Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 11

1.

The diagrams show part of the wall of the small intestine and part of an epithelial cell.

V illu s

E p ith e liu m
B lo o d
c a p illa r y
L a c te a l

M ic r o v illu s

C ry p t o f
L ie b e rk h n

M ito c h o n d rio n

P a rt o f e p ith e lia l c e ll

M u s c le la y e r

(a)

Describe one function of the muscle layer in the wall of the small intestine.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Complete the table about enzyme action in the small intestine.


Enzyme

Substrate

Products

Amylase

...........................................

Maltose

...........................................

Peptides

Dipeptides

Lipase

...........................................

...........................................
and ....................................
(4)

(c)

Describe the function in the small intestine of:


(i)

the blood capillaries,


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

the lacteals.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

Haybridge High School

(1)

(d)

Explain how the following features of the epithelial cells increase the rate of absorption of
digested foods.
(i)

Microvilli
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Large numbers of mitochondria


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 9 marks)

2.

During digestion, triglycerides are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol.
(a)

(i)

Name the enzyme involved in the breakdown of triglycerides.


...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Describe one role of bile in the digestion of triglycerides.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

A particular triglyceride is formed from glycerol and three different fatty acids. Briefly
describe how chromatography could be used to separate and identify the fatty acids in this
triglyceride after its complete digestion.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 5 marks)

Haybridge High School

3.

The diagram shows a section through the stomach wall.


L um en

S ubm ucosa
M u s c le la y e rs

F ib r o u s c o a t
(a)

Name the part labelled A.


....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Give two ways in which the structure of the wall of the stomach differs from the wall of
the oesophagus.
1 .................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
2 ..................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

Give one way in which the stomach wall is adapted


(i)

to churn food:
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

Haybridge High School

(ii)

to make food poisoning by bacteria less likely;


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii)

to prevent enzymes produced in the stomach wall digesting the surface of the
stomach.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 6 marks)

4.

(a)

Explain how the structures of the stomach wall and the ileum wall are related to the
functions of these organs.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(6)

(b)

In an investigation, the rate of digestion of a protein was compared in the presence of


different enzymes. The table shows the results.

Enzymes present

Rate of
digestio
n

a carbohydrase

zero

an exopeptidase

slow

an endopeptidase

slow

Haybridge High School

an endopeptidase and an exopeptidase

Haybridge High School

fast

Explain how the action of these enzymes accounts for the results.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 10 marks)

5.

In humans, triglycerides are stored under the skin in the cells of the adipose layer. Triglycerides
are compounds of glycerol and fatty acids.
(a)

Explain why the adipose layer is described as a tissue


....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

The structural formula of glycerol is:


H
H

O H

O H

O H

Haybridge High School

The structural formula of a fatty acid is: R - COOH.


(i)

In the space below, draw the structural formula of a triglyceride.

(2)

(ii)

Name the process in which fatty acids are combined with glycerol.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

The triglycerides in adipose tissue occur as oily droplets, not as solid fats. The three fatty
acids in a triglyceride may be all the same or a mixture of different fatty acids. The table
shows the melting points of triglycerides with various combinations of fatty acids. It
gives the number of carbon atoms in each fatty acid and whether the fatty acid is saturated
(S) or unsaturated (U).
N u m b e r o f c a r b o n a to m in e a c h fa tty a c id
1st
2nd
3rd
1
1
1
1
1
1
(i)

6
6
8
6
8
8

(S )
(S )
(U )
(S )
(U )
(S )

1
1
1
1
1
1

6
8
6
8
6
8

(S )
(U )
(S )
(U )
(S )
(S )

1
1
1
1
1
1

6
6
6
8
8
8

(S )
(S )
(S )
(U )
(U )
(U )

M e ltin g P o in t / C
6
3
3
1
1
4

6
6
5
8
8
2

Describe the effect on melting point of including unsaturated fatty acids in a


triglyceride.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Analysis of the triglycerides in adipose tissue shows that about 50% of the fatty
acids are unsaturated. Suggest the advantage of this.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(d)

Triglycerides are broken down in the digestive system.

Haybridge High School

(i)

Name the enzyme that digests triglycerides.


...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Name one organ which produces this enzyme.


...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii)

Describe how the products of triglyceride digestion get from the lumen of the small
intestine into the blood system.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(e)

Gallstones can block the duct from the liver to the duodenum. This prevents bile reaching
the duodenum. Explain how this may affect the digestion of triglycerides.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 15 marks)

6.

Grasses store carbohydrate as fructans, which are polymers of a monosaccharide called fructose.
The diagram shows the structural formula of each of two fructose molecules.

H O C H

O H

O
O H

Haybridge High School

H
C H 2O H

O H

H O C H

O H

O
O H

C H 2O H
O H

(a)

(i)

Draw a box round the parts of the two fructose molecules that would be removed
when the two molecules are joined together.
(1)

(ii)

Name the process in which monosaccharides join together.


...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii)

How many carbon atoms does a molecule of fructose contain?


...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

The table shows the percentage of carbohydrates in the dry mass of a sample of young
grass.
Carbohydrate

Monosaccharides &
disaccharides
Fructans
Cellulose
Other polysaccharides
(i)

Content of dry mass


of
grass sample /
%
9
18
25
21

The sample of young grass contains 80% water.


Calculate the mass of cellulose in 1 kg of this grass. Show your working.

.................. g
(2)

(ii)

Cellulose, is a constituent of the cell walls of the grass


Explain how the structure of cellulose molecules gives strength to the cell walls
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

Haybridge High School

(c)

The diagram shows the digestive system of a cow.


S m a ll in te s tin e

R um en
P a th w a y o f fo o d

'M a in s to m a c h '

Cows feed on grass, but they do not produce enzymes that can digest cellulose or some of
the fructans. The rumen is large and contains microorganisms which secrete enzymes that
can break down cellulose and fructans.
(i)

Use information from the table in part (b) to explain the advantage to cows of
having such microorganisms in their rumen.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

When grazing, cows bite off grass and quickly swallow it into the rumen. Later,
when resting, this grass is returned to the mouth for thorough chewing. The chewed
cud then passes back to the rumen.
Suggest the advantage of chewing the cud.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

Haybridge High School

10

(iii)

Farmers can improve the growth rate of cows by including urea in their food. The
microorganisms in the rumen are able to use nitrogen compounds such as urea to
make amino acids which they use for growth. Some of the microorganisms pass out
of the rumen into the other parts of the digestive system.
Use your knowledge of digestion to explain how cows obtain useful compounds for
growth from proteins in the microorganisms.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 14 marks)

Haybridge High School

11