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Eindhoven University of Technology

Master Internship

Analysis of plate straightening approaches


[MT 07.10]

Thijs Romans, BEng.

Eindhoven University of Technology

Master Internship

Analysis of plate straightening


approaches

Thijs Romans, BEng.


External Supervisor:
Christopher Bayley, PhD. PEng
DRDC Atlantic,
Dockyard Laboratory Pacific
CFB Esquimalt, Victoria, BC
Canada

TU/e Supervisor:
prof. dr. ir. Marc Geers
Eindhoven University of
Technology
Eindhoven, Noord-Brabant
The Netherlands
Esquimalt, 15 February 2007

Table of contents
Table of contents................................................................................................................. ii
Acknowledgements............................................................................................................ iii
Abstract ............................................................................................................................... 1
Summary............................................................................................................................. 2
1. The Victoria class submarine.......................................................................................... 3
2. Geometry......................................................................................................................... 5
3. Material ........................................................................................................................... 7
3.1. Mechanical material properties................................................................................ 7
3.1.1. Tensile experiments .......................................................................................... 8
3.1.2. Tensile experiments results............................................................................... 9
3.1.3. Indentation experiments.................................................................................. 11
3.1.4. Indentation experiments results ...................................................................... 12
3.2. Thermal material properties................................................................................... 13
4. Mechanical straightening .............................................................................................. 15
4.1. Experiments ........................................................................................................... 15
4.1.1. Set-up .............................................................................................................. 15
4.1.2. Results............................................................................................................. 17
4.2. Simulations ............................................................................................................ 18
4.2.1. LS-DYNA input keyword file (mechanical)................................................... 18
4.2.2. Results............................................................................................................. 19
4.2.3. Influence of constraint and incorporation of weld residual stresses ............... 23
5. Flame straightening....................................................................................................... 25
5.1. Experiments ........................................................................................................... 25
5.2 Thermo-mechanical simulations............................................................................. 26
5.2.1 LS-DYNA input keyword file (thermal).......................................................... 26
5.2.2 Results.............................................................................................................. 27
Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 30
Literature list..................................................................................................................... 31
Appendix A: Submarines names and dates....................................................................... 33
Appendix B: Final_bar_geomerty.sce .............................................................................. 34
Appendix C: Tensile experiments results ......................................................................... 41
Appendix D: Stress and strain formulas ........................................................................... 46
Appendix E: Vickers Hardness formulas.......................................................................... 47
Appendix F: Temperature dependency............................................................................. 48
Appendix G: Bending formulas ........................................................................................ 49
Appendix H: SB02DOF keyword file............................................................................... 50
Appendix I: Scilab mechanical straightening m-files....................................................... 63
Appendix J: Plots of finite element variations.................................................................. 79
Appendix K: Compressed heat transfer keyword file....................................................... 81
Appendix L: Flame_straightening.sce .............................................................................. 84

ii

Acknowledgements
I would like to gratefully acknowledge the following individuals and organizations for
their help and support through the completion of this internship:
Dr. Christopher Bayley for his constant guidance and support and for constantly
challenging me to expand my knowledge and improve this work;
Prof. dr. ir. Marc Geers for providing me with this opportunity and for being my
supervisor at the TU/e Eindhoven in this foreign internship
All my co-workers at Dockyard Laboratory Pacific for offering assistance and
feedback on a regular basis, and for making me feel home in another country
And most importantly, my parents Jean & Hannie Romans for their years of
support and interest, through which I had the opportunity to develop and educated
myself

iii

Abstract
This report examines two approaches to resolve a geometrical imperfection of a
high tensile steel plate. Two different procedures are examined; mechanical straightening
and flame straightening. The report summarizes the results from the experiments and
numerical simulations using FEM (LS-DYNA). With the aid of the experimental and
numerical results, a comparison between these two straightening methods is made.
Keywords: NQ1 high tensile steel, mechanical straightening, flame straightening, thermomechanical simulations, LS-DYNA

Summary
This report covers the research performed by a mechanical engineering student
during a three months internship at Dockyard Laboratory Pacific (DL(P)). DL(P) is part
of Defence Research and Development Canada. A foreign internship is a requirement of
the mechanical engineer masters diploma at the Eindhoven University of Technology
(TU/e).
The report tries to find a solution for a geometrical imperfection found in a NQ1
high tensile steel plate. The height of this deviation lies between 5 and 8 mm while the
relevant standard limits such undulations to only 3 mm. Therefore procedures and
methods are investigated to straighten the metal plate.
Two different types of straightening will be compared; mechanical and flame
straightening. Mechanical straightening applies a force which deforms the material
plastically. The other procedure examined is flame straightening. This procedure relies on
the difference in thermal expansion to flatten out the material by applying heat to
predefined spots on the metal plate.
To experimentally characterize these procedures two specimens have been
extracted from the metal plate. These specimens take the shape of beams and are
physically tested by the use of appropriate experiments. Subsequently virtual counter
parts will be examined by using the non-linear finite element analysis program, LSDYNA. By comparing these two approaches, a well grounded conclusion can be made,
about which procedure is most suitable for straightening the metal plate.
The report layout follows the following progression. First the Victoria class
submarine is examined and discussed in chapter 1. In chapter 2 and 3 the shape and
material properties of the specimens, used in the experiments and finite element models,
are described. Chapter 4 and 5 cover the mechanical straightening and flame
straightening procedures.

1. The Victoria class submarine


The Victoria class submarines, formerly know as the Upholder class submarines
or the Type 2400 patrol class submarines, are diesel-electric hunter-killer submarines.
The name, Type 2400, comes from their 2400t water displacement. This type of
submarine was designed in the late 1970s to supplement the UKs nuclear submarine
force.
The English company Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering Ltd or VSEL,
developed the Upholder class. The first vessel ordered by the UK royal navy in 1983 was
commissioned in 1990 as the HMS
UPHOLDER. Three other vessels
(ordered in 1986) followed; HMS
UNSEEN, HMS URSULA and the
HMS UNICORN. These were
commissioned between 1991 and
1993. The submarines only saw brief
service before being mothballed, Figure 1.1: Type 2400 patrol class submarine (Corvus
following a defensive review by the Publising Ltd./Canadas Navy)
UK government in 1994, which was in favour for an all nuclear force. Canada purchased
the submarines in 1998 and BAE Systems (formerly VSEL) at Barrow were contracted to
refit the submarines. The submarines were later transferred to Halifax, Canada for
commissioning. [1]
One submarine, the HMCS VICTORIA [876] (ex-HMS UNSEEN), operates in
the Maritime Forces Pacific fleet, which has a base in Esquimalt near Victoria in British
Columbia. The three other submarines renamed HMCS WINDSOR [877], HMCS
CORNER BROOK [878] & HMCS CHICOUTIMI [879] (ex-HMS Unicorn, Ursula and
Upholder, respectively) operate within the Maritime Forces Atlantic Fleet based in
Halifax. [2] For further information see Appendix A.
During the mothballed period
between the years 1994 and 1998 the
condition
of
each
submarine
deteriorated. There have been much
arguments over the quality of the
submarines, but one must not forget that
these submarines are packed with
technology generally found only on
nuclear-power submarines and so they
are still widely regarded as being among
the best diesel-electric submarines in the
world. These boats are quieter and more
manoeuvrable than there nuclear
Figure 1.2: The Victoria class submarine in drybrothers, but sub sequentially have a far
dock; HMCS VICTORIA [876] (DND)
shorter range.

Figure 1.3: The Victoria class submarine; HMCS Victoria [876] (US Navy, Ray F. Longaker, Jr.)

The design of the submarine features a single skin hull stiffened by circular
internal frames and constructed out of NQ1 high tensile steel, which is similar to the
American designated HY-80 steel and broadly used for military applications. The skin of
the submarine is fitted with about 22,000 elastomeric acoustic tiles to reduce the
submarines acoustic signature. The hull is a teardrop shape design, 70.3m in length by
7.6m in width and with a hull depth of 5.5m. This shape is normally used only with
nuclear submarines. [3]
The diving depth of the submarine is 200 m. Speed above water is KNOTS (22
km/h) and below KNOTS (37 km/h). Patrol endurance can go up to 56 days with a range
of 13 000 km and has a crew of 48 sailors. [4]

2. Geometry
In this internship a metal
plate
with
a
geometrical
imperfection is being investigated.
The plate is made from 2 pieces of
NQ1 high tensile steel which have
been butt welded together. The
geometric imperfection developed
on either side of a butt weld, and
on the upper surface of the plate.
The peak deviation is 8 mm. To
analyse this excursion in greater
detail, three smaller sections have
been cut out of the plate. Two, of Figure 2.1: Two bar specimens
these three bars, are depicted in figure 2.1. On one of these two bars, strain gages with
cables have been attached. This bar will be used for mechanical straightening, discussed
in chapter 4, while the other longer bar in the background, will serve as a specimen for
flame straightening. The curved-shape of the
surface deviation is clearly visible on this
longer bar.
By examining one of these bars in
closer proximity, the butt weld can be
distinguished. A close-up of the weld is
shown in figure 2.2. In the sketch of figure
2.3 three welding zones can be distinguished.
Here the black represents the weld or fusion
zone, the medium gray the heated-effected
zone (HAZ) and the lightest gray the base
Figure 2.2: Close-up from the weld
material. The metal in the HAZ has different material characteristics than the fusion zone
or base material and relates to the influence of the thermal cycle on the microstructure [5]
The geometry of the bars; their exact dimension and also the position of the weld
are measured by the use of a laser-scanner. For distances in the micron to millimetre
range the laser-scanner is very accurate and
knowledge of the exact geometry of the bars is an
essential input to the numerical simulations. To
measure the bars, the laser-scanner was slid along
a cylindrical rod and the distance between the
laser-scanner and the position along the rod was
simultaneously recorded by a computer and
written
into text-files. The laser-scanner and
Figure 2.3: Geometry before and after
positions data were recorded in volts and was
welding
converted to distance through calibrations. This is done within a program called Scilab
4.0, [6], [7], [8], [9], [10] a freely available Matlab-like application. Key feature of Scilab is its
ability to handle matrices.

Appendix B contains the script files used to determine the surface deviations,
while the interpolated curves of the upper surface deviations of both bars are plotted in
figure 2.4.

Figure 2.4: Surface deviation of a) flame (P1) and b) mechanical straightening (P2) bars

3. Material
The material of concern in this research
project is NQ1 high tensile steel. NQ1 high tensile
steel has a tempered Martensite crystal structure.
Martensite most commonly refers to a form of ferrite
supersaturated with carbon, found in very hard steels.
Martensite is formed by rapid cooling (quenching) of
Austenite, which traps carbon atoms that do not have
time to diffuse out of the crystal structure. When
viewed in cross-section, the lens-shaped crystal grains
appear needle-shaped. This can be viewed in figure Figure 3.1: Martensite crystal
structure (Nayang Tech. University)
3.1. [11]

3.1. Mechanical material properties


For computer simulation or simple analyses on the excursion, material properties
for the NQ1 high tensile steel have to be known. Due to the similarity between NQ1 and
the American grade HY-80 steel, many of the mechanical properties of NQ1 have been
assumed similar to the more readily available HY-80 properties.
HY80 steel is used primarily for military applications. It has a minimum high
yield strength of 80 ksi (550 MPa), and is considered to be a low carbon, low alloy steel
with nickel, molybdenum and chromium additions. It has good weld ability and notch
toughness along with good ductility even in welded sections. Typical mechanical material
properties at 293K are presented in table 3.1.
Table 3.1: Typical mechanical material properties of HY80 at 293 K [12], [13], [14], [15]

Mechanical material properties


Density
Yield limit
Modulus of elasticity (tension)
Poisson Ratio
Hardening modulus

Value
7830 [kg/m3]
550 [MPa]
207 [GPa]
0.28
30 [GPa]

3.1.1. Tensile experiments


Tensile experiments were done to find
and compare the material properties of the
metal plate, to those found in the literature and
reported in Table 3.1. And to establish
whether mechanical properties of the weld
metal were different from the base material.
Cylindrical tensile bars were extracted
from a section of the metal plate. A sketch of
this section, which has the geometry of a bar,
can be seen in figure 3.2. Three sample
locations can be distinguished. The first type
of tensile specimens is designated L. These
specimens are extracted from the base Figure 3.2: Three tensile specimen locations
material and have a longitudinal orientation, while specimens taken from section W and
C have a tangential orientation. Furthermore, the difference between W- and C-locations
is that C-specimens were obtained from the base
material while location W specimens were taken
from the butt weld.
The geometry of a tensile specimen can
be seen in figure 3.3. The cross-section of each
specimen is on average 32e-6 mm2 and has a
gage length of 19 mm. Unfortunately a
manufacturing error resulted in the wrong thread
pitch being machined and the tensile specimens
could not tested in the intended grips. Instead, a
sleeve was manufactured to accommodate the
misthreaded specimens and inserted into a pair of
hydraulic grips.
Figure 3.3: Geometry of the tensile
A photograph of
specimens
the
material
testing system and the extensometer used in the tensile
specimens is seen in figure 3.4.
During each test both the displacement and force
were recorded. The displacement was measured by both
an extensometer attached to the tensile specimens and
the actuator movement. The extensometer measured the
elongation of the gage region of the tensile specimens
over a distance of 10 mm while the actuator
displacement (in this case the lower part of the testing
system) measures the displacement of the cross head.
However, this value is less accurate, due to machine
compliance and slippage within the hydraulic clamps.
Figure 3.4: Tensile experiments
set-up

3.1.2. Tensile experiments results


The complete set of results for all the tensile experiments (specimens; C1, C4, L1, L2,
W2 and W3) can be found in Appendix C. In this chapter only the results of one of the
weld metal specimens (W3) is presented in figure 3.5.
[W3] Stress-strain curves
800
700

Stress (MPa)

600
500
400
300
200
100
0
-0.05

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

Strain [-]
[1] True stress vs. strain

[1] Engineering stress vs. strain

[2] True stress vs. strain (extensometer)

[2] Engineering stress vs. strain (extensometer)

Figure 3.5: Stress-strain curves for one of the weld only tensile specimen (W3) showing the difference
s between true-stress and engineering stress, along with the influence of the different displacement
measurement systems

Data obtained from the tensile experiments was converted into engineering stress
engineering strain and in true stress and true strain. The formulas used for these
calculations can be found in Appendix D. [16]
In figure 3.5 four lines can be distinguished. Two lines are drawn by using the
data obtained by the extensometer, while the other two other lines are calculated by using
the measured displacement of the actuator. The extensometer data stops at a 0.2
engineering strain, because the extensometer was limited to a range of only 2 mm
elongation

Although the actuator displacement has a greater range, a comparison of the


elastic portion of the stress strain curves shown in figure 3.6 reveals that it is less
accurate.
[W3] Elastic behavior
700

y = 154817x + 1095.2

y = 23368x - 1.4389

600

Stress (MPa)

500
400
300
200
100
0
-0.01

-0.005

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

0.025

0.03

-100
Strain [-]
[2] True stress vs. strain (extensometer)

[1] True stress vs. strain

Linear ([2] True stress vs. strain (extensometer))

Linear ([1] True stress vs. strain)

Figure 3.6: Modulus of elasticity comparison for tensile specimen depending on whether the strain is
determined from either the cross head or extensometer

In figure 3.6 trend lines have been drawn in the elastic region of tensile behaviour.
The best-fit lines show that the computed modulus of elasticity is 154 GPa for the
extensometer, which is much closer to the published value of 207 GPa, than the 23 GPa
calculated by the displacement of the actuator. The larger error in the actuator derived
modulus is the result of slippage within the load train which is included in the actuator
measurement, but not present within the gage length of the specimen. The significant
error in the extensometer derived modulus may be attributed to the use of elastic bands to
attach it to the specimen.
Overall it can be concluded that the extensometer gives more accurate values,
however over a shorter range. Conclusions drawn between the different specimen
locations can still be made, because they all experience the same experimental approach.

10

In figure 3.7 the true stress-strain curves (based on the extensometer) for all the
sampling locations are presented. From the similarity in the results of base metal results
in the longitudinal and transverse directions (i.e., samples L1, L2, C1and C4), differences
in the stress-strain behaviour due to the specimen orientation can be neglected. This leads
to the conclusion that there is no difference between the axial and tangential orientation
in the base material and the base material behaviour thus can be viewed as isotropic. [17]
[2] Calculation by extensometer
800
700

Stress (MPa)

600
500
400
300
200
100
0
-0.05

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

Strain [-]
[C1] True stress vs. strain

[C4] True stress vs. strain

[L1] True stress vs. strain

[L2] True stress vs. strain

[W2] True stress vs. strain

[W3] True stress vs. strain

Figure 3.7: True-stress curves for all locations

There is however a slight difference between the weld material and the base
material due in part to the micro-structural changes of the material during welding. [5] To
investigate this difference in behaviour, indentation measurements were taken across the
weld to confirm the trends observed in the tensile test.

3.1.3. Indentation experiments


To verify whether the increased yield
behaviour of tensile specimen W2 is an
experimental error or a result of different material
properties of the weld, indentation experiments
were performed.
Micro Vickers indentations were taken on a
cross section of the metal plate. Indentations were
taken along three parallel lines located at the Figure 3.8: Indentation set-up
quarter, middle and three quarter through-thickness positions. The sampling location setup can be viewed in figure 3.8.
11

The Vickers Hardness test


uses a diamond shaped indenter. [18]
In figure 3.9 the indentation testing
system along with the specimen is
depicted. The weld is located in the
exact middle of the bar and taken as
the zero position. When the
indenter is placed on the surface
with an applied load of 0.2 kg, the
average indentation surface area is
8.5e+2 m2.

Figure 3.9: Indentation testing system

3.1.4. Indentation experiments results

Figure 3.10: Vickers hardness values found for three different drawn lines on the metal bar

The indentation results are presented in figure 3.10. As sketched in Figure 3.8, the left
and right most indentations are located in the base material. These base material
indentations have an average Vickers Hardness of 230 Hv, which is equivalent to a
maximum tensile strength of 736 MPa (See Appendix E for calculation details). [19] This
12

corresponds well with the true stress-strain curves for base metal tensile results (i.e. C1,
C4, L1 and L2).
Between the base material points, peaks in the indentation values correspond with
the heat affected zones and between each peak lies the weld metal. The relative location
of the peaks from each of the three sampling locations is explained by viewing the weld
geometry, which has an hourglass-shape: The weld zone is much smaller at the mid point
than at the and through-thickness locations.
Apart from the clearly discernable HAZ boundaries, the hardness profiles confirm
that the weld and base materials have similar tensile properties. The difference between
the tensile behaviour of two weld only specimens W2 and W3 cannot be explained with
the indentations since weld hardness values at all three indentation sampling locations
appear to be similar. The premature failure and behaviour of W2 during the tensile
experiments must be declared as an experimental error and for the purposes of the
numerical simulations there lays insufficient evidence to differentiate the mechanical
behaviour of the base and weld metals. Therefore they will be treated as isotropic and
uniform along the length of the bar.

3.2. Thermal material properties


Published thermal properties of HY80 steel (NQ1 high tensile steel, respectively)
are limited. For the thermo-mechanical simulations the materials thermal conductivity,
thermal expansion and specific heat needs to be defined over the temperature range of
interest. For NQ1 steel, these properties are typically reported at room temperature, but
are known to be temperature dependent. Not only are the thermal properties temperature
dependent, but also the yield limit, elastic modulus and hardening modulus.
Unfortunately ascertaining the temperature dependence of all these properties is difficult
and frequently not given in the literature. To resolve this, the thermal dependence of the
thermal and mechanical behaviour is estimated from three sources Borjessen (2001) [20],
Fuerschbach (2002) [21] and Goldak (1985) [22].
For the temperature dependent thermal properties of heat capacity, thermal
expansion and conductivity, the values of conventional Martensitic steel listed in
Borjessen (2001) are partially adopted and listed in Table 3.2. (See Appendix F)
However, for the thermal conductivity, Fuerschbach (2002) suggests a constant value of
44 W/moC for NQ1 steel. To examine the influence of these two different thermal
conductivity values, separate simulations are run and compared.
Table 3.2: Temperature dependent thermal material properties for NQ1 high tensile steel [20], [21]

Temperature [oC]
Heat capacity [J/kg oC]
Conductivity [W/m oC] (MAR) [20]
Conductivity [W/m oC] (44C) [21]
Thermal expansion coefficient [1/ oC]

20
456
25
44
1.1

125
500
25
44
1.3

250
556
26
44
1.5

375
600
26
44
1.7

500
652
27
44
1.9

600
733
27
44
2.1

13

Table 3.3: Temperature dependent mechanical material properties for NQ1 high tensile steel [20], [22]

Temperature [oC]
Modulus of elasticity [GPa]
Yield limit [MPa] [20], [22]
Hardening modulus [GPa]

20
210
550
30

125
204
482
30

250
196
415
30

375
185
348
30

500
170
280
30

600
158
221
30

Goldak (1985) presents a temperature dependence of the yield stress for a low
carbon steel, stainless steel and micro-alloy fine grained steel. From these values it is
possible to approximate the temperature dependence of the yield strength of NQ1 steel,
by scaling the fine grained yield properties, to the room temperature yield strength of
NQ1 steel. The results of this interpolation are plotted in figure 3.11. For the remaining
temperature dependent mechanical material properties, the values suggested by Borjesson
(2001) for a Martensitic structure are used. This includes the modulus of elasticity and
hardening modulus. The data can be viewed in table 3.3 where the values at six different
temperature points are defined.
Yield limit vs. temperature
600

500

Stress (MPa)

400

300

200

100

0
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000 1100 1200

Temperature (o C)

304 Stainless steel

23% Carbon Steel

Fine grain steel

HY80 steel estimate

Figure 3.11: Interpolation of yield limit vs. temperature for HY80 steel by scaling the room
temperature yield strength from Goldak (1985) [22]

14

4. Mechanical straightening
In chapter 2 a surface deviation was reported for the bar specimens. For the bar
tested in the mechanical straightening procedure this deviation has a peak value of 5 mm.
The goal set out in this research project is to determine a method to flatten the plate
which will introduce the least amount of residual stresses within the straightened bar.

4.1. Experiments
Mechanical straightening experiments are performed on metal bar P2. The data
collected from these experiments will establish a baseline and verification for the
numerical models, described in chapter 4.2. It also serves to validate the assumptions that
the bar behaves isotropically and has uniform material properties along its length.

4.1.1. Set-up
Prior to starting the
mechanical straightening set-up
the peak forces necessary to
plastically deform the metal bar is
predicted. This peak force is
determined using the formulas of
moment of inertia of rectangle
area [23] and the Euler-Bernoulli
beam equation [24], both described
in Appendix G. Based on these
calculations, it is concluded that a
load of 45 kN is required to yield
the bar For flattening the
deviation, the force applied during
the experiments should thus be in Figure 4.1: Mechanical Straightening set-up
the range of 45 to 90 kN.

15

The set-up for


the experiments can
be seen in figure 4.1.
Figure 4.2 sketches
the metal bar along
with the location of
the strain gauge,
reaction and loading
points. The force is
applied at the peak
deviation with a
cylindrical-shaped
rod mounted on a 250 Figure 4.2: Close-up sketch of the metal bar in mechanical straightening
kN load-cell. This force applied is measured and recorded by a computer. The voltage
output of five attached strain gages is also being recorded. These strain gages are
Vishays general purpose strain gages (Item code 17059) and have a range up to 30,000
micro-strain and a gage length of 3.5 mm. Their positions are chosen as follows. Strain
gages A, B and C are mounted on the bottom surface while gages U and V are attached to
top surface. All of the gages are oriented so that they measure along the beam length.
Gages A and U are located on the opposite sides of the beam within the weld metal. The
gages are located 18 and 20 mm (A and U, respectively) away from the loading point,
while gages C and V are located in the base material 24 and 25 mm, respectively, away
from the loading point. Gage B is positioned directly below the applied force and is
located where the maximum x-strain is anticipated to occur during the experiment. The
strain gages are set-up in a quarter-bridge configuration using an internal dummy which
is described in the signal conditioning amplifier manual (1993). [25] To calibrate the
gages, a shunt method is used which increases the resistance of the active gauge by a
known amount and then related to the voltage output.
The bar itself is supported by two cylindrical polished rods spanning the peak
deviation. The beam is able to move along the rods which are rigidly clamped to a large
I-shaped beam and thus any deformation within the restraints can be neglected.
The beam is incrementally deformed with increasingly greater depths. The initial
cycles start with only a minimal force well within the elastic behaviour of the material.
After each load cycle, the load is removed and the flatness of the beam determined.
Incrementally adding the force allows more control, especially since the required depth to
flatten the beam was initially unknown. Furthermore, the initial elastic deformations
conditions the strain gages reducing the magnitude of the hysterisis effect.

16

4.1.2. Results

Figure 4.3: Strain vs force and displacement vs force during the mechanical straightening
experiment. The gages locations are shown in Figure 4.2

In figure 4.3 a subplot of the strain versus force and displacement versus force
collected during the mechanical straightening experiment is presented. In this figure the
bottom row of plots correspond to strain gages A, B and C, while the upper left and right
subplots display the results from gages U and V, respectively. The center plot on the
upper row plots the load as a function of the cross head displacement.
Starting with the cross head displacement vs. force plot several things can be
concluded. Clearly visible is the procedure of incrementally increasing the displacement.
The peak displacement is 7.0 mm, penetrates well beyond the initial surface deviation of
only 5.3 mm. After unloading, the actuator displacement measures 3.2 mm of springback.
At this point the beam is still not straight, but within the acceptable tolerances of 3.0
mm. The maximum force to achieve this displacement is 82 kN while initial yielding
occurs slightly above the analytically calculated value of 45 kN thus validating
theoretical approximations
The remaining figures plot the strain history of the gages. The gages on the upper
row display compressive values, while those on the bottom side are in tension. As
expected, gage B is located at the location of greatest strain, and fails beyond 25,000 ,
close to the manufactures limit of 30,000 . Strain gages A and U, located in the weld
metal record less strain than gages C and V located in the base metal. Microstructural

17

heterogeneity, presence of residual stresses, relative position of the gage with respect to
the loading point and the original shape of the deformed beam all contribute to the strain
gage readings. In order to examine in detail the geometrical rather than microstructural
related factors contributing to the difference in strain gauge readings, a detailed finite
element model of the straightening procedure was developed.

