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Te frst episode of Metal Evolution was unquestionably the most dif-

fcult to make in the entire series. It makes me utterly exhausted just


thinking about all the research, writing, planning, travelling, inter-
viewing and editing that went into making this opening episode! But
it was an amazing journey that took us to so many incredible places:
Wacken, Birmingham, Miami, London, Clarksdale, Memphis. But the
most memorable moment of all was meeting the legendary Howlin Wolf
guitarist Hubert Sumlin, who sadly passed away less than a year afer
our interview. At the
age of 79, he turned
up to the interview
in a suit carrying his
guitar and an oxygen
tank, so I immediate-
ly knew that this guy
was a class-act and
a real trooper. We
carried him up three
fights of stairs in an
old New York City
studio that wed rented for the interview, and as soon as we got set-
up he eagerly pulled out his guitar and started playing rifs and telling
stories about his days with the Wolf. I pinched myself knowing that
I was sharing the room with a legend that helped forge some of the
most important sounds in the history of the blues. Tank you Hubertit
was an honor meeting you. RIP.
EPISODE 1:
PRE-HISTORY OF METAL

Metal Evolution Episode 101 Pre-Metal
**please note interviewer is Sam Dunn throughout feature**

Narration:
This is Wacken Open Air, the worlds biggest heavy metal festival. Where each year over
seventy thousand fans from around the world gather in a farm field in northern Germany
to celebrate their love for heavy metal. My name is Sam Dunn and the first time I visited
Wacken for my film Metal: A Headbangers Journey I learned that metal is more than
just music, its a culture of outsiders and I was blown away by the passion of metal
musicians and fans.

Fans screaming and cheering

But my film was only an overview of the anthropology of heavy metal, there is a much
bigger story to be told. Over the past four decades heavy metal has evolved into dozens
of sub genres including Thrash Metal, Glam Metal, Nu Metal, Prog Metal, Grunge, the
New Wave of British Heavy Metal and many more. By why did metal splinter into all
these sub genres and what has each sub genre contributed to the evolution of this music.

Many documentaries have explored the history of Jazz, Classical and the Blues but still I
feel Metal never really got its due. So this is my new journey, a journey into the evolution
of Heavy Metal.

Music

My journey into Heavy Metals vast forty-year history is a massive undertaking and so
before I dove into the entire evolution of this music, Im gonna step back and start with
the big question, Why are people drawn to Heavy Metal music?

Kirk Hammett (Guitar, Metallica):
Its outsider music to the next. Heavy Metal solved a lot of my problems when I was a
teenager when I couldnt express myself or I was just frustrated. I would go into my room
and put on a metal album and feel instant relief.

Rob Halford (Vocals, Judas Priest):
Its about excitement and power and making you angry to the point of exploding in front
of everybody else, thats what metal is about.

Oderus Urungus (Vocals, Gwar)
When I bang my head it feels good, it releases some kind of chemical inside of me, Im
not sure what it is, but Heavy Metal is the greatest noise that ever was created.

Sebastian Bach:
Heavy Metal is pushing your life to the maximum and pushing it as hard as you can
fucking get it onto the edge of chaos.
Wayne Kramer (Guitar, MC5):
Its a chance to just rail, just to get it out, to express that you not going along with the
program.

Scott Ian (Guitar, Anthrax): **Scott spelt wrong**
Theres an aggression and an attitude and intensity to everything I do in life and I think it
all comes from the way that music made me feel since I was a kid.

Slash:
A certain kind of abandon you know like sort of tossing the rules out the window and just
going for it. I think Rock & Roll in general is a great outlet and its really important I
think without it wed have a lot more violence and a lot more trouble in general with the
people between you know 16 and 25. (laughs)

Music

Alice Cooper:
Metal is tribal, theres something tribal about being in one place jumping up and down to
the same beat, people head banging and sweating and smacking into each other and at the
end of that concert, theyve gone through something together.

Bruce Dickinson (Vocals, Iron Maiden): **audio drop out 01:04:46:06 and throughout**
Heavy Metal music has become an essential catharsis; its a rite of passage. Metal is like
a celebration of community and friendship for people who simply have a genetic or
emotional predisposition to gravitate towards that kind of music and that type of
aggression you know the aggression is there but its contained and its controlled and its
focused.

Music

Narration:
Meeting with these Heavy Metal musicians has made me realize that the power,
community and aggression in metal music connects with people on a very deep level. So
Im curious to find out whats actually happening inside our brains when we feel
aggressive from listening to Heavy Metal. So Ive tracked down a Neuroscientist who
teaches here at McMaster University and I want to ask her Where does this feeling of
aggression and power come from when we listen to metal music?

Music

Sam Dunn:
Hi you must be Laurel, Hi Im Sam nice to meet you.




Laurel Trainor (Director, Music and Mind Lab):
Were interested in the auditory system here and how it develops and what the effects of
experience are on the brain and how people hear things and how they react to things and
were particularly interested in music. So when you came in we put the sensor net on
your head and as you listen to different pieces of music we measure to your brain
responses.

Classical Music

Metal Music

Laurel Trainor:
People talk sometimes about Heavy Metal in terms of the violence and the sound
intensity and the distortion tends to turn off conscious thoughts so youre turning off
inhibition and all of us are capable of violent behavior. On the other hand the other side
of it is that we do like to feel a lack of control from time to time and if this is done in a
safe environment than it can be a positive thing.

Tom Morello (Guitar, Rage Against The Machine):
Theres something in Heavy Metal music that speaks to the reptilian brain, it doesnt
speak to the intellect, it doesnt speak to a thought process thats on the surface, its
something that connects very viscerally with heavy metal music that it just feels
awesome.

