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Running head: SHORT TITLE 1

Gabi Ledger
Mercy College of Healh Science!
Many ele#i!ion !ho$! he!e day! ha#e a lea! one characer ha i! %crazy&' and u!ually
he ne$or( doe! a decen )ob depicing $hae#er *enal di!ea!e he characer ha!+ Ho$e#er'
$hen I $a! gro$ing up *y *o* $ached a !ho$ call %,ll My Children& on ,-C' and on hi!
!ho$ here $a! a characer $ho!e na*e $a! .ane' co**only referred o a! .ane fro* anoher
plane+ .ane $a! !aid o ha#e Schizophrenia+ The ne$or( al$ay! had her al(ing o her!elf in a
*irror and in he *irror her!elf' bu hi! .ane $a! he co*plee oppo!ie of he real one+ Thi! i!
one of he *o! *i!under!ood par! of Schizophrenia+ Many people belie#e ha Schizophrenia
i! $hen !o*eone ha! *uliple per!onaliie!' bu ha i! acually no $ha Schizophrenia i! in i!
Mayo Clinic (2012) Schizophrenia i! a group of brain di!order!' and i i! only pre!en in
abou one percen of adul!+ Schizophrenia i! he hird *o! di!abling condiion behind
/uadriplegia and de*enia+ I i! *o! li(ely a under de#eloped neuron in he feu!+ Re!earcher!
al!o belie#e i *ay be a co*binaion of *any illne!!e!+ Schizophrenia i! a chronic condiion'
$hich *ean! you $ill al$ay! ha#e i+ Many paien! $ill !i !ill for hour! and no !ay a $ord'
oher! $ill ac co*pleely nor*al unil hey !ar e0plaining heir hough or $ha hey are
!eeing+ Many paien! $ill hear #oice!' !ee hing! ha aren1 here' and *any beco*e depre!!ed+
-ecau!e he paien! ha#e o deal $ih he!e hing! day in and day ou *any beco*e $ihdra$n
and franic+ In a per!on $ihou Schizophrenia neuroran!*ier! carry *e!!age! fro* one ner#e
o anoher' bu in he brain of a per!on $ih Schizophrenia hi! !y!e* doe! no $or( properly+
Mental Health System Funding of Cognitive Enhancement Interventions for
Schio!hrenia (2010) Schizophrenia i! no #ery co**on in children under !e#en year! and in
adul! older han fory2fi#e+ 3or *en i can !ar be$een een! and $enie!' and for $o*en
be$een heir $enie! and hirie!+ They are hree caegorie! of !y*po*!: po!ii#e' negai#e'
and cognii#e+
Mental Health System Funding of Cognitive Enhancement Interventions for
Schio!hrenia (2010) 5o!ii#e !y*po*!' al!o (no$n a! p!ychoic !y*po*!' are delu!ion!
hallucinaion!' di!ordered hough!' and di!organized beha#ior+ 6elu!ion! are he *o! co**on+
Thi! i! $hen he paien i! *i!inerpreing $ha i! acually here' or $ha i! acually happening+
Hallucinaion! are $hen he paien! hear #oice!' or !ee!7hear! hing! ha aren1 really here+
8hen a paien ha! di!ordered hough! hey ha#e a hard i*e al(ing in a $ay ha *a(e! !ince'
hey !op *id!enence' and hey )u*p fro* hough o hough+ If he paien i! !ho$ing
di!organized beha#ior hey *ay ac li(e a child' or ha#e unpredicable agiaion+ 9egai#e
!y*po*! are $hen he paien! ha#e ab!oluely no e*oion!' ha! bad or no per!onal hygiene'
hey are !ocially $ihdra$n' and ha#e no *oi#aion o do anyhing+ Cognii#e !y*po*!