4.2. Simulations
With the knowledge
and the results from the
mechanical straightening
experiments, described in
chapter 4.1, a numerical
simulation is compared to
the experimental data. The
model serves two main
purposes; it allows a
detailed understanding of
the geometrical influence
on the resultant residual
stresses, and also as an
experimentally validated
benchmark
for
future Figure 4.4: The largest element mesh (25x2x2) for the metal bar
parametric studies.

4.2.1. LS-DYNA input keyword file (mechanical)


Once calibrated, the finite element model allows the influence of boundary
conditions to be studied, the so-called constrained set-up, which would be near
impossible to achieve experimentally. This constrained set-up is motivated by the fact the
surface deviation exists in a large plate rather than a metal bar. Examining the influence
of the boundary conditions helps in getting a better understanding of what is necessary to
flatten the deviation on the metal plate, and the ensuing residual stresses which develop
during springback.
In this research project LS-DYNA is used. It is a non-linear finite element
analysis program capable of simulating complex real world problems. Another program
in use is LS-PrePost, an advanced interactive program for preparing input data for LSDYNA and post processing the results. [26] The last program used in creating a finite
element model is NEdit. NEdit stand for Nirvana Editor and is a popular text and source
code editor. [27]
In figure 4.4 the simplest mesh for the metal bar is depicted. This particular one
consists of 100 elements. It will be named SolidBeam02DOF or SB02DOF. 02

18

stands for 2 elements in the z-direction. (This is the width of the bar) DOF stands for
degree of freedom. In the mechanical straightening experiments the bar was simply
supported and mimics the loadings and restraints imposed during the mechanical
straightening experiments. Other variations (the constrained for instance) will be
discussed in chapter 4.2.3. A convergence study to study the influence of the mesh size is
also performed on models with 800, 6400 and 12800 elements and discussed in chapter
4.2.2, it defines the preferred mesh size. Furthermore the finite element models will be
compared with the experimental data gathered in the mechanical straightening
experiments. A detailed explanation of the LS-DYNA keyword input file is presented in
Appendix H for the file SolidBeam02DOF.
For the mechanical straightening simulations, each model is build from 8 noded
solid elements. The beam is simply supported on virtual pin and roller assembly allowing
translation of one end of the beam relative to a fixed edge. The deformation is applied
using a rigid indenter located at the peak deformation. A contact algorithm is used to
define the interface between the rigid indenter and the workpiece. Unlike the mechanical
straightening experiments, the indenter depth is increased monotonically rather than
incrementally and the material model assumes a perfectly plastic behaviour with a yield
point of 550 MPa.

4.2.2. Results
Before comparing the mechanical straightening results of the experiments with
those of the simulations, the number of elements in each mesh is given in table 4.1.
Table 4.1: Four different meshes for the metal bar

Name

SB02DOF
SB04DOF
SB08DOF
SB200DOF

Total
elements
100
800
6400
12800

In xdirection
(length)
2
4
8
8

In ydirection
(height)
2
4
8
8

In zdirection
(width)
25
50
100
200

Simulation
Time (sec)
17
97
1359
4771

In figure 4.5 the mesh of


SB08DOF is depicted. [28] The bar is
build up in 8 planes containing 50 x 8
elements. The cylindrical tool can also
be viewed. Its mesh never changes in
any of the finite element models. The
mesh is designed such, that the highest
density of elements is at the surface
that comes in contact with the metal
bar. The elements of the cylindrical
tool are 6-noded solid elements.
Figure 4.5: SB08DOF in starting position

19

Figure 4.6: Surface strain measured along the top, and the bottom, of the metal bar

To decide which mesh can be used best, a convergence study comparing the
overall calculation times and the computed results of all the meshes was carried out. If
the mesh is smaller, the calculation time is of course shorter, however, the corresponding
results are less accurate. Figure 4.6 presents the computed x-strain measured along the
top, and the bottom surface of the bar at the peak applied load. (The peak applied load
position is visible in figure 4.7) It is clearly visible that the red and black lines,
corresponding to models SB08DOF and SB200DOF, respectively, are similar to each
other. This leads to the conclusion that
the mesh in SB08DOF is sufficiently
fine to capture the geometry and any
further increase in elements only results
in longer calculation time. The local
influence of the indenter on the upper
surface x-strain is also apparent by the
sharp inflection. At this location there is
still a difference between the SB08DOF
and SB200DOF meshes but SB08DOF
mesh is adequate as the location of
interest lies on the slopes of the
parabola, where the strain gages are Figure 4.7: SB08DOF at largest bending moment
located, and not at the indenter location.

20

In figure 4.8 the results of the finite element models is compared with the
mechanical straightening data. (Scilab programs designed are listed Appendix I)

Figure 4.8: Combined results of the mechanical straightening experiments and the finite element
models (SB02DOF/cyan; SB04DOF/pink; SB08DOF/red; SB200DOF/black)

Starting with the displacement versus force plot (the middle plot in the upper part
of the subplot) there is good agreement between the measured and simulated indenter
displacement versus forces plots, especially when the number of elements is increased.
As seen in Figure 4.8 mesh SB08DOF and SB200DOF correspond well with the
experimentally measured loads and displacements. However, in the elastic region of the
finite element models the predicted slope is steeper than for the mechanical straightening
experiments. Also when unloaded, the predicted final displacement is a millimeter less
than the mechanical straightening experiments. This difference in the displacements
arises from assumptions and slight differences between the numerical and experimental
set-ups. Parts and components are never entirely rigid or there are still some tiny little
spaces left in the testing system. Examination of the experimental unloading versus force
data indicates that these lines are not entirely linear, while in theory they should. Machine
compliance could account for this non-linear behaviour during loading. However, even
with this slight offset, the result of the finite element compare well to the mechanical
straightening experiments data, in particular the peak load of 82 kN is in agreement with
the calculated value of 75 kN.
The remaining plots in Figure 4.8 compare the surface x-strain values of the finite
element models at the approximate strain gage locations. The x-strains were determined

21

at the element closest to the gage center, and as noted in Figure 4.6, the magnitude of the
x-strain is highly sensitive to the sampling location. On the lower surface, models
SB08DOF and SB200DOF correspond almost perfectly to the mechanical straightening
data. The use of these finite element models even gives the opportunity to calculate the
entire range of the surface strain in the B position where the strain gage failed.

Figure 4.9: Calculated x- and y-nodal coordinates along the bottom and top of the bar, before
straightening, at the peak load and after springback.

The predicted strain values along the upper surface of the plate (positions U and
V) do not agree as well as on the lower surface. This can be attributed to the sensitivity of
the reported strains as a function of position shown in figure 4.6. It is hard to determine
the exact position were the strain gages were attached, and even the slightest error in this
position results in a large difference in surface strain. (The slope is the steepest for the
position the strain gages are placed). An error can thus easily be made resulting in a large
offset.
In figure 4.9 the x- and y-position of nodes on the bottom surface (in red) and top
surface (in blue) of the bar are plotted for the starting position, at the peak load and after
springback. It shows that in the final position the deviation is reduced to within the
allowable range of 3.0 mm. Also, for the blue line a permanent surface deviation is
visible in the form a small dent. This is where the force was applied through a cylindrical
tool.
Overall the conclusion may be that the finite element model SB08DOF fits well to
the measured experimental data of the mechanical straightening experiments.

22

4.2.3. Influence of constraint and incorporation of weld residual


stresses
Based on the successfully calibrated model SB08DOF, two model variations are
examined. The first examines the influence of boundary constraints, while the second
attempts to incorporate weld residual stresses into the model. These have been labeled
SB08CON and SB08WELD, respectively.
The difference between finite element program SB08DOF and SB08CON is that
in the CON program the translational degrees of freedom along all edge-faces in the x
and y directions of the bar are constrained. This situation is meant to approximate the
constraints of trying to flatten out a metal plate which has already been welded into a
construction.

Figure 4.10: Displacement vs. force for SB08DOF, SB200DOF and SB08CON showing the increase in
required force.

This constrained set-up would require a complicated test arrangment, but can be
readily modeled.
In figure 4.10 the displacement versus force plots of the models SB08DOF,
SB200DOF and SB08CON are shown. In Appendix J more figures can be seen,
containing results from more finite element simulations. Figure 4.10 shows that the
applied force, required to deform a similar sized surface deviation, is a factor of two
times larger.

23

Figure 4.11: Displacement vs. effective stress in the middle of the bar for SB08DOF, SB200DOF and
SB08CON

In figure 4.11 the displacement versus effective stress plot (von-mises stress),
measured in the middle of the metal bar, is presented. From it can be concluded, that the
residual stress in the middle of the metal bar approaches the yield limit of NQ1 high
tensile steel.
In order to examine the influence of pre-existing weld residual stresses, a finite
element model SB08WELD was also designed. Weld residual stresses were introduced
into the model through the stress initialization option in LS-DYNA. However, this did
not have the desired effect. It was possible to specify the initial stresses in the material,
but after the first calculation step the material reached equilibrium. Therefore it was
concluded that defining residual could not be implemented without first knowing, and
later implementing the spatial distribution of the residual stress state.
As a conclusion to the mechanical straightening, it is capable of
straightening the plate, albeit with high loads and unacceptable residual stresses. The
final conclusion for mechanical straightening is that it is not a suitable procedure.

24

5. Flame straightening
Another procedure to flatten the metal plate is through flame straightening, and is
also investigated in this research project. Experiments have been done on metal bar P1
along with a thermo-mechanical simulation of a similar shaped bar.

5.1. Experiments
In figure 5.1 the complete
set-up for the flame straightening
experiments is depicted. Metal bar
P1 is placed on two wooden
supports. On the top and bottom
surface, close to the peak of the
deviation, two thermocouples are
spot welded onto the bar. These will
measure the surface temperature
during the flame straightening
experiment. On the bottom surface,
exactly below the peak deviation a
strain gage is mounted which will
record the bottom surface strain
during the flame straightening
procedure
Figure 5.2 shows the torch
used to rapidly heat up the upper
surface of the plate where the peak
deviation is located. During heating
the deviation will be exaggerated,
but upon quenching the top surface
will contract, causing the beam to
bend.
Flame straightening works Figure 5.1: Flame straightening experimental set-up
well for thin parts and sheet steel. Its effect on this type material or this geometry is
however unknown. Regrettably, the flame straightening experiment failed to generate any
appreciate change in geometry. This was confirmed by the strain gage which hardly had
any difference in voltage output.

25

During
the
flame
straightening experiments there was
a problem with the thermocouples.
Temperature for the top surface
needed to be increased to 600
degrees Celsius to have any effect.
But the spot weld junction could
not resist the gas pressure and
frequently came loose. Thus, the
flame straightening experimental
procedure was difficult to quantify.
There was hardy any
straightening effect. The strain gage
voltage output had only a small
difference and the temperature
measured
were
sometimes
incomplete. Still there are some
useful temperature measurements
and these will be compared with the
finite element simulations.

Figure 5.2: Flame straightening

5.2 Thermo-mechanical simulations


The previously described finite element input file used for mechanical
straightening is used as a basis. Adaptations of the model will be explained and the
results from the finite element model will be discussed in chapter 5.2.2. In Appendix K a
compressed version of the LS-DYNA heat transfer keyword model can be consulted.

5.2.1 LS-DYNA input keyword file (thermal)


LS-DYNA can solve steady state and transient heat transfer problems on 3dimensional parts. Heat transfer can be coupled with other features in LS-DYNA to
provide modeling capabilities for thermo-mechanical simulations. Calculations are done
in a perfectly isolated environment, which assumes that there is no convection or
radiation from the part. [29]
The two most evident changes in the input file are the mesh and the units. In the
flame straightening set-up a different specimen was used. The geometry of P1 was

26

measured and its values were imported in the finite element model, however the mesh
size used in SB08DOF was adopted resulting in 6400 elements. Time units are also
changed to reflect the transient nature of the flame straightening procedure.
In the control section of SB2DOF it is necessary to enter the
*CONTROL_SOLUTION keyword to identify that a coupled structural thermal analysis is
performed. *CONTROL_THERMAL_SOLVER and *CONTROL_THERMAL_TIMESTEP
also need to be specified. They specify the type of thermal analysis (transient) and the
calculation steps for the thermal analysis. Finally contact specification was eliminated.
Because a coupled thermal analysis is performed, both the thermal and
mechanical properties need to be defined. [30] This is done in the Define Parts and
Material section. For the mechanical behavior *MAT_ELASTIC_PLASTIC_THERMAL
is chosen and the thermal properties of table 3.2 are filled in. The temperature dependent
mechanical properties listed in Table 3.3 specifies values for the material model
*MAT_THERMAL_ISOTROPIC_TD. In chapter 3.2 two different temperature dependent
thermal conductivity values were defined. The temperature dependent thermal
conductivity adopted from Borjenssen (2001) [20] is labeled MAR while the temperature
independent value of 44W/moC found in Fuerschbach (2002) [21] is labeled 44C.
For the boundary conditions, the temperature history of the nodes along a
transverse line of the upper surface are specified while the beam remains simply
supported. The nodal temperatures at the heating location are specified and follow one of
the recorded temperature profiles.

5.2.2 Results
The temperature profiles predicted by the finite element model are compared with
the experimental flame straightening thermocouple data recorded on the upper and lower
faces. (Scilab program designed is listed Appendix L)

27

Figure 5.3: Time versus temperature for the flame straightening case

In figure 5.3 the experimental and predicted temperature profiles at the thermocouple locations are plotted. Time is plotted against temperature. The two red lines
indicate the behavior measured by the thermocouples during the flame straightening
experiments, while the black, green and blue lines are the simulation results. The red line
with the highest peak value represents the top surface of the metal bar where the flame
was located. Its temperature is increased to 550 oC in 20 sec while the bottom surface
only reaches 250 oC. After heating, the upper surface is quenched and the temperature
quickly drops in 40 sec to 180 oC, while the lower surface temperature experiences a
slower cooling rate. It is during the quenching phase that the actual straightening takes
place. The driving force behind the straightening is due to differences in the thermal
expansion between the top surface and bottom surfaces, while the temperature
dependence of the mechanical properties ensures that the hotter surface is softer
facilitating plastic deformation.
The predicted temperature history of the finite element model is also plotted in
figure 5.3. The black line represents the prescribed temperature profile of the top surface
of the metal bar while the blue and green lines are the predicted temperature profiles
along the bottom surface. In chapter 3.2 two different thermal conductivity properties
were defined described for the NQ1 high tensile steel. In figure 5.3 the blue line
corresponds to temperature dependent thermal conductivity of Martensite found in
Borjessen (2001) [20] while the green line corresponds to a constant thermal conductivity
of 44 W/moC found in Fuerschbach (2002) [21]. The influence of an increased thermal
conductivity is to increase the heating and cooling rates of the bar material. The increased
28

heating rates along the bottom surface correspond better with the experimental results
determined during the flame straightening experiments.
However, the finite element model profiles do not seem to fit very well with the
experimental data. This could be due in part to the assumption of an ideally insulated
environment used by LS-DYNA along with uncertain material parameters. Convection
and radiation effects are not being taken into account causing in a much slower cooling
rate in the finite element model than in reality. Also in the finite element model only a
small patch of nodes from the top surface are heated, rather than both side edges and
bottom surface due to convection effects during the flame straightening exercise. These
factors undoubtedly contribute to the slower temperature response along the bottom
surface.

Figure 5.4: x- and y-position along the top of the bar, flame straightening

Although the finite element models predict a discernable temperature difference


between the upper and lower surfaces, it fails to generate appreciable permanent
deformation or straightening as shown in figure 5.4. Here the blue line indicates the
starting profile of the metal bar while the red line follows the virtual thermal
straightening along the upper surface of the bar. After the flame straightening procedure
the deviation of the bar was only reduced by a 0.2mm.
Based on the experimental and simulation studies, flame straightening was found
to be an unsuitable procedure to flatten the metal plate.

29

Conclusion
In this report both mechanical and flame straightening have been examined to
straighten a deviation within a plate. While mechanical straightening was able to
straighten the plate, it required high loads and resulted in high residual stresses. Flame
straightening, on the other hand, was unable to permanently deform the plate. Therefore,
neither procedures was found to be acceptable
A comparison between the finite element model results and the experimental data
for the mechanical straightening case showed a good fit. Using a validated finite element
model provided the opportunity to examine the influence of boundary constraints on the
applied load. These boundary constraints are more realistic for a metal plate build into a
construction rather than having free edges. Although the deviation on the specimen could
be flattened within the allowable range, the forces required were great, and therefore it
was concluded that mechanical straightening would be an unsuitable method to resolve
this deviation.
Flame straightening was concluded to be unsuitable as it was unable to
significantly flatten the beam. These conclusion were made based on the both the
experimental and finite element results which showed there was almost no reduction in
the magnitude of the deviation.
Further research for straightening the metal plate, should concentrate on different
procedures, for example weld cladding whereby weld metal is built up on the surface of
the plate.

30

Literature list
1. http://www.hazegray.org/navhist/canada/current/upholder/ (2006) Victoria class
(SSK) patrol submarine, HG&UW Sandy McClearn
2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victoria_class_submarine (2007) Upholder/Victoria
class submarine, US, Wikimedia Foundation Inc.
3. http://www.naval-technology.com/projects/ssk_victoria (2007) SSK Victoria class
long range patrol submarines, Canada, SPG Media Group PLC
4. C. Ryan (2004), Victoria class patrol sub information, Volume 6 Issue 4, Seattle
US, The Dolphin Bortherhood (USSVI)
5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welding (2007) Welding, US, Wikimedia Foundation
Inc.
6. http://www.wolffdata.se/scilab/ScilabStarter.pdf (2005), Scilab (4) Starter,
Wolffdata
7. http://www.scilab.org/product/dic-mat-sci/M2SCI_doc.htm (2005), M2Sci, Scilab
group
8. http://www.scilab.org/doc/demos_html/index.html (2005), Scilab demonstration
pages, Scilab group
9. http://www.engineering.usu.edu/cee/faculty/gurro/Software_Calculators/Scilab_D
ocs/CEE6510_SCILABExamples.htm (2007), SCILAB examples, G.E. Urroz
10. http://www.utexas.edu/its/rc/answers/math/matlab/manual/ReferenceTOC.html
(1994), Matlab Online Reference Documentation, The MathWorks Inc.
11. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martensite (2007) Martensite, US, Wikimedia
Foundation Inc.
12. http://www.suppliersonline.com/propertypages/HY80.asp (2000) HY80 alloy steel
material property data sheet, Metal Suppliers Online LLC.
13. http://www.matweb.com/search/SpecificMaterial.asp?bassnum=MSHY80 (2006)
HY-80 Steel, Automation Creations Inc.
14. S.C. Hodge, J.M. Minicucci & T.F. Trimble (2003), Cyclic Material Properties
Test to determine Hardening/Softening Characteristics of HY-80 Steel, Report
No. TDA-19195, Groton US, General Dynamics
15. J.A. Mountford, Jr. (2002), Titanium Properties, Advantages and Applications
solving the corrosion problems in marine service, Paper 02170, Houston US,
NACE International
16. E. M. Mielink (1991), Metalworking Science and Engineering, TS205.M52, New
York US, McGraw-Hill Inc.
17. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isotropic (2007), Isotropy, US, Wikimedia
Foundation Inc.
18. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vickers_hardness_test (2007), Vickers hardness test,
US, Wikimedia Foundation Inc.
19. http://www.tf.uni-kiel.de/matwis/amat/mw1_ge/kap_8/advanced/t8_4_2.html
(2004), Hardness, H Fll
20. L. Borjesson & L. Lindgren (2001), Simulation of Multipass Welding With
Simultaneous Computation of Material Properties, Vol. 123, Lulea Sweden,
ASME

31

21. P.W. Fuerschbach & G.R. Eisler (2002), Determination of Material Properties for
Welding Models by Means of Arc Weld Experiments, 6th Intl. Trends in Welding
Research, Albuquerque US, Sandia National Laboratories
22. J. Goldak, B. Patel, M. Bibby & J. Moore (1985), Advanced joining of Aerospace
Metallic Materials - Computational Weld Mechanics, No. 398, Neuilly Sur Seine
France, Agard
23. J.L. Meriam (1952), Mechanics Part I Statics, New York US, John Wiley & Sons
Inc.
24. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bending (2007), Bending, US, Wikimedia
Foundation Inc.
25. Measurements Group, Inc. (1994), Instruction Manual Model 2310 Signal
Conditioning Amplifier, US, Measurements Group Inc.
26. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LS-DYNA (2007), LS-DYNA, US, Wikimedia
27. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NEdit (2007, NEdit, US, Wikimedia
28. Livermore Software (2002), LS-Pre/Post v1.0, Livermore US, Livermore
Software Technology Corporation
29. A.B. Shapiro (2003), Heat Transfer in LS-DYNA, Livermore US, Livermore
Software Technology Corporation
30. Livermore Software (1999), LS-DYNA Thermal Analysis User Guide, Livermore
US, Livermore Software Technology Corporation
31. Livermore Software (2002), Getting Started with LS-DYNA, Livermore US,
Livermore Software Technology Corporation
32. Livermore Software (2003), LS-DYNA Keyword Users Manual, Version 970,
Livermore US, Livermore Software Technology Corporation
33. B.N. Maker & X. Zhu (2000), Input Parameters for Metal Forming Simulation
using LS-DYNA, Volume 1, Livermore US, Livermore Software Technology
Corporation
34. B.N. Maker & X. Zhu (2001), Input Parameters for Metal Forming Simulation
using LS-DYNA, Volume 2, Livermore US, Livermore Software Technology
Corporation
35. J.D. Reid (1998), LS-DYNA Examples Manual, Livemore US, Livermore
Software Technology Corporation
36. http://www.dynaexamples.com/ (2004), Dyna Examples, LTSC and Dynamore

32

Appendix A: Submarines names and dates


Canadian name

English name

Laid down
Launch date
UKs Commission date
UKs Decommission
date
Canadian Commission
data

HMCS
VICTORIA
[876]
HMS
UNSEEN
[S41]
January
1986
November
1989
June
1991
July
1994
December
2000

HMCS
WINDSOR
[877]
HMS
UNICORN
[S43]
February
1989
April
1992
June
1993
October
1994
June
2003

HMCS
CORNER
BROOK [878]
HMS
URSULA
[S42]
February
1987
February
1992
May
1992
July
1994
March
2003

HMCS
CHICOUTIMI
[879]
HMS
UPHOLDER
[S40]
November
1983
December
1986
June
1990
April
1993
October
2004

33

Appendix B: Final_bar_geomerty.sce

34

Printed by Thijs Romans COOP


Feb 02, 07 10:17

Final_bars_geometry.sce

Page 1/7

//DRDC Pacific Calculation T.Romans


//last modified: 2 february 2007
//make sure scilab uses the right directory is used!!!
//make sure the names of the .txtfiles are correct!!!
//close all figures
xdel(winsid())
//importing data from the experiments
//datafloor is the height between laser head and floor
//dataP1 and dataP2 are the heights between laser head and bars
//dataP1wires and dataP2wires is the same as dataP1 and dataP2 but with wires
//wrapped around the to mark the beginning and ending of the weld material
datafloor=fscanfMat(081206_floor_measurement.txt);
dataP1=fscanfMat(081206_P1_outside.txt);
dataP1wires=fscanfMat(081206_P1_outside_wires.txt);
dataP2=fscanfMat(081206_P2_outside.txt);
dataP2wires=fscanfMat(081206_P2_outside_wires.txt);
//subdividing data in a height column and a distance column
//the distance column is the distance between the laserhead and tested surface
height_floor=datafloor(:,1);
distance_floor=datafloor(:,2);
height_P1=dataP1(:,1);
distance_P1=dataP1(:,2);
height_P1wires=dataP1wires(:,1);
distance_P1wires=dataP1wires(:,2);
height_P2=dataP2(:,1);
distance_P2=dataP2(:,2);
height_P2wires=dataP2wires(:,1);
distance_P2wires=dataP2wires(:,2);
//mulitplying by factor and offset
//values for calculating (x)distance and (y)height
height_a=0.001526;
distance_a=0.076371;
height_offset=0.000763;
distance_offset=0.038185;
Fh=(height_a.*height_floor)+height_offset;
Fd=(distance_a.*distance_floor)+distance_offset;
P1h=(height_a.*height_P1)+height_offset;
P1d=(distance_a.*distance_P1)+distance_offset;
P1wh=(height_a.*height_P1wires)+height_offset;
P1wd=(distance_a.*distance_P1wires)+distance_offset;
P2h=(height_a.*height_P2)+height_offset;
P2d=(distance_a.*distance_P2)+distance_offset;
P2wh=(height_a.*height_P2wires)+height_offset;
P2wd=(distance_a.*distance_P2wires)+distance_offset;
//dividing seperate runs after reviewing data
//one measurement normally contained three/four
//runs of going forward and backward along the surface
//of the bar
//runs spanned by rows are seperated
//this in FhF1(floor height forward run 1)
//this in FdB3(floor distance backward run 3)
FhF1=Fh(110:400,:);
FhB1=Fh(400:640,:);
FhF2=Fh(640:910,:);