Scott Ian:
Certainly an outlet, an outlet you couldnt get anywhere else. Come to the show and lose
your fucking mind and get in the pit and go crazy and stage dive and have fun. Its not
about violence its about fun. You might be bruised and really tired the next day but you
know what its like a great massage, youre gonna feel really good afterwards.

Sam Dunn:
So in the metal context its like youre exercising the part of you that is aggressive that is
combative but without any real danger.

Laurel Trainor:
Thats right

Music

Narration:
Even though Heavy Metal can appear violent and aggressive to people on the outside
what Ive learned is that the aggression in metal provides a positive emotional release for
its musicians and fans and so I now have a much better grasp on why people are drawn to
this music. But since this series is about the Evolution of Metal I need to understand how
metal has changed over its forty year history and why its become the complex
phenomenon that it is today. So Im embarking on a journey that will take me to over
forty cities in twelve countries across three continents. Ill travel from the back streets of
Birmingham, England to L.A.s Sunset Strip and from the crossroads in Mississippi to
soccer stadiums in Santiago, Chile. Ill be meeting with over three hundred musicians,
fans and experts to dig deep into metals roots and find out why its developed into a
dozen sub genres. But to get started Im going back to the very beginning. One of the
sonic roots of this music, where did Heavy Metal actually begin?

Music

ACT2

Narration:
The birth of Heavy Metal is a much debated topic among metal fans, musicians and
experts. But most will agree that the genre was born in February 1970 when Birmingham,
Englands Black Sabbath released their debut record Black Sabbath.

Music

Narration:
This record was far heavier and darker than any music that had come before. So Ive
always wanted to ask them about their musical roots. Where did Black Sabbath get the
inspiration to create this heavy sound?

Sam Dunn:
Going back to that first record, how would you describe the sound that you guys were
creating?

Geezer Butler (Bass, Black Sabbath):
Um, its hard to say because it seem to write itself. You know wed jam around and see
what we come out with and one morning we came out with the song Black Sabbath. It
was just done in a flash, Tony came up with the riff, Ozzy started singing the lyrics and it
sort of did really write itself.

Music

Sam Dunn:
What were the main inspirations for that opening riff?

Geezer Butler:
I remember playing Mars: The Planets Suite (imitates noise) on the bass, I remember we
were rehearsing and it seemed to influence Tony to go (imitates guitar noise), you know
the same sort of tritonic thing.

Bill Ward (Drums, Black Sabbath):
I think Geezer was trying to play, Geezer was trying to play the notes to ?? and Tony
showed up and he lengthened the notes and he held them out (imitates guitar noise). It
sent shivers down my back. Im not saying Tony took that riff from ??, you listen to the
music and you can hear it, pretty much so.

Music

Narration:
Classical music was obviously an inspiration for Black Sabbath and their early years. So
Im curious to know if classical music has been an influence on other metal musicians?
And so Ive come back to Germany to meet with Uli Jon Roth whos a classical music
expert and former guitarist of the Scorpions to talk with him about this connection
between classical music and heavy metal.

Guitar playing.

And why have so many hard rock or heavy metal guitarists incorporated the influences of
classical composers into their music? I think of Eddie Van Halen, I think of Randy
Rhoads, I think of yourself and many others.

Uli Jon Roth (Guitar, ex-Scorpions):
I think because its a natural in born desire to evolve you know to have this enormous
reservoir and repertoire of great musicians in the past, you look at that and you go wow
what are these people doing? Maybe we can do something similar. And particularly when
youre a young player you find that exciting, you know the dexterity angle because
youre interested in speed, you want to be fluent in what you do and classical music
teaches you that.

Guitar playing

Tom Morello:
As a young fan of metal I thought all other music sucked, classical music, jazz music, its
totally wimpy man. But then when I became a guitar player and I realized that the
excellence of an Eddie Van Halen or Yngwie Malmsteen and the excellence of a Niccolo
Paganini had something in common. I appreciated not just the musicianship but the
expression that very talented non metal musicians brought to their own genres and it was
very inspiring to me.

Music

Narration:
For some heavy metalers classical musicians like Paganini are more than an inspiration,
theyre an obsession and if Paganini were alive today and played a Fender Strat through a
Marshall stack he would be Swedish guitar virtuoso Yngwie Malmsteen.

Sam Dunn:
When you brought the classical sound quite boldly into the rock and metal format than
what anybody else has did.


Yngwie Malmsteen:
What it was, was that I saw it on TV was this Russian violinist who was going mad on
the violin, I couldnt believe it.

Violin playing

Yngwie Malmsteen:
And they said at the end of the program it was Niccolo Paganinis 24 Caprices and I just
said wow, you know if I could get any of that, you know the linear singing notes or
arpeggios, all that stuff and put that in, that would be amazing you know. So once I heard
that, that was it, I knew thats what I wanted to do. So just technically its amazing what
Paganini did and I felt that I needed to challenge myself and I didnt want to take the easy
way out. I think thats the main reason for me, I always felt like I had to be better than I
am and to me to be better would be to play more difficult, more complex classical type
music. You know I dont want to just play it safe, two strings, it could be three strings
four strings, five strings, six strings arpeggios. People kept on telling me to slow down,
hey slow down, I went (mumbles). Remember less is more and I always said, how can
that be? How can less be more? Its impossible, more is more.

