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Module name

:
si_s3_e_sc_ Kinetic Model of Matter
Subject :
Physics
Topic :
Kinetic Model of Matter
Grade :
SEC 3
Stream
Learning Objectives
To understand that matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms or molecules which are in
continuous motion always.
MODULE !ME" Kinetic Model of Matter
Question 1. rite a short note on the !inetic model of matter.
"nswer: Matter is made up of tiny particles li!e atoms or molecules. These particles are in continuous
motion. The arran#ement and speed of these particles determines the state of matter. There are four
reco#ni$ed states of matter: solid% li&uid% #as and plasma. Matter can chan#e between states when the
temperature or pressure is chan#ed.
'n a S()'*:
The molecules are arran#ed close to#ether in a re#ular pattern
*ue to the forces of attraction% molecules in a solid can only +ibrate in their fi,ed positions.
'n a )'Q-'*:
The molecules are sli#htly farther apart than in solids.
Thou#h there are still forces between the molecules of a li&uid% they are not held in fi,ed
positions.
'n a G"S:
The molecules in a #as are far apart.
The molecules mo+e randomly with hi#h speed% collidin# with one another and with the walls of
the container.
Question .. hy solids ha+e a fi,ed +olume and shape/
"nswer: 'n solids% the attracti+e forces between indi+idual particles 0atoms and molecules1 are #reater
than the ener#y causin# them to mo+e apart. "s a result% indi+idual molecules are loc!ed in position
near each other% and cannot mo+e past one another. Thus% the motion of particles in solids is limited to
+ibration. The solid retains its shape and +olume because the molecules are loc!ed in place relati+e to
each other.
Question 2: hy li&uids do not ha+e fi,ed shape% but a fi,ed +olume.
"nswer: 'n li&uids% molecules can mo+e past one another and bump into other molecules. 3owe+er%
they remain relati+ely close to each other li!e solids. 'ntermolecular forces in li&uids often pull the
molecules and the bonds are &uic!ly bro!en. "s a result% li&uids can 4flow5. That is why li&uids ta!e the
shape of their container. 3owe+er% they cannot be easily compressed because the molecules are
already close to#ether. Thus% li&uids ha+e an undefined shape% but a defined +olume.
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Question 6: hy #ases do ha+e fi,ed +olume or fi,ed shape/
"nswer: 'n #ases% the ener#y in the system e,ceeds all of the attracti+e forces between molecules.
3ence% in the #aseous state% molecules mo+e &uic!ly and are free to mo+e in any direction% spreadin#
out into the whole a+ailable +olume. 7ecause indi+idual molecules are widely separated and can mo+e
around easily in the #as state% #ases can be compressed easily and they ha+e an undefined shape.

Summary:
Matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms or molecules which are assumed to be in
continuous motion always. This concept of the particles in continuous motion is !nown as the
!inetic model of matter.
'n solids% the particles are held by stron# intermolecular bonds. They can +ibrate only about
their fi,ed positions. This is why solids ha+e fi,ed +olumes and shapes.
'n li&uids% the particles are randomly arran#ed and occupy any a+ailable space. This is why
li&uids ha+e fi,ed +olumes but ta!e the shape of the container.
'n #ases% the particles ha+e wea! intermolecular forces amon# them. These wea! forces ma!e
the particles mo+e about randomly at +ery hi#h speeds. This is why #ases dont ha+e fi,ed
+olumes and shapes and are hi#hly compressible.
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