh *é¬èπ◊ éπL-T-Ææ’hçC. Åûª- ©®Ω’. Get/ make ™«çöÀ °æü∆©’ ´*a-†-°æ¤púø’ 11. îª÷ú≈-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o¢√?; English cinema = theatre (The hall
™
ØÌ-*a-†-°æ¤púø’ ؈’ Éçöx Öçú≈L éπü∆?) verb (Ééπ\úø do) Ist form ™ Öçú≈™«? 12. îª÷úÌ-ü¿l-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o¢√? in which movies are shown).
Bhargav: Why are you angry with him?
– °œ. XE-¢√Æˇ, vü∆é~¬-®√´’ç – Ç®˝. XüËN, ï´·t-©-§ƒ™„ç (v°æ鬨¡ç >™«x) † *vûªç: movie/ the pictures/ film.
(áçü¿’èπ◊ éÓ°æp-úø’h-Ø√o-´-ûªEo?)

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 11 -†-´ç-•®Ω’ 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
Pradeep: Were you at the theatre last night?
What movie did you go to?
†’´¤y á´-JûÓ ´÷ö«x-ú≈´¤? Ñ Å®ΩnçûÓ Whom ¢√ú≈-
©-†’-èπ◊çõ‰, Whom ´·çü¿’ preposition ®√¢√L: To
(E†o ÆœE-´÷-£æ…™¸ ü¿í∫_-®Ω’-Ø√o¢√ †’´¤y? Whom did you talk? ÅE ®√¢√L.é¬F Modern
à ÆœE-´÷-Èé-∞«x´¤?) English ™ ÉC î√™« ÅÆæ-£æ«ïç, ņ-´-Ææ-®Ω-¢Á’i† §ƒçúÕ-
Jaideep: What's the matter? (N≠æߪ’ç àN’öÀ?) ûªuç-í¬†÷ ÅE-°œ-Ææ’hçC. Éçü¿’èπ◊ •ü¿’©’ Who did
Pradeep: Aren't you watching too many you talk to? ÅØ√-LqçC. Å®·ûË Ééπ\úø, preposition
movies? 'to' sentence *´®Ω ´Ææ’hçC.
(†’´¤y ´’K áèπ◊\´ ÆœE´÷©’ îª÷úøôç Who were you quarrelling with? (á´JûÓ
™‰ü∆?) †’´¤y §Úö«x-úø’-ûÓçC?) í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ, with sen-
Jaideep: Whoever told you that I had been to tence *´®Ω ®√´ôç.
a movie last night was lying. a) Who are you calling? (á´JE °œ©’-Ææ’h-Ø√o´¤?/
a) Consult whoever you like, they will give b) Whenever he comes here, he brings
(E†o ؈’ ÆœE-´÷-Èé-∞«x-†E îÁ°œpç-üÁ-´-È®jØ√ á´-JéÀ Phone îËÆæ’h-Ø√o´¤?) you the same advice = along his dog =
Å•ü¿l¥ç îÁ§ƒp®Ω’.) b) Who do you want to consult?
Pradeep: Think whatever you like, you have (á´JE Ææçv°æ-Cç-î√-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o´¤?) á´-J-ØÁjØ√ Ææçv°æ-Cç, ¢√∞¡Ÿx ÉüË Ææ©£æ… É≤ƒh®Ω’. Åûªúø’ Ééπ\úÕéÀ á°æ¤púÌ-*aØ√/ ´*a†°æ¤púø™«x,
seen to many movies this week - b) Advise whoever you like, but not me = ÅûªúÕ èπ◊éπ\†’ èπÿú≈ BÆæ’-èπ◊-´-≤ƒhúø’.
É™«çöÀîÓôx áéπ\ú≈ whom ¢√úøç, whom ü∆ü∆°æ¤ c) I'll come at 12 or One, whenever I can =
wasting time and money. Åü¿%-¨¡u-¢Á’i-§Ú-®·-†õ‰x, modern spoken English ™. FéÀ≠dçæ ´*a† ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ F Ææ©£æ… É´¤y, Ø√èπ◊
(à¢Á’iØ√ ņ’éÓ. Ñ ¢√®Ωç É°æp-öÀÍé î√™« Now Look at the following sentences from the
´÷vûªç é¬ü¿’. °æØÁoç-úÕç-öÀéÓ, äçöÀ-í∫ç-ôéÓ, á°æ¤púø’ ®√í∫L-TûË
ÆœE-´÷©’ îª÷¨»´¤. úø•’s, Æ洒ߪ’ç ´%ü∑∆ conversation at the beginning of the lesson.
°j È®çúø’ sentences ™ whomever ÅE Å°æ¤p-úÌ-≤ƒh†’.
éπü∆?) 1) Whoever told you that had been to a movie
é¬èπ◊çú≈ whoever ¢√úøôç í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ. 5) Whichever = àü¿-®·-Ø√-ÆæÍ®/ àüÁjûË ÅC.
Jaideep: Ask whoever you like. I didn't go to 2) Think whatever you like ... a) Try both of them; eat whichever you find
was lying.
any movie last night. Whenever I whatever = the tastier =
2) Think whatever you like, you have seen...
àüÁjØ√.
want to go to the pictures, I definite- a) You do whatever I tell you to do = È®çúÕçöÀF îª÷úø’; àC ®Ω’îÁèπ◊\´í¬ Öçõ‰
3) Ask whoever you like.
ly inform you. You know that. ÅC A†’.
4) Whenever I want to
؈’ îÁÊ°pC àüÁjØ√ ÅC †’´¤y îÁ®·u.
b) Buy whatever you b) Whichever of us reaches the cinema ear-
go to the pictures, I
(†’´¤y á´JØÁjØ√ ÅúÕT ûÁ©’-Ææ’éÓ. E†o
want; I will give you lier should buy the tickets =
definitely inform you.
®√vA ؈’ à ÆœE-´÷èπÿ ¢Á∞¡x-™‰ü¿’. ؈’
ÆœE-´÷-Èé∞Ïh FûÓ ûª°æpéπ îÁ§ƒh†’. FéπC 5) Whichever movie the money = ´’†™ ÆœE-´÷èπ◊ á´®Ω’ ´·çüÁ-RxØ√ N’í∫-û√-
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
ûÁ©’Ææ’.) you take, you find it
¢√-∞¡xèπ◊ èπÿú≈ öÀÈéö¸q éÌØ√L.
Pradeep: Whoever denies it? However much I
loud, vulgar and dull.
381 FÍé-C-é¬-¢√™ ÅC é̆’éÓ\;
(Which/ whichever ´Ææ ’h-´¤-©Íé é¬èπ◊çú≈,
advise you,
ØËE-≤ƒh†’ úø•’s©’. ´’†’-≠æfl-©èπ◊ èπÿú≈ ¢√úøû√ç.
you don't cut Which of the candidates

Ask whoever you like


down on your is the better? =
movies. True, Ç Å¶µºu-®Ω’n™ x á´®Ω’
you inform ¢Á’®Ω’í∫’? =
me, but does it Who among the candi-
reduce the date is the better?)
number of movies you see? 1) Whoever = c) Whatever you know about it is not
c) Whichever way you look at it, it is a big
á´-È®j-Ø√-ÆæÍ®
Whoever has done it, has done it correct = ü∆Eo í∫’Jç* Fèπ◊ ûÁLÆœçC
(Ç ´÷ô é¬ü¿†oüÁ-´®Ω’? ØËØÁçûª Ææ©£æ… waste =
well =
É*aØ√ F ÆœE-´÷©’ ûªT_ç--éÓ-´¤-í∫ü∆? àüÁj-Ø√-ÆæÍ®, ÅC ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’.
Eï¢Ë’, Ø√ûÓ îÁÊ°p ¢Á∞«h´¤ ÆœE-´÷èπ◊. é¬F (Ééπ\-úø-èπÿú≈ Modern spoken English ü∆Eo à éÓùç™ †’ç* îª÷ÆœØ√, ÅC ´%ü∑∆.
ÅüÁ-´®Ω’ î˨»-®Ó-í¬F/ îËÆœç-üÁ-´-È®jØ√ ÆæÍ®, 6) However/ Howevermuch = ᙫ-ÈíjØ√/
Åçü¿’ ´©x F ÆœE-´÷© Ææçêu ûªí∫_-ôç-™‰ü¿’) î√™« ¶«í¬ î˨»®Ω’. ™, Whatever •ü¿’©’, ´÷´‚©’
Jaideep: OK. You shall not have cause to simple 'What' ¢√úË-Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’.)
áçûÁjØ√.
complain from now on. Yes, I won't b) Whoever violates the rule will be a) However great the Australian team is, it
Eat whatever you like = Eat what
be watching more than a movie a punished = has loss to India =
M.SURESAN you like. Eat what you like
áèπ◊\-´í¬
fortnight. E•ç-üµ¿-††’ á´®Ω’ Ö©xç-°∂œ’ç-*Ø√ ÇÊÆZ-Lߪ÷ ïô’d áçûª íÌ°æp-ü¿®·Ø√, ÅC ¶µ«®Ωû˝
NE-°œ-Ææ’hçC, FÍéC É≠æd-¢Á’iûË ÅC A†’,
(É°æpöÀ †’ç* ††’o ûª°æ¤p-°æõ‰d Å´-鬨¡ç PéÀ~ç-°æ-•-úø-û√®Ω’. (´÷´‚©’ ûÁ©’í∫’ – ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ Péπ~ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ. îËA™ ãúÕ-§Ú-®·çC.
Fèπ◊ç-úøü¿’, ÆæÍ®Ø√? Å´¤†’. 15 ®ÓV-©éÓ °æúø’-ûª’çC.) 4) Whenever = á°æ¤p-úø-®·-Ø√-ÆæÍ® b) However much the car costs, I will buy it
ÆœE´÷ éπçõ‰ áèπ◊\´ ÆœE-´÷©’ îª÷úø†’) 3) Ask whoever you like = a) Come whenever you like, our doors are =鬮Ω’ üµ¿®Ω áçûÁjØ√ ÆæÍ®, ؈C éÌçö«†’.
Pradeep: What is there in the Indian movies to open to you = ÉN– ever ûÓ Åçûª´’ßË’u ´÷ô© -N-´®√-©’. OöÀE
attract us? Whichever movie you
á´-J-ØÁjØ√ Åúø’í∫’, F É≠ædç (F É≠ædç ´*a-†-¢√-∞¡x-
FéÀ≠dçæ ´*a-†-°æ¤púø’ ®√/ †’¢Áy-°æ¤p-úø-®·Ø√ ®√, ´÷ ¶«í¬ practice îËü∆lç.
take, you find it loud, vulgar and dull.
†-úø’í∫’) – îª÷Ææ’h-Ø√oç-éπü∆? á´JE ÅØË Å®Ωnç-ûÓ-
(¶µ«®Ω-Bߪ’ ÆœE-´÷™x àç ÖçC ´’†Lo èπÿú≈, whoever Åçô’Ø√oç. (whomever é¬ü¿’) ûª©’-°æ¤©’ ûÁJîË Öçö«®· Fèπ◊.

v°æ¨¡o:
ÇéπJ{çîËç-ü¿’èπ◊? †’´¤y à ÆœE´÷ BÆæ’-
èπ◊Ø√o, ÅC íÌúø´ íÌúø-´í¬, ÇQx-©-ûªûÓ, í∫ûªç™ á°æ¤púÓ á´®Ó Å†o N≠æߪ’ç ÉçéÌéπ- ii) Rub the wrong side (wrong way é¬ü¿’)=
ÅØ√-Ææ-éÀh-éπ-®Ωçí¬ Öçô’çC.) The decision comes in the ∞¡xûÓ ´’†ç îÁÊ°p-ô-°æ¤púø’ èπÿú≈ É™« present éÓ°æç ûÁ°œpç-îªôç
Jaideep: True, of course. I assure you I'll cut wake of centre accepting the tense ¢√-úø-û√ç: a) You rub the wrong side of the CM if you
down on movies. RIL formula on gas price My father says that he saw you here yes- ask him of land grabs CM
= †’´¤y ûÓ
(Eï¢Ë’. Ø√ ÆœE-´÷© Ææçêu ûªT_-≤ƒh-†E against the wishes of the state terday. father
O’ O’®Ωç-ô’-†o-°æ¤púø’ O’ áü¿’-®Ω’í¬ ¶µº÷éπ-¶«b© í∫’Jç* ´÷ö«x-úÕûË, Çߪ’†èπ◊ éÓ°æç
£æ…O’ ÉÆæ’hØ√o.) government. ™‰éπ-§Ú-®·Ø√ É™«ØË Åçö«ç. ÉC ûª°æ¤p-é¬ü¿’. ûÁ°œp-≤ƒh´¤.
☯ ☯ ☯ ☯ ☯ Dr Kakodkar's carefully- worded comments
come amidst a raging political debate on the
v°æ¨¡o: b) (Are) you going to ask him for his bike?
you'll be rubbing him on the wrong side =
Observe the following: i) rub shoulder with ii) rub the wrong way
Indo-US nuclear deal in India with left par- bike
Whatever, whoever, Whichever, Wherever,
†’´¤y ¢√úÕo Åúø-í∫-¶-ûª’-Ø√o¢√? Å®·ûË
ties and the opposition closely watching his iii) churn out - Å®√n©’, ¢√úø’éπ îÁ°æpçúÕ.
Whenever, However, etc. 'Wh' words
(Ééπ\úø ¢√úÕéÀ éÓ°æç éπL-Tçûª’-Ø√o´¤? (†’´¤y ¢√úÕo
approach at IAEA. bike ÅúÕ-TûË ¢√úÕéÀ éÓ°æç ´Ææ’hçC.)
-ï-¢√-•’:
– öÀ.Ææ÷-®Ωu-Ø√-®√-ߪ’ù, ®√´¤-©-§ƒ™„ç
(What, Who, When etc.) ever
*´®Ω ÖçC éπü∆. Ñ ¢√é¬u©’ †÷uÆˇÊ°°æ-®˝-™-N.
verb simple past tense iii) churn out – ¢Ëí∫çí¬ áèπ◊\´ ¢Á·ûªhç™
lesson
OöÀ Å®Ωnç, Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç Ñ ™ îª÷ü∆lç. OöÀ™x ¢√ú≈L éπü∆.
Ééπ\úø simple present tense ¢√ú≈®Ω’. ÉC ᙫ i) Rub shoulders with = ¶µº’ñ«©’ ®√èπ◊
i) 'Wh' word ûÓ ever ¢√úË-ô-°æ¤púø’ È®çúÕçöÀF
ûªßª÷®Ω’ îËߪ’ôç.
('Wh' word †÷, ever †’) éπL°œ äÍé-´÷-ôí¬
éπÈ®éÓd ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. A®Ω-í∫ôç/ ÅA-îª-†’-´¤í¬ Öçúøôç/ ÅA ÊÆo£æ«çí¬ a) The large number of engineering col-
leges across the state are churning out
-ï-¢√-•’:
¢√úøû√ç. – ≤ƒç•-P-´-®√´¤, Nï-ߪ’-¢√úø Öçúøôç.
a) We don't expect a boss to rub shoulders engineering graduates by the thousands.
ii) OöÀE àüÁjØ√ (Whatever), Whoever
Newspaper report îËÊÆ--ô°æ¤p-úø’, past with his subordinates = °j ÅCµ-é¬-J-ØÁ-°æ¤púø÷ engineering colleges
(á´-È®jØ√, á´-J-ØÁjØ√, á´-J-ØÁjØ√) Whichever ™ ®√≠æZç™-E
engineering
¢Ë™Ææçêu™
(á´-È®jØ√, àüÁjØ√, Wherever (áéπ\-úø-®·Ø√), actions at a definite time èπ◊ èπÿú≈ present éÀçü¿¢√∞¡xûÓ ¶µº’ñ«©’ ®√èπ◊A®Ω-í¬-©E ņ’éÓç/ °æôd-¶µº-vü¿’-©†’ûªßª÷®Ω’îËÆæ’h-Ø√o®·.
Whenever (á°æ¤p-úÁjØ√), However (ᙫ simple ¢√-úø-û√®Ω’. ÉCusage (¢√úø’éπ). ÅA’-´¤í¬/ ÅAÊÆo£æ«çí¬ Öçú≈©E ÇPçîªç. b) The Telugu film industry is churning out
India match ÈíL-*çC, ÅE, match ÈíL-*† b) I have a status of my own. I don't rub movies in a large number every year =
âØ√) ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ ¢√úøû√ç.
next day, ᙫ report îË≤ƒh®Ω’?– India wins the shoulders with all and sundry = Ø√éπçô÷
Important: Modern English, ´·êuçí¬ spoken
àö« ûÁ©’í∫’ ÆœE´÷ °æJ-v¨¡´’ °ü¿l Ææçêu™ØË
English ™ Whom (á´-JE, á´-JéÀ) ¢√úøéπç match. (Wins- Simple Present). Å™«Íí, äéπ ≤ƒn®· ÖçC. ؈’ Å®·†¢√∞¡Ÿx/ é¬E¢√∞¡xç- ÆœE-´÷-©†’ ûªßª÷®Ω’îË≤ÚhçC.
ü∆ü∆°æ¤ ™‰ü¿’. Whom ¢√ú≈-Lq† ÅEo-îÓö«x, Whom Bridge crashes, 10 people die (Bridge ü¿-JûÓ Å-A -’-´¤í¬ Öçúø†’. [churn= (ÅÆæ-©®Ωnç) *©-éπôç. Churn curds and
news All and sundry = °æE-éÀ-´÷-L-†/- N-©’-´-™‰E you get butter = °®Ω’-í∫’†’ *-LéÀûË ¢Á†o
(á´-JE, á´-JéÃ) ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ Who ¢√úøôç èπÿLçC, °æ-C´’çC îªE-§Ú-ߪ÷®Ω’ ÅE) ÉC
Ææ£æ«-ï-¢Á’i† (natural) English. reporting™ Ææ®Ωy≤ƒüµ∆-®Ωùç; ûª°æ¤p-é¬ü¿’. v°æA-¢√∞¡⁄x. ´Ææ’hçC)

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


-´’çí∫-∞¡¢√®Ωç 13 -†-´ç-•®Ω’ 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
Dhanush: How did you come by that shirt, Puneeth: I don't feel upto it now. Let's have
Puneeth? some coffee first.
(°æ¤Fû˝! Fèπ◊ Ç ≠æ®˝d ᙫ ´*açC?) (Åçûª ã°œéπ Ø√èπ◊ ™‰C-°æ¤púø’. é¬Ææh 鬰∂‘
Puneeth: Why? Isn't it good? û√í∫’ü∆ç.)
(àç? ÅC ¶«í¬ ™‰ü∆?)
   
