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ToddFlavetta
Mrs.KatieCrichton
APLanguageandComposition
16December2013
NoTwoSnowflakesareExactlyAlike
JonKrakauerisanovelistwhoisbestknownforhisworkswhichtesttheboundariesof
physicalandmentaltoughness.TwoofKrakauersnovelsinparticular,IntoThinAirandUnderThe
BannerofHeaven,exemplifyhumansandtheirwilltosurviveagainstallodds.Whilethesetwonovels
bothcenterarounddifferentdisastrouseventsapersonalaccountofafataltrekupMountEverestin
IntoThinAirandataleofMormonfaithgoneterriblywronginUndertheBannerofHeaven
Krakauerdeliversthetwobooksinsimilarways.
IntoThinAirisanovelbasedonKrakauersveryownrecollectionofhiscalamitous
expeditionupMountEverest.Inthis,hetellsofhistangible,immutable,[and]concreteambitionto
conqueroneoftheSevenWondersoftheWorldandthestruggleshefacestogetthere(Krakauer23).
OnekeycomponenttothesuccessofIntoThinAiristhefirstpersonnarrativethestoryistoldfrom.
ByutilizingthefirstpersonperspectivealongwithpronounslikeIandmy,Krakauerallowsthe
readertobetakenbacktothoseheartwrenchingmonthsandaccompanyKrakauerwhileheandhis
colleaguesfacedextrememeasuresonamountainsocold,sohigh,andsoimpossiblyfarawaythan
anyonecouldeverimagine(32,49).Additionally,thefirstpersonnarrativeallowsforthereaderto
establishhisorherownopiniononthesubjectathand.Thisaspectevolvesthenovelfromjustbeinga
boringstory,tobeingapersonableandevenconnectablepieceofworkforKrakauersaudience.
AnotherkeycomponentofKrakauer'sIntoThinAirishisemploymentofdialoguewiththeother
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charactersinthenovel.Theusageofdialogue,whileitcouldaddbias,extendsKrakauersclaimatthat
pointinthenovelandinotherwords,leadsthereadertocertainconclusions.Forinstance,ratherthan
sayingWoodhallwasabadperson,KrakaueraccompanieshisopinionsabouttheWoodhallalong
withtheopinionsoftheothermountaineersasshownbythefollowing:
WoodhallhadnointerestinthebirthofanewSouthAfrica.Hetookthedreamsoftheentire
nationandutilizedthemforhisownselfishpurposes...Withsomanyincompetentpeopleonthis
mountain,Ithinkitsprettyunlikelythatwellgetthroughtheseasonwithoutsomethingbadhappening
uphigh,saidRobHall(104).
ThisuseofdialoguesupportsKrakauerinhisaccusationsuponWoodallbyinstitutingtheopinionsofhis
fellowprotagonists.InadditiontosupportingKrakauersideals,thedialogueestablishesKrakauertobe
amorecredibleauthorandinstillsmoretrustbetweenthehimandhisaudience.
UndertheBannerofHeaven,unlikeIntoThinAiranditsfirstpersonnarrative,isanon
fictionalandthirdpersonnarrativeofMormonfaithgoneterriblywrong.ThebooktellsoftwoMormon
fundamentalistbrotherswhoweresupposedlycommandedbyGodtoeradicateaninnocentwomenand
herblamelessbaby.WhileKrakauertellsthisstoryfromathirdpersonpointofviewandtherefore
makingthenovelseemlesspersonable,heisabletostillacquirehiscredibilityandtrustthroughhis
extensiveresearchdoneonthesubjectathandasseenthroughhiscopiousamountsofquotes
scatteredthroughoutthenovel.Additionally,Krakauersusageofmanyquotesinstillsinthereaderthat
heisnotaloneinhisidealsandallowsforhimtopersuadethereaderevenmoreintobelievingin
Krakauersownopinionsonthematter.Withtheusageofathirdpersonperspectivealsocomesthe
opportunityfortheretobebias.MuchofKrakauersUndertheBannerofHeavenishisownbiased
idealsaboutsubjectofMormonsandMormonFundamentalists.ThisbiasoccursbecauseKrakauer
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hashadnopriorconnectiontothetragiceventsthatunfoldedanddidnotexperiencetheeventsfirst
handwhichthenallowshimtomakerashandmaybeuntruthfuljudgmentsaboutthesubjectathand.In
addition,unliketheperseveringtoneofIntoThinAir,UndertheBannerofHeavenistoldwithadark
andtreacheroustone.KrakauercomparestheMormonFundamentaliststoaninfectiouspeoplethat
couldsellamuzzletoadog(Krakauer57).ThisuseofdictionandsimileconveytheMormon
Fundamentaliststobeanillnesstohumanityandandapeoplesocontrollingthattheycouldmakea
persongiveuphisorherownopinionsandbequiet/obedient.
Whilebothtextscenterarounddifferentcataclysmicevents,theybothservethesame
purposetotestthestrengthsandweaknessesofhumannature.Whetheritbethroughafirsthand
accountofadeadlyexpeditionuponeoftheSevenWondersoftheWorldorathirdperson
perspectivethatteststheloyaltyofhumanstotheirfaith,Krakauerisabletopersuadehisaudience
throughausageofsimilarrhetoricalstrategies.Withthetwobooksextensiveresearch,tone,bias,
perspective,andoverallstature,Krakauerallowsthereadertoquestionhisorherownmentaland
physicalextremes.

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APWritingReflection
1. Whatwordsandphrasesdidyouusetopullthereaderforwardthroughyouressay?Iused
smoothtransitionsandgreatparagraphstructuretoengagemyreader.
2. Howdoyoudemonstratethatyouarecredible,butdonottakeyourselftooseriously?Iused
quotesfromthebook.
3. Howdoesyouressayaddtoyourreadersknowledgeandexperiences?Itwouldperhapsgive
themaclearerunderstandingofthedangersofextremesportingandextremereligiousbeliefs.
4. Whatuniqueperspectivedoyouofferyourreaders?Iofferedhistoryandbackground
information.
5. Isyourdictionprecise,fresh,andengaging?Yes.
6. Howdoyoudemonstrateagoodsenseofyouraudience?Imadeitinterestingenoughtowhere
thereaderwasnotboredwhenreading.
7. Doesyouressaysoundlikeonecompleteunit?Yesbecauseitflowsaccordinglyandtiesinwell
withtheconclusion.
8. Areyourdetailsconcreteandselective?Both.
9. Whattype(s)ofimagerydoesyourdictioncreate?(Visual,Auditory,Olfactory,Tactile,
Gustatory)Mydictioncreatesvisualandtactileimagery.
10. Whattechniquesdoyouusetomakeyourwritingsoundeffortless?Iutilizedsmoothtransitions,
cleardiction,andsentencevariety.
11. Howdoyoudemonstratecontrolofgrammar,punctuation,usage,andformatinyouressay?I
demonstratemycontrolbycitingquotationscorrectlyandbyfollowinggrammaticalrules.
12. Howdoesyouressaysappearancecommunicateahighlevelofprofessionalism?Intheway
myessayisstructured.
13. Whataboutyouressayareyouparticularlyproudof?Itflowswell.
14. Howdoesyourvoiceshinethroughinyouressay?Whatimpressiondoesitgiveyourreader?
MyvoiceshinesinmyessaythroughmyanalysisofthetwoKrakauernovels.Myanalysisgives
myreadersinsightintoKrakauerdistinctivestylesanddescriptions.