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Q.

Sol:

You determine that 187 J of heat is required to raise the temperature of 93.45 g of silver from 18.5 o C to 27.0 o C. What is the specific heat capacity of silver? The heat change with change in temperature can be related as

q = ms T

where q is heat change m is mass of matter, s is specific heat capacity, and T is change in temperature. On solving.

JK g

q

187

==

m T

93.45

×

8.5

= 0.2354

1

s

1

Q You add 100.0 g of water at 60 o C to 100 g of ice at 0.00 o C. Some of the ice melts and cools

the water to 0.00 o C. When the ice and water mixture has come to a uniform temperature of 0.00 o C, how much ice has melted?

Sol: heat absorbed by ice during melting = heat lost by water on cooling There fore

where

mL

If

= ms T

w

m

L

I

f

is mass of ice melted = ?

is latent heat of fusion of ice = 6.008 kJ/mol = 333.778 J/g

Q:

Sol:

m

w is mass of water =100g

s is specific heat of water = 4.18 J/g T is change in temperature = 60

On solving

m

I

ms T

w

100

4.18

××

60

==

L

f

333.778

= 75.14

g

Suppose that only two 45g ice cubes had been added to your glass containing

When thermal equilibrium is reached, all of the ice have melted, and the temperature of the mixture will be some where between 20.0 o C to 0.0 o C. Calculate the final temperature of the beverage. ( Note: The 90 g of water formed when ice melts must be warmed to final temperature) Heat absorbed by ice cubes during melting + Heat absorbed in increasing temperature of water = Heat lost in cooling of tea Therefore

×

= 90× 333.778 + 376.2t =−2090t + 41800

= 41800 30040.02 = 2466.2t =

2

5×10 ml of tea.

m L + m s T =− ms T =

I

f

ww

tt

90

×

333.778

+

90

t =

11759.98

4.18

× t − =−

(

0)

500

×

4.18

(

× t

20)

= 4.768

2466.2

Q:

Sol:

Cobalt- 60 is a radioactive isotope used in medicine for treatment of certain cancers. It produces β particles and γ rays, the latter is having energies of 1.173 and 1.332 MeV ( 1MeV = 10 electron volts and 1eV = 9.6485×10 J / mol ) What are the wavelength and frequency of γ ray photon with an energy of 1.173MeV? Energy of any radiation can be obtained by using planks equation i.e. E = hυ energy of photon

is

6

4

1.173

××

10

6

9.6485

×

10

4

E =

1.8794

10

13

J

21

6.022

E

==

h

The wave length is calculated as

On solving

υ

×

10

23

1.8794

×

10

13

6.625

×

10

34

=

λ =

c

0.2837

×

10

3

×

=

10

8

2.837

×

10

20

Hertz

10

12

m

o

105

=

υ

2.837

×

10

20

=

1.0574

×

Q:

Sol:

Q:

Sol:

Q:

Sol:

Q:

Sol:

When Sojourner spacecraft landed on Mars in 1997, the planet is approximately

from earth. How long did it take for the television picture signal to reach Earth from Mars?

All electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed of

7.8×10

7 Km

3×10

8 m / s so from a distance of

7.8×10

is

7.8

7

km is equal to

×

10

10

t

=

3

×

10

8

2.6

10

7.8×10

2 sec.

10 m. Time required for traveling of signal = distance/speed that

Why is the radius of Li + , so much smaller that the radius of lithium? Why is the radius of

F so much larger than the radius of F? Radius of an atom is defined as the distance from center of nucleus to the point where significant probability of finding electron exists. Radius of lithium ion is smaller then the

which on ionization

becomes 1s 2 s

atom. Radius of fluoride ion is greater then fluorine atom because direct measurement of radius is not possible so radius is measured by alternate means for fluorine the radius is covalent radius that is mean of internuclear distance of covalent molecule. While radius of fluoride ion is its ionic radius that is mean of internuclear distance of its compounds. Further addition of an extra electron increases repulsion among electrons of the valence shell. Compare the configurations below with two electrons located in p orbitals. Which would be the least stable? Explain your answers.

radius of lithium because lithium is having electronic configuration

1s

2

2 s

1

2

0

thus last electron of lithium ion is in first shell and not second as in lithium

lithium ion is in first shell and not second as in lithium a) The lowest energy
lithium ion is in first shell and not second as in lithium a) The lowest energy
lithium ion is in first shell and not second as in lithium a) The lowest energy
lithium ion is in first shell and not second as in lithium a) The lowest energy

a)

The lowest energy is represented by option d as here electrons are unpaired and having parallel spin. Spin of electron is giving it a magnetic character, parallel spin means same magnetic orientation. In (A) electron with parallel spin are in same orbital thus huge repulsions. In (B) electrons have opposite spin thus attract each other, but in this configuration multiplicity is limited, whereas electron tends to attain maximum multiplicity. In (C) spin is opposite as well as unpaired but reversal of spin is energy consuming. So the best configuration is option (D).

b)

c)

d)

Write electron configurations to show the first two ionization process for potassium. Explain why second ionization energy is much greater then the first.

The electronic configuration of potassium atom is

While that of

and that of

Second ionization energy of potassium is much higher then first because by using first ionization energy potassium is acquiring configuration of a noble gas which is relatively stable system, but by using 2 nd ionization energy ion loses noble gas configuration hence become unstable. Half filled and fully filled configuration are relatively more stable then other configurations because in these configuration distribution of electrons is symmetrical around the nucleus

22

122s

s

ps33 ps4

.

62

61

K

+ =

22

122ss

62

ps33 p

6

K

2

+ =

22

122ss

62

ps33 p

5