Dhanush: My God! How could you ever think
of wearing it? Look at the following sentences from the
(¶«¶ß˝’! Å™«çöÀ ≠æ®˝d ¢ËÆæ’éÓ¢√©E conversation above:
ᙫ ņ’-éÓ-í∫-©´¤?) 1) How did you come by that shirt?
Puneeth: Cut the crap and tell me what you
2) cut the crap
find is wrong with it.
3) ... the sidekicks of the villain wear in the a) No Telugu movie goes without the villain b) It paid him to have supported the CM =
(îÁûªh ´÷ô-™«°œ, Ç ≠æ®˝d üÓ≠æç àN’ö movies. having a number of sidekicks =
îÁ°æ¤p.) Æ‘á熒 Ææ´’-Jnç-îªúøç Åûª-úÕéÀ ™«¶µº-¢Ë’ Å®·uçC/
4) So it all boils down to this
Dhanush: The colour and the stripes across, ņ’-îª-®Ω’©’ ™‰E N©Ø˛ Öçúøôç, ûÁ©’í∫’ ÆœE-´÷™ Åûª-úÕéÀ ´’ç*üË Å®·uçC.
5) Perhaps it's paid (It has paid) to say so to c) It pays to tell the truth =
like the ones the sidekicks of the vil- îª÷úøç.
lains in movies wear. your aunt. b) Most politicians have their sidekicks to carry Eïç îÁ°æpúøç (á°æp-öÀéÃ) ´’ç*C.
(Ç ®Ωçí∫÷, Ç Åúø’f-î√-®Ω©÷, ÆœE-´÷™x 6) What you say to me, goes for you to out nasty jobs = d) Crime doesn't pay- ØË®Ωç ´©x àç ™«¶µºç ™‰ü¿’.
7) I don't feel up to it now.
N©Ø˛ ņ’-îª-®Ω’©’ ¢ËÆæ’èπ◊-ØË-N-™«í¬ ü¿’®√t-®Ω_°æ¤ °æ†’©’ îËÊÆç-ü¿’èπ◊ ®√ïéÃߪ’ Ø√ߪ’-èπ◊-©èπ◊ / ØË®Ωç á†o-öÀéà ´’ç*-C-é¬ü¿’.
ÖØ√o®·.) 1) Come by = §Òçü¿-úøç/ àüÁjØ√ ´’†èπ◊ üÌ®Ω-éπ-úøç ņ’-îª-®Ω’©’ Öçö«®Ω’. – ÉC î√™« popular saying (áèπ◊\-´í¬ NE°œçîË
Puneeth: Stop it. My aunt presented it to me. 4) It all boils down to this = ≤ƒ®√稡ç ÅE.
Ææ÷éÀh).
6) .... goes for you too.
(´·êuçí¬, Åçûª ´÷´‚©’ é¬E N≠æߪ’ç)
She came to India for a few weeks'
a) You are a commerce graduate. How did you ÉC î√™« ´’ç*, useful expression. O’ con- go for =
stay from the US. It's a US product ´Jhç-îªôç.
come by this computer job? versation ™ ûª®Ωîª÷ ¢√úøçúÕ.
you know. a) What goes for the ordinary citizen in India
= a) What the doctor has
(Ç°æ¤. ÅC ´÷ Åûªhߪ’u 鬆’éπ, éÌCl ¢√®√- †’´¤y 鬴’®˝q ví¬úø’u- does not go for people's representatives and
ßË’ö¸N éπü∆? Féà said boils down to ministers. They are above law =
©-§ƒô’ ÉçúÕ-ߪ÷™ Öçú≈-©E Å¢Á’-Jé¬
†’ç* ´*açC. ÅC US ûªßª÷K ûÁ©’≤ƒ.) éπç°æ‹u-ô®˝ ñ«¶¸ ᙫ over eating not
¶µ«®Ω-û˝™ ≤ƒüµ∆-®Ωù §˘®Ω’úÕéÀ ´Jhç-îËN, v°æñ«-v°æAEüµ¿’-
being good for
Dhanush: So it all boils down to this. Whatever
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
´*açC? ᙫ Ææ秃-Cç- ©èπÿ, ´’çvûª’-©èπÿ ´Jhç-¤. ¢√∞¡Ÿx îªö«d-EéÀ
is American goes; Is that what you îª-í∫-L-í¬´¤? 382 health = ÅB-ûª’©’.
mean? b) What goes for the
male child, should go

So it all boils down to this


(Åçõ‰ F ´÷ô©
≤ƒ®√稡ç: àüÁjØ√ for the female child
Å¢Á’-J-éπØ˛ Åçõ‰ too, but not in our
ÅC îÁ©’x-ûª’ç-ü¿- society =
ØËí¬?) ´’í∫-G-úøfèπ◊ ´Jhç-îËC, Çúø-
Puneeth: That's what I P-¨¡Ÿ-´¤èπ◊ èπÿú≈ ´Jhç-î√L,
feel. Nothing can be wrong with any b) Wherever did you come by those ú≈éπd®˝ îÁ°œp† ´÷ô© ≤ƒ®√稡ç/ Å®Ωnç é¬F ´’† Ææ´÷-ïç™
thing American. sun glasses? They look awful on Åçû√, ÅAí¬ A†úøç Ç®Ó-í¬u-EéÀ -Å-™«é¬ü¿’.
(Ø√ ÅGµ-v§ƒßª’ç ÅüË. Å¢Á’-J-éπØ˛ ´Ææ’h´¤ your face = ´’ç*C é¬ü¿E. 7) I don't feel up to it now: feel up to = (àüÁjØ√
Ç èπÿLçí˚ í¬xÂÆÆˇ FÈééπ\úø üÌJ-鬮· b) Our argument boils down to îËÊÆç-ü¿’èπ◊) ã°œéπ/ ¨¡éÀh Öçúøôç. áèπ◊\-´í¬ ã°œéπ
àüÁjØ√ ´’ç*üË.)
whether or not to buy the car = ™‰ü¿’ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ not ûÓ ¢√úøû√ç.
Dhanush: Perhaps it's paid to say so to your ¶«•÷? F ¢Á·£æ…-EéÀ ÅN °∂æ’®Ωçí¬
aunt. Otherwise she wouldn't have ÖØ√o®·. 鬮Ω’ é̆-úø´÷, ´ü∆l ÅØËC ´’† ¢√ü¿† a) Having had no sleep the night before, I did
given you anything. Is that right. c) Where did the management came ≤ƒ®√稡ç. n't feel up to my usual morning walk =
by such a lecturer? = M.SURESAN 5) It's paid = It has paid
(O’ Åûªh-ߪ’uûÓ Å™« ņôç, Fèπ◊ Ç ®√vûªçû√ Evü¿ ™‰éπ-§Ú-´úøç ´©x, ´÷Joçí˚ ¢√é˙èπ◊
´’ç*üÁj ÖçúÌa. ™‰éπ-§Ú-ûË ÇNúø Fèπ◊ - Å™«çöÀ ™„éπa-®Ω®˝ ¢Ë’ØË-ñ ¸-¢Á’ç-ö¸éÀ áéπ\úø üÌJé¬úÓ? (it pays ÅØË expression èπ◊ tense ã°œé𠙉éπ-§Ú-®·çC.
à-O’ -É-îËa-C é¬ü¿’. ÅçûËØ√?) 2) cut the crap = îÁûªh-¢√-í∫’úø’ Ç°æ¤/ ÅÆæ©’ ´÷®Ω’p) b) Because of his age, he doesn't feel up to any
Puneeth: Don't be silly. N≠æߪ’ç îÁ°æ¤p – ÉC Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ lessons ™ it pays = ™«-¶µº-ü∆--ߪ’éπç/ ´’ç*C– ÉC î√™« work =
N´-Jçî√ç, îª÷úøçúÕ. common, spoken English ™ practice îËߪ’çúÕ. ´ßª’Ææ’ Â°®Ωí∫-úøç ´©x, à °æF îËÊÆ ã°œéπ Åûª-úÕéÀ
(°œ*a °œ*aí¬ ´÷ö«x-úøèπ◊.)
3) sidekicks = ņ’-îª-®Ω’©’. ´’† Æœ-E-´÷-™ x N©Ø˛ a) It pays to increase our vocabulary =
Dhanush: What else did she get you? ™‰ü¿’/ Öçúøôç ™‰ü¿’.
(Ç¢Á’ Fèπ◊ Éçé¬ àç ûÁ*açC?) ņ’-îª-®Ω’©’.Yes, boss Åç-ô÷ N©Ø˛ îÁÊ°p ´’† °æü¿ Ææç°æ-ü¿†’ °ç-éÓ-´úøç ™«-¶µº-ü∆--ߪ’éπç/ O’ Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ °j expressions †’ ¶«í¬
Puneeth: What's your Interest? You want to
ü¿’®√t®Ω_°æ¤ °æ†’©’ îËÊÆ ÅûªúÕ Å†’-îª-®Ω’©’. á°æp-öÀ-ÈéjØ√ ´’ç*C. practice îËÆ œ O™„j† îÓô™«x ¢√úøçúÕ.
pull my legs still?
(FÈéç-ü¿’èπ◊? Éçé¬ †Ø√o-ô-°æ-öÀdç-î√-©Ø√?) v°æ¨¡o: speculation. á´®Ω’ à °æE îËߪ’-¶-û√®Ω’, ´’† É-üËactive voice ™ Å®·-ûË, O’®Ω’- -Å-†o-ô’x has
Dhanush: Come now, Puneeth, be a sport. 1. i) What silence can achieve áûª’hèπ◊, Å´-ûªL ¢√∞¡x °jáûª’h ᙫ Öçô’çC. to + 1st RDW ´Ææ’hçC– Å®·ûË subject he/
What more did you have from her? speech can never; ii) specu- É™«çöÀ Ç™- speculation. she í¬ Öçú≈L.
(ã °æ¤Fû˝, Ææ®Ω-ü∆í¬ Öçúø’, éÓ°æp-úøèπ◊. lation iii) broad band - Who will win the match is a matter of He/ she has to complete (has to + 1st
Ç¢Á’ †’ç* Éçé¬ àç ´î√a®· Fèπ◊?/ OöÀE ûÁ©’-í∫’™ à´’-Ø√L? speculation = §ÚöÃ-™ á´®Ω’ Èí©’-≤ƒh-®Ω-ØËC RDW) the work in a week.
Ç¢Á’ Fèπ◊ Éçé¬ àN’-*açC?) 2. i) Ñ-Ø√-öÀ ´÷ -N-ü∆u®Ω’n-©’ Í®°æöÀ Ü£œ«ç-éÓ¢√LqçüË. (Éûª-N’--ûªnçí¬ îÁ°æp™‰ç.) iii) To be= Öçúøôç. I dont like to be here =
Puneeth: What you say of me, goes for you ¶µ«®Ω-Bߪ’ Ö†o-û√-Cµ-é¬-®Ω’©’. iii) Broad band: Internet, phones ™«çöÀ Ééπ\úø Öçúøôç -Ø√èπ◊ É≠ædç-™‰ü¿’.
too. Your brother brought you a pair ii) ™éπ éπ™«uùç – OöÀE ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ à´’-Ø√L? ¢√öÀéÀ ÆæçÍé-û√©’ °æçÊ° ¨¡-•l°æ¤ -Å-©-©- ™«çöÀ v¨ÏùÀ To be good/ truthful is difficult = ´’ç*-í¬/
of jeans from the States last year. I 3. i) You ought to have been more careful. – communications èπ◊ Ææç•çCµç*† technical
v°æ¨¡o: I came here to do the work.
-E-ñ«--ߪ’-Bí¬ Öçúøôç éπ≠dçæ .
didn't notice anything special about verb - ought to + 'be' form.
Ééπ\úø é¬F word.
it. Such or even better jeans we can ought to + 1st RDW ®√¢√L éπü∆? 2. i) Our students of today are the high I came here for doing the work.- Please
get here at lower prices. ii) The project has to be completed in a ranking officials/ administrators of tomor- quote some examples using 'To' and 'for'
(Ø√ í∫’Jç* †’´y-ØËC Fèπÿ ´Jh-Ææ’hçC. week. Verb- has to + be + pp. has to + row. with meanings.
1st RDW ii) The good of the world.
ï-¢√-•’: I came here to do the work = I came
§Ú®·† Ææç´-ûªq®Ωç O’ ņo Fèπ◊ @Ø˛q ®√¢√L éπü∆? ™éπ-éπ-∞«uùç= –- á.®√-´÷ç-ï-ØË-ߪ·©’, éπ®Ω÷o-©’
ûÁî√aúø’ éπü∆? ü∆çöx àç v°æûËu-éπûª éπE°œç- iii) To be E ᙫ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-î√L?N´-®Ωçí¬ 3) i) ought to have been more careful-
îª-™‰ü¿’ Ø√èπ◊. Å™«ç-öÀN, Åçûª-éπçõ‰ ´’ç* -ûÁ-©°æçúÕ. ÉçéÌçîÁç áèπ◊\´ ñ«ví∫-ûªhí¬ Öçú≈-LqçC here for doing the work = Ç °æ-E îËÊÆç-
-ï-¢√-•’: 1. i) ´÷ô--©’/ Ö°æ-¢√u≤ƒ© ´©x ≤ƒCµç-îª-
@Ø˛q Ééπ\úø ûªèπ◊\´ üµ¿®Ω©èπ◊ üÌ®Ω’-èπ◊-û√®·.) – öÀ.Ææ÷-®Ωu-Ø√-®√-ߪ’ù, ®√´¤-©-§ƒ™„ç (í∫ûªç™E N≠æߪ’ç). ü¿’èπ◊ ØËE-éπ\-úÕéÀ ´î√a†’.
Dhanush: OK. You must be happy that you've You ought to respect elders= É°æ¤púø’ °ü¿l a) He sold his house to clear his debts = He
paid me back in the same coin. Let's ™‰EC, ´’¯†ç (E¨¡z-•lç)ûÓ ≤ƒCµç-îª-í∫©ç. ¢√∞¡xE †’´¤y íı®Ω-Nç-î√L. (F üµ¿®Ωtç) (ought to sold his house for clearing his debts =
stop here and think of having real ii) Speculation = °æJ-Æ œn-ûª’-™„™« ´÷®Ω-û√®·, + 1st RDW) Å°æ¤p©’ BÍ®aç-ü¿’èπ◊ Åûªúø’ É©’x Ţ˒t-¨»úø’.
good walk for a few kilometres. ii) The project has to be completed in a
ÅÆæ©’ ´÷®Ω-û√ߪ÷ ™‰ü∆ ÅE Ü£œ«ç--èπ◊E b) He uses his knowledge to help others/ for
(ÆæÍ®x üÁ•sèπ◊ üÁ•s éÌö«d-†E ÆæçûÓ- °æü∑¿-鬩’ ¢ËÆæ’éÓ-´-úøç. É-∞¡x -Ææn-™«©’, shares week- has to be completed passive voice- helping others = Éûª-®Ω’-©èπ◊ Ææ£æ…ߪ’ °æúËç-ü¿’èπ◊ -
≠æ°æúø’ûª’Ø√o´†’-èπ◊ç-ö«.Ééπ\úø ÇÊ°ü∆lç, ™«çöÀN éÌ-E, Ţ˒t--ô°æ¤púø’, üµ¿®Ω©’ °®Ω’-í∫’-û√ߪ÷, project
D-E- -Å®Ωnç – ¢√-®√-E-éπçû√ °æ‹Jh-îË-ߪ’ Å-ûª-úø’ -ûª-† -N-ñc«-Ø√-Eo -Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-T≤ƒhúø’. ´’J-éÌ-Eo
éÌEo éÀ™-O’-ô®Ωx ü¿÷®Ωç ¶«í¬ †úø’ü∆lç. °æúÕ-§Ú-û√ߪ÷ ÅØË Ü£æ«ûÓ ™„éπ\©’ ¢ËÆæ’-éÓ-´úøç – Passive voice
-•-ú≈-L.- correct.
í¬ ÉC -Ö-ü∆£æ«®Ω-ù-©èπ◊ Lesson No – 375 îª÷úøçúÕ.
à´’ç-ö«´¤?)

