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Pipeline Integrity Management MSc

Integrity Assessments (Module VAL 340) 30 Credits
Land Pipeline Engineering (Module VAL 341) 30 Credits
Pipelines Risk (VAL 342) - 20 Credits
Materials Technology (Module VAL 343) - 20 Credits
Geohazards and Pipelines (Module VAL 344) - 20 Credits
Pipeline Integrity Management Dissertation (Module VAL 345) - 60 credits

Integrity Assessments
Introduction to Pipeline Engineering Principles
o Pipeline design principles
o Stresses in pipelines
o Routing of pipelines
o Pipeline operating and maintenance parameters
o Maintenance and inspection methods

Introduction to Pipeline Defects Why Pipelines Fail
o How safe are pipelines?
o How often do they fail? What causes pipelines to fail?
o Pipeline risks. History of pipeline defect assessment

Introduction to Fracture Mechanics
o Theoretical principles
o Brittle & ductile fracture
o K, J, and CTOD

Introduction to Fundamental Pipeline Defect Failure Relationships
o Why pipeline defects fail
o Fundamental failure relationships
o Explanation of key parameters

How to Assess Corrosion Defects
o Introduction to theoretical principles, background, strengths and weaknesses
o Methods to assess corrosion
o ASME B31.G, RSTRENG, DNV methods
o interacting defects
o Universal curves for assessing corrosion defects.
Tutorial: Corrosion Assessment using Fitness for Purpose

How to Assess Gouges and Dents
o Theoretical principles
o Methods to assess gouges and dents
o Problems with fatigue loadings

How to Assess Cracks and Weld Defects
o Theoretical principles, the problems with cracks in pipelines
o Stress corrosion cracking (low and high pH)
o Assessing defects in pipeline girth welds
o Assessing non planar defects in welds
o The EPRG girth weld defect guidelines

Setting Intelligent Pig Inspection Levels
o Pigs where they came from and what they can do.
o Theoretical principles
o What pigs can detect
o What operators want to detect
o Setting intelligent pig inspection levels
Tutorial: Setting Intelligent Pig Inspection Levels

Fracture Propagation and Arrest
o Why fractures propagate
o Brittle and ductile propagation
o Fracture arrest
o Calculating toughness requirements

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How to Assess Fatigue
o Why do pipelines fatigue?
o Fatigue theory - LEFM
o Fatigue assessment design/service

Pipeline Repair and Rehabilitation
o Response to discovering defects
o What are the cost implications?
o Types of repair and rehabilitation methods
Weld deposition
Shells (including epoxy-filled)
Composite wraps
Cut outs
Mechanical clamps/connectors
Repair and rehabilitation strategy

Risk Management & Setting Inspection & Maintenance Priorities
o What is risk analysis?
o How to incorporate defect assessments and significance into quantitative and qualitative risk analyses
o How defect assessments assist with risk analyses
o Prioritisation schemes

Land Pipeline Engineering
Pipeline Engineering Principles
The Petroleum Industry, Oil and Gas
Introduction to Pipelines
Essential pipeline and material parameters
Pipeline Safety
History of Pipelines

Pipeline Materials Selection
Steels used for Line pipe
Compositional Limitations, Mechanical Properties, Grades
Fabrication of Line pipe Seamless, Longitudinal Welded, ERW, Spiral
Toughness and Weldability
Improving Corrosion Resistance
Solid Corrosion Resistant Alloy Pipe
Internally Clad Pipe
New Materials

Pipeline Design
Legislation and regulations
Development of pipeline design codes
Design Process
Detailed design:
o product categorisation,
o locating pipelines,
o design pressures, factors, and stressing.
Pipeline Crossings
Pipeline Valves

Other Pipeline Design Considerations
Pipe protection
Fracture control
Fluids and Hydraulics

Pipeline Welding
Principles of Welding
Types of Welding Processes
Effects on Line pipe of the Welding Process
Welding Procedures
Inspection of Welds

Tutorial: Design Exercise Part 1
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Pipeline Routing and Construction
Principles of routeing
Classification schemes
Easements and rights of way
Legislation and permits
Routeing methodologies
Pipeline construction

Internal Pipeline Corrosion
Why Pipes Corrode
Sweet Corrosion, Sour Corrosion, Microbiological Corrosion
Cracking Mechanisms
Calculating Corrosion Rates
Effect of Flow on Corrosion
Water Injection Pipelines

Monitoring of Internal Pipeline Corrosion
Inhibition of Corrosion
Biocide Treatment of Pipelines
Monitoring Internal Corrosion
Supplementary Inspection Techniques

Pipeline Testing, Operation, Inspection
Pressure Testing
Incorrect operation
Control Systems, Leak Detection
Inspection and monitoring of operational pipelines

Pipeline Project Control
Scheduling and resource planning
Contracting strategies

External Pipeline Corrosion and its Prevention
External Corrosion in Soils
Coatings and their Application
Field Joints
Interaction of Coatings and Cathodic Protection

Tutorial: Design Exercise Part 2

Cathodic Protection
How Cathodic Protection Works
Monitoring of CP at Test Points
Full Line Surveys with CIPS and Instant Off Surveys
Coating Surveys using Pearson and DCVG Techniques
Interference from Third Party Lines and DC/AC systems

Utility and Intelligent (Smart) Pig Inspection
The History of Internal Inspection
Why Pig?
Types of Pig
The History of Internal Inspection
Why Pig?
Types of Pig
Intelligent (Smart) Pigs:
o Metal loss (MFL, UT)
o Geometry
o Mapping
o Crack detection
What do they find and how accurate are they?
Pigs versus Hydrotest
Pipeline Engineers
Responsibilities, duties and ethical behaviour

