Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 5

The economy of Pakistan is the 26th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power parity

(PPP), and 44th largest in terms of nominal GDP. However as Pakistan has a population of over
186 million (the world's 6th-largest), thus GDP per capita is $4,141 ranking 140th in the world.
Pakistan is a rapidly developing country
and is one of the Next Eleven, the eleven
countries that, along with the BRICs, have a high potential to become the world's largest
economies in the 21st century. However, after decades of war and social instability, as of 2013,
serious deficiencies in basic services such as railway transportation and electric power generation
had developed.
The economy is semi-industrialized, with centres of growth along the Indus
Major industries includes textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn),
chemicals, food processing (mainly sugar, salt, wheat, rice, fruit), agriculture, fertilizer, cement,
dairy and rugs.
Growth poles of Pakistan's economy are situated along the Indus River;
the diversified
economies of Karachi and major urban centers in the Punjab, coexisting with lesser developed
areas in other parts of the country.
The economy has suffered in the past from internal
political disputes, a fast growing population, mixed levels of foreign investment.
exchange reserves are bolstered by steady worker remittances, but a growing current account
deficit driven by a widening trade gap as import growth outstrips export expansion could
draw down reserves and dampen GDP growth in the medium term. Pakistan is currently
undergoing process economic liberalization with includes privatization of all government
corporations, aimed to attract foreign investment and decrease budget deficit. In 2014, foreign
currency reserves cross $10b while it is expected to cross $15 billion by mid-2014

Pakistan Livestock overview
History & Development of Poultry Industry in Pakistan

Prior to 1963 the native breed "Desi" was mainly raised which produced a maximum of 73 eggs per year
under local conditions. An improved breed "Lyallpur Silver Black" was evolved in 1965-66 in the
department of Poultry Husbandry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. The layers of this breed are
capable of producing 150 egg/year and gaining 1.4 kg weight in 12 weeks of age under favorable
management and feeding conditions.

Poultry in Pakistan was kept as backyard business
for household needs. In early sixties the need of
commercial poultry was felt which resulted in 1963,
in the form of a national campaign to enhance the
production of feed products in the country. Under
this campaign the government announce a tax
exemption policy on the income derived from
poultry farming. Pakistan International Airlines (PIA)
in collaboration with Shaver Poultry Breeding Farms
of Canada started first commercial hatchery in
Karachi. Simultaneously, a commercial poultry feed
mill was started by Lever Brothers (Pvt), Pakistan
Ltd., at Rahim Yar Khan, which was followed by other pioneers like Arbor Acres Ltd.

Special emphasis was laid by the Government on development of poultry industry in the country during
1965-75. The Government made major policy decisions to provide all possible facilities to poultry industry
in the annual development plans. The incentives provided to poultry farmers/poultry industry included.

1. Tax exemption on income derived from poultry farming.

2. Import of flock and incubators was permitted under free list.

3. Allotment of state land on lease for poultry farming at very nominal rates.

4. Established poultry research institutes at Karachi and Rawalpindi through Food and Agricultural
Organization (FAO) of the United Nations to facilitate research services specifically concerning disease
control programmes.

5. Two meatless days were announced to encourage poultry meat consumption.

6. Subsidy on grains to form low cost quality ration, through UNDP-grains.

7. Loan through ADBP for the construction, of poultry sheds.

8. Established directorates of Poultry Production in Karachi and Punjab to provide extension services to
the poultry farmers.

9. Establishment of Federal Poultry Board to coordinate government and industry activities in the poultry

The subsequent development of Pakistans Poultry Industry can be divided into four phases

Phase 1: The Introductory Period 1965-1970.
During this period the early poultry ventures, involving risks were supported by Government policies that
exempted poultry production form national tax levies and permitted producers to import genetically
improved breeding stocks and equipment such as incubators. A number of catalytic forces shaped the
early development of the poultry industry.

These forces included potential profits in the industry, availability of technologies and supportive
government policies resulting form the perception of a protein deficiency in Pakistani diet. The
government of Pakistan also established the Directorate of Poultry Production at Karachi, which provided
extension services to the growing numbers of poultry farmers. The early development of the industry was
also characterized by emerging problems including rising feed costs, disease outbreaks and consumer
preferences for Desi birds.

Phase 2: Institutional Development 1971-1975.
As poultry production became a significant enterprise in the agricultural economy of Pakistan, the
government strengthened institutions serving the new industry. The Federal Poultry Board was
established to coordinate government and industry activities, in the layer and broiler business. Research
services were offered through the Poultry Research Institute with the assistance of UNDP/FAO funds.
The Directorate of Poultry Development was established in Punjab similar to that in Karachi. Poultry
Producers struggled with the adverse effects of government programmes e.g. the ban on export of poultry
products and the consequences of some major planning flaws such the establishment of poultry estates
clustered together without adequate sanitation and health control. This phase is characterized by both the
greatest success of the poultry industry and its greatest failure. A dramatic increase in poultry production
resulted due to diverted investments form the nationalization of industries in other sectors. At the same
time the clustering of production units led to large disease outbreaks and the lack of marketing facilities
due to ban on export of poultry products limited industry growth.