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


í∫’®Ω’¢√®Ωç 15 -†-´ç-•®Ω’ 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
Rohit: It's you, Ranjan? How come you are Rohit: Walking is good for health, no doubt.
here at this time? But why don't you ask your dad for a
(®ΩçïØ˛, †’¢√y? Ééπ\-úø’-Ø√o-¢ËçöÀ, Ñ new bike?
¢Ë∞¡°æ¤púø’?) (†úøéπ Ç®Ó-í¬u-EéÀ ´’ç*üË Å†’éÓ. Å®·Ø√
Ranjan: Where else do you expect me to be? O’ Ø√†o†’ éÌûªh ¶„jé˙ Åúø-í∫-™‰ü∆?)
It's now 6 and I am on my way to the Ranjan: He will come down heavily on m; if I
library. do that. I know better than to do that.
(ÉçÈééπ\úø Öçö«†E ņ’èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o´¤? (Å™« îËÊÆh ´÷ Ø√†o î√™« éÓ°æp-úø-û√®Ω’ Ø√
É°æ¤púø’ õ„j¢˛’, Ç®Ω’. ؈’ ™„jv•-KéÀ ¢Á∞¡Ÿ-ûª’- O’ü¿. Åü¿çûª ´’ç* °æE-é¬-ü¿E Ø√èπ◊
Ø√o†’.) ûÁ©’Ææ’.)
Rohit: But you usually practise tennis at this    
time, don't you? You practise in flood Look at the following expressions from the b) The government's attempts to keep the
land deal under wraps have come to
àç worry Å´èπ◊. ¢√úø’ ûª°æpéπ ü∆JéÀ ´≤ƒhúø’.
lights too. conversation above: ´’†ç ÅúÕ-TçC ¢√úø’ îÁLx-≤ƒhúø’.
1) How come you are here at this time? nothing =
(é¬F Ñ Ææ´’-ߪ’ç™ †’´¤y õ„EoÆˇ v§ƒéÃdÆˇ 5) Come to think of it.
îËÆæ’hç-ö«´¤ éπü∆? °∂æxú˛-™„j-ö¸q™ èπÿú≈ †’´¤y 2) All my efforts to be a good player have come Ç ¶µº÷N’ ´u´-£æ…®Ωç íÓ°æuçí¬ Öçî√-©E
Çúø’-ûª’ç-ö«´¤ éπü∆?) to nothing. v°æ¶µº’ûªyç îËÆœ† v°æߪ’-û√o©’ N°∂æ-©-´’-ߪ÷u®·. 'Ç, í∫’®Ìh-*açC—/ 'ÅÆæ©’ Ææçí∫A— ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ
3) You should have kept on with it ¢√úøû√ç Ñ ´÷ô.
Ranjan: I've given up. All my efforts to be a Keep under wraps - ´‚Æœ Öçîªúøç/
4) Finally you came round to your dad's view. a) Come to think of it, I haven't seen him in
good tennis player have come noth- 5) come to think of it, ....
®Ω£æ«Ææuçí¬ Öçîªúøç
years.
ing. I've decided I can never become 6) some parts have come off 3) Kept on with it/ Keep on with some thing
a good tennis player. I didn't want to 7) He will come down heavily on me. - äéπ °æEE é̆-≤ƒ-Tç-îªúøç = continue.
Ç í∫’®Ìh-*açC. Åûªú≈ – Åûª-úÕE îª÷Æœ î√™«
be a mediocre. 1) How come...? ÉC Spoken English
-™ î√™« a) In spite of severe opposition, the govern-
Ææç´-ûªq-®√-©-®·çC.
expression. b) I met him yesterday. We spend an hour
(؈’ ´÷ØË-¨»†’. ´’ç* õ„EoÆˇ véÃú≈鬮Ω’úø’ ûª®Ω-îª’í¬ ¢√úË Å®Ωnç = àçöÀ É™« ment keeps on with the acquirement of
talking to each other. Come to think of it.
Å¢√y©†o v°æߪ’-û√o™‰ç °∂æLç-îª-™‰ü¿’. íÌ°æp Å®·uçC? ÅE ã Ææç°∂æ’-ô† N´®Ωç Åúø-í∫ôç. land for SEZs=
õ„EoÆˇ Çô-í¬-úÕE 鬙‰-†E E®Ωg-®·ç--èπ◊-Ø√o†’. a) Geeta: I've can- He wanted to see you =
Bv´ ´uA-Í®-éπûª Ö†o-°æp-
Åçûª ´’ç* Çô-í¬úø’ é¬ü¿’ ÅE°œç--éÓ-´úøç celled my öÀéà v°æ¶µº’ûªyç SEZs E†o Åûª-úÕE éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√o. í∫çô-ÊÆ°æ¤
Ø√èπ◊ É≠ædç ™‰ü¿’. Tirupathi trip. (v°æûËuéπ ÇJnéπ ´’çúø∞¡x) ´÷ö«x-úø’ûª÷ í∫úÕ§ƒç. ÅÆæ©’ Ææçí∫A– Åûªúø’
mediocre= O’úÕ-ßÁ÷-Å-éπ®˝ – ßÁ÷ ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
(؈’ Ø√ A®Ω’-°æA éÓÆæç Ææn©ç ÊÆéπ-J-Ææ÷hØË E†’o éπ©-¢√-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√oúø’.
– üËE™ Å®·Ø√ Åçûªí¬ ®√ùÀç-îªE ¢√∞¡Ÿx. ߪ÷vûª N®Ω-N’ç--èπ◊Ø√o.) 383 ÖçC. 6) some parts have come off: come off -
The movie is just mediocre. Nothing much to (à ¶µ«í¬-Eé¬ ¶µ«í∫ç) NúÕ-
talk of = ÆœE´÷ Åçûª §Ú-´úøç/ ÜúÕ-§Ú-´úøç.

come to think of it
¶«í¬ à癉ü¿’. Åçûª a) The button has come
off the shirt =
îÁ°æ¤p-éÓ-¢√-LqçüËç ™‰ü¿’.
Rohit: You should
have kept on
≠æ®˝d •ôØ˛ ÜúÕ-§Ú-®·çC.
b) The system has come
with it. Don't you
off =
think 8 to 9 months is too short a peri- Sitha: How come? acquire = §Òçü¿úøç/ ÊÆéπ-Jç-îªúøç
od for you to decide? (àçöÀ?áçü¿’-éπE?) (Åé˙yߪ’) Ç ßª’çvûª ¶µ«í¬©’ NúÕ-§Ú-ߪ÷®·. ¢√ôç-ûªô
b) He kept on with his teaching
Å¢Ë.
(†’´¤y ü∆Eo é̆-≤ƒ-Tç-î√-LqçC. †’´¤y b) How come you no longer are
7) Come down heavily on (some body) =
E®Ωg-®·ç--éÓ-´-ú≈-EéÀ 8, 9 ØÁ©©’ î√©-´E friends with Jajadish? = though he was old =
ņ’-éÓ-´úøç ™‰ü∆?) ´ßª’-ÂÆj-†-°æp-öÀéÃ, Çߪ’† ¶üµ¿-††’ Bv´çí¬ N´’-Jzç-îªúøç
Ranjan: It is too long, rather. Just 3 or 4
†’´¤y ïí∫-D-≠ˇûÓ ÊÆo£æ«çí¬ ™‰éπ-
é̆-≤ƒTçî√úø’. a) The opposition has come down heavily
months is enough to help you decide. §Ú´úø¢Ë’çöÀ †’´¤y? 4) To come round = ü∆JéÀ ûË´úøç on the government's policy =
Moreover my studies were being dis- Ñ How come ûª®Ω-îª’í¬ ¢√úøçúÕ M.SURESAN v°æA-°æé¬~ ©’ v°æ¶µº’-û√yEo Bv´çí¬ N´’-Jzç-î√®·.
(Åçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ ´uA-Í®-éÀç-*†ü∆Eo
turbed. O’ conversation ™. ä°æ¤p-éÓ-´úøç) b) The officer came down heavily on the
(ÅC î√™« áèπ◊\´. ´‚úø’ Ø√©’í∫’ ØÁ©©’ 2) come to nothing: N°∂æ-©-´’-´ôç a) I am sure that because of his recent loss- clerk for delaying the file =
es, he will come round to our view =
î√©’, †’´¤y E®Ωg-®·ç--éÌ-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊. ÅçûË
é¬èπ◊çú≈ Ø√ îªü¿’´¤ §ƒúÁj-§Ú-ûª’çC.) a) The government's attempts to gag the °∂j™ ¸†’ Ç©Ææuç îËÆ œ-†ç-ü¿’èπ◊, Ç°∂‘-Ææ®˝
press have come to nothing =
í∫’´÷≤ƒh†’ Bv´çí¬ éÓ°æp-ú≈fúø’.
Rohit: So finally you came round to your
Åûª-EéÀ Ñ ´’üµ¿u éπL-T† †≥ƒd© ´©x ´’† ü∆JÍé
dad's view that studies are more reli-
´’Sx ´≤ƒh-úø-†’-èπ◊çö«. É´Fo spoken English ™ Ææ®Ωy-≤ƒ-üµ∆-®Ωùç.
able than sports, when it comes to
°ævA-éπ© ØÓ∞¡Ÿx ØÌÍé\ߪ÷©†o v°æ¶µº’ûªy v°æߪ’-û√o©’
b) Don't worry. He will come round. He will Ææ£æ«ïç. Practise îËü∆lç.
N°∂æ-©-´’-ߪ÷u®·. pay what we've demanded =
career.

-v°æ-¨¡o: 1) I wish it were possible. -v°æ-¨¡o:


(ÈéK®˝ N≠æ-ߪ÷EéÀ ´ÊÆh Çô© éπçõ‰ îªü¿’¢Ë
áèπ◊\´ Çüµ∆-®Ω°æúøü¿-Tç-ü¿ØË O’ Ø√†o ÅGµ-v§ƒ- pronounce 'the' as ∂⎯∂ before words
(ü¿)
ߪ÷-EÍé ´î√a-´-†o-´÷ô.) 2) I wish you were there. i) Give me the pronounciation of the following beginning with other sounds.
Ranjan: Yea. To some extent. Come to think of 3) I wish I didn't have to work. short forms: I'm, we're, you're, they're, he's, eg: the egg= C áí˚; the book = ü¿ •’é˙
it, I should have started on tennis at a - -ûÁ-©’í∫’-™ -Å®Ωnç -N-´-Jç--îªí∫-©®Ω’. she's, it's, I've, we've, you've, they've, he's iii) You are fired = You are dismissed from the
still younger age. (he has), she's, it's, I'd (I would/ I had), we'd, job.
-ï-¢√-•’:
– Ƒ£«-î˝.-Ø√Íí-¨¡y®Ω®√-´¤, ®Ωçí¬È®-úÕf ->-™«x. (E†’o ÖüÓuí∫ç †’ç* ûÌ©-Tç-î√®Ω’)
you'd, they'd, he'd, she'd, it'd.
I'm fired = ††’o dismiss î˨»®Ω’ (ûÌ©-Tç-î√®Ω’).
(Å´¤†’. éÌçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊. Ç N≠æ-ߪ÷EéÀ ´ÊÆh
v°æ¨¡o:
؈’ õ„EoÆˇ Éçé¬Ææh *†o-´-ߪ’-Ææ’-™ØË v§ƒ®Ωç- I wish it were possible= ÅC ≤ƒüµ¿u-¢Á’iûË áçûª ii) Should we pronounce the word 'THE' as
Gµç* Öçú≈-LqçC.) ¶«í∫’ç-úËC! (É°æ¤púø’ ÅC ≤ƒüµ¿uç-é¬ü¿’) 'dha' or 'dhee'? Please explain.
Rohit: What happened to your bike? You are iii) What is the meaning of the following sen- Be good , be quiet Å®Ωnç àN’öÀ? -á°æ¤p-úø’
I wish you were there= †’Ny-°æ¤púø’ Åéπ\úø
on foot. tences and in what situations, we use that Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-T≤ƒh®Ó N´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’.
Öçõ‰ ¶«í∫’ç-úËC (†’Ny-°æ¤púø’ Åéπ\úø ™‰´¤)
type of sentences?
-ï-¢√-•’:
(F ¶„jé˙ à¢Á’içC? †úø’Ææ÷h éπE-°œ-Ææ’h-Ø√o- I wish I did'nt have to work= ؈’ É°æ¤púø’ – éÀ®Ω-ù˝- π◊-´÷®˝, îÁ®Ω’- π◊-°æLx
¢ËçöÀ?) °æE îËߪ÷-Lq† Å´-Ææ®Ωç ™‰èπ◊çú≈ Öçõ‰ áçûª 'You are fired'. 'I am fired'.
Ranjan: You know it's an old bike that my dad
Be =
-ï-¢√-•’: i) Åߪ’¢˛’, ´¤ßª’(®˝), ߪ·/ߪ‚-Å(®˝), üÁß˝’-
¶«í∫’ç-úËC. (؈’ É°æ¤púø’ °æE-îË-ߪ÷Lq ´≤ÚhçC. – ÆæB-≠ˇ-¶«•’, £j«ü¿-®√-¶«ü˛ Öçúø’/ ÖçúøçúÕ.
give me. Some of the parts have
(You) be here = O’J-éπ\úø ÖçúøçúÕ/ †’Ny-éπ\-úø
-v°æ-¨¡o: È®çúø’-¢Ë-© †’ç* ´‚úø’-¢Ë© °æü∆©’ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊çõ‰
come off and the mechanic has told
ÅC Ø√éÀ-≠dçæ -™‰ü¿’)
me that it's no use. Instead of my rid-
Å(®˝), £œ«ñ¸ (size ™ ñ¸™«), ≠œñ ¸, Éö¸q, Åß˝’¢˛, Öçúø’.
ing it, it rides me when it breaks down, ÉçTx≠ˇ ûËLí¬_ ´÷ö«x-úø-´-îªaE ÉöÃ-´© äéπ ¢Ë’í∫- ´¤ß˝’¢˛/ Nß˝’¢˛, ߪ·¢˛, üÁß˝’¢˛, He's= he is/ he Be good = You be good = ´’ç*í¬/ ´’ç*-¢√-
has (Ææçü¿-®√s¥Eo •öÀd), she's = she is/ she has
and that is too frequent. ñ„j-Ø˛™ îªC-¢√†’. ÅC Eï-¢Ë’Ø√? °æü∆©’ ûÁ©’-Ææ’- úÕN/ ´’ç*-ü∆-E-Ní¬ Öçúø’.
(ÅC §ƒûª ¶„jé˙ ÅE ûÁ©’Ææ’ éπü∆, ÅC ´÷ èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ àüÁjØ√ äéπ °æ¤Ææh-é¬Eo Ææ÷*ç-îªçúÕ. (Ææçü¿-®√s¥Eo •öÀd), it's = it is/ it has (Ææçü¿-®√s¥Eo Be quiet = you be quiet = E¨¡z-•lçí¬/ Eü∆-†çí¬
•öÀd), ´¤/N-ß˝’ú˛, you'd (ߪ·ú˛), üÁß˝’ú˛, £œ«ú˛,
-ï-¢√-•’:
Ø√†o Ø√éÀ-*açC. ü∆E™ éÌEo ¶µ«í¬©’ §ƒúÁj- – °œ.ñ«-°∂æ-®˝-ë«Ø˛, ņç-ûª-°æ‹®˝ Öçúø’.
≠œú˛, Éö¸ú˛
⎯ i (C) before words To be = Öçúøôç (Infinitive).
ii) Pronounce the as ∂
§Ú-ߪ÷®·, ¢Á’é¬-Eé˙ èπÿú≈ ÅC Éçéπ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-
Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary
To be here is not good for us =
í∫-°æ-úø-ü¿E îÁ§ƒpúø’. ÅC ††’o ¢Á÷ÊÆ •ü¿’©’, O’®Ω’
؈’ ü∆Eo ¢Á÷ߪ÷Lq ´≤ÚhçC, ÅC ÇT-§Ú- of Current English Defining words
™ *´®Ω beginning with vowel sounds - any of the
®·†°æ¤púø™«x – Åçü¿’™ ÅC ÇT-§Ú-´úøç list words
-îª÷-úøç-úÕ. Ç dictionary
èπ◊ Ç ™ØË telugu sounds Å, Ç, É, Ñ, Ö, Ü, á, à, -â, Ééπ\úø Öçúøôç ´’†èπ◊ ´’ç*-C-é¬ü¿’.
èπÿú≈ áèπ◊\¢Ë.) meaning, use îª÷Æœ ØË®Ω’a-éÓçúÕ. ä, ã, å.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 18 -†-´ç-•®Ω’ 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
Bhupesh: Whatever is keeping you busy, Bhupesh: And you fell in with the idea thought-
Mukhesh? You've been irregular to lessly.
classes. (†’¢Ëy¢Á÷ ÅØ√-™-*-ûªçí¬ äÊ°p-Ææ’-
(E†’o BJ-éπ-™‰-èπ◊çú≈ îËÊÆ-üË-N’öÀ? Class èπ◊-Ø√o´¤.)
©èπ◊ Æævéπ-´’çí¬ ®√´-ôç-™‰ü¿’ †’´¤y) Mukhesh: I've paid only half the fee. I'd better
Mukhesh: I told you. I've signed up for the stop it and attend classes regularly.
Personality Development Course (؈’ fee Ææí∫¢Ë’ éπö«d†’. É°æ¤púø’ ÇÊ°Æœ
by Dr. Paripurna. It is for 2 weeks. classes èπ◊ ®√´ôç ´’ç*-ü¿-†’-èπ◊çö«)
That is in my way of attending Bhupesh: That sounds good. Giving up the
classes. course in the middle is bad, but
(îÁ§ƒp†’ éπü∆. Dr. °æJ-°æ‹®Ωg E®Ωy-£œ«-Ææ’h†o missing classes and attendance is
´uéÀhûªy Né¬Ææç course ™ îË®√†’. ÅC worse. c) Both the brothers have signed up for the a) The dark colour of the inside of the jewel
È®çúø’ ¢√®√©’. Class ©èπ◊ ®√éπ-§Ú-´-ú≈-E- (ÉC ¶«í∫’çC. Course ´’üµ¿u™ ÇÊ°- army = case sets off the brightness of the gold
éπC 鬮Ωùç/ ÅC classes èπ◊ Åçûª- ߪ’ôç îÁúË. é¬E classes and atten- Ç Éü¿l®Ω’ ņo-ü¿-´·t©÷, ÂÆj†uç™ îË®√®Ω’. chain =
®√ߪ’ç éπL-T-≤ÚhçC) dance §ÚíÌ-ô ’d-éÓ-´ôç Åçûª-éπØ√o ´’†èπ◊ ûÁ©’Ææ’, sign up for = join. Modern Ç †í∫© ¶µºJù„ ™°æL ´·ü¿’-®Ω’-®Ωçí∫’ Ç •çí¬®Ω’
Bhupesh: It doesn't make any sense. What is Åüµ∆y†ç) spoken English ™ Ææçü¿-®√s¥-Eo-•öÀd sign up íÌ©’Ææ’ v°æé¬-¨»-EéÀ N®Ω’-ü¿l¥çí¬ ÖçC/ Ç
so urgent about the personality Mukhesh: Thank you for the advice. for áèπ◊\´ ¢√úø-éπç™ ÖçC. ´’† conversa- ´·ü¿’-®Ω’-®Ωç-í∫’-´©x, •çí¬®Ω’ íÌ©’Ææ’ ´’Jçûª
development course? Why at the tion ™ O©®·†-°æ¤p-úø™«x ¢√úøü∆ç.
☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺
¢Á’J-Æœ-§Ú-ûÓçC.
cost of classes and attendance? 2) make sense = (Å™« îËߪ’-úøç™) Å®Ωnç ÖçC. b) The fair complexion of the bride sets off
Personality Development Course Now look at the following expressions from the dark complexion of the groom =
a) Ramesh: I want to buy a bike, but my
can wait, but not your regular class- the dialogue above.
wife wants me to buy a scooter. °Rxèπÿûª’J á®Ω’-°æ¤ ®Ωçí∫’èπ◊, °Rx-éÌ-úø’èπ◊ ´·ü¿’®Ω’
es and the university exams. 1) I've signed up for the personality develop-
ment course
(؈’ bike éÌØ√-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√o, é¬F ´÷ ®Ωçí∫’èπ◊ ûËú≈/ ¢Áj®Ω’üµ¿uç ¶«í¬ éπE-°œ-≤ÚhçC.
(ÅC Å®Ωnç ™‰E °æE. Ñ ´uéÀhûªyç Né¬Ææç ÇN-úË¢Á÷ scooter éÌØ√-©ç-öçC) complexion = skin colour = Ωtç ®Ωçí∫’
course èπ◊ Åçûª ûÌçü¿Í®ç ´*aç-C- 2) It doesn't make
c) Set off the security of a government job
Classes, attendance sense Naresh: Buying a bike
against the high pay of a private job =
°æ¤púø’?
éÓ™pßË’çûª Å´-Ææ-®Ω´÷ ÅC? 3) Set off the benefits of makes sense. A bike
gives a higher mileage
Personality development course the course against
v°æ¶µº’-ûÓy-üÓuí∫ç ¶µºvü¿-ûªèπÿ, w°j¢Ëö¸ ÖüÓuí∫ç
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù than a scooter. It is
class university the advantage of reg-
áèπ◊\´ @û√-Eéà ûËú≈ í∫´’-Eç.
Çí∫’-ûª’çC, é¬F
exams
©’,
course
Çí∫´¤ éπü∆?/ Ñ á°æ¤p-úø- ular study.
384 more economical. 4) come up with (a suggestion/ an idea, etc) =
®·Ø√ BÆæ’-éÓ- äéπ Ç™-, Ææ÷