Music

Narration:
The virtuosity of classical music has been hugely inspirational for metal guitarists but
since virtuosity and heavy metal is not limited to the guitar. Ive come to London,
England to meet with Rob Halford, the legendary vocalist of Judas Priest to explore how
classical music has influenced his approach to metal vocals.

Rob Halford (Vocals, Judas Priest):
If you want to become a professional singer I worked in the theatre for a while and I
looked from the side of the stage and I would watch Opera. You know I would look at the
audience, and Id look at the performer and back and forth, it was intriguing to see and I
was just mesmerized particularly by the power of the voice and what it could do.

Opera singing

Rob Halford:
You listen to someone like Pavarotti who is my ultimate God , look at the scalp that can
be created by these vocal chords in you throat, its absolutely sensational. So Ive always
had fun as a singer to try to do as many dramatic things as I possibly can.

Music

Sam Dunn:
Rob Halford has that ability to sort of project like an opera singer, that kind of vocal
style, what does it add to metal?

Geoff Tate (Vocals, Queensryche):
Opera is a very challenging style of music to perform as a singer especially, much more
challenging I think than rock music you know. One of the things that I notice about like
Rob, Bruce and myself is there is a huge amount of theatrics in our delivery, you know
try to get your point across to the audience and affect them and illicit some sort of
emotion.

Music

Bruce Dickinson (Vocals, Iron Maiden):
Whenever I sing a song theres always a big part of it is what I would describe as theatre
of the mind. Its like applied dramatics through music and I wouldnt like to say that we
were any kind of level with any great opera or classical anything you know. Its simply a
desire to do a good job at messing with peoples imagination.

Rob Halford:
Trauma, an intensity, jealousy and rage and revenge, like opera, metal has got all of those
things going for it. Were about excitement and power and making you very emotional,
thats what metal is about, that whole visual larger than life experience.

Bob Ezrin (Producer):
Heavy metal at its core is Marshall music, its big, heavy military scare you to death
music. Heavy Metal was a term that came much later on but the idea of heavy music,
thats been there since the beginning of time, its the music that Wagner played in concert
halls with his outsized instruments and his huge orchestras. The whole idea was shake the
walls, shake the world through the power of this music.

Music

ACT3

Music

Narration:
Most musicians agree that the foundation for all rock music is the blues which was born
when Robert Johnson stood at the crossroads in Clarksdale, Mississippi and sold his soul
to the devil by choosing a life of music. But growing up heavy metal bands that I loved
like Iron Maiden and Metallica seemed like the furthest thing from the blues. So what
exactly is the connection between the blues and heavy metal?

Sam Dunn:
So with the blues and heavy metal is there any kinship there?




Nelson George (Author, Hip Hop America):
I think there intrinsically linked, I mean if you look at any other British musicians from
the Stones well away to the Yardbirds and even Motorhead, all that wave of guys they all
listen to the blues.

Glenn Hughes:
The old hard rock/metal bands started out with some sort of foundation that started with a
blues riff, thats we were all started playing, my playing in a shed in my Dads garden
playing the you know (imitates blues guitar music).

Music

Sam Dunn
I know youre a fan of the blues and have studied the blues, whats the shared DNA
between early blues and modern day metal?

Kirk Hammett (Guitar, Metallica):
Well right off the bat theyre both riff based music, a lot of blues songs have a riff and
you just sit on that riff , heavy metal is the same way, you sit on a riff, you just soak it for
as much emotion as you can.

Rob Bowman (Professor, York University):
The riff is a huge part of the arsenal of virtually every rock guitarist. Look at Metallica
and a song like Hit The Lights

Song plays

Rob Bowman:
You got riffs all over that song, you got three different tempos so you shift from one
section to another, the riffs change and you get this incredible release.

Song continues

Kirk Hammett:
Like in heavy metal blues is also just dark in nature, theyre singing about things that
nobody else would even touch back in those days, it had an edge to it, it wasnt glossy.
The real blues of Robert Johnson and Howlin Wolf sounded dark, sounded dirty,
sounded evil and all these old blues guys they had a growl to their voice.

Music


Narration:
If theres one blues vocalist who sounds like a metal front man its Howlin Wolf, so Ive
tracked down guitarist Hubert Sumlin, the last surviving member of Howlin Wolfs
original Mississippi Blues Band to get a first hand perspective on what Wolf was like.


Hubert Sumlin playing guitar

Hubert Sumlin:
Thats it, thats it man.

Sam Dunn:
Can I ask you how did Howlin Wolf influence or inspire you in terms of your guitar
playing?

Hubert Sumlin:
Oh man **the rest of Huberts dialogue is up on the screen as sub-titles **

Sam Dunn:
Can you tell me about the big voice that he had.

Hubert Sumlin: subtitles

Music

Nelson George (Author, Hip Hop America):
The Howlin Wolf name was not a joke, his voice sounds like its coming from, from
hell, it was an animalistic sound. So there is a direct line between heavy metal guys who
are the archetypes that really created the thing and what you heard out of Howlin Wolf,
no doubt about it.

Music

Rob Halford:
In the tradition of what lead singers do, metal is from the blues in terms of its absolute
roots. Because the emotional message of the blues I think is still relevant in metal, its
from the soul, its very you know, very primordial its just got this kind of very gut
instinctive type of caveman-esque attitude about it.

Music

Narration:
The blues clearly has some strong musical connections with heavy metal but theres still
one more genre in the pre-history of metal that I want explore and thats jazz.

Sam Dunn:
But I got to say I never considered jazz and metal to have anything in common. So is jazz
an influence on heavy metal musicians?