Tuesday February 06, 2007

Feb 02, 07 10:17

Final_bars_geometry.sce

Page 2/7

FhB2=Fh(910:1120,:);
FhF3=Fh(1120:1390,:);
FhB3=Fh(1390:1640,:);
FdF1=Fd(110:400,:);
FdB1=Fd(400:640,:);
FdF2=Fd(640:910,:);
FdB2=Fd(910:1120,:);
FdF3=Fd(1120:1390,:);
FdB3=Fd(1390:1640,:);
P1hF1=P1h(130:276,:);
P1hB1=P1h(339:475,:);
P1hF2=P1h(547:668,:);
P1hB2=P1h(722:827,:);
P1hF3=P1h(895:1012,:);
P1hB3=P1h(1067:1164,:);
P1hF4=P1h(1228:1339,:);
P1hB4=P1h(1396:1496,:);
P1hF5=P1h(1566:1667,:);
P1hB5=P1h(1715:1813,:);
P1dF1=P1d(130:276,:);
P1dB1=P1d(339:475,:);
P1dF2=P1d(547:668,:);
P1dB2=P1d(722:827,:);
P1dF3=P1d(895:1012,:);
P1dB3=P1d(1067:1164,:);
P1dF4=P1d(1228:1339,:);
P1dB4=P1d(1396:1496,:);
P1dF5=P1d(1566:1667,:);
P1dB5=P1d(1715:1813,:);
P1whF1=P1wh(146:291,:);
P1whB1=P1wh(374:499,:);
P1whF2=P1wh(555:687,:);
P1whB2=P1wh(744:860,:);
P1whF3=P1wh(915:1045,:);
P1whB3=P1wh(1103:1205,:);
P1whF4=P1wh(1268:1381,:);
P1whB4=P1wh(1430:1545,:);
P1wdF1=P1wd(146:291,:);
P1wdB1=P1wd(374:499,:);
P1wdF2=P1wd(555:687,:);
P1wdB2=P1wd(744:860,:);
P1wdF3=P1wd(915:1045,:);
P1wdB3=P1wd(1103:1205,:);
P1wdF4=P1wd(1268:1381,:);
P1wdB4=P1wd(1430:1545,:);
P2hF1=P2h(138:228,:);
P2hB1=P2h(290:370,:);
P2hF2=P2h(419:499,:);
P2hB2=P2h(534:629,:);
P2hF3=P2h(664:742,:);
P2hB3=P2h(775:853,:);
P2hF4=P2h(893:983,:);
P2hB4=P2h(1011:1103,:);
P2dF1=P2d(138:228,:);
P2dB1=P2d(290:370,:);
P2dF2=P2d(419:499,:);
P2dB2=P2d(534:629,:);
P2dF3=P2d(664:742,:);
P2dB3=P2d(775:853,:);
P2dF4=P2d(893:983,:);
P2dB4=P2d(1011:1103,:);

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P2whF1=P2wh(108:216,:);
P2whB1=P2wh(280:362,:);
P2whF2=P2wh(400:476,:);
P2whB2=P2wh(516:585,:);
P2whF3=P2wh(621:707,:);
P2whB3=P2wh(734:810,:);
P2whF4=P2wh(841:918,:);
P2whB4=P2wh(957:1028,:);
P2wdF1=P2wd(108:216,:);
P2wdB1=P2wd(280:362,:);
P2wdF2=P2wd(400:476,:);
P2wdB2=P2wd(516:585,:);
P2wdF3=P2wd(621:707,:);
P2wdB3=P2wd(734:810,:);
P2wdF4=P2wd(841:918,:);
P2wdB4=P2wd(957:1028,:);
//plotting functions
scf(1)
subplot(2,3,1);
plot(FdF1,FhF1,r);
plot(FdB1,FhB1,b);
plot(FdF2,FhF2,r);
plot(FdB2,FhB2,b);
plot(FdF3,FhF3,r);
plot(FdB3,FhB3,b);
xtitle(floor measurements,distance covered (mm),distance from laser head (m
m));
subplot(2,3,2);
plot(P1dF1,P1hF1,r);
plot(P1dB1,P1hB1,b);
plot(P1dF2,P1hF2,r);
plot(P1dB2,P1hB2,b);
plot(P1dF3,P1hF3,r);
plot(P1dB3,P1hB3,b);
plot(P1dF4,P1hF4,r);
plot(P1dB4,P1hB4,b);
plot(P1dF5,P1hF5,r);
plot(P1dB5,P1hB5,b);
xtitle(P1,distance covered (mm),distance from laser head (mm));
subplot(2,3,3);
plot(P1wdF1,P1whF1,r);
plot(P1wdB1,P1whB1,b);
plot(P1wdF2,P1whF2,r);
plot(P1wdB2,P1whB2,b);
plot(P1wdF3,P1whF3,r);
plot(P1wdB3,P1whB3,b);
plot(P1wdF4,P1whF4,r);
plot(P1wdB4,P1whB4,b);
xtitle(P1wires,distance covered (mm),distance from laser head (mm));
subplot(2,3,4);
plot(P2dF1,P2hF1,r);
plot(P2dB1,P2hB1,b);
plot(P2dF2,P2hF2,r);
plot(P2dB2,P2hB2,b);
plot(P2dF3,P2hF3,r);
plot(P2dB3,P2hB3,b);
plot(P2dF4,P2hF4,r);
plot(P2dB4,P2hB4,b);
xtitle(P2,distance covered (mm),distance from laser head (mm));
subplot(2,3,5);
plot(P2wdF1,P2whF1,r);
plot(P2wdB1,P2whB1,b);
plot(P2wdF2,P2whF2,r);

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plot(P2wdB2,P2whB2,b);
plot(P2wdF3,P2whF3,r);
plot(P2wdB3,P2whB3,b);
plot(P2wdF4,P2whF4,r);
plot(P2wdB4,P2whB4,b);
xtitle(P2wires,distance covered (mm),distance from laser head (mm));
//sizing gives the size of the column
//normal result is SP1dF1 = 147. 1.
//normal result is SP1dB1 = 137. 1.
//mtlb_fliplr flips the result for the backward runs
//this results in SP1dB1 = 1. 137.
SP1dF1=size(P1dF1);
SP1dB1=size(P1dB1);
SP1dB1=mtlb_fliplr(SP1dB1);
SP1dF2=size(P1dF2);
SP1dB2=size(P1dB2);
SP1dB2=mtlb_fliplr(SP1dB2);
SP1dF3=size(P1dF3);
SP1dB3=size(P1dB3);
SP1dB3=mtlb_fliplr(SP1dB3);
SP1dF4=size(P1dF4);
SP1dB4=size(P1dB4);
SP1dB4=mtlb_fliplr(SP1dB4);
SP1dF5=size(P1dF5);
SP1dB5=size(P1dB5);
SP1dB5=mtlb_fliplr(SP1dB5);
SP2dF1=size(P2dF1);
SP2dB1=size(P2dB1);
SP2dB1=mtlb_fliplr(SP2dB1);
SP2dF2=size(P2dF2);
SP2dB2=size(P2dB2);
SP2dB2=mtlb_fliplr(SP2dB2);
SP2dF3=size(P2dF3);
SP2dB3=size(P2dB3);
SP2dB3=mtlb_fliplr(SP2dB3);
SP2dF4=size(P2dF4);
SP2dB4=size(P2dB4);
SP2dB4=mtlb_fliplr(SP2dB4);
//using sizing results gives values of highest lowest distance points
//this is the ending distance and starting distance in a column
//P1F1 = 888.38566
//
219.98666
//P1B1 = 888.38566
//
224.87441
P1F1=P1dF1(SP1dF1,:);
P1B1=P1dB1(SP1dB1,:);
P1F2=P1dF2(SP1dF2,:);
P1B2=P1dB2(SP1dB2,:);
P1F3=P1dF3(SP1dF3,:);
P1B3=P1dB3(SP1dB3,:);
P1F4=P1dF4(SP1dF4,:);
P1B4=P1dB4(SP1dB4,:);
P1F5=P1dF5(SP1dF5,:);
P1B5=P1dB5(SP1dB5,:);
P2F1=P2dF1(SP2dF1,:);
P2B1=P2dB1(SP2dB1,:);
P2F2=P2dF2(SP2dF2,:);
P2B2=P2dB2(SP2dB2,:);
P2F3=P2dF3(SP2dF3,:);
P2B3=P2dB3(SP2dB3,:);
P2F4=P2dF4(SP2dF4,:);
P2B4=P2dB4(SP2dB4,:);
//putting all the results in one 2x10 for P1 and 2x8 for P2
P1d=[P1F1 P1B1 P1F2 P1B2 P1F3 P1B3 P1F4 P1B4 P1F5 P1B5];

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P2d=[P2F1 P2B1 P2F2 P2B2 P2F3 P2B3 P2F4 P2B4];


//determining length the of the bars
//this is LP1 and LP2
L0P1=((P1F1(2,1))+(P1B1(2,1))+(P1F2(2,1))+(P1B2(2,1))+(P1F3(2,1))+(P1B3(2,1))+(P
1F4(2,1))+(P1B4(2,1))+(P1F5(2,1))+(P1B5(2,1)))/10;
L1P1=((P1F1(1,1))+(P1B1(1,1))+(P1F2(1,1))+(P1B2(1,1))+(P1F3(1,1))+(P1B3(1,1))+(P
1F4(1,1))+(P1B4(1,1))+(P1F5(1,1))+(P1B5(1,1)))/10;
LP1=L1P1L0P1;
L0P2=((P2F1(2,1))+(P2B1(2,1))+(P2F2(2,1))+(P2B2(2,1))+(P2F3(2,1))+(P2B3(2,1))+(P
2F4(2,1))+(P2B4(2,1)))/8;
L1P2=((P2F1(1,1))+(P2B1(1,1))+(P2F2(1,1))+(P2B2(1,1))+(P2F3(1,1))+(P2B3(1,1))+(P
2F4(1,1))+(P2B4(1,1)))/8;
LP2=L1P2L0P2;
//onedimensional interpolation of every run for P1 and P2
//50 steps resulting in 51 datapoints
n1=13.06;
P1X=[230:n1:883];
[P1Yr1]=interp1(P1dF1,P1hF1,P1X,nearest);
[P1Yr2]=interp1(P1dB1,P1hB1,P1X,nearest);
[P1Yr3]=interp1(P1dF2,P1hF2,P1X,nearest);
[P1Yr4]=interp1(P1dB2,P1hB2,P1X,nearest);
[P1Yr5]=interp1(P1dF3,P1hF3,P1X,nearest);
[P1Yr6]=interp1(P1dB3,P1hB3,P1X,nearest);
[P1Yr7]=interp1(P1dF4,P1hF4,P1X,nearest);
[P1Yr8]=interp1(P1dB4,P1hB4,P1X,nearest);
[P1Yr9]=interp1(P1dF5,P1hF5,P1X,nearest);
[P1Yr10]=interp1(P1dB5,P1hB5,P1X,nearest);
//50 elements
n2=7.44;
P2X=[224:n2:596];
[P2Yr1]=interp1(P2dF1,P2hF1,P2X,nearest);
[P2Yr2]=interp1(P2dB1,P2hB1,P2X,nearest);
[P2Yr3]=interp1(P2dF2,P2hF2,P2X,nearest);
[P2Yr4]=interp1(P2dB2,P2hB2,P2X,nearest);
[P2Yr5]=interp1(P2dF3,P2hF3,P2X,nearest);
[P2Yr6]=interp1(P2dB3,P2hB3,P2X,nearest);
[P2Yr7]=interp1(P2dF4,P2hF4,P2X,nearest);
[P2Yr8]=interp1(P2dB4,P2hB4,P2X,nearest);
//calculating one averaged curves for P1 and P2
P1Y=(P1Yr1+P1Yr2+P1Yr3+P1Yr4+P1Yr5+P1Yr6+P1Yr7+P1Yr8+P1Yr9+P1Yr10)./10;
P2Y=(P2Yr1+P2Yr2+P2Yr3+P2Yr4+P2Yr5+P2Yr6+P2Yr7+P2Yr8)./8;
//plotting onedimensional interpolation and their real counterparts
//plotting averaged curves calculated by interpolated datapoints
scf(2);
subplot(2,2,1);
plot(P1dF1,P1hF1,r);
plot(P1X,P1Yr1,b);
plot(P1dB1,P1hB1,r);
plot(P1X,P1Yr2,b);
plot(P1dF2,P1hF2,r);
plot(P1X,P1Yr3,b);
plot(P1dB2,P1hB2,r);
plot(P1X,P1Yr4,b);
plot(P1dF3,P1hF3,r);
plot(P1X,P1Yr5,b);
plot(P1dB3,P1hB3,r);
plot(P1X,P1Yr6,b);
plot(P1dF4,P1hF4,r);
plot(P1X,P1Yr7,b);
plot(P1dB4,P1hB4,r);
plot(P1X,P1Yr8,b);
plot(P1dF5,P1hF5,r);

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plot(P1X,P1Yr9,b);
plot(P1dB5,P1hB5,r);
plot(P1X,P1Yr10,b);
xtitle(P1 interpolations,distance covered (mm),distance from laser head (mm
));
subplot(2,2,2);
plot(P2dF1,P2hF1,r);
plot(P2X,P2Yr1,b);
plot(P2dB1,P2hB1,r);
plot(P2X,P2Yr2,b);
plot(P2dF2,P2hF2,r);
plot(P2X,P2Yr3,b);
plot(P2dB2,P2hB2,r);
plot(P2X,P2Yr4,b);
plot(P2dF3,P2hF3,r);
plot(P2X,P2Yr5,b);
plot(P2dB3,P2hB3,r);
plot(P2X,P2Yr6,b);
plot(P2dF4,P2hF4,r);
plot(P2X,P2Yr7,b);
plot(P2dB4,P2hB4,r);
plot(P2X,P2Yr8,b);
xtitle(P2 interpolations,distance covered (mm),distance from laser head (mm
));
subplot(2,2,3);
plot(P1X,P1Y,b);
xtitle(P1 interpolation average,distance covered (mm),distance from laser h
ead (mm));
subplot(2,2,4);
plot(P2X,P2Y,b);
xtitle(P2 interpolation average,distance covered (mm),distance from laser h
ead (mm));
//highest lowest column
//calculating the starting height and ending height
//SP1Y = 1.
51.
//HighLowP1Y = 20.334408
18.544715
SP1Y=size(P1Y);
HighLowP1Y=P1Y(:,SP1Y);
SP2Y=size(P2Y);
HighLowP2Y=P2Y(:,SP2Y);
//Calculating datapoints for a trendline
//f1 and f2 are rows which will be added to PY1 and PY2
u=[0:1:50];
f1=((HighLowP1Y(1,1)HighLowP1Y(1,2))/50).*u;
f2=((HighLowP2Y(1,1)HighLowP2Y(1,2))/50).*u;
//Adding trendline (cancelling the offset error of ending point)
//Minus offset (to start at zero)
//Multiplying by 1 (to let deviation point upward)
P1Y=(1).*((P1Y+f1)HighLowP1Y(1,1));
P2Y=(1).*((P2Y+f2)HighLowP2Y(1,1));
//Plotting the rearranged averaged curves
scf(3)
subplot(2,1,1)
plot(P1X,P1Y,r);
xtitle(P1 rearranged interpolation average,distance covered (mm),deviation
(mm));
subplot(2,1,2)
plot(P2X,P2Y,r);
xtitle(P2 rearranged interpolation average,distance covered (mm),deviation
(mm));

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//data preperation for 3D plot


size(P1X);
size(P2X);
size(P1Y);
size(P2Y);
P1X=P1X;
P1Y=P1Y;
P1Yadd=[P1Y P1Y];
P1Y31=31+P1Y;
P1Y31add=[P1Y31 P1Y31];
P1Ytot=[P1Yadd P1Y31add];
P2X=P2X;
P2Y=P2Y;
P2Yadd=[P2Y P2Y];
P2Y31=31+P2Y;
P2Y31add=[P2Y31 P2Y31];
P2tot=[P2Yadd P2Y31add];
PZ=[0;38];
PZtot=[0;38;0;38];
//plotting 3D bottom and top surface for P1 and P2
//plotting color contour plots below the 3D P1 and P2
scf(4)
subplot(2,2,1)
plot3d(P1X,PZ,P1Yadd,75,89);
plot3d(P1X,PZ,P1Y31add,75,89);
xtitle(P1,distance covered (mm), ,deviation (mm));
subplot(2,2,2)
plot3d(P2X,PZ,P2Yadd,75,89);
plot3d(P2X,PZ,P2Y31add,75,89);
xtitle(P2,distance covered (mm), ,deviation (mm));
subplot(2,2,3)
xset("colormap",jetcolormap(64));
zm = min(P1Y);
zM = max(P1Y);
colorbar(zm,zM);
Sgrayplot(P1X,PZ,P1Yadd);
xtitle(Surface plot P1,covered distance (mm),thickness (0 38mm));
subplot(2,2,4)
xset("colormap",jetcolormap(64));
zm = min(P2Y);
zM = max(P2Y);
colorbar(zm,zM);
Sgrayplot(P2X,PZ,P2Yadd);
xtitle(Surface plot P2,covered distance (mm),thickness (0 38mm))
//end

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floor measurements

P1

50.0

P1wires

21

21

20

20

19

19

18

18

49.6

49.4

49.2

distance from laser head (mm)

distance from laser head (mm)

distance from laser head (mm)

49.8

17

16

15
14

13

17

16

15
14

13

49.0
12
48.8
0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

12

11
200

1400

300

400

distance covered (mm)

500

20

20

19

19

18

17

15

15

400

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

distance covered (mm)

17

16

350

11
200

900

18

16

300

800

P2wires
21

distance from laser head (mm)

distance from laser head (mm)

P2

250

700

distance covered (mm)

21

14
200

600

450

500

550

600

14
200

650

250

300

distance covered (mm)

350

400

450

500

550

600

650

distance covered (mm)

Figure B1: Subplot scf(1), raw data of surface deviation of bars P1 and P2
P1 interpolations

P2 interpolations

21

21

20
20

18

distance from laser head (mm)

distance from laser head (mm)

19

17

16

15
14

19

18

17

16

13
15
12
11
200

300

400

500

600

700

800

14
200

900

250

300

distance covered (mm)

350

400

450

500

550

600

650

distance covered (mm)

P1 interpolation average

P2 interpolation average

21

21

20
20

18

distance from laser head (mm)

distance from laser head (mm)

19

17

16

15

14

19

18

17

16

13
15
12

11
200

300

400

500

600

distance covered (mm)

700

800

900

14
200

250

300

350

400

450

500

550

600

distance covered (mm)

Figure B2: Subplot scf(2), interpolations, real counterparts and averaged interpolations

39

P1 rearranged interpolation average


9

deviation (mm)

0
200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

distance covered (mm)

P2 rearranged interpolation average


6

deviation (mm)

0
200

250

300

350

400

450

500

550

600

distance covered (mm)

Figure B3: Subplot scf(3), averaged and rearranged interpolation curves


P2

40

35

35

30

30

25

25
deviation (mm)

deviation (mm)

P1

40

20

15

20

15

10

10

5
5
0
0
200

300

400
500
distance covered (mm)

600

700

800

200

40
900
0

250

300
350
distance covered (mm)

Surface plot P1

400

450

500

550

Surface plot P2

40

40

8.1

35

5.3

35

30

30

25

20

15

3.9
thickness (0 - 38mm)

thickness (0 - 38mm)

6.1
25

20

2.6

15

2
10

1.3
10

0
200

40
600
0

300

400

500

600

covered distance (mm)

700

800

900

0
200

250

300

350

400

450

500

550

600

covered distance (mm)

Figure B4: Subplot scf(4), 3D- and color contour plots from deviation of bars P1 and P2

40

Appendix C: Tensile experiments results


[C1] Stress-strain curves
800
700

Stress (MPa)

600
500
400
300
200
100
0
-0.05

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

Strain [-]
[1] True stress vs. strain

[1] Engineering stress vs. strain

[2] True stress vs. strain (extensometer)

[2] Engineering stress vs. strain (extensometer)

Figure C1: Stress-strain curves tensile specimen C1

[C4] Stress-strain curves


800
700

Stress (MPa)

600
500
400
300
200
100
0
-0.05

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

Strain [-]
[1] True stress vs. strain

[1] Engineering stress vs. strain

[2] True stress vs. strain (extensometer)

[2] Engineering stress vs. strain (extensometer)

Figure C2: Stress-strain curves tensile specimen C4

41

[L1] Stress-strain curves


800
700

Stress (MPa)

600
500
400
300
200
100
0
-0.05

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

Strain [-]
[1] True stress vs. strain

[1] Engineering stress vs. strain

[2] True stress vs. strain (extensometer)

[2] Engineering stress vs. strain (extensometer)

Figure C3: Stress-strain curves tensile specimen L1

[L2] Stress-strain curves


800
700

Stress (MPa)

600
500
400
300
200
100
0
-0.05

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

Strain [-]
[1] True stress vs. strain

[1] Engineering stress vs. strain

[2] True stress vs. strain (extensometer)

[2] Engineering stress vs. strain (extensometer)

Figure C4: Stress-strain curves tensile specimen L2

42

[W2] Stress-strain curves


800
700

Stress (MPa)

600
500
400
300
200
100
0
-0.05

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

Strain [-]
[1] True stress vs. strain

[1] Engineering stress vs. strain

[2] True stress vs. strain (extensometer)

[2] Engineering stress vs. strain (extensometer)

Figure C5: Stress-strain curves tensile specimen W2

[W3] Stress-strain curves


800
700

Stress (MPa)

600
500
400
300
200
100
0
-0.05

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

Strain [-]
[1] True stress vs. strain

[1] Engineering stress vs. strain

[2] True stress vs. strain (extensometer)

[2] Engineering stress vs. strain (extensometer)

Figure C6: Stress-strain curves tensile specimen W3

43

[1] Calculation with displacement driving head


800
700

Stress (MPa)

600
500
400
300
200
100
0
-0.05

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

Strain [-]
[C1] True stress vs. strain

[C4] True stress vs. strain

[L1] True stress vs. strain

[L2] True stress vs. strain

[W2] True stress vs. strain

[W3] True stress vs. strain

Figure C7: True stress-strain curves for all specimens, but calculated with displacement driving head

[2] Calculation by extensometer


800
700

Stress (MPa)

600
500
400
300
200
100
0
-0.05

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

Strain [-]
[C1] True stress vs. strain

[C4] True stress vs. strain

[L1] True stress vs. strain

[L2] True stress vs. strain

[W2] True stress vs. strain

[W3] True stress vs. strain

Figure C8: True stress-strain curves for all specimens, but calculated with displacement
extensometer

44

[W3] Elongation vs. elongation


2.5

Elongation (mm) 10 mm specimen

1.5

0.5

0
-1

-0.5
Elongation (mm) total of the driving head

Figure C9: Elongation measured by driving head vs. elongation measured by extensometer

[W3] Elastic behavior


700

y = 154817x + 1095.2

y = 23368x - 1.4389

600

Stress (MPa)

500
400
300
200
100
0
-0.01

-0.005

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

0.025

0.03

-100
Strain [-]
[2] True stress vs. strain (extensometer)

[1] True stress vs. strain

Linear ([2] True stress vs. strain (extensometer))

Linear ([1] True stress vs. strain)

Figure C10: Linear trend line plotted in elastic region of tensile specimen W3

45

Appendix D: Stress and strain formulas


Engineering strain:
L L0 L
E =
=
L0
L0
Engineering stress:
P
E =
A0
True strain:
Lf
L + L
dL
= ln(1 + E ) :
= ln
= ln 0
L
L0
L0
L0

Lf

T =

True stress:
P P L
T = =

= E (1 + E )
A A0 L0
L = length [m]
A = surface [m2]
P = force [N]

= stress [P]
= strain [-]

46

Appendix E: Vickers Hardness formulas


Vickers Hardness:
H v = cRM 3.2 RM
Surface formulation of a diamond indenter:
1 / 2 L2
A=
sin 136 0 / 2

Vickers Hardness:
M 1.854 F
Hv =
=
A
L2

H v = kilogram-force [kg/mm2]
RM = tensile strength [MPa]
c = constant [-]
L = length [mm]
A = surface [mm2]
M = weight [kg]

Figure E1: Vickers hardness values found for three different drawn lines on the metal bar

47

Appendix F: Temperature dependency

Figure F1: Temperature dependency of different crystal structures from Borjesson (2001) [20]

48

Appendix G: Bending formulas


Moment of inertia of rectangle area:
bh 3
Ix =
12
Euler Bernoulli beam equation:
Mh
=
2I x
Formula of moment:
M = F r

I x = moment of inertia [m4]


b = thickness [m]
h = height [m]

= stress [Pa]
M = moment [Nm]
F = force [N]
r = distance [m]

49

Appendix H: SB02DOF keyword file


This appendix breaks down the keyword input file SolidBeam02DOF.
*KEYWORD
*TITLE
Solid Beam in Bending 02 DOF
$
$ DRDC Pacific, calculation T.Romans
$
$ Last Modified: 2 February, 2007
$
$ Units: mm, ms, kg, kN, GPa, kN-mm
$

Figure H1: Part 1 SolidBeam02DOF

Figure H1 is the start of the SolidBeam02DOF input file. LS-DYNA works with
input keywords. This provides a flexible and logically organized database, with similar
functions grouped together under the same keyword. This combination of functions under
a keyword is called a card. Keywords itself can entered in an arbitrary order in the input
file. The first line of any input file must begin with *KEYWORD. This identifies the file as
containing the keyword format instead of the structured format which can also be used.
[31], [32]

Following *KEYWORD, the next card is *TITLE which gives the opportunity to
specify a title for the simulation. This title is visible in LS-PrePost and of course serves as
a quick recognition point. The dollar signs distinguish lines as comments and are not be
read by LS-DYNA. In SolidBeam02DOF several things have been commented, such as
the company, the designer and the date.
An important part of any LS-DYNA simulation is working in correct units. Only
certain combinations of units are possible. In this simulation, the units are millimeter,
millisecond, kilogram, kilo Newton and giga Pascal combination. This because the bar is
measured in millimeters and dynamic effects (i.e time) doesnt influence the mechanical
analysis. (For the thermal analysis in chapter 5.2 the meter and second combination is
used)
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$
$$$$
Control Output
$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$
$...>....1....>....2....>....3....>....4....>....5....>....6....>....7....>....8
$
*CONTROL_CONTACT
$
slsfac
rwpna1
islchk
shlthk
penopt
thkchg
orient
enmass
0.1
1
$
$
usrstr
usrfrc
nsbcs
interm
xpene
ssthk
ecdt
tiedprj
$
*CONTROL_HOURGLASS
$
ihq
qh
4
$
*CONTROL_OUTPUT
$
npopt
neecho

nrefup

iaccop

opifs

opnint

ikedit

iflush

50

1
3
$
*CONTOL_TERMINATION
$
endtim
endcyc
172
$
*CONTROL_TIMESTEP
$
dtinit
tssfac
0.01
$
$

dtmin

endneg

endmas

isdo

tslimt

dt2ms

lctm

erode

ms1st

Figure H2: Part 2 SolidBeam02DOF

The next section of the SolidBeam02DOF input file is the control output
specification. This section can be viewed in figure H2. Keywords are alphabetically
arranged. Five different input keywords are being used.
*CONTROL_CONTACT is the first keyword called. In the mechanical
straightening a force was applied by using a metal cylinder. A contact between the metal
bar and the metal cylinder thus exist. Therefore some contact features have to be
described.
Under the *CONTROL_CONTACT keyword two cards can be distinguished. The
lower card is entirely empty. This isnt a problem, because LS-DYNA uses certain
default values. [32] There have been however, in the upper card, two values entered. The
scale factor for sliding interface for instance is set to 0.1.
*CONTROL_HOURGLASS is used for counteracting the behavior of hourglassing
modes of motion. This is a common effect in under integrated finite elements. An
hourglass control based on Flanagan-Belytschko is the default used by LS-DYNA.
*CONTROL_OUTPUT sets miscellaneous output parameters. However this
keyword does not control any information. It is used for controlling data, which is printed
on the screen will the calculation is running. Nodal coordinates, element connectivities,
rigid wall definitions and initial velocities are not printed. Print suppression is also in
check for element printing.
*CONTROL_TERMINATION tells LS_DYNA when to stop the job. This will be
done after 172ms. *CONTROL_TIMESTEP sets the structural time step size. For this
input file the initial time step is defined as 0.01ms. Overall LS-DYNA calculates 17s on
the SolidBeam02DOF input file.
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$
$$$$
Database
$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$
*DATABASE_BINARY_D3PLOT
$
dt
1
$
*DATABASE_BINARY_D3THDT
$
dt
1
$
*DATABASE_ELOUT
$
dt
1
$
*DATABASE_EXTENT_BINARY
$
neiph
neips
maxint
strflg
sigflg
epsflg
rltflg
engflg
1

51

$
$

cmpflg

ieverp

beamip

$
*DATABASE_GLSTAT
$
dt
1
$
*DATABASE_HISTORY_NODE
$
id1
id2
id3
1011
1012
1014
$
*DATABASE_HISTORY_SOLID
$
id1
id2
id3
60
61
63
$
*SET_NODE_LIST
$
sid
1
$
$
nid1
nid2
nid3
1011
1012
1014
$
*DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR
$
cid
1
$
*DATABASE_NODAL_FORCE_GROUP
$
nsid
cid
1
1
$
*DATABASE_NODOUT
$
dt
1
$
*DATABASE_NODFOR
$
dt
1
$
*DATABASE_RBOUT
$
dt
1
$
*DATABASE_RCFORC
$
dt
1
$
$

dcomp

shge

stssz

n3thdt

id4
1063

id5
1066

id6
64

id7
1604

id8
2064

id4
85

id5
86

id6
88

id7

id8

nid4
1063

nid5
1066

nid6
64

nid7
1064

nid8
2064

Figure H3: Part 3 SolidBeam02DOF

After the output control specification, the database keywords are described. This
can be seen in figure H3. In *DATABASE_BINARY_D3PLOT the time interval (1 ms)
between complete output states is being defined. In any keyword, with a dt function in it,
a time interval is specified. *DATABASE_BINARY_D3THDT for instance determines the
interval time, when time history data is recorded. The nodes and solid for which time
history data must be recorded are being detailed in *DATABASE_HISTORY_NODE/
SOLID. The type of history data recorded is defined by keywords such as
*DATABASE_ELOUT. Here at every millisecond, element data is recorded for for
element 63 (id3).
In this research project surface strain is being examined. Strain gages were
attached on the metal bar in the mechanical straightening experiments. LS-DYNA
however does not include strain tensors for solids. Therefore the default set-up has to be
change and this is done by using the *DATABASE_EXTENT_BINARY keyword.