It doesn't make sense


´îª’a, é¬E îËߪ’ôç.
classes, a) Just when I didn't
exams Çí∫-´¤- know what I should do,
éπü∆?) my dad came up with the
idea that I set up a min-
Mukhesh: You are right,
eral water plant =
of course. But then this course will 4) My cousin Rupesh came up with
(Bike é̆-ôç™ Å®Ωnç ÖçC/ ûÁL-¢Áj† ØËØËç îÁߪ÷u™ Ø√èπ◊ ûÓîª-†-°æ¤púø’, ã miner-
help me to take the exams with the suggestion
Scooter bike al water
more confidence. 5) (That) sounds good.
°æE. éπçõ‰ áèπ◊\´ ûªßª÷K Íéçvü∆Eo à®√pô’ îËÆæ’-éÓ-
mileage
6) That's in the way of my attending
(†’´¤y Æ敶‰ ņ’éÓ, Å®·ûË °æK-éπ~©’ ÉÆæ’hçC. ÅC Çü∆.) ´’ØË Ç™- Éî√aúø’ ´÷ Ø√†o.
áèπ◊\´ Çûªt-N-¨»yÆæçûÓ ®√ÊÆç-ü¿’èπ◊ Ñ classes. Economical = Çü∆/ §Òü¿’°æ¤ b) He came up with the idea that we collect
course Ææ£æ…-ߪ’-°æ-úø’-ûª’ç-ü¿E ņ’-èπ◊ç- 1) sign up for (courses/ pro-
= b) Ram: I am going on bike to casettes of old songs sell them =
ô’Ø√o.) grammes ™«çöÀ ¢√öÀ™x) îË®Ωôç. Hyderabad. §ƒûª §ƒô© casettes ÊÆéπ-Jç* ¢√öÀE
Bhupesh: Set off the benefits of this course a) I wanted to sign up for the yoga
M.SURESAN (Bike O’ü¿ £j«ü¿-®√-¶«-ü˛ ¢Á∞¡Ÿ-ûª’Ø√o) Å´÷t-©ØË Ç™- Åûª†’ î˨»úø’.
against advantages of regular course, but the high fee held 5) sounds good = ¶«í¬ØË ÖçC.
me back = Gopal: All the 265 km from Vijayawada?
study. Regular study keeps you Ç ßÁ÷í¬ Péπ~ù™ îË®√-©-†’-èπ◊Ø√o, a) His action plan for preparation for the
high fee fee) It doesn't make sense. It's very
thorough with the subject. And thor- é¬F Åçûª (áèπ◊\-´í¬ Ö†o †Ø√o- match sounds good = Match
risky.
/ high fee
èπ◊ ûªßª÷-®Ω-´-
oughness gives you more confi-
Ê°-ÆœçC ´©x ؈’ îË®Ω-™‰ü¿’. ö«-EéÀ ÅûªE ´‹u£æ«ç ¶«í¬ØË ÖçC.
dence than any personality devel- hold back = ¢Á†èπ◊\ ûªí∫_ôç/ Ç°æôç. (Nï-ߪ’-¢√úø †’ç* 265 éÀ™-O’-ô- b) Their advice sounds good = ¢√∞¡x Ææ©£æ…
opment course can. b) Pranav has signed for the course but ®Ω÷xØ√? ÅC Å®Ωnç ™‰E °æE. î√™«
hasn't attended a single class. He even ´’ç*-C-í¬ØË ÖçC.
(Ñ course ´©x ™«¶µ«-©èπÿ, Æævéπ-´’çí¬ paid the fees = course
v°æ´÷-ü¿-éπ®Ωç)
6) In the way = Åúøfçí¬/ Åçûª-®√-ߪ’çí¬. DE
3) set off (against)
v°æù¢˛ Ç ™ îË®√úø’. È®çúÕçöÀ ´’üµ¿u Ö†o ûËú≈-©†’/
fees
îªü¿-´-ôç-´©x éπLÍí ¢Ë’©’èπÿ ûËú≈©’ °æJ-Q- èπÿú≈ éπö«dúø’. é¬F Éçûª´-®Ωèπ◊ äéπ\ í∫’Jç* Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ N´-Jçî√ç.
Lç. Æævéπ-´’çí¬ îªü¿-´-ôç-´©x subject class èπ◊ èπÿú≈ ®√™‰ü¿’. ¢Áj®Ω’-üµ∆uEo °æJ-Q-Lçîªúøç.
èπ~◊ùoçí¬ ´Ææ’hçC. Subject O’ü¿ °æô’d, à
personality development course
éπØ√o, áèπ◊\´ Çûªt-N-¨»y-≤ƒEo éπL-T-Ææ’hçC.) -v°æ -¨¡o: Ticket éÌE field ™ match îª÷ÊÆç-ü¿’-éπçõ‰, lD, - Å – °ü¿-´¤-©†’ í∫’çvúøçí¬ A°œp, Ø√©’éπ
advantage = Åú≈y-Ø˛-öÀñ ¸ – ú≈y ØÌéÀ\ i) Rather than -†’ -à-ßË’ (Éçöx èπÿE) úø•’s ê®Ω’a ™‰èπ◊çú≈ TV ™ °æéπ\-©†’ °jéÀ A°œp °æLÍé ¨¡•lç – cot ™ ™« –
°æ©’-èπ◊û√ç = ¢Ë’©’/ ™«¶µºç. îª÷≤ƒh†’. (îª÷ÊÆç-ü¿’èπ◊ •ü¿’©’, ņ-´îª’a) KlDT.
Ææç-ü¿®√s¥-™x -á-™« -Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-
thorough = äéπ N≠æߪ’ç èπ~◊ùoçí¬/ °æ‹Jhí¬ T≤ƒh®Ó -N-´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’. b) Rather than teach geography through ⊃ – éÌûªh system ™ Ñ symbol ¢√úø-ôç-™‰ü¿’.
ûÁL-ߪ’ôç. Thorough with - Thorough ii) í∫ç-> -¢√®Ωa-ú≈-Eo -Éç-Tx-≠ˇ-™
books, why don't you try the TV? = ÉC (§ƒûª system ™) lD éÀ •ü¿’©’ ¢√úË-¢√∞¡Ÿx.
ûª®√yûª á°æ¤púø÷ with ®√¢√L. He is thorough ¶µº÷íÓ-∞«Eo °æ¤Ææhéπç ü∆y®√ ¶Cµç-îË -•-ü¿’©’, ⊃: – ÉC lD èπ◊ D®Ω`ç – Ç.
-à-´’ç-ö«®Ω’?
with the subject = Åûª-úÕéÀ Ç subject TV ü∆y®√ ¶CµçîË v°æߪ’ûªoç î˨»¢√? (cot=clDt; all = ⊃:l - Ç-™ ¸. Ñ 'Ç— °æL-Íéç-ü¿’èπ◊
iii) Phonetic transcription
èπ~◊ùoçí¬/ °æ‹Jhí¬ ûÁ©’Ææ’ c) Rather than see such movies, not èπÿú≈ °ü¿-´¤©’ í∫’çvúøçí¬ A°æpçúÕ. Ø√©’éπ
Mukhesh: Yes. Now I feel I should have
™ éÀç-C-¢√-öÀ- í∫’-J-ç-*
watching them is better = °æéπ\-©†’ °jéÀ A°æpçúÕ.)
z - ÉC Zoo ™ Z ™«í∫. Zoo = Zu:
-N-´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’.
thought better. a, lD, ⊃, z, 3, d3.
Å™«çöÀ ÆœE-´÷-©’- îª÷ÊÆ •ü¿’©’, ÅÆæ©’
3 - ÉC measure ™, vision ™, s †’ °æL-Íé-
iv) English vocabulary éÀ, Phonetic tran-
(Å´¤†’. Ø√éÀ-°æ¤p-úø-E-°œ-≤ÚhçC Éçé¬Ææh ÆœE-´÷©’ îª÷úø-éπ-§Ú-´ôç ¢Á’®Ω’í∫’.
¢Á’®Ω’í¬_ Ç™-*ç-î√-LqçC ؈’) scription ii) í∫ç>-¢√-®Ωa-ö«-E-éπçô÷ v°æûËuéπ¢Á ’i† English Nüµ¿ç.
d3 - ÉC, ï – Jam ™ 'ï— ¨¡•lç.
éÀ -´’ç-* °æ¤Ææhé¬-©’ -ûÁ-©’°æí∫-©®Ω’.
Bhupesh: Who gave you the idea? expression ™‰ü¿’. Decanting the gruel
(after allowing the cooked rice to settle) iv) English vocabulary éÀ vocabulary books
-ï-¢√--•’:
– -N-.-Ñ-¨¡y®Ω®√-´¤, -vQé¬ π◊-∞¡ç.
(Ñ Ç™- FÈé-´-J-î√a®Ω’?) î√™«ØË ÖØ√o®·. Å®·ûË ÉN words, ¢√öÀ
Mukhesh: We were discussing careers in gen-
ņ-´îª’a. Gruel - ví∫÷Å™¸ – ví∫÷ ØÌéÀ\-
i) Rather than °æ-©’-èπ◊û√ç = í∫ç>. Decanting = ¢√®Ωa-ôç/- meanings, antonyms É≤ƒh®·. ¢√öÀE
eral, and my cousin Rupesh came-
Åçõ‰, ü∆E •ü¿’©’, (ÉçéÓöÀ
up with the suggestion that we take
îËߪ’úøç ¢Á’®Ω’í∫’) ÅE Å®Ωnç. DEo ´·êuçí¬ ûË-®Ω-¶-ߪ’ôç. (Coffee decoction, filter éπç®∏ΩÆænç îËÊÆç-ü¿’Íé Å´-鬨¡ç Öçô’çC, é¬E ¢√öÀ
™‰éπ-§ÚûË, coffee §ÒúÕ Åúø’èπ◊\ CT-§Ú-®·† use ûÁMü¿’. Vocabulary increase îËÆæ’èπ◊-ØËç-
the course.
Ææç•ç-üµ¿ç-™‰E È®çúø’ N≠æ-ߪ÷-©™ äéπöÀ ÉçéÓ-
ü∆-E-éπçõ‰ ¢Á’®Ω’í∫’ ÅE îÁÊ°pç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¢√-úø-û√ç. ûª®√yûª ûË®Ω-¶-ÊÆô’x) ü¿’èπ◊ äéπ\õ‰ ´÷®Ω_ç – English newspapers,
iii) a, = Ç– Ø√©’-éπ†’ flat í¬ Öç* °ü¿-´¤-©†’ books O©-®·-†çûª áèπ◊\-´í¬ îªü¿-´ôç–
(àüÓ ´÷´‚-©’í¬ ¢√u°æ-é¬-©†’ í∫’Jç*
´÷ö«x-úø’-èπ◊ç-ô’çõ‰ Ø√ cousin ®Ω÷Ê°≠ˇ a) Rather than buy the ticket and watch
Pronunciation - Oxford: Advanced Learner's
´’†ç Ñ course BÆæ’-éÓ-¢√-©ØË Ç™- the match on the field, I would watch it ûÁJ-*-°öÀd (éÀçC -ü¿-´-úø†’, éÀçCéÀ °öÀd) °æLÍé
¨¡•lç– cart ™ a ™«í∫/ father ™ a ™«í∫. Dictionary of current English Öûªh´’ç.
Éî√aúø’.) on the TV free =

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


-´’çí∫-∞¡-¢√®Ωç 20 -†-´ç-•®Ω’ 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
Dheeraj: Interesting information has come to
Spoken English ™ î√™« ≤ƒüµ∆-®Ωùçí¬ NE-°œçîË
light, you know?
expressions ´’J-éÌEo É°æ¤úø’ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊çü∆ç.
(î√™« ÇÆæ-éÀh-éπ-®Ω-¢Á’i† Ææ´÷-î√®Ωç ¢Á©’-í∫’-™- 1) Come to light: àüÁjØ√ N≠æߪ’ç ¢Á©’-í∫’-™ éÀ
éÌ-*açC, Fèπ◊ ûÁ©’≤ƒ?) ®√´úøç/ Ö†o-ô’dçúÕ Åçü¿-Jéà ûÁL-ߪ’úøç.
Neeraj: What about? (üËE í∫’Jç*?)
a) Some interesting facts about his past
É™«çöÀ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x spoken English ™ have come to light. One of them is that he
about what? éπçõ‰ what about? ÅE áèπ◊\-´í¬
had married another woman before he
Nçö«ç.
married his present wife =
Dheeraj: That Santosh has come into some-
thing. Çߪ’† í∫ûªç™E éÌEo ÇÆæ-éÀh-éπ®Ω Eñ«©’ ¢Á©’-í∫’-
(ÆæçûÓ≠ˇÍéüÓ ÇÆœh ´*aç-ü¿E.) ™éÀ ´î√a®·. ¢√öÀ™x äéπöÀ Çߪ’-†-éÀç-ûª-èπ◊-
Neeraj: That comes as a surprize. Doesn't it?
´·çüË ã ¶µ«®Ωu Öçü¿E. ¢√∞¡x ûªçvúø’-©-èπ◊†o ÅGµ-v§ƒ-ߪ’-¶µ‰-ü∆-©-´©x ¢√∞¡x Åûªúø’ ´uÆæ-Ø√© ´©x úø•sçû√ §ÚíÌ-ô’d-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’.
(ÅC Ǩ¡a-®Ωu¢Ë’ éπü∆?) b) His shady dealings have come to light
°Rx Åçü¿-Jéà Ǩ¡a®Ωuç éπL-Tç-*çC. Åûª-úÕéÀ Ææ£æ…-ߪ’-°æ-úËçü¿’èπ◊ á´-Jéà É≠ædç ™‰ü¿’.
only recently =
Dheeraj: You bet it does. (éπ*aûªçí¬ØË.) b) Madhu: The minister has occupied two b) I am down and out. I can't lend =
àüÁjØ√ ¶«í¬ éπ*aûªç ÅØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ You bet
ÅûªúÕ îÁúø’ ™«¢√-üË-O©’ Ñ ´’üµ¿uØË ¢Á©’-í∫’-™éÀ hundred acres of Government land. Ø√ ü¿í∫_®Ω °j≤ƒ-™‰ü¿’. Fèπ◊ ØËØËO’ Å°œp-´y-™‰†’.
Åçö«ç. ´î√a®·. c) The Pandavas were down and out when
c) With his role in the murder coming to light
(Ç ´’çvA 200 áéπ-®√© v°æ¶µº’ûªy ¶µº÷N’E
Neeraj: His aunt's will came his way a few they lost the game of die =
he has gone underground =
Çvéπ-N’ç-î√úø’.)
days ago. It's a big relief for him. He's
Sudha: Does it come as a surprize? Wü¿ç™ ãúÕ-§Ú-®·† §ƒçúø-´¤©’ E®Ω’-Ê°-ü¿-©-
been down and out for some time Ç £æ«ûªu™ ÅûªúÕ §ƒvûª •ßª’-ô-°æ-úø-ôçûÓ Åûªúø’
Ministers are there for only Govt land.
ߪ÷u®Ω’.
now. Åñ«c-ûªç-™éÀ ¢ÁRx-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’. Dice = §ƒ*-éπ©’. Die = äé𠧃*éπ.
(¢√∞¡x Åûªh O©’-Ø√´÷ éÌEo ®ÓV© éÀçü¿õ‰ go underground = Åñ«c-ûªç-™ éÀ ¢Á∞¡xôç (ÅüË-´’Ø√o Ǩ¡a-®Ωu´÷? ´’çvûª’-©’çúËC ¶µº÷
d) The Government isn't doing much for the
Åûª-úÕéÀ üÌJ-éÀçC. °ü¿l Ü®Ωô Åûª-úÕ-éÀC. 2) Come into something = inherit property = éπ-¶«bÍé í∫ü∆?) down and outs in the country =
éÌçûª-鬩çí¬ àç (úø•’s) ™‰èπ◊çú≈ ÖØ√oúø’ ÇÆœh §Òçü¿úøç/ ÇÆœh 4) Come (somebody's) way = Å´-é¬-¨»-™«xç-öÀN
ü˨¡ç-™E E®Ω’-Ê°-ü¿-©èπ◊ v°æ¶µº’ûªyç Åçûªí¬ àç
§ƒ°æç) Ææçvéπ-N’ç-îªúøç ņ’-éÓ-èπ◊çú≈ ®√´úøç/ îËߪ’úøç ™‰ü¿’.
will = O©’-Ø√´÷ a) He has come into 6) Come out of nowhere =
§Òçü¿úøç/ ûªí∫-©úøç.
Dheeraj: He must be a happy guy now. The a large property a) Make the best of the

-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
Ö†o-ô’dçúÕ éπE-°œç-îªúøç/ áéπ\-úÕ-†’çîÓ ÜúÕ°æúøôç
will coming out of nowhere should with the death of opportunities that
385 a) Just when we were talking about him, he
have come as a big boon to him. his foster father= come your way = came out of nowhere =
(î√™« ÆæçûÓ- ÅûªúÕ í∫’JçîË ´÷ö«x-úø’-

