Determining elastic constants of transversely isotropic rocks

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Published online 23 April 2007 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI: 10.1002/nag.619

Determining elastic constants of transversely isotropic rocks using

Brazilian test and iterative procedure

Yen-Chin Chou

1,

and Chao-Shi Chen

2,,,

1

Department of Resources Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Da-syue Road, Tainan City

70101, Taiwan, Republic of China

2

Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Da-syue Road, Tainan City

70101, Taiwan, Republic of China

SUMMARY

The elastic constants of rocks are the basic parameters for rock mechanics, and play a very important role

in engineering design. There are many laboratory methods to determine the elastic constants of transversely

isotropic rocks, and the Brazilian test is a popular method. This paper presented a method combination

of the Brazilian test, back calculation, and iterative procedure to evaluate the ve independent elastic

constants of transversely isotropic rocks in laboratory. The strain data at the centre of discs were obtained

using Brazilian test. The stresses at the centre of discs were computed using numerical programs. By

using back calculation, the temporary elastic constants were computed after the stresses and stains were

substituted into elastic mechanics equations. After iterative procedure, the convergent values of the elastic

constants can be obtained. One numerical example and three experimental cases were proposed to show

the applicability of this method. The convergent values of the ve independent elastic constants can be

obtained in no more than 10 iterative cycles. The results coming from numerical analysis method exhibited

satisfactory outcome in accordance with those of generalized reduced gradient method. The merits of

this method include convenient specimen preparation of the Brazilian test, simple iterative procedure,

and readily available commercially numerical programs, so that this method can be easily popularized in

research and engineering analysis. Copyright q 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Received 9 November 2006; Revised 9 March 2007; Accepted 9 March 2007

KEY WORDS: transversely isotropic rock; elastic constants; Brazilian test; stress concentration factor;

iterative procedure

Correspondence to: Chao-Shi Chen, Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University,

No. 1, Da-syue Road, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan, Republic of China.

E-mail: chencs@mail.ncku.edu.tw

Ph.D. Candidate.

Associate Professor.

Copyright q 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

220 Y.-C. CHOU AND C.-S. CHEN

INTRODUCTION

Many rocks exposed near Earths surface show well-dened fabric elements in the form of bedding,

stratication, layering, foliation, ssuring, or jointing. In general, these rocks have properties

(physical, dynamic, thermal, mechanical, and hydraulic) that vary with direction and are said to

be inherently anisotropic.

Rock anisotropic property plays an important role in various engineering activities. Evaluating

anisotropic mechanical properties helps predicting the behaviour of rock materials in analysis,

design, and construction, and improves the quality and safety. Elastic constants of anisotropic

rocks affect deformation analysis and design in engineering. It is important to estimate the elastic

constants of anisotropic rocks, rapidly and accurately.

Anisotropy is generally simplied to be orthotropic or transversely isotropic in engineering

analysis and research. In dealing with engineering analysis and research of transversely isotropic

rocks, the following ve constants, Youngs modulus E and Poisson ratio v of isotropic plane, and

Youngs modulus E

, Poisson ratio v

account.

There are several methods including in situ tests, laboratory tests, and numerical analysis methods

to evaluate elastic constants of rocks. The tests in laboratory can be divided into dynamic and

static methods. The dynamic methods include the resonant bar method and the ultrasonic pulse

method. Dynamic elastic constants E

d

, t

d

, and G

d

of isotropic rocks can be evaluated by using the

resonant bar method [1] and the ultrasonic pulse method [2]. The ve independent elastic constants

of transversely isotropic rocks can be evaluated by using the ultrasonic pulse method [3], and the

restriction is that the transversely isotropic plane has to be parallel to the longitudinal axis of the

specimen.

The static methods include the uniaxial compression test, conventional triaxial compression

test, true triaxial compression test, hollow cylinder test, bending test, torsion test, and diametral

compression test (Brazilian test). The uniaxial compression test [46], true triaxial compression

test [7, 8], hollow cylinder test [9, 10], and Brazilian test [11] have been employed to evaluate the

elastic constants of anisotropic rocks. The elastic constants of anisotropic rocks can be computed

by substituting loading force and strain data recorded in testing into stressstrain equations. To

evaluate the ve independent elastic constants of transversely isotropic rocks, two cylindrical spec-

imens with one loading direction are needed in uniaxial compression test. Two cubic specimens

with three loading directions are needed in true triaxial compression test. Two hollow cylindrical

specimens with two types of loading condition are needed in hollow cylinder test. And two discs

with one loading direction are needed in Brazilian test. The numbers and geometry of specimens

and types of loading condition needed in these methods are listed in Table I for comparison. Under

Table I. Comparison of specimens needed in tests applied to evaluate elastic constants

of transversely isotropic rocks.