Music

Iggy Pop:
A lot of jazz is shit and it sounds like what it sounds like, what it is like, poorly thought
out, masturbation right, guys that can (imitates fast guitar playing) so it has a bad
reputation for that but there are certain guys within it that have just been astonishing.

Sam Dunn:
Was jazz an influence?

Bill Ward:
Well yah, oh yah, yah, definitely.
Growing up we had a huge collection of American records and every Saturday night my
Dad would sing to them and my Mum would play a little bit of piano and I listened to all
those songs.
(Imitates song) there was a song by Glenn Miller (imitates song) and then suddenly it
would (imitates song) In The Mood I think it was and I loved it

Music

Bill Ward:
So I was terribly influenced by that music.

Sam Dunn:
And did you take that and try to bring that to Sabbaths music?

Bill Ward:
Oh its in Sabbaths music, you can hear all the swinging there. You can hear it in Fairies
(imitates song) when youre doing those kind of chops its swing and the band could
swing real well.

Music

Bruce Dickinson:
Bill Ward was a jazz drummer, if you listen to the stuff hes doing on the drums, its not
you know, its not thud whack crash its all really jazzy. And Iommi was a very jazzy
player as is Geezer Butler. So this really heavy band but with a bit of a jazzy feel to it
more or less invented heavy metal.

Sam Dunn:
Why are so many metal musicians influenced by jazz?

Carmine Appice:
Because those were the masters of their instrument really, you know you would take stuff
that they did and rockify it to use the way you want to use it. I mean rock drumming is an
art form just like jazz drumming is an art form, you know like Buddy Rich, he was a God
gifted animal, he was very vicious in his playing very aggressive. He was a drum star, a
drum hero, an icon.

Buddy Rich drumming.

Dave Lombardo (Slayer):
I saw on TV Buddy Rich I remember at a very young age and I was amazed at his energy
you know and how he played you know the velocity he would hit the drums you know
the drums dominate the moment.

Paul Bostaph (Testament):
He would thrash before thrash was ever thrash, if you watch some of his soloing how fast
his hands are going, what hes doing I mean theres not a better drummer than him ever
to touch a drum set.

Buddy Rich drumming.

Paul:
So getting into heavy metal I was like thats for me because I want to do something
different it was exciting and that pushed my drumming to another level.

Music

Narration:
Whether its jazz, blues or classical I now have a better understanding of metals deepest
musical roots but all these genres are missing one of the important elements of heavy
metal, the sound of the distorted electric guitar. So what are the roots of metals
electrified sound?

Music

Act 4

Music

Narration:
Classical, jazz and the blues all help lay the foundation for heavy metal but probably the
most obvious musical anti-scene of metal is rock & roll and so Ive come to Sun Studios
in Memphis, Tennessee the home of rock music to find out what were the specific
musical elements of rock that later became essential components of the heavy metal
sound.

Sam Dunn:
Why Sun Studio the birth place of rock & roll?

John Schorr (Sun Studios):
Well it all stems from a particular recording that took place here back in 1951 Rocket
88 by a band by the name of Jackie Brenston and his Delta Cats and I got the absolute
very first copy that was ever recorded down here on Sam Phillips lathe recorder.


Rob Bowman (Professor, York University):
Sam Philips you know producer at Sun Records in Memphis, Tennessee is incredibly
important in the history of American music period. Sam wanted things that sounded
different, that was always his goal. Hes the guy that when you know Ike Turner arrives
at the Sun Studio in 51 to cut Rocket 88 and the speaker cone is cracked and
consequently has a distorted sound hes the one who goes, thats incredible I want that
sound!

John Schorr:
As the story goes the guitarist Willie Kizart was taking his amp out of the car and putting
it up on top of the car, amp fell off the back punched a hole in the speaker cone, so they
went inside they stuffed it full of newspaper, Sam loved the sound of the punctured
speaker cone of the amplifier itself and it was according to most music historians the first
recorded use of distorted electric guitar in music in general.

Music

Narration:
Besides the distorted electric guitar another contribution of 50s music to the
development of heavy metal was the arrival of the wild rock and roll front man.

Music

Jon Lord (Keyboards):
When I first heard Jerry Lee doing Whole Lotta Shakin Goin On by God I wanted to
sound like that, there was a kind of a raw animal untextured untutored feel to it all and
that to me as a very textured tutored young man who you know had been pouring over
Beethoven, Bach and ?, this was massively exciting.

Nelson George (Author):
I think theres one thing you get from the rock and roll guys you know from that era is
America during a time when theres a red scare going on and theres a lot of fear the
communists are gonna get us you know the bomb is gonna blow us all up and these guys
represented a kind of wildness and freedom that was not expressed in any other real
forms of the popular culture.

Music




Lemmy Kilmister (Vocals/Bass, Motorhead)):
The heaviest thing when I was growing up was Little Richard, he didnt like try and make
his voice nice you know acceptable, he just sang it how he felt it you know and I always
admired that, thats why I sing like I do you know, I dont try and put on any special ?
and graces, what you see is what you get.

Sam Dunn:
So theres a connection from Little Richard to Lemmy

Lemmy:
Yah, a big one you know because if I had a hero in those days it would have been him.


Rob Bowman:
Little Richard, you know you listen to Tutti Frutti the first big hit in 55, its like its
transgressive in all sorts of ways, he is shredding his larynx a little too far, the sound just
leaps out of those speakers.

Music

Sam Dunn:
I want to go back to another early rock and roller what was Elvis contribution to this
story?