They almost came to blows


≠æ°æúø’ûª’ç-ú≈L èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√oç, Éçûª-™ ØË
É°æ¤púøûªúø’. Ç áéπ\-úÕ-†’çîÓ ÜúÕ-°æ-úøfô’x
O©’-Ø√´÷ áéπ\-úÕ- v°æûªu-éπ~-´’-ߪ÷uúø’.
†’çîÓ ÜúÕ-°æ-úøfô’x b) Work hard for money.
®√´úøç °ü¿l It doesn't come as if from
´®Ω¢Á’i Öçú≈L.) nowhere/ come from nowhere =
boon = ´®Ωç $ curse = ¨»°æç °ç°æ¤úø’ ûªçvúÕ ´’®Ω-ùçûÓ Åûªúø’ F´¤ §ÒçüË Å´-é¬-¨»-©†’ ÆæCy-E-ßÁ÷í∫ç
Neeraj: Unfortunately it's not going to be all íÌ°æp ÇÆœhéÀ ¢√®ΩÆæ’úø-ߪ÷uúø’/ °ü¿l ÇÆœh îËÆæ’éÓ. úø•’s 鬢√-©çõ‰ éπ≠d-°æ æ-ú≈L. áéπ\-úø’oçîÓ ÜúÕ-°æ-úøü¿’
that smooth for him. His cousins are
éπü∆?
Åûª-úÕéÀ Ææçvéπ-N’ç-*çC. b) I am ready to take whatever
7) Come to blows = üÁ•s-™«-úø’-éÓ-´úøç.
in his way. There was a heated b) He never expected to come comes my way, praise or blame =
exchange between him and them. a) The Congress and the TDP workers
into such a large fortune =
§Òí∫-úøh-®·Ø√, Eçü¿-®·Ø√, üËEo §Òçü¿- come to blows =
They almost came to blows. Åçûª ÇÆœhéÀ ûª†’ ¢√®Ω-Ææ’-úø-†-´¤-û√-†E ö«-E-ÈéjØ√ ؈’ Æœü¿l¥¢Ë’. Congress, TDP 鬮Ωu-éπ-®Ωh©’ üÁ•s-™«-úø’-èπ◊-Ø√o®Ω’.
M.SURESAN
(ü¿’®Ω-ü¿%-≠d-´æ -¨»ûª÷h Åü¿çûª Ææ’©¶µºç ÅE-°œç- Åûª-úÁ-°æ¤púø÷ ņ’-éÓ-™‰ü¿’.
îª-úøç-™‰ü¿’. ÅûªúÕ cousins Åúø’f-ûª-í∫’-©’- 5) be down and out = b) The heated exchange between the two
3) Come as a surprize =
ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’ (Ç O©’-Ø√´÷ N≠æ-ߪ’ç™). îËA™ °j≤ƒ èπÿú≈ ™‰èπ◊çú≈ Öçúøôç/ °æ‹Jhí¬ E®Ω’- groups led to their coming to blows =
Ǩ¡a®Ωuç éπL-Tç-îªúøç Ç É®Ω’-´-®√_© ¢√Ty-¢√ü¿ç üÁ•s-™«-ôèπ◊ ü∆J-B-ÆœçC.
ÅûªúÕéà ¢√∞¡xèπÿ °ü¿l N¢√ü¿ç ïJ-TçC. a) Their marriage has come as a surprize to
Ê°-ü¿í¬ Öçúøôç.
ü∆ü∆°æ¤ éÌô’d-èπ◊ØËçûª ´®Ωèπÿ ´*açC.) a) Because of his vices he is down and out, É´Fo èπÿú≈ conversation ™ ûª®Ωîª÷ NE-°œçîË
everyone, as their fathers had differ- expressions. ´÷ö«xúËô°æ¤púø’ practise îËߪ’çúÕ.
heated exchange = ¢ËúÕ ¢ËúÕ ¢√üÓ-°æ-¢√-ü∆©’ and no one is willing to help him =
ences =
Dheeraj: Why should they dispute his right by
the will?
-v°æ-¨¡o: 1) He is suffering from -v°æ-¨¡o: 1) Period of time Past tense èπ◊ îÁçC-†-°æ¤púø’ -v°æ-¨¡o:
(O©’-Ø√´÷ ü∆y®√ Åûª-úÕ-éÌ-*a† £æ«èπ◊\†’ "Othello syndrome". Ñ after He pub-
®√¢√L ÅE äéπ °æ¤Ææh-éπç™ ÖçC. The Army foiled an infiltration attempt when
¢√∞Î}ç-ü¿’èπ◊ é¬ü¿-Ø√L?) ¢√éπuç™ Othello syn- lished the book after a few months. DE ûÁ©’í∫’ they shot dead a militant near the LOC.
Neeraj: They are envious naturally. They drome Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ? Å®Ωnç, ´’JEo Öü∆-£æ«-®Ω-ù-©ûÓ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. 1. Shot dead both V2's. How possible?
were shouting at him like hell; they
2) O’®Ω’ àç îË®·-Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’ – DEo 2) Will, shall èπ◊ v°æßÁ÷í∫ ¶µ‰ü¿ç ûÁ©-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. 2. 'A' pronounce ∂ & ⊃:
Å Ç, where and
wanted a share in the property which when they take place?
-ï-¢√-•’: 1) ÅC ÆæJé¬ü¿’. He published the book
ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ᙫ Åúø-í¬L? – Ç®˝.-á-Ø˛.-¢Áç-éπ-õ‰-¨¡y®Ω’x, §ƒ©-éÌ©’x.
he denied and rightly so. Explain 'The' pronounced as & why?
3) a) ؈’ úµÕMx ¢ÁRx ´î√a†’. ü¿ C
(¢√∞¡Ÿx Ñ®Ω{u-°æ-úøôç Ææ£æ«ïçéπü∆! ÅûªúÕ O’ü¿ a few months later. '... a few months after' Please give the explanation with examples.
b) ؈’ úµÕMx ¢ÁRx ´Ææ’h-Ø√o†’.
¢√∞¡Ÿx ÅJ-*-§ƒ-Í®-Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’. ¢√∞¡xèπÿ ¶µ«í∫ç after after
-ï-¢√-•’:
c) ؈’ úµÕMx ¢ÁRx ´≤ƒh†’. – ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ᙫ îÁ§ƒpL?
ņo-°æ¤púø’, ûª®√yûª, àüÁjØ√ ®√¢√L– – ´’£æ«tü˛ Év´÷Ø˛, û√çúø÷®Ω’.
鬢√-©-Ø√o®Ω’. ÅûªúË¢Á÷ ÅüËç èπ◊ü¿-®Ω-ü¿- his child's birth/ marriage, etc.
Ø√oúø’. ÅC correct éπü∆!) 4) a) The information given is correct.
2) ÉC §ƒûª lessons ™ ÖçC, îª÷úøçúÕ. 1) In the expression, shot dead, shot is not
-v°æ-¨¡o: I need to have knowledge of phonetics to
Dheeraj: He wants to see you about it because b) The given information is correct. V3 (Past participle), but the past simple
your uncle is a lawyer. °j È®çúø’ ¢√é¬u™x àC ÆæÈ®jçC? Å™«Íí °j form (Past Doing Word) of shoot.
improve my pronunciation? Kindly let me
(Ç N≠æ-ߪ’¢Á’i E†’o éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√-©-†’- ¢√é¬u™x given (V3) part of speech ûÁ©-°æçúÕ. 2) 'A' the indefinite article is pronounced '∂'
èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√oúø’ O’ uncle lawyer éπü∆!) have the pronunciation of following words ( - raise the tongue slightly when you
-ï¢- √-•’: 1) Othello Syndrome Åçõ‰ ¶µ«®Ωu v°æ´-®Ωh†,
Å
1) corps 2) corpse.
– ≤ƒyA, £j«ü¿-®√-¶«ü˛.
Neeraj: OK. Let him come. I'll take him to my pronounce this) normally, and as 'ei'
I am an engineering graduate. Which dictio- ( when you stress it. It is never pro-
uncle. áß˝’)
Q™«Eo ¨¡çéÀç-îªôç. ¶µ«®Ωu†’ ņ’-´÷-Eç-îªôç. nary will serve me better? nounced as ⊃: (Ç).
-ï-¢√-•’:
uncle 2) What are you getting done? ∂ book (a before 'book' not stressed)
(®√F. ´÷ ü¿í∫_-®Ωèπ◊ BÆæ’-Èé-∞¡û√.) – ´’¯Eéπ, -Å-†ç-ûª°æ¤®Ωç.
Look at the following expressions from the 3) a) I have been to Delhi
Certainly. You should know phonetic symbols ei book (a before book is stressed)
conversation above.
b) I am returning from Delhi thoroughly to be able to pronounce correctly. a) The is pronounced as before words
'C—
1) Interesting information has come to light. beginning with Vowel sounds (not let-
c) I will go to Delhi and come back/ return OED (Oxford English Dictionary) offers a pro-
2) That Santosh has come into something. ters)- These sounds are
4) (a) and (b) È®çúø÷ correct. É´y-•-úÕ† Ææ´÷- nunciation CD with Oxford Advanced Å, Ç, É, Ñ,
3) That comes as a surprize. Learner's Dictionary of current English. á, à, â, ä, ã, å. The egg, The
(--C) (--C)
4) His aunt's will came his way a few days ago.
î√®Ωç (´÷´‚©’ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ (¢√∞¡Ÿx) É*a† 1) Corps - - [ k ⊃: (r) ] =
ë (®˝) ü¿∞¡ç. ant, the (--C)owl etc.
5) He's been down and out for some time now.
Ææ´÷-î√®Ωç) ÆæÈ®j-†üË ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ. Å®·ûË 2) Corpse - - dead body [ k ⊃:ps ]
ë°ˇq b) The is pronounced as before words
(-ü¿-)
'Information given' ÅØËC áèπ◊\´ ¢√-úø-û√ç. beginning with consonant sounds
6) The will coming out of nowhere should have especially of a human being. (Å®·ûË Ééπ\úø
Ñ two sentences ™ 'given' is past par- (sounds other than, etc...).
come as a big boon to him.
Å, Ç, É, Ñ,
The pen, the book, etc.
ë °æ‹Jhí¬ ë é¬èπ◊çú≈ 'ë—éÀ 'ë«—éÀ ´’üµ¿u ¨¡•lç).
7) They almost came to blows. ticiple. ÉC adjective îËÊÆ °æEîËÆæ’hçC. (ü¿) (ü¿)

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


í∫’®Ω’-¢√®Ωç 22 -†-´ç-•®Ω’ 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
Nishith: You look dull and out of your head.
standard spoken/ written English ™ mad èπ◊
What's the matter?
(î√™« -E®Ω’-û√q£æ«çí¬, ÇçüÓ-∞¡-†™ Ö†oô’x °œ*a ÅØË Å®Ωnç î√™« §ƒûª-•-úÕ-§Ú-®·çC. Modern
English ™ mad Åçõ‰ °œ*a/´’†-Æ œn-N’ûªç ™‰E ÅØË
éπE-°œ-Ææ’h-Ø√o´¤. àçöÀ N≠æߪ’ç?)
Sampath: Wouldn't you be if you scored low
Å®Ωnç ¢√úø’-éπ™ ™‰ü¿’. Mad/ madness ™«çöÀ ´÷ô-
and your dad were mad about it?
©†’, éÓ°æç, ¢Á÷V, ûÁL-N-™‰E (foolish/ stupid) ÅCµ-éÓ-
(Fèπÿ ûªèπ◊\´ ´÷®Ω’\-™Ô*a O’ Ø√†o F û√q£æ«ç ™«çöÀ Å®√n-©-ûÓØË áèπ◊\´ ¢√úø-û√®Ω’. °œ*a/
O’ü¿ áT-J-°æ-úÕûË, †’´¤y ÇçüÓ-∞¡-†í¬ ´’†-Æœn-N’ûªç ™‰E/ ´÷†-Æœéπ ÆœnA ÆæJí¬ ™‰E ÅØË Å®√n-
Öçúø¢√?) ©ûÓ, crazy, insane, mentally unsound, of an
Nishith: Surely I wouldn't be mad enough to be unsound mind ™«çöÀ expressions ¢√úøû√ç.
playing and watching cricket with the a) FÍé-´’Ø√o °œî √a = Are you crazy.
exams round the corner. I was warn- b) Åûª-EéÀ ´’†-Æ œn-N’ûªç ™‰-ü¿’/ °œ*a °æöÀdçC/ °œîÁa-éÀ\çC
ing you, but you didn't care. = He is insane/ mentally unsound/ of an (í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ: ûÁL-N-™‰E °æ†’©’/ Ç™- ™‰E ߪ·´-®√ñ¸ ´®Ω-Ææí¬ Ç®Ω’ Æœèπ◊q©’ éÌôd-úøçûÓ stadi-
unsound mind. °æ†’©’ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ – ´’A-Æœn-N’ûªç ™‰E ÅØË um (véÃú≈-ÆænL) ¢Á·ûªhç džç-ü¿çûÓ/ Öû√q-£æ«çûÓ
(°æK-éπ~©’ ü¿í∫_®Ωèπ◊ ´Ææ’h†o-°æ¤púø’ ؈’ F™«í∫
véÀÈéö¸ Çúøôç, îª÷úø-ôç-™«çöÀ °œ*a °æE Lunatic = Lunacy =
°œ*a-¢√∞¡Ÿx; °œ*a Å®ΩnçûÓ é¬ü¿’) = véÀÈéö¸ Çúøôç îª÷úøôç ™«çöÀ EçúÕ-§Ú-®·çC.
îËߪ’†’. ؈’ Fèπ◊ îÁ°æ¤ûª÷ØË ÖØ√o. †’´¤y modern spoken English
É°æ¤púø’ ™ mad ¢√úøéπç ûÁL-N-ûª-èπ◊\´/ ´‚®Ω^°æ¤ °æ†’©’ ؈’ îËߪ’†’. b) People go mad when they see the dancer on
a) You took that cheat as a partner? You are the screen =
°æöÀdç--éÓ-™‰ü¿’.) ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊çü∆ç. mad =
Sampath: Stop it. You always look for an Look at the following expressions from the Ç dancer ûÁ®Ω-O’ü¿ éπE°œçîªí¬ØË v°æï-©ç-ü¿®Ω÷ džç-
opportunity to blame me. Don't think conversation above. Ç ¢Á÷Ææí¬úÕE ¶µ«í∫-Ææ’n-úÕí¬ BÆæ’-èπ◊-Ø√o¢√? Féπ-Ææ©’ üÓ-û√q-£æ…-©ûÓ ÜT-§Ú-û√®Ω’ (Ñ©©’, æp-ôxûÓ).
I am a child you can tutor? 1) You look dull and out of your head. ûÁLN ™‰ü¿’/ ÅC ÅN-¢Ëéπç. c) I go mad and forget everything =
2) I wouldn't be mad enough to be playing and b) People who think that politicians are there to
(Ééπ Ç°æ¤. á°æ¤p-úÁ-°æ¤púø’ ††’o ûª°æ¤p-°æ- serve people are just mad =
džç-ü¿çûÓ/ Ç Öû√q-£æ«ç™ ÅFo ´’Ja-§Ú-û√†’.
watching cricket.... 6) He went mad and had a party =
úøü∆´÷ ÅE îª÷Ææ’hç-ö«´¤. ØËØË-´’Ø√o 3) Don't go mad at me. ®√ïéÃߪ’ Ø√ߪ’-èπ◊©’ v°æñ«-ÊÆ-´Íé ņ’-èπ◊-ØË-¢√∞¡Ÿx
*†o-°œ-™«x-úÕØ√ FûÓ îÁ°œpç--èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊?) Ç Ç†ç-ü¿ç™ party îËÆæ’-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’.-– ÉC èπÿú≈
4) I go mad and forget everything. °œ*a¢√∞¡Ÿx (Å´÷-ߪ’-èπ◊©’/ ûÁL-N-™‰-E-¢√∞¡Ÿx/ ÅN-¢Ë-èπ◊©’
tutor = ¶Cµç-îªúøç– ´·êuçí¬ à °æE îËߪ÷™/ No.5 - go mad ™«çöÀüË.
5) No cricket at the cost ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ).
7) Madness =
of my studies. 3) Go mad (at some-
îËߪ’-èπÿ-úøüÓ îÁ°æpúøç °œîËa – Å®·ûË ´’A-Æœn-N’ûªç ™‰E ÅØË
Nishith: Don't go mad at me, Sampath. I was 6) He went mad and
Å®ΩnçûÓ é¬ü¿’ – ´‚®Ω^ûªyç ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ (áèπ◊\-´í¬
body) = (äéπJ O’ü¿)
only trying to find out why you were so this/ that is (sheer) madness Åçö«ç – î√™«
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
had a party.
386
worried.
= N°æ-K-ûª-¢Á’i† éÓ°æç
7) Madness... ÅN-¢Ëéπç ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ)
a) (Are you) selling away the house? That's
(Ø√ O’ü¿ éÓ°æp- ®√´úøç.
úøèπ◊. áçü¿’-éπçûª (sheer) madness =