52

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$
$$$$
Boundary & Contact Conditions
$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$
$
$$$$
Beam is fixed on the Left Side, 1 DOF for the Right Side
$
*BOUNDARY_SPC_NODE
$
nid
cid
dofx
dofy
dofz
dofrx
dofry
dofrz
2
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
22
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1002
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1022
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
2002
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
2022
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
$
$
$$$$
Tool has 1 DOF
$
*BOUNDARY_SPC_NODE
$
nid
cid
dofx
dofy
dofz
dofrx
dofry
dofrz
10001
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
10020
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
10009
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
14012
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
$
$
$$$$
Prescribed Motion Tool
$
*BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_RIGID
$
pid
dof
vad
lcid
sf
vid
death
birth
2
2
2
1
-1.0
$
*DEFINE_CURVE
$
$
lcid
sidr
scla
sclo
offa
offo
1
$
$
abscissa
ordinate
0
0.000
4
5.000
86
12.000
168
5.000
172
0.000
$
$
$$$$
Contact Properties
$
*CONTACT_SURFACE_TO_SURFACE
$
ssid
msid
sstyp
mstyp
sboxid
mboxid
spr
mpr
1
2
3
3
1
1
$
$
fs
fd
dc
vc
vdc
penchk
bt
dt
$
$

sfs

sfm

$
$
$

optional card A
soft

$
$
$

optional card B
penmax
thkopt

sst

mst

shlthk

snlog

sfst

sfmt

fsf

vsf

$
$

Figure H4: Part 4 SolidBeam02DOF

53

In figure H4 the boundary and contact conditions section is depicted. This section
begins with two *BOUNDARY_SPC_NODE keywords. These keywords specify the
object, the beam and the tool, in the virtual space.
The lower edge of the left side of the metal bar consists of three nodes. These are
nodes 2, 1002 and 2002. They will be fixed completely and have no available degrees of
freedom. The lower edge of right side of the metal bar has one degree of freedom. The
nodes on this edge (22, 1022 and 2022), and are allowed to move in the x-direction only.
This is the direction of the length of the metal bar.
Three nodes on the diameter of the cylinder, through which the force on the rigid
indenter is applied, are defined and they will have only one degree of freedom. This
degree of freedom corresponds to the direction of the applied force. To prevent the
cylinder from twisting in 3D more nodes on an axial cross-section are fixed this way.
To give the tool a prescribed motion the *BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION
_RIGID keyword is used. Part 2 (the tool) will be displaced in the y-direction (2direction) defined by curve 1. This curve is described in *DEFINE_CURVE. In 4 ms the
cylinder will move 5 mm so that it just touches the surface of the metal bar. Then during
82 ms the cylinder will be displaced an additional 7 mm after which it will slowly return
to its start position. Through this procedure, the complete loading history, including the
springback of the metal bar can be simulated. [33], [34]
Finally in this section contact properties are also entered. In the keyword
*CONTACT_SURFACE_TO_SURFACE part 1 (the beam) will be the slave segment and
part 2 (the tool) the master segment. Slave and master are both parts, build up out of 8noded solid elements.
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$
$$$$
Define Parts and Materials
$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$
*PART
$
pid
sid
mid
eosid
hgid
grav
adpopt
tmid
Beam
1
1
1
$
*PART
$
pid
sid
mid
eosid
hgid
grav
adpopt
tmid
Tool
2
2
2
$
$
$$$$
Materials
$
*MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC
$
mid
ro
e
pr
sigy
etan
beta
1
7.8e-6
207.0
0.28
0.550
$
$
src
srp
fs
vp
$
*MAT_RIGID
$
mid
2
$
$
cmo

ro
7.8e-6

e
207.0

con1

con2

pr
0.28

couple

alias/re

54

lco
1

$
$
$$$$
Sections
$
*SECTION_SOLID
$
secid
elform
1
$
$
secid
elform
2
$
$

aet
aet

Figure H5: Part 5 SolidBeam02DOF

Before the nodes and elements generation, parts and materials are defined. This
section can be viewed in figure H5. In two *PART keywords the beam and the tool are
numbered and couples the part and material identification. For the beam a plastickinematic material is chosen and for the tool a rigid material. The material properties
described in chapter 3 are implemented here. In the keyword *SECTION_SOLID section
properties for solid continuum elements are specified.
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$
$$$$
Define Nodes and Elements
$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$
$
$$$$
Node Generation Beam
$
*NODE
$
nid
x
y
z
tc
rc
1,224.000,0.000,0.000,0,0
2,238.880,0.485,0.000,0,0
3,253.760,0.948,0.000,0,0
...,...,...,...,...,...
2078,596.000,31.000,38.000,0,0
$
$
$$$$
Node Generation Tool
$
*NODE
$
nid
x
y
z
tc
rc
10001,387.68,41.26,0,0,0
10002,388.90,41.30,0,0,0
10003,390.12,41.50,0,0,0
...,...,...,...,...,...
14020,387.68,53.76,38.0,0,0
$
$
$$$$
Elements Generation Beam (25x,2y,2z)
$
eid
pid
n1
n2
n3
n4
n5
n6
n7
n8
1,1,1,2,28,27,1001,1002,1028,1027
2,1,2,3,29,28,1002,1003,1029,1028
3,1,3,4,30,29,1003,1004,1030,1029
...,...,...,...,...,...,...,...,...,...
100,1,1051,1052,1078,1077,2051,2052,2078,2077
$
$
$$$$
Elements Generation Tool
$
*ELEMENTS_SOLID
$
eid
pid
n1
n2
n3
n4
n5
n6
n7
n8
10001,2,10001,10002,11002,11001,10020,10020,11020,11020
10002,2,10002,10003,11003,11002,10020,10020,11020,11020

55

10003,2,10003,10004,11004,11003,10020,10020,11020,11020
...,...,...,...,...,...,...,...,...,...
10064,2,13016,13001,14001,14016,13020,13020,14020,14020
$
*END

Figure H6: Part 6 SolidBeam02DOF

In the final section nodes and elements are feed into the input file. This is
summarized in figure H6. Node generation between beam and tool is separated. For
elements generation this is the case also. In node generation every node is given a point
and than its x-coordinate, y-coordinate and z-coordinate follows. The two zeros indicate
that the node does not have a rotational or translational constraints. [35], [36]
Every element is given a unique number and associated with a corresponding part
identification specified in the next field. The remaining eight field specify the nodal
connectivity

56

Printed by Thijs Romans COOP


Feb 06, 07 11:19

SolidBeam02DOF.k

Page 1/12

*KEYWORD
*TITLE
Solid Beam in Bending 02 DOF
$
$ DRDC Pacific, calculation T.Romans
$
$ Last Modified: 2 February, 2007
$
$ Units: mm, ms, kg, kN, GPa, kNmm
$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$
$$$$
Control Ouput
$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$
$...>....1....>....2....>....3....>....4....>....5....>....6....>....7....>....8
$
*CONTROL_CONTACT
$
slsfac
rwpnal
islchk
shlthk
penopt
thkchg
orien
enmass
0.1
1
$
$
usrstr
usrfrc
nsbcs
interm
xpene
ssthk
ecdt
tiedprj
$
*CONTROL_HOURGLASS
$
ihq
qh
4
$
*CONTROL_OUTPUT
$
npopt
neecho
nrefup
iaccop
opifs
ipnint
ikedit
iflush
1
3
$
*CONTROL_TERMINATION
$
endtim
endcyc
dtmin
endneg
endmas
172
$
*CONTROL_TIMESTEP
$
dtinit
tssfac
isdo
tslimt
dt2ms
lctm
erode
ms1st
0.01
$
$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$
$$$$
Database
$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$
*DATABASE_BINARY_D3PLOT
$
dt
1
$
*DATABASE_BINARY_D3THDT
$
dt
1
$
*DATABASE_ELOUT
$
dt
1
$
*DATABASE_EXTENT_BINARY
$
neiph
neips
maxint
strflg
sigflg
epsflg
rltflg
engflg
1
$
$
cmpflg
ieverp
beamip
dcomp
shge
stssz
n3thdt
1
$
*DATABASE_GLSTAT
$
dt

Tuesday February 06, 2007

Feb 06, 07 11:19

SolidBeam02DOF.k

Page 2/12

1
$
*DATABASE_HISTORY_NODE
$
id1
id2
id3
id4
id5
id6
id7
id8
1011
1012
1014
1063
1066
64
1064
2064
$
*DATABASE_HISTORY_SOLID
$
id1
id2
id3
id4
id5
id6
id7
id8
60
61
63
85
86
88
$
*SET_NODE_LIST
$
sid
1
$
$
nid1
nid2
nid3
nid4
nid5
nid6
nid7
nid8
1011
1012
1014
1063
1066
64
1064
2064
$
*DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR
$
cid
1
$
*DATABASE_NODAL_FORCE_GROUP
$
nsid
cid
1
1
$
*DATABASE_NODOUT
$
dt
1
$
*DATABASE_NODFOR
$
dt
1
$
*DATABASE_RBDOUT
$
dt
1
$
*DATABASE_RCFORC
$
dt
1
$
$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$
$$$$
Boundary & Contact Conditions
$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$
$
$$$$
Beam is fixed on the Left Side, 1 DOF for the Right Side
$
*BOUNDARY_SPC_NODE
$
nid
cid
dofx
dofy
dofz
dofrx
dofry
dofrz
2
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
22
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1002
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1022
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
2002
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
2022
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
$
$
$$$$
Tool has 1 DOF
$
*BOUNDARY_SPC_NODE
$
nid
cid
dofx
dofy
dofz
dofrx
dofry
dofrz
10001
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
10020
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
10009
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
11001
0
1
0
1
1
1
1

SolidBeam02DOF.k

1/6

Printed by Thijs Romans COOP

SolidBeam02DOF.k

Feb 06, 07 11:19


11020
11009
12001
12020
12009
13001
13020
13009
14001
14020
14009
10006
10012
11006
11012
12006
12012
13006
13012
14006
14012

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

$
$
$$$$
Prescribed Motion Tool
$
*BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_RIGID
$
pid
dof
vad
lcid
2
2
2
1
$
*DEFINE_CURVE
$
lcid
sidr
scla
sclo
1
$
$
abscissa
ordinate
0
0.000
4
5.000
86
12.000
168
5.000
172
0.000
$
$
$$$$
Contact Properties
$
*CONTACT_SURFACE_TO_SURFACE
$
ssid
msid
sstyp
mstyp
1
2
3
3
$
$
fs
fd
dc
vc
$
$

sfs

sfm

$
$
$

optional card A
soft

$
$
$

optional card B
penmax
thkopt

sst

mst

shlthk

snlog
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Page 3/12
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

sf
1.0

vid

offa

offo

sboxid

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

death

birth

mboxid

spr
1

mpr
1

vdc

penchk

bt

dt

sfst

sfmt

fsf

vsf

$
$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$
$$$$
Define Parts and Materials
$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$
*PART

Tuesday February 06, 2007

SolidBeam02DOF.k

Feb 06, 07 11:19


1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

$
Beam
$
*PART
$
Tool

pid

sid

mid

pid

sid

mid

hgid

grav

adpopt

tmid

eosid

hgid

grav

adpopt

tmid

e
207.0

pr
0.28

sigy
0.550

etan

beta

fs

vp

ro
7.8e6

e
207.0

pr
0.28

couple

con1

con2

2
2
$
$
$$$$
Materials
$
*MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC
$
mid
ro
1
7.8e6
$
$
src
srp
$
*MAT_RIGID
$
mid
2
$
$
cmo

Page 4/12

eosid

alias/re

$
$

lco
1
$
$
$$$$
Sections
$
*SECTION_SOLID
$
secid
elform
aet
1
$
*SECTION_SOLID
$
secid
elform
aet
2
$
$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$
$$$$
Define Nodes and Elements
$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$
$
$$$$
Node Generation Beam
$
*NODE
$
nid
x
y
z
tc
rc
1,224.000,0.000,0.000,0,0
2,238.880,0.485,0.000,0,0
3,253.760,0.948,0.000,0,0
4,268.640,1.305,0.000,0,0
5,283.520,1.833,0.000,0,0
6,298.400,2.342,0.000,0,0
7,313.280,2.858,0.000,0,0
8,328.160,3.400,0.000,0,0
9,343.040,4.029,0.000,0,0
10,357.920,4.654,0.000,0,0
11,372.800,5.078,0.000,0,0
12,387.680,5.258,0.000,0,0
13,402.560,4.940,0.000,0,0
14,417.440,4.476,0.000,0,0
15,432.320,4.292,0.000,0,0
16,447.200,4.090,0.000,0,0
17,462.080,3.852,0.000,0,0

SolidBeam02DOF.k

2/6

Printed by Thijs Romans COOP


Feb 06, 07 11:19
18,476.960,3.455,0.000,0,0
19,491.840,2.945,0.000,0,0
20,506.720,2.538,0.000,0,0
21,521.600,2.071,0.000,0,0
22,536.480,1.503,0.000,0,0
23,551.360,1.201,0.000,0,0
24,566.240,0.834,0.000,0,0
25,581.120,0.373,0.000,0,0
26,596.000,0.000,0.000,0,0
27,224.000,15.500,0.000,0,0
28,238.880,15.985,0.000,0,0
29,253.760,16.448,0.000,0,0
30,268.640,16.805,0.000,0,0
31,283.520,17.333,0.000,0,0
32,298.400,17.842,0.000,0,0
33,313.280,18.358,0.000,0,0
34,328.160,18.900,0.000,0,0
35,343.040,19.529,0.000,0,0
36,357.920,20.154,0.000,0,0
37,372.800,20.578,0.000,0,0
38,387.680,20.758,0.000,0,0
39,402.560,20.440,0.000,0,0
40,417.440,19.976,0.000,0,0
41,432.320,19.792,0.000,0,0
42,447.200,19.590,0.000,0,0
43,462.080,19.352,0.000,0,0
44,476.960,18.955,0.000,0,0
45,491.840,18.445,0.000,0,0
46,506.720,18.038,0.000,0,0
47,521.600,17.571,0.000,0,0
48,536.480,17.003,0.000,0,0
49,551.360,16.701,0.000,0,0
50,566.240,16.334,0.000,0,0
51,581.120,15.873,0.000,0,0
52,596.000,15.500,0.000,0,0
53,224.000,31.000,0.000,0,0
54,238.880,31.485,0.000,0,0
55,253.760,31.948,0.000,0,0
56,268.640,32.305,0.000,0,0
57,283.520,32.833,0.000,0,0
58,298.400,33.342,0.000,0,0
59,313.280,33.858,0.000,0,0
60,328.160,34.400,0.000,0,0
61,343.040,35.029,0.000,0,0
62,357.920,35.654,0.000,0,0
63,372.800,36.078,0.000,0,0
64,387.680,36.258,0.000,0,0
65,402.560,35.940,0.000,0,0
66,417.440,35.476,0.000,0,0
67,432.320,35.292,0.000,0,0
68,447.200,35.090,0.000,0,0
69,462.080,34.852,0.000,0,0
70,476.960,34.455,0.000,0,0
71,491.840,33.945,0.000,0,0
72,506.720,33.538,0.000,0,0
73,521.600,33.071,0.000,0,0
74,536.480,32.503,0.000,0,0
75,551.360,32.201,0.000,0,0
76,566.240,31.834,0.000,0,0
77,581.120,31.373,0.000,0,0
78,596.000,31.000,0.000,0,0
1001,224.000,0.000,19.000,0,0
1002,238.880,0.485,19.000,0,0
1003,253.760,0.948,19.000,0,0
1004,268.640,1.305,19.000,0,0
1005,283.520,1.833,19.000,0,0
1006,298.400,2.342,19.000,0,0
1007,313.280,2.858,19.000,0,0
1008,328.160,3.400,19.000,0,0

Tuesday February 06, 2007

SolidBeam02DOF.k

Page 5/12

Feb 06, 07 11:19

SolidBeam02DOF.k

Page 6/12

1009,343.040,4.029,19.000,0,0
1010,357.920,4.654,19.000,0,0
1011,372.800,5.078,19.000,0,0
1012,387.680,5.258,19.000,0,0
1013,402.560,4.940,19.000,0,0
1014,417.440,4.476,19.000,0,0
1015,432.320,4.292,19.000,0,0
1016,447.200,4.090,19.000,0,0
1017,462.080,3.852,19.000,0,0
1018,476.960,3.455,19.000,0,0
1019,491.840,2.945,19.000,0,0
1020,506.720,2.538,19.000,0,0
1021,521.600,2.071,19.000,0,0
1022,536.480,1.503,19.000,0,0
1023,551.360,1.201,19.000,0,0
1024,566.240,0.834,19.000,0,0
1025,581.120,0.373,19.000,0,0
1026,596.000,0.000,19.000,0,0
1027,224.000,15.500,19.000,0,0
1028,238.880,15.985,19.000,0,0
1029,253.760,16.448,19.000,0,0
1030,268.640,16.805,19.000,0,0
1031,283.520,17.333,19.000,0,0
1032,298.400,17.842,19.000,0,0
1033,313.280,18.358,19.000,0,0
1034,328.160,18.900,19.000,0,0
1035,343.040,19.529,19.000,0,0
1036,357.920,20.154,19.000,0,0
1037,372.800,20.578,19.000,0,0
1038,387.680,20.758,19.000,0,0
1039,402.560,20.440,19.000,0,0
1040,417.440,19.976,19.000,0,0
1041,432.320,19.792,19.000,0,0
1042,447.200,19.590,19.000,0,0
1043,462.080,19.352,19.000,0,0
1044,476.960,18.955,19.000,0,0
1045,491.840,18.445,19.000,0,0
1046,506.720,18.038,19.000,0,0
1047,521.600,17.571,19.000,0,0
1048,536.480,17.003,19.000,0,0
1049,551.360,16.701,19.000,0,0
1050,566.240,16.334,19.000,0,0
1051,581.120,15.873,19.000,0,0
1052,596.000,15.500,19.000,0,0
1053,224.000,31.000,19.000,0,0
1054,238.880,31.485,19.000,0,0
1055,253.760,31.948,19.000,0,0
1056,268.640,32.305,19.000,0,0
1057,283.520,32.833,19.000,0,0
1058,298.400,33.342,19.000,0,0
1059,313.280,33.858,19.000,0,0
1060,328.160,34.400,19.000,0,0
1061,343.040,35.029,19.000,0,0
1062,357.920,35.654,19.000,0,0
1063,372.800,36.078,19.000,0,0
1064,387.680,36.258,19.000,0,0
1065,402.560,35.940,19.000,0,0
1066,417.440,35.476,19.000,0,0
1067,432.320,35.292,19.000,0,0
1068,447.200,35.090,19.000,0,0
1069,462.080,34.852,19.000,0,0
1070,476.960,34.455,19.000,0,0
1071,491.840,33.945,19.000,0,0
1072,506.720,33.538,19.000,0,0
1073,521.600,33.071,19.000,0,0
1074,536.480,32.503,19.000,0,0
1075,551.360,32.201,19.000,0,0
1076,566.240,31.834,19.000,0,0
1077,581.120,31.373,19.000,0,0

SolidBeam02DOF.k

3/6

Printed by Thijs Romans COOP


Feb 06, 07 11:19
1078,596.000,31.000,19.000,0,0
2001,224.000,0.000,38.000,0,0
2002,238.880,0.485,38.000,0,0
2003,253.760,0.948,38.000,0,0
2004,268.640,1.305,38.000,0,0
2005,283.520,1.833,38.000,0,0
2006,298.400,2.342,38.000,0,0
2007,313.280,2.858,38.000,0,0
2008,328.160,3.400,38.000,0,0
2009,343.040,4.029,38.000,0,0
2010,357.920,4.654,38.000,0,0
2011,372.800,5.078,38.000,0,0
2012,387.680,5.258,38.000,0,0
2013,402.560,4.940,38.000,0,0
2014,417.440,4.476,38.000,0,0
2015,432.320,4.292,38.000,0,0
2016,447.200,4.090,38.000,0,0
2017,462.080,3.852,38.000,0,0
2018,476.960,3.455,38.000,0,0
2019,491.840,2.945,38.000,0,0
2020,506.720,2.538,38.000,0,0
2021,521.600,2.071,38.000,0,0
2022,536.480,1.503,38.000,0,0
2023,551.360,1.201,38.000,0,0
2024,566.240,0.834,38.000,0,0
2025,581.120,0.373,38.000,0,0
2026,596.000,0.000,38.000,0,0
2027,224.000,15.500,38.000,0,0
2028,238.880,15.985,38.000,0,0
2029,253.760,16.448,38.000,0,0
2030,268.640,16.805,38.000,0,0
2031,283.520,17.333,38.000,0,0
2032,298.400,17.842,38.000,0,0
2033,313.280,18.358,38.000,0,0
2034,328.160,18.900,38.000,0,0
2035,343.040,19.529,38.000,0,0
2036,357.920,20.154,38.000,0,0
2037,372.800,20.578,38.000,0,0
2038,387.680,20.758,38.000,0,0
2039,402.560,20.440,38.000,0,0
2040,417.440,19.976,38.000,0,0
2041,432.320,19.792,38.000,0,0
2042,447.200,19.590,38.000,0,0
2043,462.080,19.352,38.000,0,0
2044,476.960,18.955,38.000,0,0
2045,491.840,18.445,38.000,0,0
2046,506.720,18.038,38.000,0,0
2047,521.600,17.571,38.000,0,0
2048,536.480,17.003,38.000,0,0
2049,551.360,16.701,38.000,0,0
2050,566.240,16.334,38.000,0,0
2051,581.120,15.873,38.000,0,0
2052,596.000,15.500,38.000,0,0
2053,224.000,31.000,38.000,0,0
2054,238.880,31.485,38.000,0,0
2055,253.760,31.948,38.000,0,0
2056,268.640,32.305,38.000,0,0
2057,283.520,32.833,38.000,0,0
2058,298.400,33.342,38.000,0,0
2059,313.280,33.858,38.000,0,0
2060,328.160,34.400,38.000,0,0
2061,343.040,35.029,38.000,0,0
2062,357.920,35.654,38.000,0,0
2063,372.800,36.078,38.000,0,0
2064,387.680,36.258,38.000,0,0
2065,402.560,35.940,38.000,0,0
2066,417.440,35.476,38.000,0,0
2067,432.320,35.292,38.000,0,0
2068,447.200,35.090,38.000,0,0