Number of Type of loading for

Test Type of specimen specimen each specimen

Uniaxial compression Cylinder 2 1

True triaxial compression Cube 2 3

Hollow cylinder Hollow cylinder 2 2

Brazilian Disc 2 1

Copyright q 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech. 2008; 32:219234

DOI: 10.1002/nag

ELASTIC CONSTANTS OF TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC ROCKS 221

Figure 1. Brazilian disc under diametral loading.

such scenario, the diametral compression test (Brazilian test) seems to be the easiest method for

specimen preparation and experimental procedure, and for which the analysis of the test results is

relatively straightforward among those testing methods.

As far as deformability is concerned, Hondros [12] used the Brazilian test method to determine

Youngs modulus and Poissons ratio of concrete material, which was assumed to be isotropic. In

1979, Pinto [13] extended the method proposed by Hondros [12] to evaluate elastic constants of

anisotropic rocks, and conducted the Brazilian test on discs of schist. Closed-form solutions were

derived to relate the elastic constants of an anisotropic rock in a disc under diametral compression

(Figure 1) to the strains at the disc centre. It was assumed that the stress concentration at the centre

of a disc of an anisotropic rock was the same as that of isotropic rock. This assumption is correct

only if the disc surface is parallel to a transversely isotropic plane. In all other cases, however,

anisotropy needs to be taken into account. In 1983, Amadei [4] revised Pintos procedure and

successfully calculated the stress distribution of a disc of anisotropic rock by using the complex

variable function method. Amadei et al. [14] indicated that the stress concentration factors (SCFs)

in a disc of anisotropic rock are affected by E/E

modulus), E/G

loading angle, Figure 1) and (inclination angle of transversely isotropic plane to horizontal

plane, Figure 2). In 1998, Chen et al. [11] combined the Brazilian test, complex variable function

method, and generalized reduced gradient (GRG) method to calculate the ve independent elastic

Copyright q 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech. 2008; 32:219234

DOI: 10.1002/nag

222 Y.-C. CHOU AND C.-S. CHEN

Figure 2. Geometry of anisotropic disc.

constants of transversely isotropic rocks. Chen et al. [11] developed a computer program and

pointed out that the stress distributions of a disc are affected seriously by the inclination angle of

the transversely isotropic plane to the horizontal plane.

Although the ve independent elastic constants of transversely isotropic rocks can be successfully

calculated by using the method proposed by Chen et al. [11], the theorem and mathematical

computation procedure are really complex. There are no commercial programs developed by using

the GRG method till now. It is hard to popularize this method without the original computer

codes developed by Chen et al. [11]. It will take a long time and is uneconomical to code a new

program for engineering analysis application because of the complexity of theorem. This paper

developed a method of combining the Brazilian test, a numerical program (e.g. nite difference

program, nite element program or boundary element program), and an iterative procedure to

determine the elastic constants of anisotropic rocks in the laboratory. Merits of this approach

are convenient preparation of the Brazilian test, simple iteration procedure, and readily available

commercial numerical programs. It will be easier to popularize this procedure, in engineering

analysis.

THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

Elastic anisotropic theorem

Consider a thin disc of a linearly elastic, homogeneous, continuous, and transversely isotropic

medium with the geometry shown in Figure 2. The disc has a thickness t and a diameter D. Let

x, y, and z be the three axes of a global Cartesian co-ordinate system and the z-axis is dened as

the longitudinal axis of the disc. A local co-ordinate system x

the transversely isotropic medium. The x

- and z

-axes

are contained within the plane and the z

Copyright q 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech. 2008; 32:219234