Deena Weinstein (Professor, DePaul University):
Elvis was the Metallica of his time, Elvis took rock and roll out of its small fan base and
made it safe for the rest of America, Elvis sold rock and roll, without Elvis I dont know
what would have happened to rock and roll.

Bill Ward:
Elvis to me was balls to the wall, you know and he was incredibly influential, I didnt
want to do anything else other than get a job like Elvis, you know in Great Britain we
were used to safe listening so when Elvis comes up shaking his ass and you know saying,
the warden threw a party in the county jail, the prison band was there and they began to
wail, you know its just like whoa.

Bruce Dickinson:
(sings) Went to a party in the county jail, you know if you listen to that and then just
transpose it to (sings) Saturday night and I just got paid, gonna fool around aint gonna
save, I mean its Elvis!

Music

Bruce Dickinson:
So Jailhouse Rock and things like that you just transpose them and put some metal to it
and all of a sudden it becomes kind of a blues based metally type thing.
Music

Narration:
Before iconic heavy metal bands like Deep Purple emerged onto the scene, in the early
1960s rock and roll went through a phase that felt like the furthest thing from heavy
metal.
Elvis joined the army, Little Richard went religious, Buddy Holly died, what was the
state of rock at that time?

Kim Fowley (Producer/Mamager):
Rock and roll was scary and creepy, Elvis had gone into the army, everyone else was in
prison, suddenly Frankie Avalon showed up singing Venus if you will, please send a
little girl for me to thrill

Music

Sam Dunn:
So I guess music in America had become fairly safe.

Don Branker (Concert Promoter):
Very safe and very manufactured, sometimes we are not even sure that, that particular
artist sang that song, they had a certain look to them, an eastern slicked back look, the
songs were very simple, the songs were about teddy bears and falling in love with your
girlfriend and simple things.

Nelson George:
So there was a lot of fake rock and roll, people were faking the funk sort to speak, and
theres a space, theres a kind of sudden emptiness, whats the new excitement going to
be in the culture.

Music

ACT5

Music

Narration:
In the early sixties rock and roll crossed the Atlantic from America to Britain, kicking off
what is famously known as the British invasion and if theres one band from this invasion
that is part of the story of heavy metal, its the Kinks and the ground breaking sound on
their song You Really Got Me.

Sam Dunn:
What was your inspiration for the guitar sound on the first Kinks record?


Dave Davies (Guitar, ex Kinks)
Well we had that sound about six months before we recorded, before You Really Got
Me was around, I used to experiment with a guitar but the guitar sounds were very
limited and I would just tone control, volume and that was about it and I came across this
little amp in a shop up the road and it was a cone Elpico and I just got a razorblade and I
started to cut the cone speaker, I dont know why and I plugged it in and it made a
(imitates noise) an amazing sound.

Music

And so Im still doing these three finger chords on my guitar and now I got this really
gritty raunchy sound from my amp with the speaker slashed so this chord now sounds
immense, it was like discovering something, felt like more of an inventor than a
musician.

Glenn Hughes:
The first dirty guitar that I ever heard was You Really Got Me, that very early (imitates
guitar sound) was so like demonic, made Moms and Dads go eww turn it off its so evil.

You Really Got Me is about grit, its about raw expression and feeling, its not about
whining and dining or middle class behavior, its about I like you, I want to fuck you.

Music

Billy Gibbons (Guitar, Vocals, ZZ Top):
In the early sixties when the scene in England was on the upswing, the clubs were getting
bigger, the crowds were getting bigger and it was also getting louder, the environment
was louder and musicians wanted to be heard. Give me something, I want to keep that
sound but I just want it louder.

Deena Weinstein (Professor):
The whole esthetic of loud, I mean if, you know, who would you cite as the most
important pre-cursor of metal. I would cite Jim Marshall who developed the Marshall
amps to make for loudness.

Narration:
As rock music developed in the sixties, musicians started to play in larger venues and so
they needed technology and equipment to fill those venues and theres no name that is
more associated with heaviness and volume than Marshall so weve come to the factory
here in England to find out why it is that Marshall became the amplifier that was iconic
of heavy metal music.


Sam Dunn:
I also heard theyve got an amp that goes up to eleven and thats just something I have to
see.
Can you tell me how Marshall Amps got started?

Paul Marshall (Marshall Amplifiers):
Dad, long before he dreamed of making an amplifier, his passion was drumming so he
started a drum shop and from that a lot of the bands would come in, a lot of the drummers
would come in, you know they would bring their guitarists in, and a young lad came in, a
local lad Pete Townshend, he actually used to hang around in the shop and they used to
talk about the Fender Bassman, it wasnt quite giving Pete quite the sound he wanted, so
Dad set up changing it really and they built four or five prototypes in the early days, in
62 and they finally built one and Pete Townshend said thats a great sound and off he
went to use it, so yah thats how it started.

Music

Uli John Roth:
Tim Marshall basically took the Fender amp and the Vox AC30 and he created a new
animal, a Marshall, one hundred watts which was unheard of, it was a beast basically.

Lemmy:
Originally his stack was all one piece, you know, and like it was ? to carry about, there
was no van in the world you could fit it into.

Paul Marshall: **bad edit on this segment head and tail??**
??It had such a big look at the time, that this is gonna be too heavy and Pete said to him
its ok Ive got roadies now so he built this 8x12 cabinet so he built twelve of them and I
think it was a couple months later Pete came back in and said these are too heavy and
thats when he actually built the first stack so he built a 4x12 bottom cabinet ??

Lemmy:
He sawed it in half and thats what you got the stack as it is now you know.