Tuesday February 06, 2007

SolidBeam02DOF.k

Page 7/12

Feb 06, 07 11:19


2069,462.080,34.852,38.000,0,0
2070,476.960,34.455,38.000,0,0
2071,491.840,33.945,38.000,0,0
2072,506.720,33.538,38.000,0,0
2073,521.600,33.071,38.000,0,0
2074,536.480,32.503,38.000,0,0
2075,551.360,32.201,38.000,0,0
2076,566.240,31.834,38.000,0,0
2077,581.120,31.373,38.000,0,0
2078,596.000,31.000,38.000,0,0
$
$
$$$$
Node Generation Tool
$
*NODE
$
nid
x
y
10001,387.68,41.26,0,0,0
10002,388.90,41.30,0,0,0
10003,390.12,41.50,0,0,0
10004,392.46,42.21,0,0,0
10005,396.52,44.92,0,0,0
10006,399.23,48.98,0,0,0
10007,400.18,53.76,0,0,0
10008,396.52,62.60,0,0,0
10009,387.68,66.26,0,0,0
10010,378.84,62.60,0,0,0
10011,375.18,53.76,0,0,0
10012,376.13,48.98,0,0,0
10013,378.84,44.92,0,0,0
10014,382.90,42.21,0,0,0
10015,385.24,41.50,0,0,0
10016,386.45,41.30,0,0,0
10020,387.68,53.76,0,0,0
11001,387.68,41.26,9.5,0,0
11002,388.90,41.30,9.5,0,0
11003,390.12,41.50,9.5,0,0
11004,392.46,42.21,9.5,0,0
11005,396.52,44.92,9.5,0,0
11006,399.23,48.98,9.5,0,0
11007,400.18,53.76,9.5,0,0
11008,396.52,62.60,9.5,0,0
11009,387.68,66.26,9.5,0,0
11010,378.84,62.60,9.5,0,0
11011,375.18,53.76,9.5,0,0
11012,376.13,48.98,9.5,0,0
11013,378.84,44.92,9.5,0,0
11014,382.90,42.21,9.5,0,0
11015,385.24,41.50,9.5,0,0
11016,386.45,41.30,9.5,0,0
11020,387.68,53.76,9.5,0,0
12001,387.68,41.26,19.0,0,0
12002,388.90,41.30,19.0,0,0
12003,390.12,41.50,19.0,0,0
12004,392.46,42.21,19.0,0,0
12005,396.52,44.92,19.0,0,0
12006,399.23,48.98,19.0,0,0
12007,400.18,53.76,19.0,0,0
12008,396.52,62.60,19.0,0,0
12009,387.68,66.26,19.0,0,0
12010,378.84,62.60,19.0,0,0
12011,375.18,53.76,19.0,0,0
12012,376.13,48.98,19.0,0,0
12013,378.84,44.92,19.0,0,0
12014,382.90,42.21,19.0,0,0
12015,385.24,41.50,19.0,0,0
12016,386.45,41.30,19.0,0,0
12020,387.68,53.76,19.0,0,0
13001,387.68,41.26,28.5,0,0
13002,388.90,41.30,28.5,0,0

SolidBeam02DOF.k

SolidBeam02DOF.k

tc

Page 8/12

tr

4/6

Printed by Thijs Romans COOP


Feb 06, 07 11:19

SolidBeam02DOF.k

13003,390.12,41.50,28.5,0,0
13004,392.46,42.21,28.5,0,0
13005,396.52,44.92,28.5,0,0
13006,399.23,48.98,28.5,0,0
13007,400.18,53.76,28.5,0,0
13008,396.52,62.60,28.5,0,0
13009,387.68,66.26,28.5,0,0
13010,378.84,62.60,28.5,0,0
13011,375.18,53.76,28.5,0,0
13012,376.13,48.98,28.5,0,0
13013,378.84,44.92,28.5,0,0
13014,382.90,42.21,28.5,0,0
13015,385.24,41.50,28.5,0,0
13016,386.45,41.30,28.5,0,0
13020,387.68,53.76,28.5,0,0
14001,387.68,41.26,38.0,0,0
14002,388.90,41.30,38.0,0,0
14003,390.12,41.50,38.0,0,0
14004,392.46,42.21,38.0,0,0
14005,396.52,44.92,38.0,0,0
14006,399.23,48.98,38.0,0,0
14007,400.18,53.76,38.0,0,0
14008,396.52,62.60,38.0,0,0
14009,387.68,66.26,38.0,0,0
14010,378.84,62.60,38.0,0,0
14011,375.18,53.76,38.0,0,0
14012,376.13,48.98,38.0,0,0
14013,378.84,44.92,38.0,0,0
14014,382.90,42.21,38.0,0,0
14015,385.24,41.50,38.0,0,0
14016,386.45,41.30,38.0,0,0
14020,387.68,53.76,38.0,0,0
$
$
$$$$
Elements Generation Beam (25x,2y,2z)
$
*ELEMENT_SOLID
$
eid
pid
n1
n2
n3
1,1,1,2,28,27,1001,1002,1028,1027
2,1,2,3,29,28,1002,1003,1029,1028
3,1,3,4,30,29,1003,1004,1030,1029
4,1,4,5,31,30,1004,1005,1031,1030
5,1,5,6,32,31,1005,1006,1032,1031
6,1,6,7,33,32,1006,1007,1033,1032
7,1,7,8,34,33,1007,1008,1034,1033
8,1,8,9,35,34,1008,1009,1035,1034
9,1,9,10,36,35,1009,1010,1036,1035
10,1,10,11,37,36,1010,1011,1037,1036
11,1,11,12,38,37,1011,1012,1038,1037
12,1,12,13,39,38,1012,1013,1039,1038
13,1,13,14,40,39,1013,1014,1040,1039
14,1,14,15,41,40,1014,1015,1041,1040
15,1,15,16,42,41,1015,1016,1042,1041
16,1,16,17,43,42,1016,1017,1043,1042
17,1,17,18,44,43,1017,1018,1044,1043
18,1,18,19,45,44,1018,1019,1045,1044
19,1,19,20,46,45,1019,1020,1046,1045
20,1,20,21,47,46,1020,1021,1047,1046
21,1,21,22,48,47,1021,1022,1048,1047
22,1,22,23,49,48,1022,1023,1049,1048
23,1,23,24,50,49,1023,1024,1050,1049
24,1,24,25,51,50,1024,1025,1051,1050
25,1,25,26,52,51,1025,1026,1052,1051
26,1,27,28,54,53,1027,1028,1054,1053
27,1,28,29,55,54,1028,1029,1055,1054
28,1,29,30,56,55,1029,1030,1056,1055
29,1,30,31,57,56,1030,1031,1057,1056
30,1,31,32,58,57,1031,1032,1058,1057

Tuesday February 06, 2007

n4

n5

Page 9/12

n6

n7

n8

Feb 06, 07 11:19

SolidBeam02DOF.k

Page 10/12

31,1,32,33,59,58,1032,1033,1059,1058
32,1,33,34,60,59,1033,1034,1060,1059
33,1,34,35,61,60,1034,1035,1061,1060
34,1,35,36,62,61,1035,1036,1062,1061
35,1,36,37,63,62,1036,1037,1063,1062
36,1,37,38,64,63,1037,1038,1064,1063
37,1,38,39,65,64,1038,1039,1065,1064
38,1,39,40,66,65,1039,1040,1066,1065
39,1,40,41,67,66,1040,1041,1067,1066
40,1,41,42,68,67,1041,1042,1068,1067
41,1,42,43,69,68,1042,1043,1069,1068
42,1,43,44,70,69,1043,1044,1070,1069
43,1,44,45,71,70,1044,1045,1071,1070
44,1,45,46,72,71,1045,1046,1072,1071
45,1,46,47,73,72,1046,1047,1073,1072
46,1,47,48,74,73,1047,1048,1074,1073
47,1,48,49,75,74,1048,1049,1075,1074
48,1,49,50,76,75,1049,1050,1076,1075
49,1,50,51,77,76,1050,1051,1077,1076
50,1,51,52,78,77,1051,1052,1078,1077
51,1,1001,1002,1028,1027,2001,2002,2028,2027
52,1,1002,1003,1029,1028,2002,2003,2029,2028
53,1,1003,1004,1030,1029,2003,2004,2030,2029
54,1,1004,1005,1031,1030,2004,2005,2031,2030
55,1,1005,1006,1032,1031,2005,2006,2032,2031
56,1,1006,1007,1033,1032,2006,2007,2033,2032
57,1,1007,1008,1034,1033,2007,2008,2034,2033
58,1,1008,1009,1035,1034,2008,2009,2035,2034
59,1,1009,1010,1036,1035,2009,2010,2036,2035
60,1,1010,1011,1037,1036,2010,2011,2037,2036
61,1,1011,1012,1038,1037,2011,2012,2038,2037
62,1,1012,1013,1039,1038,2012,2013,2039,2038
63,1,1013,1014,1040,1039,2013,2014,2040,2039
64,1,1014,1015,1041,1040,2014,2015,2041,2040
65,1,1015,1016,1042,1041,2015,2016,2042,2041
66,1,1016,1017,1043,1042,2016,2017,2043,2042
67,1,1017,1018,1044,1043,2017,2018,2044,2043
68,1,1018,1019,1045,1044,2018,2019,2045,2044
69,1,1019,1020,1046,1045,2019,2020,2046,2045
70,1,1020,1021,1047,1046,2020,2021,2047,2046
71,1,1021,1022,1048,1047,2021,2022,2048,2047
72,1,1022,1023,1049,1048,2022,2023,2049,2048
73,1,1023,1024,1050,1049,2023,2024,2050,2049
74,1,1024,1025,1051,1050,2024,2025,2051,2050
75,1,1025,1026,1052,1051,2025,2026,2052,2051
76,1,1027,1028,1054,1053,2027,2028,2054,2053
77,1,1028,1029,1055,1054,2028,2029,2055,2054
78,1,1029,1030,1056,1055,2029,2030,2056,2055
79,1,1030,1031,1057,1056,2030,2031,2057,2056
80,1,1031,1032,1058,1057,2031,2032,2058,2057
81,1,1032,1033,1059,1058,2032,2033,2059,2058
82,1,1033,1034,1060,1059,2033,2034,2060,2059
83,1,1034,1035,1061,1060,2034,2035,2061,2060
84,1,1035,1036,1062,1061,2035,2036,2062,2061
85,1,1036,1037,1063,1062,2036,2037,2063,2062
86,1,1037,1038,1064,1063,2037,2038,2064,2063
87,1,1038,1039,1065,1064,2038,2039,2065,2064
88,1,1039,1040,1066,1065,2039,2040,2066,2065
89,1,1040,1041,1067,1066,2040,2041,2067,2066
90,1,1041,1042,1068,1067,2041,2042,2068,2067
91,1,1042,1043,1069,1068,2042,2043,2069,2068
92,1,1043,1044,1070,1069,2043,2044,2070,2069
93,1,1044,1045,1071,1070,2044,2045,2071,2070
94,1,1045,1046,1072,1071,2045,2046,2072,2071
95,1,1046,1047,1073,1072,2046,2047,2073,2072
96,1,1047,1048,1074,1073,2047,2048,2074,2073
97,1,1048,1049,1075,1074,2048,2049,2075,2074
98,1,1049,1050,1076,1075,2049,2050,2076,2075
99,1,1050,1051,1077,1076,2050,2051,2077,2076

SolidBeam02DOF.k

5/6

Printed by Thijs Romans COOP


Feb 06, 07 11:19

SolidBeam02DOF.k

100,1,1051,1052,1078,1077,2051,2052,2078,2077
$
$
$$$$
Elements Generation Tool
$
*ELEMENT_SOLID
$
eid
pid
n1
n2
n3
n4
n5
10001,2,10001,10002,11002,11001,10020,10020,11020,11020
10002,2,10002,10003,11003,11002,10020,10020,11020,11020
10003,2,10003,10004,11004,11003,10020,10020,11020,11020
10004,2,10004,10005,11005,11004,10020,10020,11020,11020
10005,2,10005,10006,11006,11005,10020,10020,11020,11020
10006,2,10006,10007,11007,11006,10020,10020,11020,11020
10007,2,10007,10008,11008,11007,10020,10020,11020,11020
10008,2,10008,10009,11009,11008,10020,10020,11020,11020
10009,2,10009,10010,11010,11009,10020,10020,11020,11020
10010,2,10010,10011,11011,11010,10020,10020,11020,11020
10011,2,10011,10012,11012,11011,10020,10020,11020,11020
10012,2,10012,10013,11013,11012,10020,10020,11020,11020
10013,2,10013,10014,11014,11013,10020,10020,11020,11020
10014,2,10014,10015,11015,11014,10020,10020,11020,11020
10015,2,10015,10016,11016,11015,10020,10020,11020,11020
10016,2,10016,10001,11001,11016,10020,10020,11020,11020
10017,2,11001,11002,12002,12001,11020,11020,12020,12020
10018,2,11002,11003,12003,12002,11020,11020,12020,12020
10019,2,11003,11004,12004,12003,11020,11020,12020,12020
10020,2,11004,11005,12005,12004,11020,11020,12020,12020
10021,2,11005,11006,12006,12005,11020,11020,12020,12020
10022,2,11006,11007,12007,12006,11020,11020,12020,12020
10023,2,11007,11008,12008,12007,11020,11020,12020,12020
10024,2,11008,11009,12009,12008,11020,11020,12020,12020
10025,2,11009,11010,12010,12009,11020,11020,12020,12020
10026,2,11010,11011,12011,12010,11020,11020,12020,12020
10027,2,11011,11012,12012,12011,11020,11020,12020,12020
10028,2,11012,11013,12013,12012,11020,11020,12020,12020
10029,2,11013,11014,12014,12013,11020,11020,12020,12020
10030,2,11014,11015,12015,12014,11020,11020,12020,12020
10031,2,11015,11016,12016,12015,11020,11020,12020,12020
10032,2,11016,11001,12001,12016,11020,11020,12020,12020
10033,2,12001,12002,13002,13001,12020,12020,13020,13020
10034,2,12002,12003,13003,13002,12020,12020,13020,13020
10035,2,12003,12004,13004,13003,12020,12020,13020,13020
10036,2,12004,12005,13005,13004,12020,12020,13020,13020
10037,2,12005,12006,13006,13005,12020,12020,13020,13020
10038,2,12006,12007,13007,13006,12020,12020,13020,13020
10039,2,12007,12008,13008,13007,12020,12020,13020,13020
10040,2,12008,12009,13009,13008,12020,12020,13020,13020
10041,2,12009,12010,13010,13009,12020,12020,13020,13020
10042,2,12010,12011,13011,13010,12020,12020,13020,13020
10043,2,12011,12012,13012,13011,12020,12020,13020,13020
10044,2,12012,12013,13013,13012,12020,12020,13020,13020
10045,2,12013,12014,13014,13013,12020,12020,13020,13020
10046,2,12014,12015,13015,13014,12020,12020,13020,13020
10047,2,12015,12016,13016,13015,12020,12020,13020,13020
10048,2,12016,12001,13001,13016,12020,12020,13020,13020
10049,2,13001,13002,14002,14001,13020,13020,14020,14020
10050,2,13002,13003,14003,14002,13020,13020,14020,14020
10051,2,13003,13004,14004,14003,13020,13020,14020,14020
10052,2,13004,13005,14005,14004,13020,13020,14020,14020
10053,2,13005,13006,14006,14005,13020,13020,14020,14020
10054,2,13006,13007,14007,14006,13020,13020,14020,14020
10055,2,13007,13008,14008,14007,13020,13020,14020,14020
10056,2,13008,13009,14009,14008,13020,13020,14020,14020
10057,2,13009,13010,14010,14009,13020,13020,14020,14020
10058,2,13010,13011,14011,14010,13020,13020,14020,14020
10059,2,13011,13012,14012,14011,13020,13020,14020,14020
10060,2,13012,13013,14013,14012,13020,13020,14020,14020
10061,2,13013,13014,14014,14013,13020,13020,14020,14020
10062,2,13014,13015,14015,14014,13020,13020,14020,14020

Tuesday February 06, 2007

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Feb 06, 07 11:19

SolidBeam02DOF.k

Page 12/12

10063,2,13015,13016,14016,14015,13020,13020,14020,14020
10064,2,13016,13001,14001,14016,13020,13020,14020,14020
$
*END
n6

n7

n8

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Appendix I: Scilab mechanical straightening m-files


Mechanical_straightening_combined.sce
Figure I1
Xstrain_mechanical_straightening_LS-DYNA.sce
Figure I2
XY_displacement_bar.sce
Figure I3

63

Printed by Thijs Romans COOP


Feb 06, 07 10:55

Mechanical_straightening_combined.sce

//DRDC Pacific Calculation T.Romans


//last modified: 6 february 2007
//make sure scilab uses the right directory is used!!!!!!!!
//make sure the names of the .txtfiles are correct!!!!!!!!
//close all figures
xdel(winsid())
///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//
//
////// "experimental" data loading and handling
//
//
///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//loading "experimental" data files into scilab
//the consecutive numbers are from an increasing apllied
//force
//mm60_1, mm60_2, mm65, mm70 and mm75 are measured not by
//force, but by ydisplacement of the bar
kN5=fscanfMat(5kN.unt);
kN10=fscanfMat(10kN.unt);
kN15=fscanfMat(15kN.unt);
kN20=fscanfMat(20kN.unt);
kN25=fscanfMat(25kN.unt);
kN30=fscanfMat(30kN.unt);
kN35=fscanfMat(35kN.unt);
kN375=fscanfMat(37.5kN.unt);
kN40=fscanfMat(40kN.unt);
kN45=fscanfMat(45kN.unt);
kN50=fscanfMat(50kN.unt);
kN55=fscanfMat(55kN.unt);
kN60=fscanfMat(60kN.unt);
kN65=fscanfMat(65kN.unt);
kN70=fscanfMat(70kN.unt);
kN75=fscanfMat(75kN.unt);
kN80=fscanfMat(80kN.unt);
mm60_1=fscanfMat(60mm1.unt);
mm60_2=fscanfMat(60mm2.unt);
mm65=fscanfMat(65mm.unt);
mm70=fscanfMat(70mm.unt);
mm75=fscanfMat(75mm.unt);
//subdiving "experimental" data into sperate columns
//_1, _2, _3, _4 and _5 are columns containing strain gage
//data
//_Lo means load and this column contains the force values
//_Di means distance and this column contains the
//ydisplacement values
kN5_1=kN5(:,1);
kN5_2=kN5(:,2);
kN5_3=kN5(:,3);
kN5_4=kN5(:,4);
kN5_5=kN5(:,5);
kN5_Lo=kN5(:,6);
kN5_Di=kN5(:,7);
kN10_1=kN10(:,1);
kN10_2=kN10(:,2);
kN10_3=kN10(:,3);
kN10_4=kN10(:,4);
kN10_5=kN10(:,5);
kN10_Lo=kN10(:,6);
kN10_Di=kN10(:,7);
kN15_1=kN15(:,1);
kN15_2=kN15(:,2);

Tuesday February 06, 2007

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Feb 06, 07 10:55

Mechanical_straightening_combined.sce

Page 2/19

kN15_3=kN15(:,3);
kN15_4=kN15(:,4);
kN15_5=kN15(:,5);
kN15_Lo=kN15(:,6);
kN15_Di=kN15(:,7);
kN20_1=kN20(:,1);
kN20_2=kN20(:,2);
kN20_3=kN20(:,3);
kN20_4=kN20(:,4);
kN20_5=kN20(:,5);
kN20_Lo=kN20(:,6);
kN20_Di=kN20(:,7);
kN25_1=kN25(:,1);
kN25_2=kN25(:,2);
kN25_3=kN25(:,3);
kN25_4=kN25(:,4);
kN25_5=kN25(:,5);
kN25_Lo=kN25(:,6);
kN25_Di=kN25(:,7);
kN30_1=kN30(:,1);
kN30_2=kN30(:,2);
kN30_3=kN30(:,3);
kN30_4=kN30(:,4);
kN30_5=kN30(:,5);
kN30_Lo=kN30(:,6);
kN30_Di=kN30(:,7);
kN35_1=kN35(:,1);
kN35_2=kN35(:,2);
kN35_3=kN35(:,3);
kN35_4=kN35(:,4);
kN35_5=kN35(:,5);
kN35_Lo=kN35(:,6);
kN35_Di=kN35(:,7);
kN375_1=kN375(:,1);
kN375_2=kN375(:,2);
kN375_3=kN375(:,3);
kN375_4=kN375(:,4);
kN375_5=kN375(:,5);
kN375_Lo=kN375(:,6);
kN375_Di=kN375(:,7);
kN40_1=kN40(:,1);
kN40_2=kN40(:,2);
kN40_3=kN40(:,3);
kN40_4=kN40(:,4);
kN40_5=kN40(:,5);
kN40_Lo=kN40(:,6);
kN40_Di=kN40(:,7);
kN45_1=kN45(:,1);
kN45_2=kN45(:,2);
kN45_3=kN45(:,3);
kN45_4=kN45(:,4);
kN45_5=kN45(:,5);
kN45_Lo=kN45(:,6);
kN45_Di=kN45(:,7);
kN50_1=kN50(:,1);
kN50_2=kN50(:,2);
kN50_3=kN50(:,3);
kN50_4=kN50(:,4);
kN50_5=kN50(:,5);
kN50_Lo=kN50(:,6);
kN50_Di=kN50(:,7);

Mechanical_straightening_combined.sce

1/10

Printed by Thijs Romans COOP


Feb 06, 07 10:55

Mechanical_straightening_combined.sce

kN55_1=kN55(:,1);
kN55_2=kN55(:,2);
kN55_3=kN55(:,3);
kN55_4=kN55(:,4);
kN55_5=kN55(:,5);
kN55_Lo=kN55(:,6);
kN55_Di=kN55(:,7);
kN60_1=kN60(:,1);
kN60_2=kN60(:,2);
kN60_3=kN60(:,3);
kN60_4=kN60(:,4);
kN60_5=kN60(:,5);
kN60_Lo=kN60(:,6);
kN60_Di=kN60(:,7);
kN65_1=kN65(:,1);
kN65_2=kN65(:,2);
kN65_3=kN65(:,3);
kN65_4=kN65(:,4);
kN65_5=kN65(:,5);
kN65_Lo=kN65(:,6);
kN65_Di=kN65(:,7);
kN70_1=kN70(:,1);
kN70_2=kN70(:,2);
kN70_3=kN70(:,3);
kN70_4=kN70(:,4);
kN70_5=kN70(:,5);
kN70_Lo=kN70(:,6);
kN70_Di=kN70(:,7);
kN75_1=kN75(:,1);
kN75_2=kN75(:,2);
kN75_3=kN75(:,3);
kN75_4=kN75(:,4);
kN75_5=kN75(:,5);
kN75_Lo=kN75(:,6);
kN75_Di=kN75(:,7);
kN80_1=kN80(:,1);
kN80_2=kN80(:,2);
kN80_3=kN80(:,3);
kN80_4=kN80(:,4);
kN80_5=kN80(:,5);
kN80_Lo=kN80(:,6);
kN80_Di=kN80(:,7);
mm60_1_1=mm60_1(:,1);
mm60_1_2=mm60_1(:,2);
mm60_1_3=mm60_1(:,3);
mm60_1_4=mm60_1(:,4);
mm60_1_5=mm60_1(:,5);
mm60_1_Lo=mm60_1(:,6);
mm60_1_Di=mm60_1(:,7);
mm60_2_1=mm60_2(:,1);
mm60_2_2=mm60_2(:,2);
mm60_2_3=mm60_2(:,3);
mm60_2_4=mm60_2(:,4);
mm60_2_5=mm60_2(:,5);
mm60_2_Lo=mm60_2(:,6);
mm60_2_Di=mm60_2(:,7);
mm65_1=mm65(:,1);
mm65_2=mm65(:,2);
mm65_3=mm65(:,3);
mm65_4=mm65(:,4);

Tuesday February 06, 2007

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Feb 06, 07 10:55

Mechanical_straightening_combined.sce

Page 4/19

mm65_5=mm65(:,5);
mm65_Lo=mm65(:,6);
mm65_Di=mm65(:,7);
mm70_1=mm70(:,1);
mm70_2=mm70(:,2);
mm70_3=mm70(:,3);
mm70_4=mm70(:,4);
mm70_5=mm70(:,5);
mm70_Lo=mm70(:,6);
mm70_Di=mm70(:,7);
mm75_1=mm75(:,1);
mm75_2=mm75(:,2);
mm75_3=mm75(:,3);
mm75_4=mm75(:,4);
mm75_5=mm75(:,5);
mm75_Lo=mm75(:,6);
mm75_Di=mm75(:,7);
//calculations "experimental" data
//multiplying by factor and offset
//values are for calculating voltage into microstrain,
//force and ydisplacement
kN5_Lo=6.*kN5_Lo;
kN10_Lo=6.*kN10_Lo;
kN15_Lo=6.*kN15_Lo;
kN20_Lo=6.*kN20_Lo;
kN25_Lo=6.*kN25_Lo;
kN30_Lo=6.*kN30_Lo;
kN35_Lo=6.*kN35_Lo;
kN375_Lo=6.*kN375_Lo;
kN40_Lo=6.*kN40_Lo;
kN45_Lo=6.*kN45_Lo;
kN50_Lo=6.*kN50_Lo;
kN55_Lo=6.*kN55_Lo;
kN60_Lo=8.*kN60_Lo;
kN65_Lo=8.*kN65_Lo;
kN70_Lo=8.*kN70_Lo;
kN75_Lo=8.*kN75_Lo;
kN80_Lo=10.*kN80_Lo;
mm60_1_Lo=10.*mm60_1_Lo;
mm60_2_Lo=10.*mm60_2_Lo;
mm65_Lo=10.*mm65_Lo;
mm70_Lo=10.*mm70_Lo;
mm75_Lo=10.*mm75_Lo;
kN5_Di=2.*kN5_Di;
kN10_Di=2.*kN10_Di;
kN15_Di=2.*kN15_Di;
kN20_Di=2.*kN20_Di;
kN25_Di=2.*kN25_Di;
kN30_Di=2.*kN30_Di;
kN35_Di=2.*kN35_Di;
kN375_Di=2.*kN375_Di;
kN40_Di=2.*kN40_Di;
kN45_Di=2.*kN45_Di;
kN50_Di=2.*kN50_Di;
kN55_Di=2.*kN55_Di;
kN60_Di=2.*kN60_Di;
kN65_Di=2.*kN65_Di;
kN70_Di=2.*kN70_Di;
kN75_Di=2.*kN75_Di;
kN80_Di=2.*kN80_Di;
mm60_1_Di=2.*mm60_1_Di;
mm60_2_Di=2.*mm60_2_Di;
mm65_Di=2.*mm65_Di;
mm70_Di=2.*mm70_Di;
mm75_Di=2.*mm75_Di;

