Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 7

SECOND TERM LESSON PLANS (2014)

BIOLOGY
WEEK TOPIC TEACHING PERIOD LEARNING OUTCOMES REMARKS
1- 2 7. Gas Exchange

7.1 Gaseous exchange
in humans






12

7




Candidates should be able to:
- outline the structure of human respiratory system, including the microscopic
structure of the wall of an alveolus
- describe the structure of haemoglobin
- explain the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood
- explain the oxygen dissociation curves of haemoglobin, myoglobin and foetal
haemoglobin
- explain Bohr effect and relate it to the oxygen dissociation curve.










3 7.2 Breathing cycle 3 Candidates should be able to:
- explain the control of human breathing mechanism, including the role of
chemoreceptor
- define the tidal voleme, vital capacity, total lung capacity, inspiratory reserve
volume, expiratory reserve volume and residual volume

3 7.3 Gaseous exchange
in plants
2 Candidates should be able to:
- describe the structure and functions of stomata
- describe the mechanism of opening and closing of stomata based on potassium
ion accumulation hypothesis
4-5 8. Transport in Animals
and Plants

8.1 Transport system in
mammals
16


8



Candidates should be able to:
- describe the structure of a mammalian heart
- define systole and diastole, and explain the sequence of events in a cardiac cycle
including changes in pressure and volume in aorta, left atrium and left ventricle
- describe the initiation and regulation of heart beat
- explain hypertension, atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis and myocardial infarction
and state their causes and preventions

- describe the lymphatic system in relation to the blood circulatory system
- determine the direction of fluid movement at the arterial and venous ends of the
capillaries by calculating the differences between osmotic pressure/solute
potential and hydrostatic pressure
5-6 8.2 Transport system in
vascular plants
8 Candidates should be able to:
- explain the uptake of water and mineral ions from the soil by the root hair s
involving water potential
- describe apoplast, symplast and vacuolar pathway of water movement through
the root tissues
- describe the root pressure, cohesion-tension theory and transpiration pull in
relation to water movement from the roots to leaves
- explain translocation using the mass flow, electro-osmosis, cytoplasmic
streaming and peristaltic waves hypotheses
- explain the concept of source and sink, and phloem loading and unloading in
translocation according to pressure flow hypotheis.


7-8 9. Control and
Regulation

9.1 Nervous system
22


16



Candidates should be able to:
- describe the organization of the nervous system in humans
- explain the formation of resting and action potentials
- describe the characteristics of nerve impulse
- describe the structure of synapse and explain the role of neurotransmitter
(acetylcholine and norepinephrine)
- explain and compare the mechanisms of impulse transmission along the axon
and across the synapse
- describe the of neuromuscular junction and sacromere
- explain the role of sacroplasmic reticulum, calcium ions, myofibril and T tubules
in muscle contraction
- explain the mechanism of muscle contraction according to the sliding filament
hypothesis
- compare the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
- explain the mechanisms of drug action on nervous system and neuromuscular
junction (cocaine and curare)

9 9.2 Hormones 6 Candidates should be able to:
- explain the mechanisms of action of steroid hormone and non-steroid hormones
- explain the roles of plant hormones in growth and development
- explain the mechanisms of phytochrome action and their roles in
photoperiodism and flowering
- outline the application of plant growth regulators (synthetic auxin, synthetic
gibberellins and synthetic ethylene) in agriculture.