Sam Dunn:
??So you didnt really have metal or hard rock without that invention I guess

Lemmy:
No thats right, ??? great service

Music

Ian Paice (Drums, Deep Purple)
When The Who came on with these first Marshall stacks, anybody that was saying, whoa
you were pinned, pinned back with the sheer power of it I mean physical air moving and
it was shocking and dazzling and fantastic and of course that started the revolution you
know, the next band had to be just as loud or louder.

Narration:
Backed by Marshall stacks The Who set in motion a volume race and bands were now
competing to be the loudest in all of Britain but then there was one musician from
America who would expand the sound of rock guitar beyond just volume and distortion.

Sam Dunn:
What was it that Hendrix did that pushed that concept of heaviness in music?

Eddie Kramer (Producer):
What Hendrix did was expand the musical horizon of the electric guitar to the degree that
no one else has, the greatest innovative sounds playing stretching the boundaries you
know, when he broke on the scene in 66 people were going wow weve never heard
anything like this, it was like wildfire the message spread, hey you got to come check this
guy Jimi Hendrix hes incredible he plays left handed and upside down and he does stuff
with his teeth and behind his head youve never seen anything like it, youve never heard
anything like it.

Neal Smith (Drums, Alice Cooper Group)
When Hendrix came, forget about it, it was just a whole nother world and everything got
very electric and very distorted and people tried to push the levels even farther because
now they had the fuzz tones, all these sounds that were developing in the studio they now
made gizmos that you could take on the road with you, plug them in and all of a sudden
you can be the most distorted guitar player in the world.

Tom Morello (Guitar, Rage Against The Machine):
Its an interesting question why distortion became desirable in music, I remember the first
time that I bought a big muff distortion pedal, until then I had been laying these horrible
sort of tinkling jangling things and as soon as I stepped on that thing it was rock and roll,
I mean it was instantly rock and roll music and that I think is something too, I dont think
theres a way to intellectualize it, theres something deep in the DNA that responds to the
sound of an overridden amplifier, all of a sudden the world is a little bit more exciting
(laughs).

Rob Halford:
Just turning up the volume and getting some distortion through the amps, through the
guitars, its all kind of little embryos of sound and other musicians are picking it up and
thinking if well I take a little bit of that guitar distortion and put that with a big bass drum
sound and put a thundering bass guitar and a screaming vocal, what is that going to sound
like? Well to me its gonna sound like a heavy metal bands beginning.


Music


Narration:
What Ive learned so far is that the origins of metal are way more complex than I first
thought, people have been creating bombastic sounds that channel feelings of rebellion
and aggression for hundreds of years and so on a conceptional level metal isnt new at all
but I mean what surprises me most is that the sense of community that I feel in metal and
at places like Wacken isnt new either ever since Elvis gyrated his hips or Little Richard
screamed into the microphone, music has provided young people with a community to
belong to and so ultimately what I feel Im faced with in this series is the realization that
metal and us metal heads are part of a much bigger story that I ever could have imagined.

Music / Credits


















METAL EVOLUTION

PRE METAL METAL

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Directed & Produced by
SCOT McFADYEN & SAM DUNN

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Written by
RALPH CHAPMAN & SAM DUNN & SCOT McFADYEN

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Edited by
ALEX SHUPER
MIKE MUNN

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Director of Photography
MARTIN HAWKES

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Appearances by
CARMINE APPICE
SEBASTIAN BACH
PAUL BOSTAPH
ROB BOWMAN
DON BRANKER
GEEZER BUTLER
ALICE COOPER
DAVE DAVIES
BRUCE DICKINSON
BOB EZRIN
KIM FOWLEY
NELSON GEORGE
BILLY GIBBONS
ROB HALFORD
KIRK HAMMETT
GLENN HUGHES
SCOTT IAN
EDDIE KRAMER
WAYNE KRAMER
LEMMY
DAVE LOMBARDO
JON LORD
YNGWIE MALMSTEEN
PAUL MARSHALL
TOM MORELLO
IAN PAICE
IGGY POP
ULI JON ROTH
JOHN SCHORR
SLASH
NEAL SMITH
HUBERT SUMLIN
GEOFF TATE
LAUREL TRAINOR
ODERUS URUNGUS
BILL WARD
DEENA WEINSTEIN

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Head of Production
ALLAN WEINRIB

Producer Assistants
DAVE PATTENDEN
LANA BELLE MAURO

Associate Producers
RALPH CHAPMAN
LIISA LADOUCEUR

Music Supervisors
AMY FRITZ
ERIN HUNT

Graphic Design and Animation
DEREK TOKAR

Supervising Producer
DAVE PATTENDEN

Production & Post Production Coordinator
LANA BELLE MAURO

Location Sound Recordist
KEVIN MACKENZIE


Additional Filming
DAVE PATTENDEN
JONATHAN STAAV

Camera Assistant
JONATHAN STAAV

Technical Supervisor
ANDREW KOWALCHUK

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Online Editor and Post Production Supervisor
ANDREW KOWALCHUK

Assistant Editors
MARY JURIC
AMY DAVIS

Writing and Research Supervisor
LIISA LADOUCEUR

Researchers
MARTIN POPOFF
RANDY CHASE

Visual Researchers
SCOTT McMANUS
CORINNE McDERMOTT

Story Consultant
LINDSAY KYTE

Transcription by
MARTIN POPOFF
GRAHAM KENT
APRIL SUEN

Title Design
DEREK TOKAR

Set Decorator - Title Sequence
JEFF BAI

Re-recording Mixer
LOU SOLAKOFSKI

Mixing Assistant
GRAHAM ROGERS

Audio Post Production Facilities
TATTERSALL SOUND AND PICTURE, TORONTO
SUPERSONICS PRODUCTIONS, TORONTO