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kN5_1=500.2526.*kN5_1;
kN10_1=500.2526.*kN10_1;
kN15_1=500.2526.*kN15_1;
kN20_1=500.2526.*kN20_1;
kN25_1=500.2526.*kN25_1;
kN30_1=500.2526.*kN30_1;
kN35_1=500.2526.*kN35_1;
kN375_1=500.2526.*kN375_1;
kN40_1=500.2526.*kN40_1;
kN45_1=500.2526.*kN45_1;
kN50_1=500.2526.*kN50_1;
kN55_1=500.2526.*kN55_1;
kN60_1=1000.505.*kN60_1;
kN65_1=1000.505.*kN65_1;
kN70_1=1000.505.*kN70_1;
kN75_1=1000.505.*kN75_1;
kN80_1=1000.505.*kN80_1;
mm60_1_1=2001.011.*mm60_1_1;
mm60_2_1=2001.011.*mm60_2_1;
mm65_1=2001.011.*mm65_1;
mm70_1=2001.011.*mm70_1;
mm75_1=2001.011.*mm75_1;

kN5_4=500.2526.*kN5_4;
kN10_4=500.2526.*kN10_4;
kN15_4=500.2526.*kN15_4;
kN20_4=500.2526.*kN20_4;
kN25_4=500.2526.*kN25_4;
kN30_4=500.2526.*kN30_4;
kN35_4=500.2526.*kN35_4;
kN375_4=500.2526.*kN375_4;
kN40_4=500.2526.*kN40_4;
kN45_4=500.2526.*kN45_4;
kN50_4=500.2526.*kN50_4;
kN55_4=500.2526.*kN55_4;
kN60_4=1000.505.*kN60_4;
kN65_4=1000.505.*kN65_4;
kN70_4=1000.505.*kN70_4;
kN75_4=1000.505.*kN75_4;
kN80_4=1000.505.*kN80_4;
mm60_1_4=2001.011.*mm60_1_4;
mm60_2_4=2001.011.*mm60_2_4;
mm65_4=2001.011.*mm65_4;
mm70_4=2001.011.*mm70_4;
mm75_4=2001.011.*mm75_4;

kN5_2=500.2526.*kN5_2;
kN10_2=500.2526.*kN10_2;
kN15_2=500.2526.*kN15_2;
kN20_2=500.2526.*kN20_2;
kN25_2=500.2526.*kN25_2;
kN30_2=500.2526.*kN30_2;
kN35_2=500.2526.*kN35_2;
kN375_2=500.2526.*kN375_2;
kN40_2=500.2526.*kN40_2;
kN45_2=500.2526.*kN45_2;
kN50_2=500.2526.*kN50_2;
kN55_2=500.2526.*kN55_2;
kN60_2=1000.505.*kN60_2;
kN65_2=1000.505.*kN65_2;
kN70_2=1000.505.*kN70_2;
kN75_2=2001.011.*kN75_2;
kN80_2=2001.011.*kN80_2;
mm60_1_2=((2001.011*7.28054)+(2001.011.*mm60_1_2));
mm60_2_2=((2001.011*7.28054)+(2001.011.*mm60_2_2));
mm65_2=((2001.011*7.28054)+(2001.011.*mm65_2));
mm70_2=((2001.011*7.28054)+(2001.011.*mm70_2));
mm75_2=((2001.011*7.28054)+(2001.011.*mm75_2));

kN5_5=500.2526.*kN5_5;
kN10_5=500.2526.*kN10_5;
kN15_5=500.2526.*kN15_5;
kN20_5=500.2526.*kN20_5;
kN25_5=500.2526.*kN25_5;
kN30_5=500.2526.*kN30_5;
kN35_5=500.2526.*kN35_5;
kN375_5=500.2526.*kN375_5;
kN40_5=500.2526.*kN40_5;
kN45_5=500.2526.*kN45_5;
kN50_5=500.2526.*kN50_5;
kN55_5=500.2526.*kN55_5;
kN60_5=1000.505.*kN60_5;
kN65_5=1000.505.*kN65_5;
kN70_5=1000.505.*kN70_5;
kN75_5=1000.505.*kN75_5;
kN80_5=1000.505.*kN80_5;
mm60_1_5=2001.011.*mm60_1_5;
mm60_2_5=2001.011.*mm60_2_5;
mm65_5=2001.011.*mm65_5;
mm70_5=2001.011.*mm70_5;
mm75_5=2001.011.*mm75_5;

kN5_3=500.2526.*kN5_3;
kN10_3=500.2526.*kN10_3;
kN15_3=500.2526.*kN15_3;
kN20_3=500.2526.*kN20_3;
kN25_3=500.2526.*kN25_3;
kN30_3=500.2526.*kN30_3;
kN35_3=500.2526.*kN35_3;
kN375_3=500.2526.*kN375_3;
kN40_3=500.2526.*kN40_3;
kN45_3=500.2526.*kN45_3;
kN50_3=500.2526.*kN50_3;
kN55_3=500.2526.*kN55_3;
kN60_3=1000.505.*kN60_3;
kN65_3=1000.505.*kN65_3;
kN70_3=1000.505.*kN70_3;
kN75_3=1000.505.*kN75_3;
kN80_3=1000.505.*kN80_3;
mm60_1_3=2001.011.*mm60_1_3;
mm60_2_3=2001.011.*mm60_2_3;
mm65_3=2001.011.*mm65_3;
mm70_3=2001.011.*mm70_3;
mm75_3=2001.011.*mm75_3;

///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//
////// "finite element" data loading and handling
//
///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

Tuesday February 06, 2007

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//loading "finite element" data files into scilab


//SB02CONE60_xstrain_C.txt means;
//1) program SB02CON
//2) element 60 (N stands for node)
//3) containing xstrain data
//4) de "C"leaned file
SB02CON_E60_xstr=fscanfMat(SB02CONE60xstrain_C.txt);
SB02CON_E61_xstr=fscanfMat(SB02CONE61xstrain_C.txt);
SB02CON_E63_xstr=fscanfMat(SB02CONE63xstrain_C.txt);
SB02CON_E85_xstr=fscanfMat(SB02CONE85xstrain_C.txt);
SB02CON_E88_xstr=fscanfMat(SB02CONE88xstrain_C.txt);
SB02CON_effstress=fscanfMat(SB02CONeffstress_C.txt);
SB02CON_xstress_down=fscanfMat(SB02CONxstressdown_C.txt);
SB02CON_xstress_up=fscanfMat(SB02CONxstressup_C.txt);
SB02CON_N1011_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB02CONN1011ydisp_C.txt);
SB02CON_N1012_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB02CONN1012ydisp_C.txt);

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SB02CON_N1014_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB02CONN1014ydisp_C.txt);
SB02CON_N1063_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB02CONN1063ydisp_C.txt);
SB02CON_N1064_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB02CONN1064ydisp_C.txt);
SB02CON_N1066_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB02CONN1066ydisp_C.txt);
SB02CON_yforce=fscanfMat(SB02CONyforce_C.txt);
SB02DOF_E60_xstr=fscanfMat(SB02DOFE60xstrain_C.txt);
SB02DOF_E61_xstr=fscanfMat(SB02DOFE61xstrain_C.txt);
SB02DOF_E63_xstr=fscanfMat(SB02DOFE63xstrain_C.txt);
SB02DOF_E85_xstr=fscanfMat(SB02DOFE85xstrain_C.txt);
SB02DOF_E88_xstr=fscanfMat(SB02DOFE88xstrain_C.txt);
SB02DOF_effstress=fscanfMat(SB02DOFeffstress_C.txt);
SB02DOF_xstress_down=fscanfMat(SB02DOFxstressdown_C.txt);
SB02DOF_xstress_up=fscanfMat(SB02DOFxstressup_C.txt);
SB02DOF_N1011_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB02DOFN1011ydisp_C.txt);
SB02DOF_N1012_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB02DOFN1012ydisp_C.txt);
SB02DOF_N1014_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB02DOFN1014ydisp_C.txt);
SB02DOF_N1063_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB02DOFN1063ydisp_C.txt);
SB02DOF_N1064_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB02DOFN1064ydisp_C.txt);
SB02DOF_N1066_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB02DOFN1066ydisp_C.txt);
SB02DOF_yforce=fscanfMat(SB02DOFyforce_C.txt);
SB04CON_E420_xstr=fscanfMat(SB04CONE420xstrain_C.txt);
SB04CON_E422_xstr=fscanfMat(SB04CONE422xstrain_C.txt);
SB04CON_E426_xstr=fscanfMat(SB04CONE426xstrain_C.txt);
SB04CON_E570_xstr=fscanfMat(SB04CONE570xstrain_C.txt);
SB04CON_E576_xstr=fscanfMat(SB04CONE576xstrain_C.txt);
SB04CON_effstress=fscanfMat(SB04CONeffstress_C.txt);
SB04CON_xstress_down=fscanfMat(SB04CONxstressdown_C.txt);
SB04CON_xstress_up=fscanfMat(SB04CONxstressup_C.txt);
SB04CON_N2021_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB04CONN2021ydisp_C.txt);
SB04CON_N2023_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB04CONN2023ydisp_C.txt);
SB04CON_N2026_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB04CONN2026ydisp_C.txt);
SB04CON_N2224_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB04CONN2224ydisp_C.txt);
SB04CON_N2227_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB04CONN2227ydisp_C.txt);
SB04CON_N2230_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB04CONN2230ydisp_C.txt);
SB04CON_yforce=fscanfMat(SB04CONyforce_C.txt);
SB04DOF_E420_xstr=fscanfMat(SB04DOFE420xstrain_C.txt);
SB04DOF_E422_xstr=fscanfMat(SB04DOFE422xstrain_C.txt);
SB04DOF_E426_xstr=fscanfMat(SB04DOFE426xstrain_C.txt);
SB04DOF_E570_xstr=fscanfMat(SB04DOFE570xstrain_C.txt);
SB04DOF_E576_xstr=fscanfMat(SB04DOFE576xstrain_C.txt);
SB04DOF_effstress=fscanfMat(SB04DOFeffstress_C.txt);
SB04DOF_xstress_down=fscanfMat(SB04DOFxstressdown_C.txt);
SB04DOF_xstress_up=fscanfMat(SB04DOFxstressup_C.txt);
SB04DOF_N2021_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB04DOFN2021ydisp_C.txt);
SB04DOF_N2023_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB04DOFN2023ydisp_C.txt);
SB04DOF_N2026_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB04DOFN2026ydisp_C.txt);
SB04DOF_N2224_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB04DOFN2224ydisp_C.txt);
SB04DOF_N2227_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB04DOFN2227ydisp_C.txt);
SB04DOF_N2230_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB04DOFN2230ydisp_C.txt);
SB04DOF_yforce=fscanfMat(SB04DOFyforce_C.txt);
SB08CON_E3240_xstr=fscanfMat(SB08CONE3240xstrain_C.txt);
SB08CON_E3244_xstr=fscanfMat(SB08CONE3244xstrain_C.txt);
SB08CON_E3251_xstr=fscanfMat(SB08CONE3251xstrain_C.txt);
SB08CON_E3940_xstr=fscanfMat(SB08CONE3940xstrain_C.txt);
SB08CON_E3952_xstr=fscanfMat(SB08CONE3952xstrain_C.txt);
SB08CON_effstress=fscanfMat(SB08CONeffstress_C.txt);
SB08CON_xstress_down=fscanfMat(SB08CONxstressdown_C.txt);
SB08CON_xstress_up=fscanfMat(SB08CONxstressup_C.txt);
SB08CON_N4040_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB08CONN4040ydisp_C.txt);
SB08CON_N4045_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB08CONN4045ydisp_C.txt);
SB08CON_N4051_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB08CONN4051ydisp_C.txt);
SB08CON_N4848_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB08CONN4848ydisp_C.txt);
SB08CON_N4853_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB08CONN4853ydisp_C.txt);
SB08CON_N4860_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB08CONN4860ydisp_C.txt);
SB08CON_yforce=fscanfMat(SB08CONyforce_C.txt);

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SB08DOF_E3240_xstr=fscanfMat(SB08DOFE3240xstrain_C.txt);
SB08DOF_E3244_xstr=fscanfMat(SB08DOFE3244xstrain_C.txt);
SB08DOF_E3251_xstr=fscanfMat(SB08DOFE3251xstrain_C.txt);
SB08DOF_E3940_xstr=fscanfMat(SB08DOFE3940xstrain_C.txt);
SB08DOF_E3952_xstr=fscanfMat(SB08DOFE3952xstrain_C.txt);
SB08DOF_effstress=fscanfMat(SB08DOFeffstress_C.txt);
SB08DOF_xstress_down=fscanfMat(SB08DOFxstressdown_C.txt);
SB08DOF_xstress_up=fscanfMat(SB08DOFxstressup_C.txt);
SB08DOF_N4040_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB08DOFN4040ydisp_C.txt);
SB08DOF_N4045_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB08DOFN4045ydisp_C.txt);
SB08DOF_N4051_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB08DOFN4051ydisp_C.txt);
SB08DOF_N4848_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB08DOFN4848ydisp_C.txt);
SB08DOF_N4853_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB08DOFN4853ydisp_C.txt);
SB08DOF_N4860_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB08DOFN4860ydisp_C.txt);
SB08DOF_yforce=fscanfMat(SB08DOFyforce_C.txt);
SB200DOF_E6479_xstr=fscanfMat(SB200DOFE6479xstrain_C.txt);
SB200DOF_E6488_xstr=fscanfMat(SB200DOFE6488xstrain_C.txt);
SB200DOF_E6501_xstr=fscanfMat(SB200DOFE6501xstrain_C.txt);
SB200DOF_E7878_xstr=fscanfMat(SB200DOFE7878xstrain_C.txt);
SB200DOF_E7902_xstr=fscanfMat(SB200DOFE7902xstrain_C.txt);
SB200DOF_effstress=fscanfMat(SB200DOFeffstress_C.txt);
SB200DOF_xstress_down=fscanfMat(SB200DOFxstressdown_C.txt);
SB200DOF_xstress_up=fscanfMat(SB200DOFxstressup_C.txt);
SB200DOF_N8079_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB200DOFN8079ydisp_C.txt);
SB200DOF_N8088_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB200DOFN8088ydisp_C.txt);
SB200DOF_N8102_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB200DOFN8102ydisp_C.txt);
SB200DOF_N9686_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB200DOFN9686ydisp_C.txt);
SB200DOF_N9696_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB200DOFN9696ydisp_C.txt);
SB200DOF_N9710_ydisp=fscanfMat(SB200DOFN9710ydisp_C.txt);
SB200DOF_yforce=fscanfMat(SB200DOFyforce_C.txt);
//subdividing "finite element" data into seperate columns
//all imported files contain two column martrixes
//the first is time data, the second; the data of interest
SB02CON_E60_xstr=SB02CON_E60_xstr(:,2);
SB02CON_E61_xstr=SB02CON_E61_xstr(:,2);
SB02CON_E63_xstr=SB02CON_E63_xstr(:,2);
SB02CON_E85_xstr=SB02CON_E85_xstr(:,2);
SB02CON_E88_xstr=SB02CON_E88_xstr(:,2);
SB02CON_effstress=SB02CON_effstress(:,2);
SB02CON_xstress_down=SB02CON_xstress_down(:,2);
SB02CON_xstress_up=SB02CON_xstress_up(:,2);
SB02CON_N1011_ydisp=SB02CON_N1011_ydisp(:,2);
SB02CON_N1012_ydisp=SB02CON_N1012_ydisp(:,2);
SB02CON_N1014_ydisp=SB02CON_N1014_ydisp(:,2);
SB02CON_N1063_ydisp=SB02CON_N1063_ydisp(:,2);
SB02CON_N1064_ydisp=SB02CON_N1064_ydisp(:,2);
SB02CON_N1066_ydisp=SB02CON_N1066_ydisp(:,2);
SB02CON_yforce=SB02CON_yforce(:,2);
SB02DOF_E60_xstr=SB02DOF_E60_xstr(:,2);
SB02DOF_E61_xstr=SB02DOF_E61_xstr(:,2);
SB02DOF_E63_xstr=SB02DOF_E63_xstr(:,2);
SB02DOF_E85_xstr=SB02DOF_E85_xstr(:,2);
SB02DOF_E88_xstr=SB02DOF_E88_xstr(:,2);
SB02DOF_effstress=SB02DOF_effstress(:,2);
SB02DOF_xstress_down=SB02DOF_xstress_down(:,2);
SB02DOF_xstress_up=SB02DOF_xstress_up(:,2);
SB02DOF_N1011_ydisp=SB02DOF_N1011_ydisp(:,2);
SB02DOF_N1012_ydisp=SB02DOF_N1012_ydisp(:,2);
SB02DOF_N1014_ydisp=SB02DOF_N1014_ydisp(:,2);
SB02DOF_N1063_ydisp=SB02DOF_N1063_ydisp(:,2);
SB02DOF_N1064_ydisp=SB02DOF_N1064_ydisp(:,2);
SB02DOF_N1066_ydisp=SB02DOF_N1066_ydisp(:,2);
SB02DOF_yforce=SB02DOF_yforce(:,2);
SB04CON_E420_xstr=SB04CON_E420_xstr(:,2);

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SB04CON_E422_xstr=SB04CON_E422_xstr(:,2);
SB04CON_E426_xstr=SB04CON_E426_xstr(:,2);
SB04CON_E570_xstr=SB04CON_E570_xstr(:,2);
SB04CON_E576_xstr=SB04CON_E576_xstr(:,2);
SB04CON_effstress=SB04CON_effstress(:,2);
SB04CON_xstress_down=SB04CON_xstress_down(:,2);
SB04CON_xstress_up=SB04CON_xstress_up(:,2);
SB04CON_N2021_ydisp=SB04CON_N2021_ydisp(:,2);
SB04CON_N2023_ydisp=SB04CON_N2023_ydisp(:,2);
SB04CON_N2026_ydisp=SB04CON_N2026_ydisp(:,2);
SB04CON_N2224_ydisp=SB04CON_N2224_ydisp(:,2);
SB04CON_N2227_ydisp=SB04CON_N2227_ydisp(:,2);
SB04CON_N2230_ydisp=SB04CON_N2230_ydisp(:,2);
SB04CON_yforce=SB04CON_yforce(:,2);
SB04DOF_E420_xstr=SB04DOF_E420_xstr(:,2);
SB04DOF_E422_xstr=SB04DOF_E422_xstr(:,2);
SB04DOF_E426_xstr=SB04DOF_E426_xstr(:,2);
SB04DOF_E570_xstr=SB04DOF_E570_xstr(:,2);
SB04DOF_E576_xstr=SB04DOF_E576_xstr(:,2);
SB04DOF_effstress=SB04DOF_effstress(:,2);
SB04DOF_xstress_down=SB04DOF_xstress_down(:,2);
SB04DOF_xstress_up=SB04DOF_xstress_up(:,2);
SB04DOF_N2021_ydisp=SB04DOF_N2021_ydisp(:,2);
SB04DOF_N2023_ydisp=SB04DOF_N2023_ydisp(:,2);
SB04DOF_N2026_ydisp=SB04DOF_N2026_ydisp(:,2);
SB04DOF_N2224_ydisp=SB04DOF_N2224_ydisp(:,2);
SB04DOF_N2227_ydisp=SB04DOF_N2227_ydisp(:,2);
SB04DOF_N2230_ydisp=SB04DOF_N2230_ydisp(:,2);
SB04DOF_yforce=SB04DOF_yforce(:,2);
SB08CON_E3240_xstr=SB08CON_E3240_xstr(:,2);
SB08CON_E3244_xstr=SB08CON_E3244_xstr(:,2);
SB08CON_E3251_xstr=SB08CON_E3251_xstr(:,2);
SB08CON_E3940_xstr=SB08CON_E3940_xstr(:,2);
SB08CON_E3952_xstr=SB08CON_E3952_xstr(:,2);
SB08CON_effstress=SB08CON_effstress(:,2);
SB08CON_xstress_down=SB08CON_xstress_down(:,2);
SB08CON_xstress_up=SB08CON_xstress_up(:,2);
SB08CON_N4040_ydisp=SB08CON_N4040_ydisp(:,2);
SB08CON_N4045_ydisp=SB08CON_N4045_ydisp(:,2);
SB08CON_N4051_ydisp=SB08CON_N4051_ydisp(:,2);
SB08CON_N4848_ydisp=SB08CON_N4848_ydisp(:,2);
SB08CON_N4853_ydisp=SB08CON_N4853_ydisp(:,2);
SB08CON_N4860_ydisp=SB08CON_N4860_ydisp(:,2);
SB08CON_yforce=SB08CON_yforce(:,2);
SB08DOF_E3240_xstr=SB08DOF_E3240_xstr(:,2);
SB08DOF_E3244_xstr=SB08DOF_E3244_xstr(:,2);
SB08DOF_E3251_xstr=SB08DOF_E3251_xstr(:,2);
SB08DOF_E3940_xstr=SB08DOF_E3940_xstr(:,2);
SB08DOF_E3952_xstr=SB08DOF_E3952_xstr(:,2);
SB08DOF_effstress=SB08DOF_effstress(:,2);
SB08DOF_xstress_down=SB08DOF_xstress_down(:,2);
SB08DOF_xstress_up=SB08DOF_xstress_up(:,2);
SB08DOF_N4040_ydisp=SB08DOF_N4040_ydisp(:,2);
SB08DOF_N4045_ydisp=SB08DOF_N4045_ydisp(:,2);
SB08DOF_N4051_ydisp=SB08DOF_N4051_ydisp(:,2);
SB08DOF_N4848_ydisp=SB08DOF_N4848_ydisp(:,2);
SB08DOF_N4853_ydisp=SB08DOF_N4853_ydisp(:,2);
SB08DOF_N4860_ydisp=SB08DOF_N4860_ydisp(:,2);
SB08DOF_yforce=SB08DOF_yforce(:,2);
SB200DOF_E6479_xstr=SB200DOF_E6479_xstr(:,2);
SB200DOF_E6488_xstr=SB200DOF_E6488_xstr(:,2);
SB200DOF_E6501_xstr=SB200DOF_E6501_xstr(:,2);
SB200DOF_E7878_xstr=SB200DOF_E7878_xstr(:,2);
SB200DOF_E7902_xstr=SB200DOF_E7902_xstr(:,2);
SB200DOF_effstress=SB200DOF_effstress(:,2);

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SB200DOF_xstress_down=SB200DOF_xstress_down(:,2);
SB200DOF_xstress_up=SB200DOF_xstress_up(:,2);
SB200DOF_N8079_ydisp=SB200DOF_N8079_ydisp(:,2);
SB200DOF_N8088_ydisp=SB200DOF_N8088_ydisp(:,2);
SB200DOF_N8012_ydisp=SB200DOF_N8102_ydisp(:,2);
SB200DOF_N9686_ydisp=SB200DOF_N9686_ydisp(:,2);
SB200DOF_N9696_ydisp=SB200DOF_N9696_ydisp(:,2);
SB200DOF_N9710_ydisp=SB200DOF_N9710_ydisp(:,2);
SB200DOF_yforce=SB200DOF_yforce(:,2);
//calculations "finite element" data
//multiplying by factor
SB02CON_effstress=(1000.*SB02CON_effstress);
SB02DOF_effstress=(1000.*SB02DOF_effstress);
SB04CON_effstress=(1000.*SB04CON_effstress);
SB04DOF_effstress=(1000.*SB04DOF_effstress);
SB08CON_effstress=(1000.*SB08CON_effstress);
SB08DOF_effstress=(1000.*SB08DOF_effstress);
SB200DOF_effstress=(1000.*SB200DOF_effstress);
SB02CON_xstress_down=(1000.*SB02CON_xstress_down);
SB02DOF_xstress_down=(1000.*SB02DOF_xstress_down);
SB04CON_xstress_down=(1000.*SB04CON_xstress_down);
SB04DOF_xstress_down=(1000.*SB04DOF_xstress_down);
SB08CON_xstress_down=(1000.*SB08CON_xstress_down);
SB08DOF_xstress_down=(1000.*SB08DOF_xstress_down);
SB200DOF_xstress_down=(1000.*SB200DOF_xstress_down);
SB02CON_xstress_up=(1000.*SB02CON_xstress_up);
SB02DOF_xstress_up=(1000.*SB02DOF_xstress_up);
SB04CON_xstress_up=(1000.*SB04CON_xstress_up);
SB04DOF_xstress_up=(1000.*SB04DOF_xstress_up);
SB08CON_xstress_up=(1000.*SB08CON_xstress_up);
SB08DOF_xstress_up=(1000.*SB08DOF_xstress_up);
SB200DOF_xstress_up=(1000.*SB200DOF_xstress_up);
SB02CON_E60_xstr=(1000000.*SB02CON_E60_xstr);
SB02CON_E61_xstr=(1000000.*SB02CON_E61_xstr);
SB02CON_E63_xstr=(1000000.*SB02CON_E63_xstr);
SB02CON_E85_xstr=(1000000.*SB02CON_E85_xstr);
SB02CON_E88_xstr=(1000000.*SB02CON_E88_xstr);
SB02DOF_E60_xstr=(1000000.*SB02DOF_E60_xstr);
SB02DOF_E61_xstr=(1000000.*SB02DOF_E61_xstr);
SB02DOF_E63_xstr=(1000000.*SB02DOF_E63_xstr);
SB02DOF_E85_xstr=(1000000.*SB02DOF_E85_xstr);
SB02DOF_E88_xstr=(1000000.*SB02DOF_E88_xstr);
SB04CON_E420_xstr=(1000000.*SB04CON_E420_xstr);
SB04CON_E422_xstr=(1000000.*SB04CON_E422_xstr);
SB04CON_E426_xstr=(1000000.*SB04CON_E426_xstr);
SB04CON_E570_xstr=(1000000.*SB04CON_E570_xstr);
SB04CON_E576_xstr=(1000000.*SB04CON_E576_xstr);
SB04DOF_E420_xstr=(1000000.*SB04DOF_E420_xstr);
SB04DOF_E422_xstr=(1000000.*SB04DOF_E422_xstr);
SB04DOF_E426_xstr=(1000000.*SB04DOF_E426_xstr);
SB04DOF_E570_xstr=(1000000.*SB04DOF_E570_xstr);
SB04DOF_E576_xstr=(1000000.*SB04DOF_E576_xstr);
SB08CON_E3240_xstr=(1000000.*SB08CON_E3240_xstr);
SB08CON_E3244_xstr=(1000000.*SB08CON_E3244_xstr);
SB08CON_E3251_xstr=(1000000.*SB08CON_E3251_xstr);
SB08CON_E3940_xstr=(1000000.*SB08CON_E3940_xstr);
SB08CON_E3952_xstr=(1000000.*SB08CON_E3952_xstr);
SB08DOF_E3240_xstr=(1000000.*SB08DOF_E3240_xstr);
SB08DOF_E3244_xstr=(1000000.*SB08DOF_E3244_xstr);
SB08DOF_E3251_xstr=(1000000.*SB08DOF_E3251_xstr);
SB08DOF_E3940_xstr=(1000000.*SB08DOF_E3940_xstr);
SB08DOF_E3952_xstr=(1000000.*SB08DOF_E3952_xstr);
SB200DOF_E6479_xstr=(1000000.*SB200DOF_E6479_xstr);
SB200DOF_E6488_xstr=(1000000.*SB200DOF_E6488_xstr);
SB200DOF_E6501_xstr=(1000000.*SB200DOF_E6501_xstr);