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Pipeline Repair
Pipeline Defects
Pressure reductions prior to repair
Repair methods:
o Grinding
o Weld deposition
o Sleeves
o Clamps
o Hot tapping
o Composite wraps

Pipeline Integrity Management
Risk and risk analysis
Integrity management methods:
o API 1160
o ASME B31.8S

Pipelines Risk
Principles of Hazard and Risk Assessment
Concepts and Definitions
o What is a hazard, risk etc.?
o What is risk analysis, risk assessment and risk management?
Why do we need risk assessment for pipelines?
What to expect from a risk assessment?
Hazard identification techniques
o Hazard identification exercise

Risk Assessment Methods
Introduction to different approaches
o Qualitative
o Index/Scoring Methods
o Semi-Quantitative
o Quantitative
Code approaches to risk assessment

Failure Frequency and Consequence Analysis
How to determine pipeline failure frequency
o Historic data, generic models and prediction
Safety, environmental, financial and other consequences
Safety consequence analysis

Risk Calculation
Calculation of Risk
o Interaction length
o Individual and Societal
o Risk calculation exercise
Presentation of Risk
o Risk transects
o FN curves
o EV and PLL

Risk Acceptability
Voluntary and Involuntary risk
Individual and Societal Risk acceptance
Decision process
o Cost Benefit Analysis
o Decision Theory
Regulatory style and risk acceptance
o UK vs US

Risk Control
Control and mitigation of risks
o Control of frequency and consequences
o Control of risk by Design, Operation and Inspection

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Risk Management Systems
Risk management systems for pipelines
o Background and theory
Risk management codes
o ASME B31.8S, API 1160, etc.

Risk Management Tutorial

Materials Technology
Carbon Manganese Steel Pipelines
Historical use of pipelines
Development of steels for pipelines
Material specifications

Pipelines for Sour Service
Sour corrosion
Sulphide stress cracking
Hydrogen induced cracking
Stress orientated hydrogen induced cracking

Welding of Pipelines
Methods of welding
Longitudinal welds
Girth welds
Hyperbaric welds
Specifications and codes
Standard inspection and evolving methods.

Internal Corrosion of Carbon Steel Pipelines
Sweet corrosion
Sour corrosion
Effects of temperature, pressure, flowrate, flow morphology on corrosion
Algorithms to calculate corrosion rates and corrosion allowances
Inhibition of corrosion
Selection of inhibitors

Microbiological Corrosion of Pipelines
Nature of microorganisms
Sulphate-reducing bacteria
Identification and enumeration of bacteria
Water injection systems
Biocide treatments in water and crude oil pipelines

Monitoring of Corrosion and Evaluation of Inhibitor Efficiency
Corrosion fittings, weight loss and electrical probes
On line retrieval
Chemical analyses
Calculation of corrosion trends
Efficiency of inhibition

Corrosion Resistant Alloy Pipelines and Flexible Pipelines
CRA selection and cost analysis
Specific materials and fabrication methods of CRA pipelines
Flexible risers and pipelines
Materials limitations
Specific corrosion and cracking issues including environmental embrittlement

External Coating of Pipelines
External corrosion
Interaction of coating and cathodic protection
Types of coatings
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Application of coatings
Field joints and infills

Cathodic Protection Design and Inspection
Mechanism of CP
Sacrificial protection for submarine pipelines
Impressed current protection for onshore pipelines
Design of systems
Specifications and codes
Inspection of offshore pipeline CP systems
Inspection on onshore pipeline CP systems

Supplementary Inspection Techniques
Testing during operation
Leak detection
Magnetic particle inspection
Ultrasonic inspection: creeping wave, long wave, time of flight diffraction, phased array
Field signature method


Geohazards and Pipelines
Introduction to Pipelines and Geohazards
Pipeline installation
Basic loads
Route Planning
Introduction to Soil and Rock Mechanics

Landslide types
Pipeline loading effects
Field identification
Assessment and mitigation

Seismic Loading
Earthquake basics
Ground motion
Fault movement
Field identification

Subsidence, Buoyancy and Design Loads
Subsidence types
Pipeline loads
Pipeline Buoyancy
Depth of cover
Surface loads
Installation loads

Structural Analysis of Pipelines
Pipeline geometry
Soil pipe interaction methods
Influence of soil type
Load definition and distribution
Performance limits
Dealing with uncertainty

Monitoring Pipelines and Ground Movement
Direct monitoring of pipelines
In-line inspection
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Linking monitoring results with pipeline integrity
Ground movement measurement
Remote sensing methods

Geohazard Mitigation Strategies
At design
Increased strength
Reduced loads
Ground improvement

Upheaval Buckling
Soil effects
Prediction methods
Survey data
Repair techniques

Pipeline Spanning
Span formation
On bottom stability
Vortex Induced Vibrations
Repair techniques

Pipeline Integrity Management Dissertation
The subject of the work-based dissertation and the specific aim(s) and learning outcomes arising from it will be
unique to each individual learner. Learners will negotiate with their employers and their university tutor(s), a
dissertation proposal in which they will identify:

the subject and scope of the dissertation,
the specific aims and learning outcomes unique to the dissertation,
the relationship of the learning outcomes to the original learning contract plan including mapping to UKSpec,
the method by which the outcomes will be achieved,
how the dissertation will develop the learners capability in respect of their effectiveness, employability and/or
business competitiveness,
the resources needed, including materials, equipment, research skills, ethical considerations, time and support
from work colleagues and the university,
major progress review points,
target dates for assessment