I go mad and for get ever ything


ÇçüÓ-∞¡-†ûÓ É©’x Ţ˒tÆæ’h-Ø√o¢√? ÅC
ÖØ√o¢Ó ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ- (Öûªh) ´‚®Ω^ç/ ÅN-¢Ëéπç.
¢√-©-†’-èπ◊-Ø√o†’.) sheer = Öûªh
Sampath: What can I b) She is marrying that
do? I can't good for nothing fel-
control my weakness for cricket. 1) Out of your (somebody's) head low. That's real mad-
a) He went mad at his friend for
When I see Sachin and Dhony play- = crazy = ness =
°œ*aí¬ Öçúøôç. cheating him =
ing, I go mad and forget everything. a) (Do) you want to buy that useless Ç °æE-éÀ-®√E ¢Áüµ¿-´†’ °RxîËÆæ’èπ◊ç-öçC. ÅC
(àç îËߪ’†’? véÀÈéö¸ °æôx Ø√èπ◊†o •©-£‘«- car? You must be out of your
ûª††’ ¢Á÷Ææç îËÆœ-†ç-ü¿’èπ◊ ûª† ÊÆo£œ«-
ûª’úÕ O’ü¿ N°æ-K-ûª-¢Á’i† éÓ°æç ´*açC. ´‚®Ω^ûªyç/ ÅN-¢Ëéπç.
†-ûª†’ Åü¿’-°æ¤™ °ô’d-éÓ-™‰-éπ-§Ú-ûª’-Ø√o†’. head, really = 5) At the cost of = äéπ ü∆EéÀ †≠ædç éπL-Íí-N-üµ¿çí¬.
b) Her husband, she knows, is sure
Ææ*-Ø˛-í¬F, üµÓE í¬F Çúø-ôç-îª÷ÊÆh Ø√ÍéüÓ Ç °æE-éÀ-´÷-L† 鬮Ω’ éÌçü∆-´’-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’- to go mad if he cames to know a) No body says you shouldn't watch movies,
Öû√q£æ«ç ´îËaÆœ ÅFo ´’J-*-§Ú-û√†’.) Ø√o¢√? Å®·ûË Fèπ◊ Eïçí¬ what her new dress costs = but not at the cost of your studies =
Nishith: Don't I love cricket too? But I tell °œ*a°æöÀdçC. M.SURESAN dress ÆœE-´÷©’ îª÷úÌ-ü¿lE á´®Ω÷ ņ®Ω’, é¬F ü∆E-´©x
myself, 'no cricket at the cost of my b) He must be out his head to hope
ûª† éÌûªh áçûª-®·çüÓ ûª†
îªü¿’-´¤èπ◊ †≠ædç ®√èπÿ-úøü¿’.
studies'. to be the next CM = ¶µº®Ωhèπ◊ ûÁLÊÆh, ûª†-O’ü¿ ûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈ éÓ°æç
´Ææ’hç-ü¿E Ç¢Á’èπ◊ ûÁ©’Ææ’. b) I am ready to help others, but not at the cost
of my job =
(Ø√èπ◊ ´÷vûªç É≠æd癉ü∆ véÀÈéö¸ Åçõ‰? é¬F ûª®√yûª Æ‘áç û√†´¤û√-†E ÇPç-*ôç °œîËa (ûÁL-N-™‰-
E-ûª†ç/ ûÁL-N-ûª-èπ◊\´.) 4) Go mad èπ◊ ÉçéÓ Å®Ωnç = džç-ü¿çûÓ, Öû√q-£æ«çûÓ
Ø√èπ◊ ؈’ îÁ°æ¤p-èπ◊ç-ö«†’, 'véÀÈéö¸ ´©x îªü¿’- ؈’ Éûª®Ω’-©èπ◊ Ææ£æ…-ߪ’-°æ-úËç-ü¿’èπ◊ Æœü¿l¥¢Ë’ é¬F
´¤èπ◊ ¶µºçí∫ç éπ©-í∫-èπÿ-úø-ü¿E—.) 2) I wouldn't be mad enough to be playing ÜT-§Ú-´úøç
and watching cricket. a) The whole stadium went mad when Youvraj Ø√ °æü¿-NéÀ †≠ædç/ v°æ´÷ü¿ç éπL-Íí-´-®Ωèπ◊
Sampath: I am nothing when compared with
- be mad hit six sixes in a row = ´÷vûªç é¬ü¿’.
Devanand. The other day when Ééπ\úø Åçõ‰ Å®Ωnç, °œ*a °æ†’©’
India won, he went mad; and had a
party with all of us. -v°æ-¨¡o: Give me an example sen- Can have been - They can have been there
for some time =
Éçöx ´%ü¿l¥ ûªLx-ü¿ç-vúø’-©†’ îª÷Ææ’èπ◊ç-ô÷ -Öç-ú≈-
(üË¢√-†ç-ü˛ûÓ §ÚLÊÆh Ø√C î√™« ûªèπ◊\´. tence for each one of the
¢√∞¡}-éπ\úø Öçô’ç-úÌa– í∫ûªç™
possibility
LqçC É°æ¤púø’ †’´¤y Ê°é¬ô Çúø’-ûª’-Ø√o´¤– Moral
obligation.
¢Á·†o ¶µ«®Ωû˝ ÈíL-*-†-°æ¤púø’, î√™« džç-üÓ- verb forms given below
ã Ææ´’-ߪ’ç -†’ç* É°æpöÀ´®Ωèπÿ–
û√q-£æ…-©ûÓ ´÷ Åçü¿JûÓ §ƒKd îËÆæ’-èπ◊- under each category
(≤ƒüµ¿u¢Ë’) How dare you be talking so in my presence?
Ought to have been - You ought to have
Ø√oúø’.) namely (I, II, IV and V) = Ø√ Ææ´’-éπ~ç™ É™« ´÷ö«x-úø’-ûª÷ -Öç-úø-ö«-EéÀ
been kind to him =
Nishith: That's real madness. Sachin and and also equivalent sen-
†’´¤y Åûª-úÕ °æôx ü¿ßª’ûÓ áçûª üµÁj®Ωuç Fèπ◊?
(Past- did not happen)
Dhoni get money and fame when they tence in Telugu.
Öçú≈-LqçC, é¬F ™‰´¤, If I have money, I need not be serving you =
play. We lose our time and future. Need have been - usually in questions, or
I form: ought be, dare be, need be, can Ø√ ü¿í∫_®Ω úø•’sçõ‰ Fèπ◊ ÊÆ´ îËÆæ’hçúË Å´-Ææ®Ωç
Watching them getting money and with not
have been, need have been, ought have ™‰ü¿’.
fame that affects our future. been, dare have been. You need not have been there =
IV form: Need I see him now? =
II form: (be form + ing form) can be + ing,
(ÅC Eïçí¬ ûÁL-N-´÷-L† °æE. Ææ*Ø˛, üµÓF †’´y-éπ\úø ÖçúË Å´-Ææ®Ωç (í∫ûªç™) ™‰ü¿’ éπü∆? Åûª-úÕ-E ؈’ éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´-úøç Å´-Ææ-®Ω´÷?
could be + ing, ought be + ing, dare be +
(é¬F ÖØ√o´¤)
You ought to respect elders =
ÇúÕûË ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ úø•÷s, ë«uB ´Ææ’hçC. ¢√∞¡xC
Dare have been - With so many of my ene-
°ü¿l-©†’ íı®Ω-Nç-
§Òçü¿’-ûª’çõ‰ ´’† Æ洒ߪ’ç, úø•÷s §ÚíÌ-ô’d- ing, need be + ing. (Moral obligation)
mies there I dare not have been there and
î√L
èπ◊çö«ç, ´’† ¶µºN-≠æuûª÷h §ƒúø-´¤-ûª’çC.) IV form: Need + 1st RDW, ought +1st You dare not smoke in my presence =
Sampath: You watch and play cricket too, came away = Ø√
RDW, dare +1st RDW
Åçûª ´’çC ¨¡-vûª’-´¤-©-éπ\-úø’-†o-°æ¤púø’,
´·çü¿®Ωcigarette 鬩’-≤ƒh¢√?/ Åçûª üµÁj®Ωu´÷?
don't you? V form: can have + pp, ought have + pp,
Åéπ\úø ÖçúË üµÁj®Ωuç î√©-™‰ü¿’ Ø√èπ◊. ´îËa-¨»†’.
II form: She can be singing this song there V form: He can have done it - îËߪ’-í∫-L-T Öçúø-
(†’´‹y véÀÈéö¸ Çúø’-ûª’ç-ö«´¤, dare have + pp, need have + pp ´îª’a– Possibility
îª÷Ææ’hçö«´¤ éπü∆?) now. (possibility- É°æ¤p-ú≈¢Á’ Ñ §ƒô†’
You ought to have been polite = é¬Ææh ´’®√u-
-ï-¢√-•’: I form: Ought to be = You ought to
– -áç.-¶µ-T-v°æ≤ƒ-ü˛, í∫’ç-ô÷®Ω’
Nishith: I do, but only so long as if doesn't Åéπ\úø §ƒúø’-ûª÷ -Öç--úÌa)
come in the way of my studies. He could be doing the same thing there = ÉüË ü¿í¬ Öçú≈-LqçC †’´¤y (í∫ûªç™), é¬F ™‰´¤.
be polite to elders. (†’´¤y °ü¿l© °æôx She dare not have been here if I had been
(Çúø-û√†’, îª÷≤ƒh†’. áçûª-´-®Ωèπ◊? ü∆E-´©x moral obligation)
°æE Åéπ\-úø èπÿ-ú≈ îËÆœ/ îËÆæ÷h ÖçúÌa.
Ø√ îªü¿’-´¤èπ◊ Åçûª-®√ߪ’ç éπ©-í∫-†ç-ûª-´-®Ωèπ◊.) ´’®√u-ü¿í¬ Öçú≈L– (Possibility- past/ present- less possible then there = ؈-éπ\úø ÖçúÕ Öçõ‰, Ç¢Á’èπ◊ Åéπ\úø ÖçúË
Dare be: How dare you be even when I've
Sampath: Nishith, surely there's something can be + ing) üµÁj®Ωuç ™‰éπ-§Ú-ßË’C.
asked you to get out? You need not have been so kind to him =
She need not be helping him:
I've to learn from you.
(؈’ ¢ÁR}-§Ò-´’tØ√o Åûª-úÕéÀ Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç
Ééπ\úø Öçúø-ö«-EéÀ áçûª üµÁj®Ωuç Fèπ◊?) îËÆæ÷h ÖçúË Å´-Ææ®Ωç ™‰ü¿’. ÅûªE °æôx †’´¤y îª÷°œ-†çûª ü¿ßª’ îª÷°æ-†-éπ\®Ω
Need be - Usually with not, or in questions:
(Eïçí¬ F ü¿í∫_®Ω ØË®Ω’a-éÓ-¢√-LqçC î√™« ÖçC.)
mad Åçõ‰ °œ*a/ ´’†-Æ œn-N’ûªç ™‰E, ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ You ought to be taking care of your old par- ™‰ü¿’. (ņ-´-Ææ-®Ωçí¬ ü¿ßª’ îª÷°œç-î√´¤/ Åçûª ü¿ßª’
You need not be here any longer
ents at home instead of playing cards here:
(†’Ny-éπ\úø îª÷°œ Öçúø-éπ\-Í®xü¿’).
î√™« ´’çC (India ™) ¢√úøôç Nçô’çö«ç. Å®·ûË Öçúø†´-Ææ®Ωç ™‰ü¿’)
Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 25 -†-´ç-•®Ω’ 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
-ï-¢√-•’:
1) ®√ߪ’-´îª’a. ´·êuçí¬ °æE-îË-ÆœçC á´®Ω’ ÅE ûÁ-L-
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
ߪ’-†°æ¤p-úø’, É™« ®√ߪ’-ô¢Ë’ ≤˘éπ®Ωuç.
387 eg: a) Instructions had been given and they
were followed.

-v°æ-¨¡o:
b) The murder had been planned carefully
and executed quickly =
1) Conjunction Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-TÆæ÷h È®çúø’ ¢√é¬u-©†’ £æ«ûªu†’ î√-™« ñ«ví∫-ûªhí¬ plan
îËÆœ Å´’-©’-°æ-J-
passive ™ at time incident í∫’Jç* î√®Ω’ (ûÁ©’í∫’ – active)
®√ßÁ·î√a? Å®·ûË É™« ÅEo Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x passive voice
î√-
2) The News reporter said, "The S.I. (Sub-
-v°æ-¨¡o: 1) 'Bicycle' éÀ í¬L éÌöÀdç-î√L -ï-¢√-•’: 1) The tube has to be filled/ inflated (Passive).
™« ÅÆæ-£æ«-ïçí¬ Öçô’çC.
2) Correct, Å®·ûË Ééπ\úø passive ņ-´-Ææ®Ωç.
Inspector of Police) was gunned down
¢Á·ûªhç Active voice ™ when the police Åçõ‰ ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ à´’E Åúø-í¬L? Active Voice ™ Å®·ûË á´®Ω’ éÌöÀdç-î√L -Å-ØË-ü∆-Eo-•öÀdI/ we/
when the Naxals were attacked (encoun- you etc., have to get the tube filled/ inflated. (Inflate=
attacked the naxalites they gunned down 2) Right éÀ correct éÀ ûËú≈ -à-N’--öÀ? ÉØ˛-
tered).'' -
the inspector
¢√uéπ-®Ω-ù-°æ-®Ωçí¬ Ñ ¢√éπuç ÆæÈ®jç-üËØ√? °∂x-ß˝’ö¸ – °∂xß˝’ ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç– Å®Ωnç – í¬LûÓ Eç°æôç)
Indirect/ reported speech
ņ-´îª’a. 3) Power has failed, ´’Sx AJT
DEo ™ ᙫ The news reporter said/ reported that 2) ûËú≈ ™‰ü¿’.
®√´-ú≈Eo à´’ç-ö«®Ω’? 3) Power is back/ is on again. (Power has failed •ü¿’©’
®√ߪ÷™ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. the SI had been gunned down when
the Naxalites had been attacked. Power has gone off/ power is off ņôç Éçé¬ simpler)
– öÀ.N.-Ææ-B≠ˇ, Nï-ߪ’-¢√úø – °œ.ÉçC®√ ®√ùÀ, éπ´’-™«-°æ¤®Ωç

-v°æ-¨¡o: Sir, I have a doubt about "Countables & 8) The bank plans various extensions to
its credit facilities. Please clarify me
countable or an uncountable. In the
sentence, the failure of the United
Perhaps you know that hope, like expecta-
tion is both countable and uncountable. [My
Uncountables" especially these are the
of each underlined nouns used Nations to maintain food supplies ..., (1) hopes are that he will pass- hope, used in
nouns when used in abstract sense. Before plural- so countable. I have given up hope
above are C/ U. And how to assure failure can be either a countable or
such nouns the marks '[C, U]' are indicated at of any help from him. Hope- no ‘a’ before it,
myself just having a glance over the uncountable. In a sentence like, A fail-
noun entry level in the Oxford Advanced so it is uncountable here.]
nouns whether they are countable or ure of our school systems is ..., failure is
Learner's Dictionary. So, generally it implies 12) The expectation is - here we can also say,
uncountable? Hope you will see the countable because, failure has ‘a’
that if the marks '[C, U]' appears beside any The expectations are that the property ...
following too kindly with a bit of before it and a failure here means one
noun; they can be used both in countable & when you say, the expectation is , ... ,
patience. of the failures. (The plural form of the
un-countable form too- though they have expectation is both countable and uncount-
IV Expectation: [C, U] a belief that sth word). You see here failure used both able. In the sentence, the expectations are
abstract sense in the meaning.
will happen because it is likely. as a countable and an uncountable. In ... the word is countable.
And you know sir, for the sake of readers
9) We are confident in our expectation of a full such cases it doesn’t matter how you use it. V Expertise: Why not? ‘The’ must be used
understanding example sentences are also
given at each noun entry level in the Oxford recovery. In your second sentence, failure to comply before a countable or an uncountable, when
Advanced Learner's Dictionary. Though, oh 10) The was a general expectation that he with the regulations .... (2) (you copied it wrong- it is qualified, that is, when you get an
well, I'm not able to distinguish the nouns used would win. ly as failures) the word failure is uncountable answer to the question which put to the
in the example sentences whether they are countable or the uncountable.
countables or uncountables. For example, you eg: a) Milk is a strong food.
can take a glance over the following example
sentences that are quoted from Oxford
Dictionary. And kindly clarify me in each exam-
ple sentence the underlined noun whether is
C ountable .. Uncountable In this sentence, milk is uncountable. No
‘the’ before it because you don’t have an
answer to ‘which milk is a strong food?' (That
is, milk here is not qualified.) So, no the
countable or uncountable. And if it is in-fact a before it.
11) I applied for the post more in because we don’t find ‘a’ before it.
countable/ uncountable, how it can be found b) The milk in fridge is a day old.
hope than expectation. We don’t say either, failures (plural)
out with just having a glance over them? Here Milk- uncountable. Which milk is a day old?
I'm quoting the meanings and example sen- 12) The expectation is that property to comply with the regulations ...
You get the answer: 'milk in the fridge’ (That
tences of that nouns used similarly in the prices will rise. Please clarify the II. Though the dictionary says that
is, milk here is qualified). So you must use
Oxford. They are: noun 'expectation' used in the ‘capability’ is countable as well as ‘the’ before it.
I Failure: Not doing something (sth) '[C, U]': each sentence whether it is uncountable, it is more used as a Another example:
The act of not doing sth, especially sth you countable or uncountable. countable and on very few occasions a) Advice is easy to give. (I’m sure you know
are expected to do. V Expertise [U]: Expert knowledge of M.SURESAN as an uncountable. Very rarely do we advice is uncountable.) Which advice is
1) The failure of the United Nations to maintain sth in a particular subject, activity or job. see capability used without ‘a’ before it, which easy to give? No answer to this question.
food supplies. means it is most often used as a countable. So no the before advice.
13) We have the expertise to help you run your
2) Failures to comply with the regulations will In your first sentence, Animals in the zoo b) The advice I got from him was good.
business. The definite article 'the' might be
result in prosecution. Sir, please inform me have lost the capability of catching ..., (3) capa-
used before an uncountable noun like this? Which advice was good? The answer-
how recognize the word "Failure" used in
Would mind letting me know of this? bility may be both countable and uncountable. Advice I got from him. So you have to use the
sentence whether it is a countable or
Whichever way you use it, the sentence is cor- before advice. We use the before uncounta-
uncountable. If it is a countable or uncount- VI Culture [C, U]: The beliefs and attitudes
rect. In your sentences (4) and (5), capability is bles when you get an answer to 'which'.
able, how you yourself identify it? May be it about sth people in a particular group or
clearly countable because, the plural form is VI culture: This is a very good question again.
will look you a simple thing. But it confuses organizations.
me a lot and so you please don't think that used (capabilities). 1) If the meaning of culture is the way of life,
14) A culture of failures exists in some schools.
such question has not ever been asked by III 6) No problem here again. In this sentence, customs and beliefs of a society, a country, cul-
15) We are living in a consumer culture. ture is uncountable. Indian culture/ British cul-
others! extension, though shown as [U & C] is
16) The political culture of the United States & uncountable with this meaning, an increase ture, etc.
II Capability [C, U]: The ability or a qualities
Europe are very different. In which sen- in the area of an activity. 2) If culture means beliefs or attitudes of a
necessary for doing sth.
tence from 14 to 16 the noun cultures used 7) A gradual extension ... . Note the use of ‘a’ particular group, it is countable. eg: Team India
3) Animals in the zoo have lost the capability
as C or U? Would you please kindly clarify before extension. So here extension is has a culture of yielding under pressure. This
catching food for themselves.
me? countable. means that Team India’s attitude to
4) Beyond the capabilities of current technolo- (¢ÁjêJ)
8) The bank plans various extensions- here, pressure is yielding
gy.
-ï-¢√-•’:
– -áÆˇ. -¢Á·£œ«-†’-DlØ˛, éπ®Ω÷o©’ (äAhúÕ) (™ÔçT-§Ú-´úøç).
note that the plural of extension is used. So
5) Age affects a range of persons capabilities. In sentence No (14) , A culture of failures ...,
obviously it is countable.
Please let me know how to recognize the A very good question, one which a number of note the use of 'A' before culture. When a/ an is
IV. Expectation: In the sentence, ‘We are confi- used before a word it is countable. So, culture
noun capability used in each sentence people want to know the answer to. The gener-
dent ...,’ (9) expectations can either be a in sentence No 14 is countable.
whether it is countable or uncountable. Just al rule is a countable has a plural form, and a/ countable or an uncountable. Usually in
explain in brief as I know fundamentals of an is invariably used before its singular form. If For the same reason [a consumer culture a
such sentences, if the plural form is used, it
these. Could you please look at the following a/ an is not found before a word, or if it is not before culture] culture in sentence (15) also is
is countable.
sentence too? countable.
used in the plural form it is uncountable. Also
III Extension [C, U] ∼ (of sth) The act of note that the same word with one meaning may
10) This was a general expectation ... . Here,
‘a’ before (general) expectations shows
sentence No (16) : The phrase here is politi-
increasing the area of activity, group of peo- cal cultures. (You have wrongly copied it as the
be countable, and with another, uncountable. that it is countable.
ple, etc. that is affected by sth. political culture)- cultures- This is the plural
The word failure can be used both as a 11) I applied ... more in hope than expectation.
6) The extension of new technology into devel- form of culture. When a word can be used in
countable and uncountable with the meaning, Note that there is no article ‘a’ before
oping countries. the plural, it is countable. So, in sentence No
the act of not doing something. This means you expectation, so it is uncountable. In this
7) a gradual extension of the powers of Central 16, cultures is countable.
sentence, ‘hope’ is uncountable too.
Government. won't be wrong whether you use it as a