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SB200DOF_E7878_xstr=(1000000.*SB200DOF_E7878_xstr);
SB200DOF_E7902_xstr=(1000000.*SB200DOF_E7902_xstr);
SB02CON_N1011_ydisp=(1.*SB02CON_N1011_ydisp);
SB02CON_N1012_ydisp=(1.*SB02CON_N1012_ydisp);
SB02CON_N1014_ydisp=(1.*SB02CON_N1014_ydisp);
SB02CON_N1063_ydisp=(1.*SB02CON_N1063_ydisp);
SB02CON_N1064_ydisp=(1.*SB02CON_N1064_ydisp);
SB02CON_N1066_ydisp=(1.*SB02CON_N1066_ydisp);
SB02DOF_N1011_ydisp=(1.*SB02DOF_N1011_ydisp);
SB02DOF_N1012_ydisp=(1.*SB02DOF_N1012_ydisp);
SB02DOF_N1014_ydisp=(1.*SB02DOF_N1014_ydisp);
SB02DOF_N1063_ydisp=(1.*SB02DOF_N1063_ydisp);
SB02DOF_N1064_ydisp=(1.*SB02DOF_N1064_ydisp);
SB02DOF_N1066_ydisp=(1.*SB02DOF_N1066_ydisp);
SB04CON_N2021_ydisp=(1.*SB04CON_N2021_ydisp);
SB04CON_N2023_ydisp=(1.*SB04CON_N2023_ydisp);
SB04CON_N2026_ydisp=(1.*SB04CON_N2026_ydisp);
SB04CON_N2224_ydisp=(1.*SB04CON_N2224_ydisp);
SB04CON_N2227_ydisp=(1.*SB04CON_N2227_ydisp);
SB04CON_N2230_ydisp=(1.*SB04CON_N2230_ydisp);
SB04DOF_N2021_ydisp=(1.*SB04DOF_N2021_ydisp);
SB04DOF_N2023_ydisp=(1.*SB04DOF_N2023_ydisp);
SB04DOF_N2026_ydisp=(1.*SB04DOF_N2026_ydisp);
SB04DOF_N2224_ydisp=(1.*SB04DOF_N2224_ydisp);
SB04DOF_N2227_ydisp=(1.*SB04DOF_N2227_ydisp);
SB04DOF_N2230_ydisp=(1.*SB04DOF_N2230_ydisp);
SB08CON_N4040_ydisp=(1.*SB08CON_N4040_ydisp);
SB08CON_N4045_ydisp=(1.*SB08CON_N4045_ydisp);
SB08CON_N4051_ydisp=(1.*SB08CON_N4051_ydisp);
SB08CON_N4848_ydisp=(1.*SB08CON_N4848_ydisp);
SB08CON_N4853_ydisp=(1.*SB08CON_N4853_ydisp);
SB08CON_N4860_ydisp=(1.*SB08CON_N4860_ydisp);
SB08DOF_N4040_ydisp=(1.*SB08DOF_N4040_ydisp);
SB08DOF_N4045_ydisp=(1.*SB08DOF_N4045_ydisp);
SB08DOF_N4051_ydisp=(1.*SB08DOF_N4051_ydisp);
SB08DOF_N4848_ydisp=(1.*SB08DOF_N4848_ydisp);
SB08DOF_N4853_ydisp=(1.*SB08DOF_N4853_ydisp);
SB08DOF_N4860_ydisp=(1.*SB08DOF_N4860_ydisp);
SB200DOF_N8079_ydisp=(1.*SB200DOF_N8079_ydisp);
SB200DOF_N8088_ydisp=(1.*SB200DOF_N8088_ydisp);
SB200DOF_N8102_ydisp=(1.*SB200DOF_N8102_ydisp);
SB200DOF_N9686_ydisp=(1.*SB200DOF_N9686_ydisp);
SB200DOF_N9696_ydisp=(1.*SB200DOF_N9696_ydisp);
SB200DOF_N9710_ydisp=(1.*SB200DOF_N9710_ydisp);

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scf(3)
plot(SB02DOF_N1064_ydisp,SB02DOF_xstress_down,m);
plot(SB04DOF_N2227_ydisp,SB04DOF_xstress_down,c);
plot(SB08DOF_N4853_ydisp,SB08DOF_xstress_down,r);
plot(SB200DOF_N9696_ydisp,SB200DOF_xstress_down,k);
plot(SB02CON_N1064_ydisp,SB02CON_xstress_down,y);
plot(SB04CON_N2227_ydisp,SB04CON_xstress_down,b);
plot(SB08CON_N4853_ydisp,SB08CON_xstress_down,g);
xtitle(displacement vs. xstress bottom,displacement [mm],stress [MPa]);
legend(SB02DOF,SB04DOF,SB08DOF,SB200DOF,SBO2CON,SB04CON,SB08CON);
scf(4)
plot(SB02DOF_N1064_ydisp,SB02DOF_xstress_up,m);
plot(SB04DOF_N2227_ydisp,SB04DOF_xstress_up,c);
plot(SB08DOF_N4853_ydisp,SB08DOF_xstress_up,r);
plot(SB200DOF_N9696_ydisp,SB200DOF_xstress_up,k);
plot(SB02CON_N1064_ydisp,SB02CON_xstress_up,y);
plot(SB04CON_N2227_ydisp,SB04CON_xstress_up,b);
plot(SB08CON_N4853_ydisp,SB08CON_xstress_up,g);
xtitle(displacement vs. xstress top,displacement [mm],stress [MPa]);
legend(SB02DOF,SB04DOF,SB08DOF,SB200DOF,SBO2CON,SB04CON,SB08CON);

//plotting functions for both "experimental" and


//"finite element" data
//mm75_Di didnt contain any data (experimental error)
//therefore it is commented
scf(1)
plot(SB02DOF_N1064_ydisp,SB02DOF_yforce,m);
plot(SB04DOF_N2227_ydisp,SB04DOF_yforce,c);
plot(SB08DOF_N4853_ydisp,SB08DOF_yforce,r);
plot(SB200DOF_N9696_ydisp,SB200DOF_yforce,k);
plot(SB02CON_N1064_ydisp,SB02CON_yforce,y);
plot(SB04CON_N2227_ydisp,SB04CON_yforce,b);
plot(SB08CON_N4853_ydisp,SB08CON_yforce,g);
xtitle(displacement vs. force,displacement [mm],force [kN]);
legend(SB02DOF,SB04DOF,SB08DOF,SB200DOF,SBO2CON,SB04CON,SB08CON);
scf(2)
plot(SB02DOF_N1064_ydisp,SB02DOF_effstress,m);
plot(SB04DOF_N2227_ydisp,SB04DOF_effstress,c);
plot(SB08DOF_N4853_ydisp,SB08DOF_effstress,r);
plot(SB200DOF_N9696_ydisp,SB200DOF_effstress,k);
plot(SB02CON_N1064_ydisp,SB02CON_effstress,y);
plot(SB04CON_N2227_ydisp,SB04CON_effstress,b);
plot(SB08CON_N4853_ydisp,SB08CON_effstress,g);

Feb 06, 07 10:55

xtitle(displacement vs. effective stress middle,displacement [mm],stress [M


Pa]);
legend(SB02DOF,SB04DOF,SB08DOF,SB200DOF,SBO2CON,SB04CON,SB08CON);

scf(5)
plot(kN5_Di,kN5_Lo,b);
plot(kN10_Di,kN10_Lo,b);
plot(kN15_Di,kN15_Lo,b);
plot(kN20_Di,kN20_Lo,b);
plot(kN25_Di,kN25_Lo,b);
plot(kN30_Di,kN30_Lo,b);
plot(kN35_Di,kN35_Lo,b);
plot(kN375_Di,kN375_Lo,b);
plot(kN40_Di,kN40_Lo,b);
plot(kN45_Di,kN45_Lo,b);
plot(kN50_Di,kN50_Lo,b);
plot(kN55_Di,kN55_Lo,b);
plot(kN60_Di,kN60_Lo,b);
plot(kN65_Di,kN65_Lo,b);
plot(kN70_Di,kN70_Lo,b);
plot(kN75_Di,kN75_Lo,b);
plot(kN80_Di,kN80_Lo,b);
plot(mm60_1_Di,mm60_1_Lo,b);
plot(mm60_2_Di,mm60_2_Lo,b);
plot(mm65_Di,mm65_Lo,b);
plot(mm70_Di,mm70_Lo,b);
plot(SB02DOF_N1064_ydisp,SB02DOF_yforce,c);
plot(SB04DOF_N2227_ydisp,SB04DOF_yforce,m);
plot(SB08DOF_N4853_ydisp,SB08DOF_yforce,r);
plot(SB200DOF_N9696_ydisp,SB200DOF_yforce,k);
//plot(mm75_Di,mm75_Lo,b);
xtitle(displacement vs. force,displacement [mm],force [kN]);
scf(6)
plot(kN5_1,kN5_Lo,b);
plot(kN10_1,kN10_Lo,b);
plot(kN15_1,kN15_Lo,b);
plot(kN20_1,kN20_Lo,b);
plot(kN25_1,kN25_Lo,b);
plot(kN30_1,kN30_Lo,b);
plot(kN35_1,kN35_Lo,b);
plot(kN375_1,kN375_Lo,b);
plot(kN40_1,kN40_Lo,b);
plot(kN45_1,kN45_Lo,b);
plot(kN50_1,kN50_Lo,b);
plot(kN55_1,kN55_Lo,b);
plot(kN60_1,kN60_Lo,b);

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plot(kN65_1,kN65_Lo,b);
plot(kN70_1,kN70_Lo,b);
plot(kN75_1,kN75_Lo,b);
plot(kN80_1,kN80_Lo,b);
plot(mm60_1_1,mm60_1_Lo,b);
plot(mm60_2_1,mm60_2_Lo,b);
plot(mm65_1,mm65_Lo,b);
plot(mm70_1,mm70_Lo,b);
plot(mm75_1,mm75_Lo,b);
plot(SB02DOF_E63_xstr,SB02DOF_yforce,c);
plot(SB04DOF_E426_xstr,SB04DOF_yforce,m);
plot(SB08DOF_E3251_xstr,SB08DOF_yforce,r);
plot(SB200DOF_E6501_xstr,SB200DOF_yforce,k);
xtitle(<<strain gage A/[1]>> strain vs. force,microstrain [],force [kN]);
scf(7)
plot(kN5_2,kN5_Lo,b);
plot(kN10_2,kN10_Lo,b);
plot(kN15_2,kN15_Lo,b);
plot(kN20_2,kN20_Lo,b);
plot(kN25_2,kN25_Lo,b);
plot(kN30_2,kN30_Lo,b);
plot(kN35_2,kN35_Lo,b);
plot(kN375_2,kN375_Lo,b);
plot(kN40_2,kN40_Lo,b);
plot(kN45_2,kN45_Lo,b);
plot(kN50_2,kN50_Lo,b);
plot(kN55_2,kN55_Lo,b);
plot(kN60_2,kN60_Lo,b);
plot(kN65_2,kN65_Lo,b);
plot(kN70_2,kN70_Lo,b);
plot(kN75_2,kN75_Lo,b);
plot(kN80_2,kN80_Lo,b);
plot(mm60_1_2,mm60_1_Lo,b);
plot(mm60_2_2,mm60_2_Lo,b);
plot(mm65_2,mm65_Lo,b);
plot(mm70_2,mm70_Lo,b);
plot(mm75_2,mm75_Lo,b);
plot(SB02DOF_E61_xstr,SB02DOF_yforce,c);
plot(SB04DOF_E422_xstr,SB04DOF_yforce,m);
plot(SB08DOF_E3244_xstr,SB08DOF_yforce,r);
plot(SB200DOF_E6488_xstr,SB200DOF_yforce,k);
xtitle(<<strain gage B/[2]>> strain vs. force,microstrain [],force [kN]);
scf(8)
plot(kN5_3,kN5_Lo,b);
plot(kN10_3,kN10_Lo,b);
plot(kN15_3,kN15_Lo,b);
plot(kN20_3,kN20_Lo,b);
plot(kN25_3,kN25_Lo,b);
plot(kN30_3,kN30_Lo,b);
plot(kN35_3,kN35_Lo,b);
plot(kN375_3,kN375_Lo,b);
plot(kN40_3,kN40_Lo,b);
plot(kN45_3,kN45_Lo,b);
plot(kN50_3,kN50_Lo,b);
plot(kN55_3,kN55_Lo,b);
plot(kN60_3,kN60_Lo,b);
plot(kN65_3,kN65_Lo,b);
plot(kN70_3,kN70_Lo,b);
plot(kN75_3,kN75_Lo,b);
plot(kN80_3,kN80_Lo,b);
plot(mm60_1_3,mm60_1_Lo,b);
plot(mm60_2_3,mm60_2_Lo,b);
plot(mm65_3,mm65_Lo,b);
plot(mm70_3,mm70_Lo,b);
plot(mm75_3,mm75_Lo,b);
plot(SB02DOF_E60_xstr,SB02DOF_yforce,c);
plot(SB04DOF_E420_xstr,SB04DOF_yforce,m);

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plot(SB08DOF_E3240_xstr,SB08DOF_yforce,r);
plot(SB200DOF_E6479_xstr,SB200DOF_yforce,k);
xtitle(<<strain gage C/[3]>> strain vs. force,microstrain [],force [kN]);
scf(9)
plot(kN5_4,kN5_Lo,b);
plot(kN10_4,kN10_Lo,b);
plot(kN15_4,kN15_Lo,b);
plot(kN20_4,kN20_Lo,b);
plot(kN25_4,kN25_Lo,b);
plot(kN30_4,kN30_Lo,b);
plot(kN35_4,kN35_Lo,b);
plot(kN375_4,kN375_Lo,b);
plot(kN40_4,kN40_Lo,b);
plot(kN45_4,kN45_Lo,b);
plot(kN50_4,kN50_Lo,b);
plot(kN55_4,kN55_Lo,b);
plot(kN60_4,kN60_Lo,b);
plot(kN65_4,kN65_Lo,b);
plot(kN70_4,kN70_Lo,b);
plot(kN75_4,kN75_Lo,b);
plot(kN80_4,kN80_Lo,b);
plot(mm60_1_4,mm60_1_Lo,b);
plot(mm60_2_4,mm60_2_Lo,b);
plot(mm65_4,mm65_Lo,b);
plot(mm70_4,mm70_Lo,b);
plot(mm75_4,mm75_Lo,b);
plot(SB02DOF_E88_xstr,SB02DOF_yforce,c);
plot(SB04DOF_E576_xstr,SB04DOF_yforce,m);
plot(SB08DOF_E3952_xstr,SB08DOF_yforce,r);
plot(SB200DOF_E7902_xstr,SB200DOF_yforce,k);
xtitle(<<strain gage U/[4]>> strain vs. force,microstrain [],force [kN]);
scf(10)
plot(kN5_5,kN5_Lo,b);
plot(kN10_5,kN10_Lo,b);
plot(kN15_5,kN15_Lo,b);
plot(kN20_5,kN20_Lo,b);
plot(kN25_5,kN25_Lo,b);
plot(kN30_5,kN30_Lo,b);
plot(kN35_5,kN35_Lo,b);
plot(kN375_5,kN375_Lo,b);
plot(kN40_5,kN40_Lo,b);
plot(kN45_5,kN45_Lo,b);
plot(kN50_5,kN50_Lo,b);
plot(kN55_5,kN55_Lo,b);
plot(kN60_5,kN60_Lo,b);
plot(kN65_5,kN65_Lo,b);
plot(kN70_5,kN70_Lo,b);
plot(kN75_5,kN75_Lo,b);
plot(kN80_5,kN80_Lo,b);
plot(mm60_1_5,mm60_1_Lo,b);
plot(mm60_2_5,mm60_2_Lo,b);
plot(mm65_5,mm65_Lo,b);
plot(mm70_5,mm70_Lo,b);
plot(mm75_5,mm75_Lo,b);
plot(SB02DOF_E85_xstr,SB02DOF_yforce,c);
plot(SB04DOF_E570_xstr,SB04DOF_yforce,m);
plot(SB08DOF_E3940_xstr,SB08DOF_yforce,r);
plot(SB200DOF_E7878_xstr,SB200DOF_yforce,k);
xtitle(<<strain gage V/[5]>> strain vs. force,microstrain [],force [kN]);
scf(11)
plot(kN5_Di,kN5_1,b);
plot(kN10_Di,kN10_1,b);
plot(kN15_Di,kN15_1,b);
plot(kN20_Di,kN20_1,b);
plot(kN25_Di,kN25_1,b);
plot(kN30_Di,kN30_1,b);

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plot(kN35_Di,kN35_1,b);
plot(kN375_Di,kN375_1,b);
plot(kN40_Di,kN40_1,b);
plot(kN45_Di,kN45_1,b);
plot(kN50_Di,kN50_1,b);
plot(kN55_Di,kN55_1,b);
plot(kN60_Di,kN60_1,b);
plot(kN65_Di,kN65_1,b);
plot(kN70_Di,kN70_1,b);
plot(kN75_Di,kN75_1,b);
plot(kN80_Di,kN80_1,b);
plot(mm60_1_Di,mm60_1_1,b);
plot(mm60_2_Di,mm60_2_1,b);
plot(mm65_Di,mm65_1,b);
plot(mm70_Di,mm70_1,b);
//plot(mm75_Di,mm75_1,b);
plot(SB02DOF_N1064_ydisp,SB02DOF_E63_xstr,c);
plot(SB04DOF_N2227_ydisp,SB04DOF_E426_xstr,m);
plot(SB08DOF_N4853_ydisp,SB08DOF_E3251_xstr,r);
plot(SB200DOF_N9696_ydisp,SB200DOF_E6501_xstr,k);
xtitle(<<strain gage A/[1]>> displacement vs. strain,displacement [mm],micr
ostrain []);
scf(12)
plot(kN5_Di,kN5_2,b);
plot(kN10_Di,kN10_2,b);
plot(kN15_Di,kN15_2,b);
plot(kN20_Di,kN20_2,b);
plot(kN25_Di,kN25_2,b);
plot(kN30_Di,kN30_2,b);
plot(kN35_Di,kN35_2,b);
plot(kN375_Di,kN375_2,b);
plot(kN40_Di,kN40_2,b);
plot(kN45_Di,kN45_2,b);
plot(kN50_Di,kN50_2,b);
plot(kN55_Di,kN55_2,b);
plot(kN60_Di,kN60_2,b);
plot(kN65_Di,kN65_2,b);
plot(kN70_Di,kN70_2,b);
plot(kN75_Di,kN75_2,b);
plot(kN80_Di,kN80_2,b);
plot(mm60_1_Di,mm60_1_2,b);
plot(mm60_2_Di,mm60_2_2,b);
plot(mm65_Di,mm65_2,b);
plot(mm70_Di,mm70_2,b);
//plot(mm75_Di,mm75_2,b);
plot(SB02DOF_N1064_ydisp,SB02DOF_E61_xstr,c);
plot(SB04DOF_N2227_ydisp,SB04DOF_E422_xstr,m);
plot(SB08DOF_N4853_ydisp,SB08DOF_E3244_xstr,r);
plot(SB200DOF_N9696_ydisp,SB200DOF_E6488_xstr,k);
xtitle(<<strain gage B/[2]>> displacement vs. strain,displacement [mm],micr
ostrain []);
scf(13)
plot(kN5_Di,kN5_3,b);
plot(kN10_Di,kN10_3,b);
plot(kN15_Di,kN15_3,b);
plot(kN20_Di,kN20_3,b);
plot(kN25_Di,kN25_3,b);
plot(kN30_Di,kN30_3,b);
plot(kN35_Di,kN35_3,b);
plot(kN375_Di,kN375_3,b);
plot(kN40_Di,kN40_3,b);
plot(kN45_Di,kN45_3,b);
plot(kN50_Di,kN50_3,b);
plot(kN55_Di,kN55_3,b);
plot(kN60_Di,kN60_3,b);
plot(kN65_Di,kN65_3,b);
plot(kN70_Di,kN70_3,b);

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plot(kN75_Di,kN75_3,b);
plot(kN80_Di,kN80_3,b);
plot(mm60_1_Di,mm60_1_3,b);
plot(mm60_2_Di,mm60_2_3,b);
plot(mm65_Di,mm65_3,b);
plot(mm70_Di,mm70_3,b);
//plot(mm75_Di,mm75_3,b);
plot(SB02DOF_N1064_ydisp,SB02DOF_E60_xstr,c);
plot(SB04DOF_N2227_ydisp,SB04DOF_E420_xstr,m);
plot(SB08DOF_N4853_ydisp,SB08DOF_E3240_xstr,r);
plot(SB200DOF_N9696_ydisp,SB200DOF_E6479_xstr,k);
xtitle(<<strain gage C/[3]>> displacement vs. strain,displacement [mm],micr
ostrain []);
scf(14)
plot(kN5_Di,kN5_4,b);
plot(kN10_Di,kN10_4,b);
plot(kN15_Di,kN15_4,b);
plot(kN20_Di,kN20_4,b);
plot(kN25_Di,kN25_4,b);
plot(kN30_Di,kN30_4,b);
plot(kN35_Di,kN35_4,b);
plot(kN375_Di,kN375_4,b);
plot(kN40_Di,kN40_4,b);
plot(kN45_Di,kN45_4,b);
plot(kN50_Di,kN50_4,b);
plot(kN55_Di,kN55_4,b);
plot(kN60_Di,kN60_4,b);
plot(kN65_Di,kN65_4,b);
plot(kN70_Di,kN70_4,b);
plot(kN75_Di,kN75_4,b);
plot(kN80_Di,kN80_4,b);
plot(mm60_1_Di,mm60_1_4,b);
plot(mm60_2_Di,mm60_2_4,b);
plot(mm65_Di,mm65_4,b);
plot(mm70_Di,mm70_4,b);
//plot(mm75_Di,mm75_4,b);
plot(SB02DOF_N1064_ydisp,SB02DOF_E88_xstr,c);
plot(SB04DOF_N2227_ydisp,SB04DOF_E576_xstr,m);
plot(SB08DOF_N4853_ydisp,SB08DOF_E3952_xstr,r);
plot(SB200DOF_N9696_ydisp,SB200DOF_E7902_xstr,k);
xtitle(<<strain gage U/[4]>> displacement vs. strain,displacement [mm],micr
ostrain []);
scf(15)
plot(kN5_Di,kN5_5,b);
plot(kN10_Di,kN10_5,b);
plot(kN15_Di,kN15_5,b);
plot(kN20_Di,kN20_5,b);
plot(kN25_Di,kN25_5,b);
plot(kN30_Di,kN30_5,b);
plot(kN35_Di,kN35_5,b);
plot(kN375_Di,kN375_5,b);
plot(kN40_Di,kN40_5,b);
plot(kN45_Di,kN45_5,b);
plot(kN50_Di,kN50_5,b);
plot(kN55_Di,kN55_5,b);
plot(kN60_Di,kN60_5,b);
plot(kN65_Di,kN65_5,b);
plot(kN70_Di,kN70_5,b);
plot(kN75_Di,kN75_5,b);
plot(kN80_Di,kN80_5,b);
plot(mm60_1_Di,mm60_1_5,b);
plot(mm60_2_Di,mm60_2_5,b);
plot(mm65_Di,mm65_5,b);
plot(mm70_Di,mm70_5,b);
//plot(mm75_Di,mm75_5,b);
plot(SB02DOF_N1064_ydisp,SB02DOF_E85_xstr,c);
plot(SB04DOF_N2227_ydisp,SB04DOF_E570_xstr,m);