Phase 3: The Production Boom 1976-1980.
The government of Sindh followed a policy to attract investment in poultry farming by offering estate land
under ten year leases. At the same time, the nationalization of other industries contributing the entry of
capital into poultry industry, particularly in the Punjab, resulted in the poultry production boom.
Commercial egg production increased from 624 million eggs in 1976 to 1223 million eggs in 1980. Broiler
production increased form 7.2 million birds to 17.4 million birds during the same period. The increase
volume of production was forced through limited marketing channels. Serious financial setbacks to poultry
farming in Pakistan culminated from discontinuation of poultry exports; disease problems; high relative
prices of poultry feed; deteriorating feed quality; and limited supply of feed ingredients. Poultry farmers
faced with financial problems and seeking remedial measures formed the Pakistan Poultry Association in
1979 on the advice of the Federal Poultry Board.

Phase 4: Depression and Adjustment 1981-1990.
Disease problems posed a serious threat to the sound development and consolidation of the industry.
The large Karachi poultry estates began to close in 1984 and a number of poultry farms closed in other
areas of Sindh. Production showed a decreased growth or even depression during early 1980 particularly
of increases in the Punjab, Baluchistan and NWFP. However, in the later part of 1980s starting form
1985 industry seemed to be readjusted with much rise in poultry number particularly in broilers. Faced
with disease problems, lower productivity and numerous environmental and climatic difficulties, some of
more successful farmers decided to produce under more modernized conditions and to establish their
poultry farms in cooler, less polluted area of the country. Breeding farms in Karachi and Punjab thus
relocated to Abbotabad, to the base of the Murree Hills and to the Valley of Quetta. The farmers also built
houses with controlled environments for breeders, broilers and commercial layers.

1991 to Now:
In this period was a disaster due to diseases, in 1990 the farmers suffered a great loss due to Hydro
pericardium syndrome specially the farmers of Broiler and Broiler Breeder Birds. In 1991-92 an other
disease Gumboro attacked the chicks of broiler, layer and parent flock that resulted in great mortality.
With the passage of time efforts to reduce the incidence of these diseases and prophylaxes regarding
vaccination and bio-security were done, this also resulted in establishment of new medicine companies
and the importation of vaccines form abroad started. At national level institutes like Poultry Research
Institute, Veterinary Research Institute and Agriculture University Faisalabad also done efforts to reduce
these diseases.

In 1995 a new disease Avian Influenza appeared in Murree and Abbotabad and mortality in parent flock
rose up to 80% due to this disease and set a challenge to the scientists at national level. Conferences at
the diagnosis of this disease were conducted in which scientists discussed their point of views, after great
loss measures were adopted that resulted in controlling the disease. In 1996 parent flock increased in
number due to absence of planning that resulted in depression in the market and the price of chicks
decreased several times its cost of production. This depression in Poultry market continued in 1997 as
result of ban on serving of lunch in marriage parties that reduced the demand of poultry products in the
market up to 40%. Slowly in 1998 it started improving and by increase in price of chick the companies got
a great profit. 1999 again a syndrome like influenza broke that cause great loss in some areas while
some areas were safe. Now still there are many threats to the poultry industry the manor of which is the
marketing problems of chicks to finished products, a great planning is required in this regard. At this time
it is supposed that big firms like Be Be Jan can be help full to reduce the instability of the market but it
may be before time.

Poultry Status in Pakistan
Pakistan 1968 1977 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

Investment in commercial poultry farming sector (million Rs.) 65 915.2 1460 3600 12300 27000 36389.00

Hatcheries (Commercial)

i) Number 2 23 41 100 218 256 189.00

ii) Capacity to produce chicks (Million) 4.84 38.05 52.84 132.20 276.00 403.025 351.10

iii) Day old chicks produced (Million) 2.35 28.08 30.76 67.96 112.02 297.900 235.00

Feed mills (Commercial)

i) Number 2 17 27 51 114 147 138.00

ii) Capacity to produce feed (million ton) 0.048 0.247 0.390 0.850 2.811 2.650 2.66

iii) Poultry feed produced (million ton) 0.012 0.102 0.207 0.637 1.800 1.240 1.43

Commercial poultry farms (number)

i) Layers 202 1450 2030 3684 4687 5300 4632.00

ii) Broilers 176 725 1120 3482 7318 8125 16489.00

iii) Breeding 2 30 55 201 425 516 553.00

Capacity to maintain/ produce birds per annum

i) Layer (commercial) million nos. 0.40 4.25 7.17 10.00 15.6 24.81

ii) Broilers (commercial) million nos. 2.86 11.50 24.66 60.10 187.1 221.18

iii) Breeding stock (commercial) million 0.02 0.31 0.40 1.00 3.1 9.83

Birds maintained/ produced

i) Layers (commercial) million nos. 3.320 8.291 10.00 12.00 14.26

ii) Broilers (commercial) million nos. 8.010 45.200 74.1 230.00 192.89

iii) Breeding stock (commercial) million 0.220 0.840 1.8 3.435 5.24

Poultry products

i) Commercial eggs (million) 730 1990 2405 2880 3336.00

ii) Commercial meat 10270 49330 77235 217780 190934.53

a) Broiler (MT) 7610 42940 68930 207000 177072.90

b) Culled birds & layers (MT) 2660 6390 8305 10780 13861.63

Rural Poultry (Desi)

i) Eggs (million nos.) 1036 1575 2085 2360 5341.00

ii) Meat (metric tons) 38110 57410 74100 147190 142292.75

Total (commercial & rural poultry)

i) Birds maintained (million nos.) 45.050 101.541 146.9 323.235 292.42

ii) Eggs (million nos.) 1766 3565 4490 5240 8677.00

iii) Meat (metric tons) 48300 106740 151335 364970 333227.28