include proble*! $ih proce!!ing hough!' or !ho$ing difficuly *a(ing !en!e of infor*aion'
hey can1 pay aenion' and hey *ay !ho$ !ign! of *e*ory i!!ue!+ Teen! are le!! li(ely o
ha#e delu!ion! and *ore li(ely o ha#e hallucinaion!+ So*e paien! *ay e#en !ho$ !uicidal
beha#ior! or ha#e !uicidal hough!+
Mayo Clinic (2012) The cau!e of Schizophrenia i! currenly un(no$n' ho$e#er'
re!earcher! belie#e ha i i! a co*binaion of geneic! and en#iron*en conribue! o he
de#elop*en of hi! di!ea!e+ If you do no ha#e a paren $ih Schizophrenia you ha#e le!! han
one percen chance of de#eloping hi! di!ea!e' bu if you do ha#e a paren $ih hi! di!ea!e your
chance! of geing i are en percen+ In *o! paien! here i! a proble* $ih he
neuroran!*ier! dopa*ine and glua*ae $or(ing properly+ Re!earch ha! !ho$n ha here i! a
difference in he brain !rucure and cenral ner#ou! !y!e* of a per!on $ih Schizophrenia+
So*e e0per! belie#e ha prenaal or perinaal rau*a' and' or' #iral infecion! *ay conribue
he de#elop*en of hi! di!ea!e
Mental Health System Funding of Cognitive Enhancement Interventions for
Schio!hrenia (2010) Schizophrenia i! #ery hard o diagno!e con!idering here i! currenly no a
phy!ical or laboraory e! o diagno!e i+ Mo! diagno!e! are ba!ed on paien1! clinical
!y*po*!' blood e!!' i*age !udie!' o *a(e !ure here i! no u*or! or !rucural proble*!
$ih he brain' and a p!ychological e#aluaion+ 5aien! *u! *ee cerain crieria in 6iagno!ic
and Sai!ical Manual of Menal 6i!order! ;6SM<+ 5aien! *u! al!o ha#e a lea! $o of he
follo$ing: delu!ion!' di!organized or caaonic beha#ior' di!organized !peech' hallucinaion!' or
negai#e !y*po*! for a lea! he pa! four $ee(!+ E0per! *u! al!o *a(e !ure he!e !y*po*!
are no being cau!ed by anyhing el!e !uch a!' a pre!cribed *edicaion' anoher *enal condiion'
or !ub!ance abu!e+ The paien *u! al!o ha#e !y*po*! for !i0 *onh! or *ore+
Mayo Clinic (2012) The fir! hing *o! people a!( $hen hey are fir! diagno!ed $ih
any di!ea!e i!' %ho$ can I ge beer&= 8ih !chizophrenia here are *any rea*en!' and
*edicaion!+ The change! of reco#ery are *uch greaer he earlier rea*en i! !ared+ The *o!
effeci#e rea*en! are u!ually a co*binaion of *edicine' p!ychological coun!eling' and !elf2
help re!ource!' alhough *edicaion i! he pri*ary rea*en+
Mayo Clinic (2012) Since he lae 1>??1! *o! re!earch $a! ai*ed a de#eloping and' or'
e#aluaing approache! o enhancing cogniion+ @nil recenly *o! rea*en $a! ai*ed *ore
o$ard! people $ih brain in)ury' bu no$ here i! a $ider #ariey of progra*! o i*pro#e
cogniion $ih an end goal of i*pro#ed p!ycho!ocial funcion+ Cognii#e enhance*en! can
range fro* daily o $ee(ly appoin*en!' and hey can la! fro* $ee(! o year!+ The inen!iy
and (ind of rea*en #arie! fro* paien o paien+ The *o! co**on ype! of rea*en are
drill and pracice' !raegy coaching' and !o*ei*e! profe!!ional! u!e a co*binaion of boh+
6rill and pracice i! ba!ed on an e0erci!e *odel+ 8hile doing hi! (ind of rea*en paien!