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plot(SB08DOF_N4853_ydisp,SB08DOF_E3940_xstr,r);
plot(SB200DOF_N9696_ydisp,SB200DOF_E7878_xstr,k);
xtitle(<<strain gage V/[5]>> displacement vs. strain,displacement [mm],micr
ostrain []);
scf(16)
subplot(2,3,1);
plot(kN5_4,kN5_Lo,b);
plot(kN10_4,kN10_Lo,b);
plot(kN15_4,kN15_Lo,b);
plot(kN20_4,kN20_Lo,b);
plot(kN25_4,kN25_Lo,b);
plot(kN30_4,kN30_Lo,b);
plot(kN35_4,kN35_Lo,b);
plot(kN375_4,kN375_Lo,b);
plot(kN40_4,kN40_Lo,b);
plot(kN45_4,kN45_Lo,b);
plot(kN50_4,kN50_Lo,b);
plot(kN55_4,kN55_Lo,b);
plot(kN60_4,kN60_Lo,b);
plot(kN65_4,kN65_Lo,b);
plot(kN70_4,kN70_Lo,b);
plot(kN75_4,kN75_Lo,b);
plot(kN80_4,kN80_Lo,b);
plot(mm60_1_4,mm60_1_Lo,b);
plot(mm60_2_4,mm60_2_Lo,b);
plot(mm65_4,mm65_Lo,b);
plot(mm70_4,mm70_Lo,b);
plot(mm75_4,mm75_Lo,b);
plot(SB02DOF_E88_xstr,SB02DOF_yforce,c);
plot(SB04DOF_E576_xstr,SB04DOF_yforce,m);
plot(SB08DOF_E3952_xstr,SB08DOF_yforce,r);
plot(SB200DOF_E7902_xstr,SB200DOF_yforce,k);
xtitle(<<strain gage U/[4]>> strain vs. force,microstrain [],force [kN]);
subplot(2,3,2);
plot(kN5_Di,kN5_Lo,b);
plot(kN10_Di,kN10_Lo,b);
plot(kN15_Di,kN15_Lo,b);
plot(kN20_Di,kN20_Lo,b);
plot(kN25_Di,kN25_Lo,b);
plot(kN30_Di,kN30_Lo,b);
plot(kN35_Di,kN35_Lo,b);
plot(kN375_Di,kN375_Lo,b);
plot(kN40_Di,kN40_Lo,b);
plot(kN45_Di,kN45_Lo,b);
plot(kN50_Di,kN50_Lo,b);
plot(kN55_Di,kN55_Lo,b);
plot(kN60_Di,kN60_Lo,b);
plot(kN65_Di,kN65_Lo,b);
plot(kN70_Di,kN70_Lo,b);
plot(kN75_Di,kN75_Lo,b);
plot(kN80_Di,kN80_Lo,b);
plot(mm60_1_Di,mm60_1_Lo,b);
plot(mm60_2_Di,mm60_2_Lo,b);
plot(mm65_Di,mm65_Lo,b);
plot(mm70_Di,mm70_Lo,b);
//plot(mm75_Di,mm75_Lo,b);
plot(SB02DOF_N1064_ydisp,SB02DOF_yforce,c);
plot(SB04DOF_N2227_ydisp,SB04DOF_yforce,m);
plot(SB08DOF_N4853_ydisp,SB08DOF_yforce,r);
plot(SB200DOF_N9696_ydisp,SB200DOF_yforce,k);
xtitle(displacement vs. force,displacement [mm],force [kN]);
subplot(2,3,3);
plot(kN5_5,kN5_Lo,b);
plot(kN10_5,kN10_Lo,b);
plot(kN15_5,kN15_Lo,b);
plot(kN20_5,kN20_Lo,b);
plot(kN25_5,kN25_Lo,b);
plot(kN30_5,kN30_Lo,b);

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plot(kN35_5,kN35_Lo,b);
plot(kN375_5,kN375_Lo,b);
plot(kN40_5,kN40_Lo,b);
plot(kN45_5,kN45_Lo,b);
plot(kN50_5,kN50_Lo,b);
plot(kN55_5,kN55_Lo,b);
plot(kN60_5,kN60_Lo,b);
plot(kN65_5,kN65_Lo,b);
plot(kN70_5,kN70_Lo,b);
plot(kN75_5,kN75_Lo,b);
plot(kN80_5,kN80_Lo,b);
plot(mm60_1_5,mm60_1_Lo,b);
plot(mm60_2_5,mm60_2_Lo,b);
plot(mm65_5,mm65_Lo,b);
plot(mm70_5,mm70_Lo,b);
plot(mm75_5,mm75_Lo,b);
plot(SB02DOF_E85_xstr,SB02DOF_yforce,c);
plot(SB04DOF_E570_xstr,SB04DOF_yforce,m);
plot(SB08DOF_E3940_xstr,SB08DOF_yforce,r);
plot(SB200DOF_E7878_xstr,SB200DOF_yforce,k);
xtitle(<<strain gage V/[5]>> strain vs. force,microstrain [],force [kN]);
subplot(2,3,4);
plot(kN5_1,kN5_Lo,b);
plot(kN10_1,kN10_Lo,b);
plot(kN15_1,kN15_Lo,b);
plot(kN20_1,kN20_Lo,b);
plot(kN25_1,kN25_Lo,b);
plot(kN30_1,kN30_Lo,b);
plot(kN35_1,kN35_Lo,b);
plot(kN375_1,kN375_Lo,b);
plot(kN40_1,kN40_Lo,b);
plot(kN45_1,kN45_Lo,b);
plot(kN50_1,kN50_Lo,b);
plot(kN55_1,kN55_Lo,b);
plot(kN60_1,kN60_Lo,b);
plot(kN65_1,kN65_Lo,b);
plot(kN70_1,kN70_Lo,b);
plot(kN75_1,kN75_Lo,b);
plot(kN80_1,kN80_Lo,b);
plot(mm60_1_1,mm60_1_Lo,b);
plot(mm60_2_1,mm60_2_Lo,b);
plot(mm65_1,mm65_Lo,b);
plot(mm70_1,mm70_Lo,b);
plot(mm75_1,mm75_Lo,b);
plot(SB02DOF_E63_xstr,SB02DOF_yforce,c);
plot(SB04DOF_E426_xstr,SB04DOF_yforce,m);
plot(SB08DOF_E3251_xstr,SB08DOF_yforce,r);
plot(SB200DOF_E6501_xstr,SB200DOF_yforce,k);
xtitle(<<strain gage A/[1]>> strain vs. force,microstrain [],force [kN]);
subplot(2,3,5);
plot(kN5_2,kN5_Lo,b);
plot(kN10_2,kN10_Lo,b);
plot(kN15_2,kN15_Lo,b);
plot(kN20_2,kN20_Lo,b);
plot(kN25_2,kN25_Lo,b);
plot(kN30_2,kN30_Lo,b);
plot(kN35_2,kN35_Lo,b);
plot(kN375_2,kN375_Lo,b);
plot(kN40_2,kN40_Lo,b);
plot(kN45_2,kN45_Lo,b);
plot(kN50_2,kN50_Lo,b);
plot(kN55_2,kN55_Lo,b);
plot(kN60_2,kN60_Lo,b);
plot(kN65_2,kN65_Lo,b);
plot(kN70_2,kN70_Lo,b);
plot(kN75_2,kN75_Lo,b);
plot(kN80_2,kN80_Lo,b);
plot(mm60_1_2,mm60_1_Lo,b);
plot(mm60_2_2,mm60_2_Lo,b);

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Mechanical_straightening_combined.sce

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plot(mm65_2,mm65_Lo,b);
plot(mm70_2,mm70_Lo,b);
plot(mm75_2,mm75_Lo,b);
plot(SB02DOF_E61_xstr,SB02DOF_yforce,c);
plot(SB04DOF_E422_xstr,SB04DOF_yforce,m);
plot(SB08DOF_E3244_xstr,SB08DOF_yforce,r);
plot(SB200DOF_E6488_xstr,SB200DOF_yforce,k);
xtitle(<<strain gage B/[2]>> strain vs. force,microstrain [],force [kN]);
subplot(2,3,6);
plot(kN5_3,kN5_Lo,b);
plot(kN10_3,kN10_Lo,b);
plot(kN15_3,kN15_Lo,b);
plot(kN20_3,kN20_Lo,b);
plot(kN25_3,kN25_Lo,b);
plot(kN30_3,kN30_Lo,b);
plot(kN35_3,kN35_Lo,b);
plot(kN375_3,kN375_Lo,b);
plot(kN40_3,kN40_Lo,b);
plot(kN45_3,kN45_Lo,b);
plot(kN50_3,kN50_Lo,b);
plot(kN55_3,kN55_Lo,b);
plot(kN60_3,kN60_Lo,b);
plot(kN65_3,kN65_Lo,b);
plot(kN70_3,kN70_Lo,b);
plot(kN75_3,kN75_Lo,b);
plot(kN80_3,kN80_Lo,b);
plot(mm60_1_3,mm60_1_Lo,b);
plot(mm60_2_3,mm60_2_Lo,b);
plot(mm65_3,mm65_Lo,b);
plot(mm70_3,mm70_Lo,b);
plot(mm75_3,mm75_Lo,b);
plot(SB02DOF_E60_xstr,SB02DOF_yforce,c);
plot(SB04DOF_E420_xstr,SB04DOF_yforce,m);
plot(SB08DOF_E3240_xstr,SB08DOF_yforce,r);
plot(SB200DOF_E6479_xstr,SB200DOF_yforce,k);
xtitle(<<strain gage C/[3]>> strain vs. force,microstrain [],force [kN]);
//end

Tuesday February 06, 2007

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Figure I1: Combined results of the mechanical straightening experiments and the finite element models

74

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Xstrain_mechanical_straightening_LSDYNA.sce Page 1/2

//DRDC Pacific Calculation T.Romans


//last modified: 6 february 2007

Feb 06, 07 11:05

Xstrain_mechanical_straightening_LSDYNA.sce Page 2/2

plot(mm04,xstrain04_down,m);
plot(mm08,xstrain08_down,r);
plot(mm200,xstrain200_down,k);
xtitle(Xstrain along the bottom of the bar at largest bending moment,distanc
e [mm],microstrain []);
//end

//make sure scilab uses the right directory is used!!!!!!!!


//make sure the names of the .txtfiles are correct!!!!!!!!
//close all figures
xdel(winsid())
//loading xstrain data into scilab
SolidBeam02DOF_xstrain=fscanfMat(SolidBeam02DOFxstrain_C.txt);
SolidBeam02DOF_xstrain_down=fscanfMat(SolidBeam02DOFxstraindown_C.txt);
SolidBeam04DOF_xstrain=fscanfMat(SolidBeam04DOFxstrain_C.txt);
SolidBeam04DOF_xstrain_down=fscanfMat(SolidBeam04DOFxstraindown_C.txt);
SolidBeam08DOF_xstrain=fscanfMat(SolidBeam08DOFxstrain_C.txt);
SolidBeam08DOF_xstrain_down=fscanfMat(SolidBeam08DOFxstraindown_C.txt);
SolidBeam200DOF_xstrain=fscanfMat(SolidBeam200DOFxstrain_C.txt);
SolidBeam200DOF_xstrain_down=fscanfMat(SolidBeam200DOFxstraindown_C.txt);
//creating Xpostions columns for the xstrain
mm02=[231.44:14.88:588.56];
mm04=[227.72:7.44:592.28];
mm08=[225.860:3.72:594.14];
mm200=[224.93:1.86:595.07];
//columns containing which elements are used
elementnumbering02=SolidBeam02DOF_xstrain(:,1);
elementnumbering04=SolidBeam04DOF_xstrain(:,1);
elementnumbering08=SolidBeam08DOF_xstrain(:,1);
elementnumbering200=SolidBeam200DOF_xstrain(:,1);
//subdiving the xstrain data and multiplying it with the
//desired factor
xstrain02=(1000000.*(SolidBeam02DOF_xstrain(:,2)));
xstrain02_down=(1000000.*(SolidBeam02DOF_xstrain_down(:,2)));
xstrain04=(1000000.*(SolidBeam04DOF_xstrain(:,2)));
xstrain04_down=(1000000.*(SolidBeam04DOF_xstrain_down(:,2)));
xstrain08=(1000000.*(SolidBeam08DOF_xstrain(:,2)));
xstrain08_down=(1000000.*(SolidBeam08DOF_xstrain_down(:,2)));
xstrain200=(1000000.*(SolidBeam200DOF_xstrain(:,2)));
xstrain200_down=(1000000.*(SolidBeam200DOF_xstrain_down(:,2)));
//plotting functions
scf(1)
plot(mm02,xstrain02,c);
plot(mm04,xstrain04,m);
plot(mm08,xstrain08,r);
plot(mm200,xstrain200,k);
xtitle(Xstrain along the top of the bar at largest beding moment <14.88/7.44/3
.72/1.86 6.99 length strain gage>,distance [mm],microstrain []);
scf(2)
plot(mm02,xstrain02_down,c);
plot(mm04,xstrain04_down,m);
plot(mm08,xstrain08_down,r);
plot(mm200,xstrain200_down,k);
xtitle(Xstrain along the bottom of the bar at largest bending moment <14.88/7.
44/3.72/1.86 6.99 length strain gage>,distance [mm],microstrain []);
scf(3)
subplot(2,1,1)
plot(mm02,xstrain02,c);
plot(mm04,xstrain04,m);
plot(mm08,xstrain08,r);
plot(mm200,xstrain200,k);
xtitle(Xstrain along the top of the bar at largest bending moment,distance [
mm],microstrain []);
subplot(2,1,2)
plot(mm02,xstrain02_down,c);

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Figure I2: Surface strain measured along the top, and the bottom, of the metal bar

76

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Feb 06, 07 11:05

XY_displacement_bar.sce

Page 1/2

//DRDC Pacific Calculation T.Romans


//last modified: 6 february 2007

Feb 06, 07 11:05

XY_displacement_bar.sce

Page 2/2

scf(2)
plot(X1u,Y1uu,b);
plot(X2u,Y2uu,b);
plot(X3u,Y3uu,b);
plot(X1d,Y1d,r);
plot(X2d,Y2d,r);
plot(X3d,Y3d,r);
xtitle(XY positions of nodes along the bottom [red] and the top [blue] the bar
,distance [mm],height [mm])

//make sure scilab uses the right directory is used!!!!!!!!


//make sure the names of the .txtfiles are correct!!!!!!!!
//close all figures
xdel(winsid())
//loading X and Y postions data into scilab
Xdispdatadown=fscanfMat(Xdispdatadown_C.txt);
Xdispdataup=fscanfMat(Xdispdataup_C.txt);
Ydispdatadown=fscanfMat(Ydispdatadown_C.txt);
Ydispdataup=fscanfMat(Ydispdataup_C.txt);

scf(3)
plot(X1dd,Y1d,b);
plot(X2dd,Y2d,r);
plot(X3dd,Y3d,g);
xtitle(XY positions,distance [mm],height [mm])
//end

//subdividing data into seperate columns


X1d=Xdispdatadown(:,2);
X2d=Xdispdatadown(:,3);
X3d=Xdispdatadown(:,4);
X1u=Xdispdataup(:,2);
X2u=Xdispdataup(:,3);
X3u=Xdispdataup(:,4);
Y1d=Ydispdatadown(:,2);
Y2d=Ydispdatadown(:,3);
Y3d=Ydispdatadown(:,4);
Y1u=Ydispdataup(:,2);
Y2u=Ydispdataup(:,3);
Y3u=Ydispdataup(:,4);
//defining a trendling for rotation
//adding a minus offset to this trendline
//offset is different for distance and height
off=[0.050271604:0.012567901:1.206518519];
off1=(0.485+off);
offu=[0.0509:0.012725:1.222];
offu=(0.485+offu);
offd=[1.222:0.012725:0.0509];
offd=(0.485+offd);
//adding the offset to the yposition to get
//the desired yposition, which compare to the
//mechanical straightening experiments
Y1d=Y1d+offd;
Y2d=Y2d+offd;
Y3d=Y3d+offd;
Y1u=Y1u+offu;
Y2u=Y2u+offu;
Y3u=Y3u+offu;
//plotting functions
scf(1)
subplot(2,1,1)
plot(X1u,Y1u,b);
plot(X2u,Y2u,r);
plot(X3u,Y3u,g);
xtitle(XY positions of nodes along the top of the bar,distance [mm],height
[mm])
subplot(2,1,2)
plot(X1d,Y1d,b);
plot(X2d,Y2d,r);
plot(X3d,Y3d,g);
xtitle(XY positions of nodes along the bottom of the bar,distance [mm],heig
ht [mm])
Y1uu=31.0+Y1u;
Y2uu=31.0+Y2u;
Y3uu=31.0+Y3u;

Tuesday February 06, 2007

XY_displacement_bar.sce

1/1

Figure I3: x- and y-position of nodes along the bottom and top of the bar, mechanical straightening

78

Appendix J: Plots of finite element variations

Figure J1: Displacement vs. force for different finite element programs

Figure J2: Displacement vs. effective stress in the middle of the bar for different finite
element programs

79

Figure J3: Displacement vs. surface stress (in x-direction top) for different finite element
programs

Figure J4: Displacement vs. surface stress (in x-direction bottom) for different finite element
programs

80

Appendix K: Compressed heat transfer keyword file

81

Printed by Thijs Romans COOP


Feb 15, 07 12:17

SB08DOFHT_44C_Compressed.k

Page 1/4

*KEYWORD
*TITLE
Solid Beam in Bending 08 DOF, Heat Transfer 44Conductivity
$
$ DRDC Pacific, calculation T.Romans
$
$ Last Modified: 7 February, 2007
$
$ Units: m, s, kg, N, Pa, J, K
$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$
$$$$
Control Ouput
$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$
$...>....1....>....2....>....3....>....4....>....5....>....6....>....7....>....8
$
*CONTROL_SOLUTION
$
soln
2
$
*CONTROL_TERMINATION
$
endtim
endcyc
dtmin
endneg
endmas
288
$
*CONTROL_THERMAL_SOLVER
$
atype
ptype
solver
cgtol
gpt
eqheat
fwork
sbc
1
$
*CONTROL_TIMESTEP
$
dtnit
tssfac
isdo
tslimt
dt2ms
lctm
erode
ms1st
0.0001
$
*CONTROL_THERMAL_TIMESTEP
$
ts
tip
its
tmin
tmax
dtemp
tscp
1
1
0.1
5
$
*CONTROL_OUTPUT
$
npopt
neecho
nrefup
iaccop
opifs
ipnint
ikedit
1
3
$
*CONTROL_HOURGLASS
$
igh
qh
4
$
$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$
$$$$
Database
$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$
*DATABASE_BINARY_D3PLOT
$
dt
lcdt
1
$
*DATABASE_BINARY_D3THDT
$
dt
1
$
*DATABASE_EXTENT_BINARY
$
neiph
neips
maxint
strflg
sigflg
epsflg
rltflg
engflg
1
$
$
cmpflg
ieverp
beamip
1
$
*DATABASE_ELOUT

Thursday February 15, 2007

Feb 15, 07 12:17


$

SB08DOFHT_44C_Compressed.k

Page 2/4

dt
1

$
$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$
$$$$
Define Parts and Materials
$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$
*PART
$
pid
sid
mid
eosid
hgid
grav
adpopt
tmid
Beam
1
1
1
1
$
$
$$$$
Sections
$
*SECTION_SOLID
$
secid
elform
aet
1
1
$
$
$$$$
Mechanical Material Properties
$
*MAT_ELASTIC_PLASTIC_THERMAL
$
mid
ro
1
7.8e3
$
$
t1
t2
t3
t4
t5
t6
293
398
523
648
773
873
$
$
e1
e2
e3
e4
e5
e6
210e+9
204e+9
196e+9
185e+9
170e+9
158e+9
$
$
pr1
pr2
pr3
pr4
pr5
pr6
0.31
0.31
0.31
0.31
0.31
0.31
$
$
alpha1
alpha2
alpha3
alpha4
alpha5
alpha6
1.1e5
1.3e5
1.5e5
1.7e5
1.9e5
2.1e5
$
$
sigy1
sigy2
sigy3
sigy4
sigy5
sigy6
550e+6
482e+6
415e+6
348e+6
280e+6
221e+6
$
$
etan1
etan2
etan3
etan4
etan5
etan6
30e+9
30e+9
30e+9
30e+9
30e+9
30e+9
$
$
$$$$
Thermal Material Properties
$
*MAT_THERMAL_ISOTROPIC_TD
$
tmid
tro
tgrlc
tgmult
1
0
$
$
t1
t2
t3
t4
t5
t6
293
398
523
648
773
873
$
$
c1
c2
c3
c4
c5
c6
456
500
556
600
652
733
$
$
k1
k2
k3
k4
k5
k6
44
44
44
44
44
44
$
$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$
$$$$
Boundary Conditions
$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

SB08DOFHT_44C_Compressed.k

1/2

Printed by Thijs Romans COOP


Feb 15, 07 12:17

SB08DOFHT_44C_Compressed.k

Page 3/4

$
*BOUNDARY_SPC_NODE
$
nid
cid
dofx
dofy
dofz
dofrx
dofry
dofrz
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
101
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1001
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1101
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
2001
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
2101
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
3001
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
3101
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
4001
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
4101
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
5001
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
5101
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
6001
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
6101
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
7001
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
7101
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
8001
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
8101
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
$
*SET_NODE_LIST
$
sid
2
$
$
nid1
nid2
nid3
nid4
nid5
nid6
nid7
nid8
841
842
843
844
845
1841
1842
1843
1844
1845
2841
2842
2843
2844
2845
3841
3842
3843
3844
3845
4841
4842
4843
4844
4845
5841
5842
5843
5844
5845
6841
6842
6843
6844
6845
7841
7842
7843
7844
7845
8841
8842
8843
8844
8845
$
*BOUNDARY_TEMPERATURE_SET
$ nid/sid
lcid
cmult
loc
2
1
1
$
*DEFINE_CURVE
$
lcid
sidr
scla
sclo
offa
offo
1
$
$
abscissa
ordinate
0
328
20
826
34.5
726
58.5
467
169.5
357
288
325
$
$
$$$$
Thermal Boundary Conditions
$
*INITIAL_TEMPERATURE_SET
$ nsid/nid
temp
0
328
$
$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$
$$$$ Define Nodes and Elements
$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$
$
$$$$
Node Generation Beam
$
*NODE
1,0.230000,0.000000,0.000000,0,0

Thursday February 15, 2007

Feb 15, 07 12:17

SB08DOFHT_44C_Compressed.k

2,0.236530,0.000160,0.000000,0,0
3,0.243060,0.000318,0.000000,0,0
...
...
...
8907,0.869940,0.031138,0.038000,0,0
8908,0.876470,0.031057,0.038000,0,0
8909,0.883000,0.031000,0.038000,0,0
$
$
$$$$ Elements Generation Beam (100x,8y,8z)
$
*ELEMENT_SOLID
$
eid
pid
n1
n2
n3
n4
1,1,1,2,103,102,1001,1002,1103,1102
2,1,2,3,104,103,1002,1003,1104,1103
3,1,3,4,105,104,1003,1004,1105,1104
...
...
...
6398,1,7805,7806,7907,7906,8805,8806,8907,8906
6399,1,7806,7807,7908,7907,8806,8807,8908,8907
6400,1,7807,7808,7909,7908,8807,8808,8909,8908
$
*END

SB08DOFHT_44C_Compressed.k

n5

n6

Page 4/4

n7

n8

2/2

Appendix L: Flame_straightening.sce

84

Printed by Thijs Romans COOP


Feb 07, 07 15:13

Flame_straightening.sce

//DRDC Pacific Calculation T.Romans


//last modified: 7 february 2007
//make sure scilab uses the right directory is used!!!
//make sure the names of the .txtfiles are correct!!!
//close all figures
xdel(winsid())
///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//
//// plotting temperature versus time calculations
//
///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//importing data
data01=fscanfMat(FlameStraighteningExcel.txt);
data02=fscanfMat(Temp_44C_down.txt);
data03=fscanfMat(Temp_44C_top.txt);
data04=fscanfMat(Temp_MAR_down.txt);
data05=fscanfMat(Temp_MAR_top.txt);
//subdividing and selecting experimental data
X=data01(:,1);
Y1=data01(:,2);
Y2=data01(:,3);
X=[0:2:1168];
Y1=Y1(1215:1799,:);
Y2=Y2(1215:1799,:);
//plotting experimental data
scf(1)
plot(X,Y1,r)
plot(X,Y2,g)
//interpolation of experimental data
Xr=[0:3.2:1168];
[Yr1]=interp1(X,Y1,Xr,nearest);
[Yr2]=interp1(X,Y2,Xr,nearest);

Page 1/2

Feb 07, 07 15:13

Flame_straightening.sce

Page 2/2

plot(XTTMAR,YTTMAR,b);
xtitle(Time vs. temperature (constant 44 conductivity [green] / martensite cond
uctivity [blue]),time [sec],temprature [celsius]);
///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//
//// plotting x and ypositions of nodes on top surface
//
///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//importing data
datax10=fscanfMat(x_pos_top_44C_C.txt);
datay11=fscanfMat(y_pos_top_44C_C.txt);
datax12=fscanfMat(x_pos_top_MAR_C.txt);
datay13=fscanfMat(y_pos_top_MAR_C.txt);
//subdividing data
pt44CX_0=datax10(:,2);
pt44CX_288=datax10(:,3);
pt44CY_0=datay11(:,2);
pt44CY_288=datay11(:,3);
ptMARX_0=datax12(:,2);
ptMARX_288=datax12(:,3);
ptMARY_0=datay13(:,2);
ptMARY_288=datay13(:,3);
//plotting data
scf(3)
plot(pt44CX_0,pt44CY_0,b);
plot(pt44CX_288,pt44CY_288,r);
xtitle(<44 Conductivity> x and yposition of nodes along the top surface (time
0 [blue] / time 288 [red]),distance [m],height [m]);
scf(4)
plot(ptMARX_0,ptMARY_0,b);
plot(ptMARX_288,ptMARY_288,r);
xtitle(<Martensite> x and yposition of nodes along the top surface (time 0 [b
lue] / time 288 [red]),distance [m],height [m]);
//end

//plotting interpolations into experimental data plot


plot(Xr,Yr1,b)
plot(Xr,Yr2,b)
//further selection of experimental data
XrF=[0.4:3.2:290.8];
Yr1=Yr1;
Yr1F=Yr1(129:220,:);
Yr2=Yr2;
Yr2F=Yr2(129:220,:);
//subdividing finite element data
XDT44C=(data02(:,1));
YDT44C=273+(data02(:,2));
XTT44C=(data03(:,1));
YTT44C=273+(data03(:,2));
XDTMAR=(data04(:,1));
YDTMAR=273+(data04(:,2));
XTTMAR=(data05(:,1));
YTTMAR=273+(data05(:,2));
//combined plotting functions
scf(2)
plot(XrF,Yr1F,r);
plot(XrF,Yr2F,r);
plot(XDT44C,YDT44C,g);
plot(XTT44C,YTT44C,g);
plot(XDTMAR,YDTMAR,b);

Wednesday February 07, 2007

Flame_straightening.sce

1/1

Figure L1: Time versus temperature for the flame straightening case

86