Dialogue Editor
FRED BRENNAN

Sound Effects & Music Editor
DAVE ROSE

Assistant Sound Editor
SUE FAWCETT

Colourist
JOANNE ROURKE

Closed Captioning & Descriptive Video
CFA COMMUNICATIONS, TORONTO

Production Accountant
PATRICIA AGUIRRE for BANGER FILMS, INC

Legal Counsel by
DAVID STEINBERG for HEENAN BLAIKIE

Auditors
JIMMY YE for KUDLOW McCANN

Interim Financing
AVER MEDIA

Travel Agents
HEATHER REIMER for STAGE & SCREEN TRAVEL
RANDI GELMAN for FROSCH TRAVEL

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Archival Photos and Videos Courtesy of
(ALPHABETICALLY)
ARTRESOURCE
BANGER FILMS
BUDDY HOLLY HEADLINE SUPPLIED BY GAB ARCHIVE/GETTY IMAGES
CATHY RICH - SCABEBA ENTERTAINMENT
CHESS/GEFFEN RECORDS
CHRIS WALTER - PHOTOFEATURES
CLEF RECORDS
COLUMBIA RECORDS
CONN-SELMER
JULLIEN'S CONCERT ORCHESTRA AND FOUR MILITARY BANDS, AT COVENT GARDEN THEATRE
BY ENGLISH SCHOOL (19TH CENTURY) PRIVATE COLLECTION/THE BRIDGEMAN ART LIBRARY
EAGLE ROCK ENTERTAINMENT
FILM PRESERVATION ASSOCIATES INC.
FRANK WHITE
FRYDERYKA CHOPIN PORTRAIT, MARIA WODZINSKA 1836
GETTY
GIBSON GUITARS
HISTORIC FILMS ARCHIVE, LLC
IVY VIDEO
JAMES PAYZE
JAY GOOD/FRANK WHITE PHOTO AGENCY
JEAN-PIERRE SPIERO FOR MUSIC HALL DE FRANCE COURTESY INA INSTITUT NATIONAL DE
LAUDIOVISUEL/REELIN' IN THE YEARS PRODUCTIONS, LLC
KARL JONSSON
KEVIN ESTRADA PHOTOGRAPHY
LUDWIG VAN HEETHOVEN PORTRAIT, JOSEPH KARL STIELER 1820
MARSHALL AMPS
METRO-GOLDWYN-MAYER, INC VIA THE UNITED STATES LIBRARY OF CONGRESS
NICCOLO PAGANINI PORTRAIT, GEORG FRIEDRICH KERSTING 1830
PHOTO OF CHUCK BERRY SUPPLIED BY FRANK DRIGGS COLLECTION/GETTY IMAGES
PHOTO OF EDDIE KRAMER AND JIMI HENDRIX SUPPLIED BY GETTY IMAGES
PHOTO OF ELVIS PRESLEY IN THE ARMY SUPPLIED BY MICHAEL OCHS ARCHIVES/GETTY IMAGES
PHOTO OF ELVIS PRESLEY SUPPLIED BY HULTON ARCHIVE/GETTY IMAGES
PHOTO OF HOWLIN' WOLF SUPPLIED BY GETTY IMAGES
PHOTO OF LITTLE RICHARD SUPPLIED BY MICHAEL OCHS ARCHIVES/GETTY IMAGES
RAOUL SANGLE FOR LITTLE RICHARD L'OLYMPIA COURTESY INA INSTITUT NATIONAL DE
LAUDIOVISUEL/REELIN' IN THE YEARS PRODUCTIONS, LLC
REELIN' IN THE YEARS PRODUCTION, LLC
RICHARD WAGNER PORTRAIT, FRANZ HANFSTAENGL 1860
ROADRUNNER RECORDS
ROADSIDE GUITARS
ROBERT JOHNSON/PHOTO BOOTH SELF-PORTRAIT, EARLY 1930S/DELTA HAZE CORPORATION
RON DA SILVA/FRANK WHITE PHOTO AGENCY
SAVOY JAZZ
SAVOY RECORDS
SEIZE MILLIONS DE JEUNES COURTESY INA INSTITUT NATIONAL DE LAUDIOVISUEL/REELIN' IN
THE YEARS PRODUCTIONS, LLC
SIGNATURE MUSIC CO.
SOLA SOUND
SONY/BMG
STUART TAYLOR/FRANK WHITE PHOTO AGENCY
SVT/REELIN' IN THE YEARS PRODUCTIONS, LLC
THE UNITED STATES LIBRARY OF CONGRESS' MUSIC DIVISION
THOMPSON MUSIC THOUGHT EQUITY MOTION/BBC'S BEAT ROOM
UNIVERSAL
UNIVERSAL MUSIC PUBLISHING
VH1
WARNER BROS.
WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART PORTRAIT, BARBARA KRAFFT 1819

Music
(IN ORDER OF APPEARANCE)

Trooper
Written by: HARRIS
Performed by: IRON MAIDEN
Published by: Universal Music Publishing Group a division of Universal Music Canada Inc.

Roots Bloody Roots
Written by: CAVELERA/CAVELERA/KISSER/PINTO
Performed by: SEPULTURA
Published by: Universal Music Publishing Group a division of Universal Music Canada Inc.

Roots Bloody Roots
Written by: CAVELERA/CAVELERA/KISSER/PINTO
Performed by: SOULFLY
Published by: Universal Music Publishing Group a division of Universal Music Canada Inc.