repeaedly pracice ba!ic cognii#e !(ill! !o cognii#e funcioning can i*pro#e+ There i! a
!of$are called %COG5,CB&' hi! !of$are $ill fla!h $ord! on a !creen+ ,ll he $ord! belong
o differen caegorie!' he paien *u! re!pond ea i*e he caegory change!' and !o*e
progra*! $ill e#en change he le#el of difficuly a! he paien goe!+ So*e phy!ician! u!e a *ore
%hierarchical approach&+ They begin $ih early percepual proce!!e! and *o#e on o a higher
order !(ill+ Sraegy coaching pro#ide! indi#idualized !ugge!ion! o i*pro#e cognii#e
perfor*ance+ 3or e0a*ple if a paien i! ha#ing difficuly re*e*bering a !hopping li! $ih ou
$riing i do$n hey !hould group he ie*! ino caegorie!' and *aybe e#en !ubcaegorie!+
The!e progra*! *ay al!o each !raegie! on ho$ o co*pen!ae !o hey can reduce i*paired
cognii#e funcion+
"ational Institute of Mental Health (2010) Many people $ih Schizophrenia re!i! heir
rea*en+ They belie#e ha hey are no !ic( and hey do no need rea*en' becau!e hey ruly
belie#e ha heir delu!ion! and hallucinaion! are real+ Many i*e! fa*ily and friend! ha#e o ge
in#ol#ed' and *ay e#en ha#e o call he police+ If he police are called hey $ill ypically a(e he
per!on o he e*ergency roo*+ 8hen he paien arri#e! a he e*ergency roo* he healh care
profe!!ional! $ill a!!e! he paien o deer*ine $heher or no hey need o be #olunary or
in#olunary ad*i!!ion+ If he paien need! o be in#olunarily ad*ied he healh care
profe!!ional! *u! $ine!! p!ychoic beha#ior' and hear he paien #oice heir delu!ional
hough!+ Once he lea#e he ho!pial he paien! friend! and fa*ily need o en!ure ha hey
coninue $ih he *edicaion' and rea*en!+ One of he *o! i*poran hing! o re*e*ber
$hen dealing $ih !o*eone $ho ha! !chizophrenia i! o no ell he* hey are $rong' or crazy+
Telling he* hi! $ill )u! *a(e he* *ad+ Ho$e#er' you al!o !hould no go along $ih heir
delu!ion! or hallucinaion!' hi! $ill )u! *a(e heir beha#ior $or!e+ The be! $ay o deal $ih
he!e delu!ion! and hallucinaion! i! o )u! ell he* ha e#ery per!on !ee! hing! hi! or her o$n
$ay and ha i! co*pleely nor*al' and o(ay+
"ational Institute of Mental Health (2010) 5eople $ih !chizophrenia are hree i*e!
*ore li(ely o be addiced o nicoine and oher drug! han he general public+ 9icoine i! he
*o! co**on for* of !ub!ance abu!e in people $ih !chizophrenia+ 5eople $ih !chizophrenia
!ee* o be dri#en o !*o(e' re!earcher! are currenly e0ploring $heher here i! a biological
need for hi!+ I !ee*! o be #ery difficul for people $ih !chizophrenia o /ui !*o(ing+ The
$ihdra$al fro* he nicoine *a(e! heir p!ychoic !y*po*! ge $or!e+ I !ee*! o be ea!ier
for people $ih !chizophrenia o u!e nicoine replace*en! o ry and !lo$ly ea!e off of nicoine+
Re!earcher! coninue o $or( on $ay! o pre#en' e0plain' and rea p!ychological
di!order!+ E#en hough our echnology i! ad#ancing *ore and *ore each day' hey are !ill /uie
a long $ay fro* finding $ha e0acly cau!e! p!ychological di!order!' and *ore !pecifically
!chizophrenia+ Schizophrenia i! no $ha *any people hin( i i!' and i i! no $ha you !ee on
ele#i!ion+ 5eople $ih !chizophrenia can lead a nor*al and !ucce!!ful life a! long a! hey
coninue heir rea*en!' *edicaion!' and u!e he !raegie! hey ha#e been augh+
McGur(' S+ R+' Mue!er' B+ T+' Co#ell' 9+ H+' Cicerone' B+ 6+' 6ra(e' R+ E+' Sil#er!ein' S+ M+' +++
E!!oc(' S+ M+ ;n+d+<+ Mental Health System Funding of Cognitive Enhancement Interventions for
Schio!hrenia# Summary and $!date of the "e% &or' (ffice of Mental Health E)!ert *anel and
Sta'eholder Meeting+
9ord/#i!' C+ ;"?14' Ocober "?<+ 8ha i! Schizophrenia+ Medical "e%s +oday+ Rerie#ed fro*
Saff' M+ C+ ;"?1"' .anuary "D<+ 6efiniion+ Mayo Clinic+ Rerie#ed fro*
9+ ;n+d+<+ Schizophrenia+ "IMH ,SS+ Rerie#ed fro*