DOI: 10.1002/nag

ELASTIC CONSTANTS OF TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC ROCKS 223

the inclination angle between the plane of transverse isotropy and the x-axis. Then a generalized

plane stress formulation was used. The constitutive law is expressed as

_

_

c

x

c

y

xy

_

_

=

_

_

_

_

a

11

a

12

a

16

a

12

a

22

a

26

a

16

a

26

a

66

_

_

_

_

o

x

o

y

t

xy

_

_

(1)

where c

x

, c

y

, and

xy

are the strain components of any point in the disc; o

x

, o

y

, and t

xy

are

the stress components of any point in the disc; a

11

, a

12

, . . . , a

66

are the compliance components

calculated in the x, y co-ordinate system. These components vary with the angle and the elastic

constants in the x

, v

,

and G

transverse isotropy and in a direction perpendicular to it, respectively. v and v

characterizing the lateral strain response in the plane of transverse isotropy to a stress acting parallel

and perpendicular to it, respectively. G

the plane of transverse isotropy. In Equation (1), a

11

, a

12

, . . . , a

66

are independent of v and are

affected by E, E

, v

, and G

expression of a

i j

as

a

11

=

sin

4

+

cos

4

E

+

sin

2

2

4

_

1

G

2v

_

a

12

=

sin

2

2

4

_

1

E

+

1

E

1

G

_

cos

4

+ sin

4

_

a

16

=sin 2

__

sin

2

cos

2

E

_

+

_

1

2G

_

cos 2

_

a

22

=

cos

4

+

sin

4

E

+

sin

2

2

4

_

1

G

2v

_

a

26

=sin 2

__

cos

2

sin

2

E

_

_

1

2G

_

cos 2

_

a

66

=sin

2

2

_

1

E

+

1

E

+

2v

_

+

cos

2

2

G

(2)

where is the inclination angle of transverse isotropy; E and E

plane and transversely isotropic plane, respectively; v

plane; and G

If a disc with diameter D and thickness t is loaded by force W, the stresses o

x

, o

y

, and t

xy

can be written as the form of SCFs q

xx

, q

yy

, and q

xy

shown as [14]:

o

x

=

W

Dt

q

xx

Copyright q 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech. 2008; 32:219234

DOI: 10.1002/nag

224 Y.-C. CHOU AND C.-S. CHEN

o

y

=

W

Dt

q

yy

t

xy

=

W

Dt

q

xy

(3)

By substituting Equation (3) into Equation (1) and moving the constant from the right-hand side

to the left-hand side, Equation (1) can be rewritten as

Dt

W

_

_

c

x

c

y

xy

_

_

=

_

_

_

_

a

11

a

12

a

16

a

12

a

22

a

26

a

16

a

26

a

66

_

_

_

_

q

xx

q

yy

q

xy

_

_

(4)

Numerical program

It is important in this paper to obtain strain values and SCFs. Strain values can be recorded from

the strain gauge on Brazilian discs in test, and SCFs can be calculated from stresses obtained by

using numerical simulation.

The three well-known and popular numerical analysis methods are nite difference method

(FDM), nite element method (FEM), and boundary element method (BEM). These methods are

developed from elastic law, geometry law, constitutive law, and equilibrium equations. Through

discrete procedure, the boundary value problems can be simplied to nite meshes that are made

up of elements and nodes. The stresses of interest in this paper can thus be obtained through the

numerical simulation.

There are many useful commercial numerical programs like FDM software FLAC, FEM software

ANSYS, and BEM software GPBEST. In this paper, FLAC and ANSYS were adopted, and a BEM

code developed by one author of this paper, named BEM-code [11], was used to obtain the stress

state at the centre of the Brazilian disc in numerical simulation.

Iterative procedure

To evaluate the ve independent elastic constants of transversely isotropic rocks, back calculation

and iterative procedure were used. The operation sequences of iterative procedure were described

as follows, and the owchart is shown in Figure 3.

(a) Prepare a Brazilian disc specimen (disc type N) with central axis perpendicular to the plane

of transversely isotropy. The disc had a thickness t and a diameter D, and was loaded by the force

W. The strains c

0

, c

45

, and c

90

at the centre of disc can be recorded from the 04590 strain gauge

rosettes in the Brazilian test, and were transformed into c

x

, c

y

, and

xy

by using Equation (5). The

elastic constants E and v of isotropic plane can be computed by substituting strains c

x

and c

y

into

Equation (6) [12]:

_

_

c

x

c

y

xy

_

_

=

_

_

_

_

1 0 0

0 0 1

1 2 1

_

_

_

_

c

0

c

45

c

90

_

_

(5)

Copyright q 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech. 2008; 32:219234

DOI: 10.1002/nag

ELASTIC CONSTANTS OF TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC ROCKS 225

Figure 3. Flow chart of iteration.

E =

16W

Dt (3c

y

+ c

x

)

(6)

v =

3c

x

+ c

y

3c

y

+ c

x

where W is the loading force; c

x

and c

y

are the strains in the x and y directions, respectively.

