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WHE N A DJ E C T I V E S C HA N GE T HE I R ME A N I N G"

Some adjectives change their meaning when used with either "ser" or "estar".
Spanish ser estar
listo clever ready
malo bad ill
rico rich tasty (for food)
vivo lively alive
bueno good well (in good health)
cansado tiring (person) tired
grave serious (personailty) seriously ill
verde green unripe
moreno dark-haired suntanned
pesado heavy (thing) boring (person)
seguro safe sure, certain (person)

Knowing Whether to Use Ser or Estar
Perhaps the most difficult part about using the Spanish verbs ser and estar correctly is choosing which one to use. When you encounter different types
of being unchanging essential being and being that changes depending on various conditions trying to pigeonhole them as one or the other can
be quite challenging.
Deciding when to use ser
You use the verb ser to describe the unchanging characteristics of a person, place, or thing, but what exactly does that mean? The following lists
provide additional details to help you identify situations in which to use ser:
Origin and Nationality
Ella es de Espaa. (She is from Spain.)
Ella es espaola. (She is Spanish.)
The Four Ps: Personality, Physical Attributes, Profession, and Possession
l es divertido. (He is fun.)
Susana es baja. (Susana is short.)
Mi padre es un mdico. (My father is a doctor.)
El carro azul es mo. (The blue car is mine.)
Date and Time
Hoy es el seis de enero. (Today is January 6th [the 6th of January].)
Son las nueve de la noche. (It is 9 p.m.)
Relationships
Ellos son mis padres. (They are my parents.)
Rafael es mi mejor amigo. (Rafael is my best friend.)
Deciding when to use estar
You use the verb estar to describe the changing characteristics of a person, place, or thing, but figuring out when that rule applies can be easier said
than done. The following lists help you know when to use estar:
Location
Su casa est en la avenida Jurez. (Her house is on Juarez Avenue.)
El cine est cerca del centro. (The cinema is near the center of town.)
Mood and Physical Condition
El profesor est enojado. (The teacher is angry.)
Mi madre est emocionada. (My mother is excited.)
Los estudiantes estn aburridos. (The students are bored.)
La seorita Martnez est enferma. (Miss Martinez is sick.)
Result of an Action
Los nios estn de pie. (The children are standing.)
La audiencia est sentada. (The audience is seated.)

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