10 10. Reproduction,
Development and
Growth

10. 1 Sexual
reproduction in
humans
13



6




Candidates should be able to:
- outline spermatogenesis and oogenesis
- describe the passage and development of sperms from the testis to the oviduct
for fertilisation
- describe the process of fertilisation and implanation
- describe the roles of hormones inmenstrual cycle and pregnancy
- describe briefly the stages in embryonic development
- explain the roles of placenta, amniotic fluid and allantois in foetal development
- explain the process of parturition

11 10.2 Sexual
reproduction in
flowering plants
2 Candidates should be able to:
- outline double fertilisation
- describe the embryonic development in seed and formation if fruit

11 10.3 Seed germination 1 Candidates should be able to:
- explain the mobilization of nutrients after imbibition in seed germination
- state the external factors affecting germination

11 10.4 Growth curves and
patterns of growth
4 Candidates should be able to:
- explain the types of growth curves (absolute growth curve, absolute growth rate
curve and relative growth rate curve)
- explain with examples the patterns of growth (limited growth in humans,
unlimited growth in perennial plant, allometric growth in humans, isometric
growth in fish and intermittent growth in insect)
- explain the processes of ecdysis and metamorphosis in insects amd relate the

role of hormones (neurosecretory hormone, juvenile hormone and ecdysone) in
these processes.
12 11. Homeostasis

11.1 Importance of
homeostasis
10

2


Candidates should be able to:
- explain the importance of homeostasis
- describe the homeostatic control system in mammals
- explain physiological and behavioural control in thermoregulation of endotherms
- menerangkan pembentukan dan penguraian lemak dan minyak
- membandingkan dan membezakan antara lemak tepu dan lemak tak tepu

12 11.2 Liver 4 Candidates should be able to:
- describe the structure of liver and explain the roles of its components
- describe carbohydrate metabolism in the liver (glycogenesis, glycogenolysis,
gluconeogenesis)
- describe protein metabolism (transamination, deamination and urea formation)
in the liver


13 MID TERM 1 HOLIDAY
14 11.3 Osmoregulation in
mammals
3 Candidates should be able to:
- explain the process of ultrafiltration, reabsorption and secretion in the formation
of urine
- explain the role of ADH and aldosterone and the related hormones in regulating
water, sodium and potassium ions of urine
- explain the regulation of pH of tissue fluid

14 11.4 Osmoregulation in
plants
1 Candidates should be able to:
- describe the role of stomata in regulation of water loss and explain the
importance of transpiration
- describe the various type of plant adaptations to prevent water loss (halophytes
and xerophytes)

14 12. Immunity

12.1 Immune system
10

3


Candidates should be able to:
- describe human lymphatic system and explain its function in realtion to

immunity
- describe antibody (structure and function), antigen, epitope and the
development of B and T cells
- describe the roles of macrophages, B cells and T cells
15 12.2 Development of
immunity
3 Candidates should be able to:
- explain cell-mediated and humoral immune responses
- outline the antigen-antibody reactions (precipitation, agglutination,
neutralization, complement fixation)

15 12.3 Concept of self
and non-self
3 Candidates should be able to:
- explain the concept of self and non-self and realte this to tissue rejection in
organ transplant
- explain the mechanism of immune suppression (HIV infection)

15 12.4 Immune disorder 1 Candidates should be able to:
- describe autoimmune disorder (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE))

16 13. Infectious Diseases

13.1 Infectious Disease
13

1


Candidates should be able to:
- explain what is meant by an infection and an infectious disease
- outline the types of infectious agents

16 13.2 Dengue 3 Candidates should be able to:
- describe the causes and symptoms of dengue
- explain the transmission of dengue
- discuss the roles of social, economical and biological factors in the prevention of
dengue

16 13. 3 Cholera 3 Candidates should be able to:
- describe the causes and symptoms of cholera
- explain the transmission of cholera
- discuss the roles of social, economical dan biological factors in the prevention of
cholera

17 13.4 Tuberculosis (TB) 3 Candidates should be able to:
- describe the causes and symptoms of tuberculosis (TB)
- explain the transmission of TB
- discuss the roles of social, economical dan biological factors in the prevention of
TB

13.5 Malaria 3 Candidates should be able to:
- describe the causes and symptoms of malaria
- explain the transmission of malaria
- discuss the roles of social, economical dan biological factors in the prevention of
malaria
18 REVISION
19 STPM TRIAL
20 REVISION
21 PRE STPM / STPM
22-24 MID YEAR HOLIDAY