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


-´’çí∫-∞¡¢√®Ωç 27 -†-´ç-•®Ω’ 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
Pradeep: Ok then. I am leaving.
†’´¤y 鬢√-©-†’-èπ◊çõ‰ ´®Ω{ç ÇÍí-ü∆é¬ ÖçúÕ
(ÆæÍ® Å®·ûË, ؈’ ¢Á∞¡ŸhØ√o.) ¢Á∞«h†’. -Ñ®Ó-V ûª°æpéπ ¢Á∞«xL ؈’. Í®§Òpü¿’l†
Jaideep: Where? ¢ËÍ® °æ†’©’Ø√o®· Ø√èπ◊.
(áéπ\-úÕéÀ?) let up = ´®Ω{ç, ¶«üµ¿, éπ≥ƒd©’ ™«çöÀN ûªí∫_úøç/ ûªí∫’_-
Pradeep: I told you. I want to meet Sukhdev ´·êç °æôdúøç
and settle the matter with him.
Thanks to the tablet, the pain finally let up =
(îÁ§ƒp†’ éπü∆. Ææ’ë¸-üË¢˛†’ éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊E Ñ Ç ö«¶„xö¸ ´©x ¶«üµ¿/ ØÌ°œp *´-®Ωèπ◊ ûªT_çC.
N≠æߪ’ç û√úÓ-Ê°úÓ ûË©’a-éÓ-¢√-©E.)
Jaideep: Now? Are you nuts? How are you
ÉC Spoken English ™ ûª®Ωîª÷ NE-°œçîË ´÷ô.
going, any way?
O’ conversation ™†÷ practice îËߪ’çúÕ.
Jaideep: I don't know why you are mad keen
(É°æ¤pú≈? °œîËa-´’Ø√o °æöÀdçü∆ Fèπ◊?
on that property. There are others as a) He is nuts to throw up such a good job and
Å®·Ø√ ᙫ ¢Á∞¡Ÿh-Ø√o´¤?) £j«ü¿-®√-¶«ü˛™ ®√éπ-§Ú-éπ©’ ÆæhçGµç-îªúøç á´-J-ÈéjØ√
good. start his own industry =
Pradeep: I have my bike. °œ*a °æ¤öÀd-Ææ’hçC/ *®√èπ◊ éπL-T-Ææ’hçC.
(Ø√ ¶„jé˙ ÖçC éπü∆?) (Ç Ææn©ç/ ÇÆœh Åçõ‰ Féπçûª ¢Á÷ñ‰-N’ö Åûªúø’ Åçûª-´’ç* ÖüÓuí∫ç ´÷†’-èπ◊-E ≤Òçûª 5) Driving somebody nuts = driving some-
Jaideep: You must be really out of your mind
Ø√éπ®Ωnç 鬴-úøç-™‰ü¿’. Åçûª ´’ç* Ææn™«©’ °æJ-v¨¡´’ °ô’d-éÓ-´úøç °œ*a-°æØË/ ûÁL-N-™‰E °æE/ body mad = °œîÁa-éÀ\ç-îª-úøç/ *®√èπ◊ °æ¤öÀdç-îªúøç
to risk going at this time of the night, a) The heat of Vijayawada in summer drives
Éçé¬ ÖØ√o®· éπü∆?) ÅN-¢Ëéπç.
and that too, when it's raining cats Pradeep: My mind is set on it. You can't b) Knowing his character so well, she is nuts to any body nuts =
and dogs. change it. marry him = Nï-ߪ’-¢√úø™ -¢ËÆæ-N áçúø Eïçí¬ °œîÁa-éÀ\-Ææ’hçC/
(Éçûª ®√vA-¢Ë∞¡, ÅD èπ◊çúø-§Úûªí¬ ´®Ω{ç (Ø√ ´’†Ææ’q Ç Ææn©ç O’üË ÖçC. †’´yC Åûª-úÕ í∫’-ùç ûÁLÆœ èπÿú≈ Åûª-úÕE °Rx îËÆæ’-éÓ-´úøç *®√èπ◊ °æ¤öÀd-Ææ’hçC.
èπ◊®Ω’-Ææ’hçõ‰ ¢Á∞Ïx ≤ƒ£æ«Ææç îËÆæ’h-Ø√o-´çõ‰ F ´÷®Ωa-™‰´¤.) Ç¢Á’ ÅN-¢Ëéπç. b) He is driving me nuts with his chatter =
•’v®Ω ÆæJí¬ °æE-îË-ߪ’-õ‰xü¿’.) Jaideep: OK. Do what you like. Spoken English ™ ÅN-¢Ëéπç ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ -Å-ûª-úÕ ¢√í∫’-úø’ûÓ Ø√èπ◊ *®√èπ◊ °æ¤öÀd-Ææ’h-Ø√oúø’.
Pradeep: Don't drive me mad, Jai, with your (ÆæÍ®. FéÀ≠dçæ ´*a-†ô’x îÁ®·u.) nuts î√™« Ææ£æ«-ïçí¬, simple í¬ Öçô’çC. -O’ 6) Drive somebody out of their mind =
silly objections. I could have gone Spoken English ™ Ææç-¶µ«-≠æ-ù-™ -¢√-úøç-úÕ. °œîÁa-éÀ\ç-îªúøç/ *®√èπ◊ °ôdúøç
this morning had it not been for your î√™« ûª®Ωîª’í¬ NE°œÆæ÷h c) I was nuts to have 4) Drive like mad : °œîÁa-éÀ\†¢√úÕ™« drive îËߪ’úøç
foolish suggestion that I go this trusted you = like mad = à °æØÁjØ√ – ÅüË °æ-Eí¬/ °œ*aí¬
î√™« Ææ£æ«-ïçí¬ ÅE-°œçîË
evening. mad èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† N≠æ-
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù
E†’o †´’túøç Ø√ 'ÅN- îËߪ’úøç.
(F ¢ÁvJ Ŷµºuç-ûª-®√-©ûÓ Ø√èπ◊ éÓ°æç ûÁ°œpç- ߪ÷©’ ´’J-éÌEo É°æ¤púø’ 388 ¢Ëéπç—. – ÉC èπÿú≈ spoken English ™ common
îªèπ◊. Ñ a) I'm afraid to go on his
≤ƒßª’çvûªç ¢Á∞¡x- car. He drives like

You drive me out of my mind


´’†o F ûÁL-N mad.
-ûª-èπ◊\´ Ææ÷
™‰èπ-§Ú-ûË Øˆ’ = ¢√úÕ é¬®Ω’™ ؈’ ¢Á∞¡}†’.
§Òü¿’lØËo ¢ÁRx-§Ú- ¢√úø’ î√™« Åñ«-ví∫-ûªhí¬/
ߪ·çúË ¢√úÕØË °œ*aí¬ †úø’-°æ¤-û√úø’.
b) He wants to make it to the IAS. He is
éπü∆?) 2) be out of somebody's mind =
Jaideep: Whoever expected it would rain so ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊çü∆ç. éÀçü¿öÀ lesson ™ îª÷¨»ç preparing like mad =
D†®Ωnç èπÿú≈ ¢ÁvJ-°æE/ ÅN-¢Ëéπç ÅØË.
heavily? éπü∆? Present day English ™ °œ*a/ a) You are out of your mind to think
âá-áÆˇ 鬢√©ØË Ç™-îª-†ûÓ °œ*aí¬/ î√™« Bv´çí¬/
that projects are for people. They
(Éçûª ´®Ω{ç ´Ææ’hç-ü¿E á´-®Ω-†’-èπ◊-Ø√o®Ω’?) ÖØ√tü¿ç/ ´’A-ûª-°œp†/ ´’A-Æœn-N’ûªç ™‰E ÅüË °æEí¬ ûªßª÷-®Ω-´¤-ûª’-Ø√oúø’.
Pradeep: Whatever it is, I'm going. I've my rain ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ mad †’ ¢√úøç -Å-F, mad èπ◊ are to fill the pockets of ministers, c) The sight of the elephant that villagers ran
coat, so I can drive. É°æ¤púø’ ¢√úË Å®√n™x ´·êu-¢Á’içC, éÓ°æç, engineers and contractors = like mad =
(àC à¢Á’iØ√ ؈’ ¢Á∞¡ŸhØ√o. Ø√èπ◊ È®®·Ø˛ ÅN¢Ëéπç, ¢Á÷V-™«ç-öÀN. äéπ-JéÀ °œ*a v§ƒñ„ -èπ◊d©’ v°æï© éÓÆæç ņ’-èπ◊çõ‰ ÅC Ç à†’í∫’ éπE-°œç-îª-í¬ØË, Ç ví¬´’-Ææ’n©’ (N°æ-Kûª¢Á’i†
M.SURESAN
éÓö¸ ÖçC. ؈’ wúÁj¢˛ îËߪ’-í∫-©†’.) °æöÀdçC (´’A v¶µºN’ç-*çC ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ) ¶µºßª’çûÓ) ÅN’ûª ¢Ëí∫çûÓ °æJ-Èí-û√h®Ω’.
mentally ill ÅE ņ-´îª’a. äéπ-¢Ë∞¡ ´÷†-
F °œ îËa/ ÅN-¢Ëéπç- Å-´¤-ûª’ç-C. ÅN
Jaideep: My only fear is you are not a safe dri- d) Greed makes him work like mad =
ver. You drive like mad and I'm afraid
Æœéπ ®Ω’í∫tûª, Åçõ‰ ´’A v¶µº´’ùç ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ, mad ´’çvûª ’©’, Éçï-F®Ω’x, é¬çvö«éπd®Ωx ñ‰•’©’
ü¿’®√¨¡ûÓ °œ*a-°æ-öÀd-†ô’x v¨¡´’-°æ-úø’-ûª’-Ø√oúø’.
for your safety.
¢√úÕûË, î√™« ÇÍé~-°æ-ùÃߪ’ç. Mad èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cµç* ´’J- Eç°æ -ú ≈-EÍé.
b) Are you out of your mind to cross the road in 7) be mad keen on somebody/ something =
éÌEo ´÷ô©’ îª÷ü∆lç.
such heavy traffic? =
Look at the following expressions from the
(Ø√èπ◊ äéπ\õ‰ ¶µºßª’ç. †’´¤y ñ«ví∫-ûªhí¬ wúÁj¢˛ äéπ-J-°æôx/ äéπ-ü∆E°æôx N°æ-K-ûª-¢Á’i† ¢Á÷VûÓ
conversation above:
îË-ߪ’-´¤. Ø√ ¶µºßª’-´’çû√ F Íé~´’ç í∫’JçîË) ¢√£æ«-Ø√© ®√éπ-§Ú-éπ-©ûÓ Éçûª ®ΩDlí¬ Ö†o-°æ¤púø’ ®Óúø’f Öçúøôç.
afraid of = äéπ-JE/ äéπ N≠æߪ’ç í∫’Jç* ¶µºßª’ 1) Are you nuts? ü∆ö«-©-†’-éÓ-´úøç FÍé´’Ø√o °œî√a (Åçûª ÅN-¢Ë- a) I am mad keen on the bike in the advertise-
-°æ-úøôç 2) You must be really out of your mind to risk éπ´÷?). ment this morning =
afraid for = äéπJE í∫’Jç* worry 鬴úøç going... 3) Don't drive me mad = Ø√èπ◊ éÓ°æç ûÁ°œpç-îªèπ◊. -É-¢√y--∞¡ -Ö-ü¿-ߪ’ç v°æéπ-ô-†™ ´*a† ¶„jé˙ Åçõ‰ Ø√èπ◊
Pradeep: Thank you. But I've to go now. 3) Don't drive me mad. drive somebody mad = äéπ-JéÀ éÓ°æç ¢ÁvJ ¢Á÷Ví¬ ÖçC.
Tomorrow is sunday, and Sukhdev 4) You drive like mad. ûÁ°œpç-îªúøç. b) The CM is mad keen on the names of Indira
won't be home. He's been driving me 5) He's been driving me nuts with his threats. a) Don't drive me mad by always talking about Gandhi family =
nuts with his threats that he will sell 6) You drive me out of my mind. your favourite hero. ÉçC-®√-í¬çDµ èπ◊ô’ç• Æ涵º’u© Ê°®Ωxçõ‰ Æ‘áçèπ◊
away the property to someone else if
7) I don't know why you are mad keen on the (á°æ¤púø÷ F ÅGµ-´÷† -†-ô’-úÕ í∫’Jç* ´÷ö«xúÕ Ø√èπ◊ N°æ-K-ûª-¢Á’i† ¢Á÷V.
I don't give him a clear word.
property. éÓ°æç ûÁ°œpç-îªèπ◊.)
1) Nuts:
(ü∑∆uçé˙q. é¬F ؈’ ¢Á∞«x-L-°æ¤púø’. Í®°æ¤ ÇC- °œ*a (ÅN-¢Ëéπç/ ûÁL-N-™‰-E-ûª†ç ÅØË b) The traffic jams in Hyderabad drives any one
¢√®Ωç, Ææ’ë¸-üË¢˛ Éçöx Öçúøúø’. ؈’ Å®ΩnçûÓ) /¢ÁvJ mad =
Ææp≠ædçí¬ îÁ°æp-éπ-§ÚûË Ç ÇÆœhE ÉçÈé-´JÈéjØ√
Ţ˒t≤ƒh†ØË ¶„C-Jç-°æ¤-©ûÓ Ø√èπ◊ *®√èπ◊ 6. You always come late. (You are always
ûÁ°œp-Ææ’h-Ø√oúø’.) v°æ¨¡o: éÀçC-¢√-é¬u™x ¢Á·ü¿-öÀC O’ come late.)
îª÷úøçúÕ. are come (are +1st RDW) form ™
threat = ¶„C-Jç°æ¤/ v°æ´÷ü¿ç; lesson ™ É*açC. È®çúÓ- verb ÅÆæ-©’ç-úøü¿’ éπü∆?
7. If I had money I would lend you. (If I had
threaten = ¶„C-Jç-îªúøç
C èπÿú≈ (-v¶«Èé-öx -Ö-†o- 7. If I had money, I would have lend you.
money I would have lend you.)
C) ®√ߪ’-´î√a? ûª°æp- Would have lend, would have lent
Jaideep: Are you going to be too late by just a
•ü¿’©’
®·ûË ÆæÈ®j† ¢√éπuç ûÁ©- 8. I shall phone to you. (I shall phone you.)
day? Call him and tell him that you
Öçú≈L. Å°æ¤púø-®·Ø√ ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’.
will settle it tomorrow.
°æçúÕ. – ñ„.G.Æœ. ê´’tç A) If I had had the money, I would have lent
1.My friends have left for ï¢√•’: 1. -Å-†-´îª’a. you - ÉC correct. sentence
Å®·ûË Ñ èπÿ,
2. ÅØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ ™‰ü¿’; feel like ûª®√yûª noun or '...ing'
(äéπ\ ®ÓV™ N’ç*-§Ú-ûª’çü∆ àçöÀ? §∂ÚØ˛ Hyd. (My friends have B) If I had the money, I would lend you èπÿ
form ´Ææ’hçC. to + 1st regular doing word
îËÆœ îÁ°æ¤p Í®°æ¤ ûË™‰a-≤ƒh-†E.) gone to Hyd). A
Pradeep: You drive me out of my mind, Jai. Let
Å®Ωnç-™ ûËú≈ ÖçC. – èπ◊ Å®Ωnç – Ø√ ü¿í∫_®Ω
2. I don't feel like studying here. (I don't feel (1st RDW) (Åçõ‰ infinitive) ®√ü¿’.
me settle it now. The rain seems to
úø•’s ÖçúÕ Öçõ‰ Fèπ◊ Å°æ¤p É*a ÖçúË-¢√-úÕE
like to study here.) 3. ņ-´îª’a. Å®·ûË Spoken English ™ áèπ◊\´í¬ (ÉC í∫ûªç – Imaginary Past). B èπ◊ Å®Ωnç –
let up. If you want I'll wait till the rain
3. I haven't the money. (I have no money.) I haven't the money ÅØË Åçö«®Ω’.
stops. But go I must today. Tomorrow
Ø√ ü¿í∫_®Ω É°æ¤púø’ úø•’s-™‰ü¿’. Åçü¿’-éπE Å°œpîËa
4. I am starting for college. (I am starting to 4. ņ-´îª’a. Å®·ûË, I am starting for college,
morning I've other work to take
v°æ¨Ïo-™‰ü¿’. (Öçúøôç Åçô÷ ïJ-T-ûË (É°æ¤púø’)
go to college.) simpler éπü∆?
care of.
Fèπ◊ ÉîËa-¢√-úÕE – É°æ¤púø’ ™‰ü¿’, Fèπ◊ É´y-
(Eïçí¬ Ø√èπ◊ °œîÁa-éÀ\-Ææ’h-Ø√o´¤ †’´¤y. †Eo-°æ¤púË 5. For spending a few days with me. (For 5. ņ-´îª’a. ô´‚ ï®Ω-í∫ü¿’) – ÉC Improbable Present
spending with me a few days.) 6. You are always come late ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’ éπü∆? 8. ņ-´îª’a.
ûË©’aéÓF. ´®Ω{ç ÇT-§Ú-ßË’™« ÖçC. Åçûªí¬