Whole Lotta Shakin Going On
Written by: WILLIAMS
Performed by: JERRY LEE LEWIS
Published by: Nimani Entertainment Company

Run To The Hills
Written by: HARRIS
Performed by: IRON MAIDEN
Published by: Universal Music Publishing Group a division of Universal Music Canada Inc.

Piano Concerto #21 Andante
Written by: MOZART

Raining Blood
Written by: HANNEMAN/KING
Performed by: SLAYER
Published by: Universal Music Publishing Group a division of Universal Music Canada Inc.

Black Sabbath
Written by: BUTLER/IOMMI/OSBOURNE/WARD
Performed by: BLACK SABBATH
Published by: Essex Music International Inc.

The Planets Op. 32 Mars, The Bringer Of War
Written by: HOLST

Blitzkreig Concerto
Written by: MALMSTEEN
Performed by: YNGWIE MALMSTEEN
Published by: Knwie J Malmsteen

Caprice No. 24
Written by: PAGANINI
Performed by: JASCHA HEIFETZ

Victim Of Changes
Written by: ATKINS/DOWNING/HALFORD/TIPTON
Performed by: JUDAS PRIEST
Published by: Gull Songs

Questo O Quella
Written by: VERDI
Performed by: PAVAROTTI

Powerslave
Written by: DICKINSON
Performed by: IRON MAIDEN
Published by: Universal Music Publishing Group a division of Universal Music Canada Inc.

Maudie
Written by: HOOKER
Performed by: JOHN LEE HOOKER
Published by: 19th Opus Publishing OBO Conrad Music

Hit The Lights
Written by: HETFIELD/ULRICH
Performed by: METALLICA
Published by: Creeping Death Music

Smokestack Lightning
Written by: BURNETTE
Performed by: HOWLIN WOLF
Published by: 19th Opus Publishing OBO Conrad Music

Ace Of Spades
Written by: CLARKE/KILMISTER/TAYLOR
Performed by: MOTRHEAD
Published by: EMl Blackwood Music Inc. obo Motor Music Ltd

In The Mood
Written by: GARLAND
Performed by: GLENN MILLER
Published by: Canadian Shapiro Bernstein

Fairies Wear Boots
Written by: BUTLER/IOMMI/OSBOURNE/WARD
Performed by: BLACK SABBATH
Published by: Essex Music International Inc.

Not So Quiet, Please
Written by: OLIVER
Performed by: BUDDY RICH
Published by:Essex Music International Inc.

Persecuted Wont Forget
Written by: BILLY/PETERSON/SKOLNICK
Performed by: TESTAMENT
Published by: DFG Music Partnership

Rocket 88
Written by: BRENSTON
Performed by: JACKIE BRENSTON
Published by: Unichappell Music Inc.

Tutti Frutti
Written by: LA BOSTERIE/LUBIN/PENNIMAN
Performed by: LITTLE RICHARD
Published by: Sony/ATV Songs LLC & Sony/ATV Music Publishing Canada

Jailhouse Rock
Written by: LEIBER/STOLLER
Performed by: BRUCE DICKINSON
Published by: Gladys Music c/o Ole

Speed King
Written by: BLACKMORE/GILLAN/GLOVER/LORD/PAICE
Performed by: BRUCE DICKINSON
Published by: EMI Blackwood Music Inc. obo B Feldman & Co Ltd T/As Hec Music

Venus
Written by: MARSHALL
Performed by: FRANKIE AVALON
Published by: EMI April Music Inc. obo Welbeck Music & Sony/ATV Tunes & Sony/ATV Music Publishing
Canada

You Really Got Me
Written by: DAVE DAVIES
Performed by: THE KINKS
Published by: Kassner Associated Publishers Ltd. & Sony/ATV Music Publishing Canada


My Generation
Written by: TOWNSEND
Performed by: THE WHO
Published by: Devon Music, Inc.

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Thanks To
WACKEN OPEN AIR, GERMANY
SANCTUM HOTEL, LONDON
GIBSON SHOWROOM, LONDON
WILLIAM STONE
SUN STUDIO, MEMPHIS
COOPERSTOWN, PHOENIX
VILLAGE RECORDING STUDIOS, LA
LE PARC SUITES HOTEL, LA
SWINGHOUSE STUDIOS, LA
PEER MUSIC, BURBANK
THAT METAL SHOW
PONDERA WINERY, WA

Special Thanks To
PATRICE BUTTERFIELD
SARAH HALES & CALEB HALES McFADYEN
Ken & DENISE DUNN
NAN & MAURICE McFADYEN
NOAH SEGAL

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Produced in association with The Government of Ontario Film and Television Tax Credit


and with the Assistance of The Canadian Film or Video Production Tax Credit



and in association with Much More Music


Distributed by Tricon Films Inc.

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FOR VH1 CLASSIC:

Production Management
RACHEL ROCA

Standards and Practices
ALICIA GARY

Business and Legal Affairs
SETH LEVIN
GLORIMAR NEGRON

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Coordinating Producer
JAY MORAN

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Executive Producers
RICK KRIM
LEE ROLONTZ
BEN ZURIER

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The following has been a Vh1 Classic Special Presentation (End Page)

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BANGER LOGO

Ownership of this motion picture is protected by copyright and other applicable laws of Canada, the United States
and other countries. Any unauthorized exhibition, distribution, or reproduction of this motion picture or any part
thereof, including the soundtrack, may result in severe civil penalties.

2011 Metal Evolution Productions Inc. All rights reserved.

www.bangerfilms.com

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