(b) Prepare a Brazilian disc specimen (disc type P) with the central axis parallel to the transversely

isotropic plane with inclination angle that varied from the horizontal axis, thickness t , and

diameter D. The disc was loaded under force W. The strains c

x

, c

y

, and

xy

at the centre of the

disc were obtained by using Equation (5), and the strains c

0

, c

45

, and c

90

were recorded from the

04590 strain gauge rosettes in test. Then the strains c

x

, c

y

, and

xy

can be transformed into

c

x

Dt /W, c

y

Dt /W, and

xy

Dt /W.

(c) Assume an initial set of SCFs q

xx

, q

yy

, and q

xy

at the centre of disc. The initial values of

SCFs can be any real number. As pointed out by Amadei [15] that in general intact rocks are not

too strongly anisotropic compared to other engineering materials, the initial values of SCFs were

respectively set to be 2, 6, and 0 which are identical to the SCFs of isotropic disc in this paper

for efcient computation.

(d) The temporary E

, v

, and G

strains, c

x

Dt /W, c

y

Dt /W, and

xy

Dt /W, and SCFs, q

xx

, q

yy

, and q

xy

were substituted into

Equation (4).

(e) The elastic constants E, v, E

, v

, and G

numerical simulation of the Brazilian test by using commercial numerical programs. A new set of

stresses o

x

, o

y

, and t

xy

at the centre of the disc was computed.

Copyright q 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech. 2008; 32:219234

DOI: 10.1002/nag

226 Y.-C. CHOU AND C.-S. CHEN

(f) By substituting the stresses o

x

, o

y

, and t

xy

at the centre of the disc obtained from last step

into Equation (3), a new set of SCFs q

xx

, q

yy

, and q

xy

was calculated.

(g) Repeat steps (d)(f) until the E

, v

, and G

iterative cycles in less than 0.1% was adapted in this paper for accuracy. The nal ve independent

constants E, v, E

, v

, and G

NUMERICAL EXAMPLE

Calculation of stress concentration factors

It is important to know the stress distribution and stress states at the centre of a disc. A numerical

example was employed to compare the SCFs of a Brazilian disc obtained through numerical

methods and analytical solution.

For an isotropic material, the elastic constants were E =40 GPa and t =0.25. The three programs

FLAC, ANSYS, and BEM-code were employed to model the Brazilian disc. The stresses were

computed from these programs and transformed into the SCFs by using Equation (3), and these

factors are listed in Table II.

In 1959, Hondros proposed the analytical solutions of stress state at any point of an isotropic

Brazilian disc under diametral loading in 2D plane stress state, and the equations were as follows:

o

0

=

W

r

0

t :

_

[1 (r/r

0

)

2

] sin 2:

1 2(r/r

0

)

2

cos 2: + (r/r

0

)

4

tan

1

_

1 + (r/r

0

)

2

1 (r/r

0

)

2

tan :

__

o

r

=+

W

r

0

t :

_

[1 (r/r

0

)

2

] sin 2:

1 2(r/r

0

)

2

cos 2: + (r/r

0

)

4

+ tan

1

_

1 + (r/r

0

)

2

1 (r/r

0

)

2

tan :

__

(7)

where r

0

is the radius of the disc; r is the distance between any point inside the disc and centre,

and 0 is applied when the stresses at centre of the disc are concerned; t is thickness of the disc;

W is the loading force; : is the half-loading angle; o

0

is the tangential stress (considered as o

x

at the centre of disc); o

r

is the radius stress (considered as o

y

at the centre of disc); and for an

isotropic medium, the shear SCF at centre of the Brazilian disc is 0 theoretically.

The stresses obtained from analytical functions were transformed into SCFs by using Equation

(3), and the factors are listed in Table II. The numerical results exhibited good agreement with

each other and with the analytical solutions.

For transversely isotropic medium, the elastic constants of the numerical example were set to be

E/E

=2, E/G

plane to horizontal plane, , was 30

xx

,

q

yy

, and q

xy

at the centre of disc can be transferred from stresses o

x

, o

y

, and t

xy

obtained by

Table II. Comparison of SCF isotropic medium at centre of disc.

Methods q

xx

q

yy

q

xy

FLAC 1.943958 5.943312 0.000071

ANSYS 1.961952 5.957760 0.000022

BEM-code 1.953259 5.951952 0.003986

Analytical 1.954464 5.954464 0

Copyright q 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech. 2008; 32:219234

DOI: 10.1002/nag

ELASTIC CONSTANTS OF TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC ROCKS 227

Figure 4. Distribution of q

xx

using FLAC.

using FLAC, ANSYS, and BEM-code. The distributions of SCFs q

xx

, q

yy

, and q

xy

obtained

from FLAC are shown in Figures 46. The distributions of SCFs obtained from the other two

programs were similar to the previous results. The SCFs at centre of the Brazilian disc are listed in

Table III. There existed only few differences between each other.

Calculation of elastic constants

In this section, a numerical example was employed to illustrate the iterative procedure of calculating

elastic constants of a transversely isotropic rock, and the results were compared with those presented

by Chen et al. [11].

For the sandstone Youngs modulus was E =40 GPa and Poissons ratio was t =0.25 presented

by Chen et al. [11]. The normalized strains c

x

Dt /W, c

y

Dt /W, and

xy

Dt /W at the cen-

tre of a type Ps Brazilian disc with an inclination angle =30

0.2627 GPa

1

, respectively.

First of all, the initial value of q

xx

, q

yy

, and q

xy

were set to be 2, 6, and 0, respectively. These

SCFs and normalized strains were substituted into Equation (4). The initial solutions of temporary

E

, v

, and G

were 29.097 GPa, 0.238, and 4.223 GPa, respectively. These initial temporary

transversely isotropic elastic constants were employed in numerical simulation by using FLAC,

and the stresses at the centre of disc were extracted. After these stresses were substituted into

Equation (3), the second set of the SCFs can be found to be 2.341, 4.643, and 0.569. With the

same steps used previously, the second set of E

, v

, and G

second SCFs and normalized strains into Equation (4), and the new temporary E

, v

, and G

were

found to be 17.652 GPa, 0.222, and 4.034 GPa. After 10 cycles of iterative procedure, the results

were convergent that the different rate of temporary E

, v

, and G

Copyright q 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech. 2008; 32:219234

DOI: 10.1002/nag

228 Y.-C. CHOU AND C.-S. CHEN

Figure 5. Distribution of q

yy

using FLAC.

Figure 6. Distribution of q

xy

using FLAC.

Copyright q 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech. 2008; 32:219234

DOI: 10.1002/nag

ELASTIC CONSTANTS OF TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC ROCKS 229

Table III. Comparison of SCF of anisotropic medium at centre of disc.

Methods q

xx

q

yy

q

xy

FLAC 2.333666 4.800917 0.360942

ANSYS 2.350128 4.765200 0.400824

BEM-code 2.337643 4.800264 0.370366

Table IV. E

Cycles FLAC ANSYS BEM-code

1 29.097 29.097 29.097

2 17.652 17.191 17.536

3 21.002 20.719 21.014

4 19.516 19.172 19.436

5 20.190 19.854 20.167

6 19.886 19.559 19.841

7 20.031 19.688 19.990

8 19.963 19.632 19.923

9 19.993 19.656 19.953

10 19.990 19.646 19.939

Table V. v

Cycles FLAC ANSYS BEM-code

1 0.238 0.238 0.238

2 0.222 0.221 0.223

3 0.186 0.190 0.186

4 0.203 0.204 0.204

5 0.196 0.198 0.197

6 0.199 0.201 0.200

7 0.198 0.200 0.199

8 0.199 0.200 0.200

9 0.198 0.200 0.199

10 0.199 0.200 0.199

0.1%. The nal solutions were 19.990 GPa, 0.199, and 3.987 GPa, respectively. The approximate

solutions of elastic constants can be found by using the other two programs ANSYS and BEM-

code, and iterative procedures. The elastic constants E

, v

, and G

using these three programs are listed in Tables IVVI. Figures 79 show the variations of E

, v

,

and G

with the number of iterations. It is obvious that the elastic constants converged quickly in

only 10 cycles. The nal results are listed in Table VII.

The solutions of elastic constants computed by using GRG method were E

=20 GPa, t

=0.2,

and G

=4 GPa proposed by Chen et al. [11], and are listed in Table VII. It is obvious that the

elastic constants computed by using the method proposed in this paper exhibited good agreement

with the results computed using GRG method.

Copyright q 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech. 2008; 32:219234

DOI: 10.1002/nag

230 Y.-C. CHOU AND C.-S. CHEN

Table VI. G

Cycle FLAC ANSYS BEM-code

1 4.223 4.223 4.223

2 4.034 4.046 4.042

3 3.961 3.971 3.966

4 3.996 4.006 4.002

5 3.982 3.993 3.989

6 3.988 3.999 3.995

7 3.985 3.997 3.992

8 3.987 3.998 3.994

9 3.987 3.997 3.993

10 3.987 3.998 3.993

Figure 7. Variation of E

EXPERIMENTAL RESULT

Several diametral compression tests were constructed on discs of marble mined in Taiwan, and

the iterative procedure was used to measure their anisotropic elastic constants. The rocks of

marble were composed of signicant foliations, which may suggest a transversely isotropic type

of symmetry. The plane of transverse isotropy was parallel to the foliation.

To evaluate the elastic constants E and v, a disc of type N was cut with its z-axis which was

taken perpendicular to the foliation. Three discs of type P with =15, 30, and 45

were cut

with their z-axis parallel to the foliation to evaluate the elastic constants E

, v

, and G

. The discs

were prepared following the procedure suggested by the International Society for Rock Mechanics

(ISRM).

The discs were loaded up to failure by using a MTS loading system under a constant loading

rate of 200 N/s. In order to apply the load over an arc of constant angle 2: =15

Copyright q 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech. 2008; 32:219234

DOI: 10.1002/nag

ELASTIC CONSTANTS OF TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC ROCKS 231

Figure 8. Variation of v

Figure 9. Variation of G

were inserted in between the discs and the platens of loading frame, like what has been suggested

by the ISRM.

For the type N disc, the diameter D and thickness t of the disc, loading force W and strains

at the centre of the disc are listed in Table VIII. E and v of the marble can then be computed by

substituting the strains into Equation (6), and the results were found to be E =78.302 GPa and

v =0.267.

For the type P discs with inclination angles =15, 30, and 45

were recorded by the strain gauge rosettes at the centre of discs. c

x

, c

y

, and

xy

were computed

from these strains. The diameter D and thickness t of discs, loading force W and strains are listed

Copyright q 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech. 2008; 32:219234

DOI: 10.1002/nag

232 Y.-C. CHOU AND C.-S. CHEN

Table VII. Comparison of back-calculated moduli

using different approaches.

Methods E

(GPa) t

(GPa)

FLAC 19.990 0.199 3.987

ANSYS 19.646 0.200 3.998

BEM-code 19.939 0.199 3.993

GRG 20.000 0.200 4.000

Table VIII. Experimental data of N type disc.

D (mm) t (mm) W (kN) c

x

(10

3

) c

y

(10

3

)

74.0 12.0 12.553 0.207006 0.375507

Table IX. Experimental data of P type discs.

(

x

(10

3

) c

y

(10

3

)

xy

(10

3

)

15 74.0 11.0 8.055 0.147168 0.291564 0.087318

30 74.0 10.9 7.425 0.139497 0.274014 0.002608

45 74.0 10.9 7.957 0.163374 0.283919 0.012089

Table X. Normalized strains of marble discs.

c

x

Dt /W c

y

Dt /W

xy

Dt /W

(

) (GPa

1

) (GPa

1

) (GPa

1

)

15 0.04672 0.09256 0.02772

30 0.04761 0.09352 0.00089

45 0.05203 0.09042 0.00385

in Table IX. Then the strains c

x

, c

y

, and

xy

, were transferred into normalized form, c

x

Dt /W,

c

y

Dt /W, and

xy

Dt /W. The normalized strains of these three discs are listed in Table X.

By using the iterative procedure proposed in this paper, the elastic constants E

, v

, and G

of

the marble discs with inclination angle =15, 30, and 45

results can be obtained in no more than 10 cycles by using three numerical programs and are listed

in Table XI. The GRGs solutions computed by using the program developed with GRG method

proposed by Chen et al. [11] are also listed in Table XI. It can be seen that numerical results

were in good agreement with the GRGs solutions. Theoretically, the elastic constants evaluated

from these three marble discs with the same material should be identical or close; however, the

results may be affected by the non-homogeneity in nature and experimental error. Even though

the results listed in Table XI were affected by the non-homogeneity in nature and experimental

error, these three experimental cases showed the applicability of evaluating the elastic constants

of transversely isotropic rocks by using the Brazilian test and iterative procedure.

Copyright q 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech. 2008; 32:219234

DOI: 10.1002/nag

ELASTIC CONSTANTS OF TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC ROCKS 233

Table XI. Anisotropic elastic constants of marble.

(

) Program E

(GPa) v

(GPa)

15

FLAC 76.420 0.202 22.921

ANSYS 76.540 0.200 23.075

BEM-code 76.406 0.201 23.016

GRG 75.619 0.186 23.383

30

FLAC 66.498 0.187 27.343

ANSYS 66.259 0.185 27.434

BEM-code 66.516 0.187 27.409

GRG 67.773 0.195 28.047

45

FLAC 71.238 0.230 27.322

ANSYS 71.195 0.219 27.328

BEM-code 71.076 0.233 27.396

GRG 72.189 0.163 27.425

CONCLUSION

This paper presented a method of combining Brazilian test and numerical procedure to determine

the elastic constants of transversely isotropic rocks. Brazilian test was used to obtain the strains

at the centre of discs. Numerical programs were applied to simulate and compute the SCFs at the

centre of disc. By using back calculation, the temporary elastic constants were computed, and the

nal convergent values can be found after iterative procedure.

A numerical example with sandstone disc was proposed. It can easily be seen that the convergent

elastic constants E

, v

, and G

were satisfactory in comparison with the GRGs solutions. Three experimental cases with marble

discs mined in Taiwan were presented. Through Brazilian test, back calculation and iterative

procedure, the elastic constants E

, v

, and G

Although there were discrepancies existing in the results of these three discs, the numerical

results were close to the GRGs solutions. It has to be mentioned again that the results may be

affected by the non-homogeneity in nature and experimental error. The numerical example and

three experimental cases showed the applicability of this method combining the Brazilian test and

numerical procedure to determine the ve independent elastic constants of transversely isotropic

rocks.

The procedure of preparing Brazilian specimen is easier than that in other laboratory tests. The

iterative procedure is simple without complex mathematical functions. The commercially numerical

programs are easy to obtain. There is no need to develop programs with complex theorems. It is

evident that the method can be easily popularized and employed to evaluate the ve independent

elastic constants of transversely isotropic rocks in laboratory.

REFERENCES

1. Goodman RE. Introduction to Rock Mechanics (2nd edn). Wiley: New York, 1989; 193195.

2. Youash YY. Dynamic physical properties of rock: Part I: theory and procedure. Proceedings of the 2nd Congress

of the International Society of Rock Mechanics, Belgrade, vol. 1, 1970; 171183.

3. Liao JJ, Hu TB, Chang CW. Determination of dynamic elastic constants of transversely isotropic rock using a

single cylindrical specimen. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 1997; 34(7):10451054.

Copyright q 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech. 2008; 32:219234

DOI: 10.1002/nag

234 Y.-C. CHOU AND C.-S. CHEN

4. Amadei B. Rock Anisotropy and the Theory of Stress Measurements. Lecture Notes in Engineering Series. Springer:

New York, 1983.

5. Read SAL, Perrin ND, Brown IR. Measurement and analysis of laboratory strength and deformability characteristics

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Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 1997; 34(5):837849.

7. Ko HY, Sture S. Three-dimensional mechanical characterization of anisotropic composites. Journal of Composite

Materials 1974; 8:178190.

8. Ko HY, Gerstle KH. Elastic properties of two coals. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences

and Geomechanics Abstracts 1976; 13(13):8190.

9. Santarelli FJ, Brown ET. Failure of three sedimentary rocks in triaxial and hollow cylinder compression tests.

International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences and Geomechanics Abstracts 1989; 26(5):403413.

10. Talesnick ML, Lee MY, Haimson BC. On the determination of elastic material parameters of transverse isotropic

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12. Hondros G. The evaluation of Poissons ratio and modulus of materials of a low tensile resistance by the

Brazilian (indirect tensile) test with particular reference to concrete. Australian Journal of Applied Sciences 1959;

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13. Pinto JL. Determination of the elastic constants of anisotropic bodies by diametral compression tests. Proceedings

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14. Amadei B, Rogers JD, Goodman RE. Elastic constants and tensile strength of the anisotropic rocks. Proceedings

of the 5th Congress of the International Society of Rock Mechanics, Melbourne, Australia, 1983; 189196.

15. Amadei B. Importance of anisotropy when estimating and measuring in situ stresses in rock. International Journal

of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences and Geomechanics Abstracts 1996; 33(3):293325.

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DOI: 10.1002/nag

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