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


í∫’®Ω’-¢√®Ωç 29 -†-´ç-•®Ω’ 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2
Prasen: You look worried. What's the matter?
Fight Åçõ‰ §Ú®√-úøôç, §Ú®√ôç ÅE ´’†èπ◊
(†’´¤y î√™« ÇçüÓ-∞¡-†í¬ éπE-°œ-Ææ’h-Ø√o´¤. ûÁ©’Ææ’. Å®·ûË fight èπ◊ Spoken English ™, äéÓ\-
àN’öÀ N≠æߪ’ç?) ≤ƒJ Éûª®Ω ´÷ô-©ûÓ éπL-°œûË ¢ËÍ® Å®√n©’ èπÿú≈
Ranjan: I've bad news.
´≤ƒh®·. OöÀE conversation ™ ûª®Ωîª÷ ¢√úø’ûª÷
(îÁúø’-¢√®Ωh îÁ§ƒpL Fèπ◊) Öçö«®Ω’. Ñ fight ûÓ ´îËa éÌEo phrases †’, ¢√öÀ
Prasen: Who does it concern? Yea, I can ¢√úø-é¬Eo É°æ¤púø’ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊çü∆ç.
guess. Isn't it about Santan?
Look at the following expressions from the
(
conversation above
á´J í∫’Jç*? Ç, ؈÷-£œ«ç--éÓ-í∫-©†’.
¨¡çûªØ˛ í∫’JçîË éπü∆?) 1) He is fighting for life in Good care Hospital.
concern = í∫’Jç*
2) So fighting fit he had always been
It does not concern me = ÅC Ø√èπ◊
3) ... his mom and dad trying hard to fight back Viswamithra succumbed to Menaka's
Police ©çîªç ÅúÕ-Íí-Ææ-JéÀ Ø√éπ\-L-T† üËy≥ƒEo
charms =
Ææç•ç-Cµç-*çC é¬ü¿’
their tears. ¢Ë’†éπ Åçü∆-EéÀ N¨»y-N’-vûª’úø’ ™ÔçT-
Ranjan: You are right. You know he had an •ßª’-ô-°æ-úø-èπ◊çú≈ Ç°æ¤-èπ◊Ø√o.
4) The doctors have a real fight on their hands. §Ú-ߪ÷úø’. (fight back = fight down)
accident the day before. He is fighting c) He's been fighting for life for over a year
for life in Goodcare Hospital. 5) Hope they aren't fighting a losing battle. c) She fought back her tears as her lover
now = àú≈-Cí¬ ´’%ûª’u-´¤ûÓ §Ú®√-úø’-ûª’-Ø√oúø’/ delayed his return =
(†’´¤y îÁ°œpçC Eï¢Ë’. ¢Á·†o ¢√úÕéÀ acci- 6) Santan always fought shy of wearing a hel- ûª† v°œßª·úÕ ®√éπ Ç©-Ææu-
met.
Ç®Óí∫u °æJ-ÆœnA î√™« N≠æ-´’çí¬ ÖçC.
dent
´’-´-úøçûÓ ´*a† éπFo-∞¡x†’ Ç¢Á’ Ç°æ¤-èπ◊çC.
Å®·uçC ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éπü∆? É°æ¤púø’ 2) fighting fit = á´-®ΩØ√o fighting fit Åçõ‰ ¢√∞¡Ÿx 4) Have a real fight on (somebody's) hands
Goodcare Hospital ™ v§ƒùç éÓÆæç 1) fighting for life: Fighting for (his/ her/
îªéπ\öÀ Ç®Ó-í∫uçûÓ, ü¿%úµøçí¬ ÖØ√o-®ΩE. =
somebody's life) = Trying hard to be alive,
Bv´ v¨¡´’-°æ-ú≈Lq ®√´ôç.
§Ú®√-úø’-ûª’-Ø√oúø’) a) Though 80 years old, he is fighting fit, a) Today's students have a real fight on their
Prasen: Very sorry to hear that. (It's) difficult to especially, when some one is seriously and is ready to contest the election. = hands to make it to Engineering or Medicine
imagine him lying sick or injured. So injured or very ill = 80 à∞¡x ´ßª’-Ææ’q™ èπÿú≈ Çߪ’† îªéπ\öÀ ÑØ√öÀ Nü∆u-®Ω’n©’ Engineering îªü¿-¢√-©Ø√o,
fighting fit he had always been. v°æ´÷-ü¿ç-´-©x-í¬F, ï•’s-´-©x-í¬F Ç®Óí∫u °æJ-ÆœnA Ç®Ó-í∫uçûÓ îª’®Ω’í¬_ ÖØ√oúø’. áEo-éπ™x §ÚöÃéÀ Medicineîªü¿-¢√-©Ø√o î√™« v¨¡N’ç-î√Lq ´≤ÚhçC.
(ÅC N†úøç Eïçí¬ ¶«üµ∆-éπ-®Ωçí¬ ÖçC. î√™« N≠æ-´’çí¬ Ö†o- Æœü¿l¥çí¬ ÖØ√oúø’. b) Pakisthan has a real fight on its hands to
ï•’sûÓ, í¬ßª÷-©ûÓ Å™« °æúø’-èπ◊E ÖØ√o- °æ¤púø’ v§ƒù«-©ûÓ Öçúø- b) This is a real sur- make it through to the final match= *´J
úøE Ü£œ«ç--éÓ-´-ô¢Ë’ éπ≠dçæ í¬ ÖçC. ö«-EéÀ îËÊÆ v°æߪ’ûªoç = prise. He was fighting match èπ◊ ¢Á∞«x-©çõ‰ §ƒéÀ-≤ƒnØ˛ î√™« v¨¡´’-°æ-ú≈Lq
fit till yesterday and
- Ç çí∫ x - ¶ µ « - ≠ æ - ù
á°æ¤púø÷ ü¿%úµøçí¬, Ç®Ó-í∫uçí¬ ÖçúË-¢√úø’.)
389
´÷´‚©’ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ today he is down with
´Ææ’hçC.
Ranjan: It's really a sad sight, his mom and 5) fighting a losing battle = °∂æLûªç ®√ü¿E ûÁLÆœ
´’%ûª’u´¤ûÓ §Ú®√-úøôç. a heart attack =
dad trying hard èπÿú≈ v°æߪ’ûªoç îËߪ’ôç/
to fight back

He is fighting for life


ãúÕ-§Ú-û√-´’E ûÁLÆœ èπÿú≈
their tears, in §Ú®√-úøôç.
vain. a) In trying to deny his
(¢√∞¡x Å´÷t, hand in the landgrab, the
Ø√Ø√o éπ∞¡x F∞¡Ÿx minister is fighting a losing
battle =
Ç ¶µº÷éπ-¶«b™ ûª†
a) The motorist, after a week long
Ç°æ¤-éÌ-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ ÉC Eïçí¬ Ç¨¡a-®Ωu¢Ë’. E†o-öÀ-´-®Ωèπÿ v°æ¢Ë’ߪ’ç ™‰ü¿E îª÷Ê°ç-ü¿’èπ◊ ´’çvA îËÆæ’h†o
fight for life is slowly recovering
îËÆæ’h†o ´u®Ωn-v°æ-ߪ’ûªoç Eïçí¬ Nî√-®Ω-éπ®Ω ®√®·™« ÖØ√oúø’, É¢√y∞¡ Çߪ’-†èπ◊ v°æߪ’ûªoç Ev≠æp-ßÁ÷-ï†ç.
= motorist
ü¿%¨¡uç.)
in vain= v°æßÁ÷-ï-†ç-™‰E/ E≠æp¥-©-¢Á’i†
Ç (v°æ´÷-ü¿ç™ *èπ◊\- í∫’çúÁ§Úô’. b) You can't get him to repay the money. You are
èπ◊†oûª†’) ¢√®Ωç-§ƒô’ ´’%ûª’u-´¤ûÓ 3) fight back = àüÁjØ√ îËߪ÷-©-†’-èπ◊†o only fighting a losing battle=
He tried hard for the post but in vain/ He
¢√úÕ ü¿í∫_®Ω†’ç*
§Ú®√úÕ ¢Á’©xí¬ éÓ©’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√oúø’. °æEE •©-´ç-û√† Ç°æ¤-éÓ-´ôç,¶µ«¢√-©†’
tried hard in vain for the post = Ç °æü¿N úø•’s ®√•-ô’d-éÓ-™‰´¤. F v°æߪ’ûªoç Ev≠æp-ßÁ÷-ï†ç
b) The cancer patient succumbed •ßª’-ôèπ◊ ûÁL-ߪ’-èπ◊çú≈ Ç°æ¤-éÓ-´ôç. 6) fight shy of = Å®·-≠dû æ ª îª÷°æôç/ ¢Á†’-é¬-úøôç/
éÓÆæç Åûªúø’ îËÆœ† v°æߪ’-û√o©’ ´u®Ωnç/ Åûªúø’ to cancer after a determined a) As the auto driver continued to ûª°œpç-îªôç (avoid)
´u®Ωn v°æߪ’ûªoç î˨»úø’. M.SURESAN argue, the constable lost his a) Women fought shy of wearing helmets in
fight for life for over a year.
Prasen: Why? Is his condition that critical?
=
patience with great difficulty. He fought back the beginning= helmet
¢Á·ü¿öx Çúø-¢√∞¡Ÿx ©’
éπ%ûª-E-¨¡a-ߪ’çûÓ àú≈-C-§ƒô’ ´’%ûª’u-´¤ûÓ §Ú®√úÕ
(àN’öÀ? ÅûªúÕ °æJ-ÆœnA Åçûª N≠æ-´’çí¬ his urge to beat him (Auto driver ÅüË-°æ-Eí¬
ãúÕ-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’, Ç cancer ®ÓT. üµ¿Jç-îª-ö«-EéÀ É≠æd-°æ-úø-™‰ü¿’.
Öçü∆?)
succumb- Ææéπç – éπç ØÌéÀ\ °æ©’-èπ◊û√ç = ™ÔçT-
¢√C-Ææ’hç-úø-ôçûÓ constable Ææ£æ«†ç éÓ™p-ߪ÷úø’. b) I don't know why you fight shy of dis-
critical= (äéπJ Ç®Óí∫u °æJ-ÆœnA) N≠æ´’ç/ à éπ~ùç™ driver †’ éÌö«d-©ØË éÓJ-éπ†’ -Å-ûª-†’ ÅA éπ≠dç cussing the problem with him =
Å®·Ø√ îªE-§ÚßË’ ÆœnA/ Åö Éö îÁ°æp-™‰EC §Ú-´úøç. He succumbed to jaundice = Çö
O’ü¿ Ç°æ ¤-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’.)
æ-
Åûª-EûÓ Ææ´’Ææu îªJaç-îª-ú≈-EéÀ FÈéç-ü¿’-éÀ-≠dçæ -™‰üÓ/
Ranjan: The doctors have a real fight on their urge = •©-¢Á’i† éÓJéπ
鬢Á’®Ωx ¢√uCµéÀ ™ÔçT-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’ (Ç ¢√uCµûÓ
áçü¿’èπ◊ ü∆õ‰-Ææ’h-Ø√o¢Ó Ø√èπ◊ Å®Ωn-´’-´-ôç-™‰ü¿’.
hands to save him = b) As the policeman demanded a bribe, I
îªE-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’.)
c) Don't fight shy of expressing your opin-
She succumbed to the injuries = fought back/ fought down my hatred for
(Åûª-úÕE ®ΩéÀ~ç-îª-ú≈-EéÀ Ç ¢Ájü¿’u©’ î√™« ions openly = ¶«£æ…-ôçí¬ F ÅGµ-v§ƒ-ߪ÷©’
Bv´çí¬ §Ú®√-ú≈Lq Öçô’çC/ î√™« éπ≠d-°æ æ- í¬ßª÷©èπ◊ Ç¢Á’ ™ÔçT-§Ú-®·çC/ îªE-§Ú-®·çC. him = îÁÊ°pç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¢Á†’-é¬-úøèπ◊.
v°æ¨¡o: i) Get Åçõ‰ '§Òçü¿úøç— ÅØË Å®Ωnç
ú≈Lq Öçô’çC.)
Prasen: Hope they aren't fighting a losing bat- People believe the minister to have been
ii) Make Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç É-C-´®Ωéπ-öÀ lessons
tle. kidnapped by the extremists.
ÖçC éπü∆? î√™« Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x NNüµ¿ ™ N´-Jçî√ç. îª÷úøçúÕ.
(¢√∞¡x §Ú®√ôç E≠æp¥©ç é¬ü¿ØË ÇP-Ææ’h- ®Ω÷§ƒ™x - get, getting, get in, get on, be = to be = being = Öçúøôç. (to have been + PP èπ◊ ´’®Ìéπ Öü∆-£æ«-®Ωù)
Ø√o†’.) get lost, get to, get off, get out - To be/ being honest is difficult = iv) Happen- Ææ綵º-Nç-îªúøç/ Ææç°∂æ’-ô† ï®Ω-í∫úøç/
Ranjan: So do I. The trouble was Santan Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-TÆæ’hç-ö«®Ω’.- O-öÀéÀ ûÁ©’í∫’ Å®√n©†’ Eñ«--ߪ’-Bí¬ Öçúøôç éπ≠dçæ . ´÷´‚-©’í¬ ´÷†´ v°æ¢Ë’ߪ’ç ™‰èπ◊çú≈.
always fought shy of wearing a hel- Öü∆-£æ«-®Ω-ù-©ûÓ N´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’. To be + pp = àüÁjØ√ îËߪ’•úøôç; a) The incident happened yesterday –
met. ii) Make Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬©’ ûÁ©-°æçúÕ. Å™«Íí e.g.: to be seen = îª÷úø-•-úøôç, Ç Ææç°∂æ’-ô† E†o ïJ-TçC.
(*Íé\-N’-ôçõ‰ ¨¡çûªØ˛ Helmet °ô’d-éÌ-ØËç- be, to be, being, to be + past partici- a) To be elected President of India is b) The elephants damaging the crop hap-
ü¿’-Èé-°æ¤púø÷ Å®·-≠dçæ í¬ ÖçúË-¢√úø’.) ple (V3), to have + past participle, to have great = Åüµ¿u-èπ~◊-úÕí¬ á†’o-éÓ-•-úøôç íÌ°æp. pened last month =à†’-í∫’©’ °æçô†’ Ø√¨¡†ç
Prasen: Yes. I've noticed it too. He'd wear it on been + participle Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬Eo -ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’í∫-©®Ω’. (Åüµ¿u-èπ~◊-úÕí¬ áEoéπ-´úøç íÌ°æp) îËߪ’ôç ïJ-TçC §Ú®·† ØÁ©.
the main road and remove it on the iii) Bv´-¢√-ü¿’©’ ´’çvAE éÀú≈o°ˇ î˨»-®ΩE ņ’-èπ◊ç-ô’- b) It is not good to be seen here = Ééπ\úø îª÷úø-
Take place- ÉC èπÿú≈ ï®Ω-í∫-ô¢Ë’. Å®·ûË ÉC
lanes. And I think the accident took Ø√o®Ω’. Ñ ¢√é¬uEo ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ᙫ ®√ߪ÷L? •-úøôç ´’ç*C é¬ü¿’. (´’†Lo Ééπ\úø á´-È®jØ√ ´÷†´ v°æ¢Ë’-ߪ’çûÓ
place on a lane. iv) Happen, take place, going on °æü∆© -¶µ‰-ü¿ç îª÷úøôç ´’ç*C é¬ü¿’)
To have been + PP = ÉC to be + PP èπ◊ past a) The marriage took place last month =
(Å´¤†’. ؈÷ ÅC í∫´’-Eç-î√†’. Main ûÁ-©’°æí∫-©®Ω’.
road ™ ¢Á∞Ïx-ô-°æ¤púø’ °ô’d-èπ◊ç-ö«úø’. tense - í∫ûªç™ àü¿-®·Ø√ îËߪ’-•-úøôç. -Ç Â°-R} éÀçü¿öÀ¢√®Ωç ïJ-TçC.
ï¢√•’: i) Getting Åçõ‰ èπÿú≈ §Òçü¿úøç. Getting
– áÆˇ. XE-¢√Æˇ, éÌ°æ¤p-†÷®˝ a) The Lawyer seems to have been consulted b) The school anniversary takes place usually
Ææçü¿’™x BÊÆ-≤ƒhúø’. Ñ v°æ´÷ü¿ç ã
in the matter= lawyer
Ñ N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ Ç in March = Çschool ¢√J{-éÓ-ûªq´ç ´÷´‚-©’í¬
Ææçü¿’™ ïJ-Tç-ü¿-†’-èπ◊çö«.) good marks isn't easy = ´’ç* ´÷®Ω’\©’
Ranjan: That's true. (Å´¤†’)
Ææçv°æ-Cç-îª-•-úøfô’d éπE-°œ-≤ÚhçC. (Ñ N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ ¢√∞Ïx ´÷Ja ØÁ-©-™ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’çC.
lawyer †’ Ææçv°æ-Cç-*-†ô’x éπE-°œ-≤ÚhçC)
§Òçü¿ôç Åçûª Ææ’©¶µºç é¬ü¿’.
Prasen: I'm going to see him. Going on= é̆-≤ƒ-í∫’-ûª’†o/ continuing
Get in = ™°æ-LéÀ ®√. get on = Ææ®Ω’l-èπ◊-§Ú-´úøç.
b) He seems to have been murdered= a) The meeting is going on = Æ涵º ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûÓçC
(؈-ûª-úÕE îª÷ÊÆç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¢Á∞¡Ÿ-ûª’Ø√o.) I can't get on with this low salary =
Ranjan: Hope you'll have good news for me.
Åûª†’ £æ«ûªu îËߪ’-•-úÕ-†ô’x éπE-°œ-≤ÚhçC. (continuing/ taking place)
Ñ ûªèπ◊\´ @ûªçûÓ Øˆ’ Ææ®Ω’l-èπ◊-§Ú-™‰†’. iii) People believe/ suppose/ think (É´Fo b) When the class was going on he stood upto
(´’ç* ¢√®Ωh àü¿Ø√o BÆæ’-éÌ≤ƒh´E Get to = ÆæO’-°œç-îªúøç/ ü¿í∫_-®Ωèπ◊ ¢Á∞¡xúøç active); It is believed/ supposed/ thought
ask a question=
Get lost = get out (¢ÁRx§Ú) passive) that extremists have kid-
ÇP-Ææ’hØ√o) (É´Fo é¬xÆˇ ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’ç-úøí¬ àüÓ v°æ¨¡o
     napped the minister.
Get off = Cí∫úøç (¢√£æ«-Ø√© †’ç*) É™« èπÿú≈ ®√ߪ’-´îª’a. ÅúÕ-Ííç-ü¿’èπ◊ E©-•-ú≈fúø’ Åûª†’.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm