880 views

Uploaded by ngpvn

- EFFECTIVE PRINCIPLE OF ORAL COMMUNICATION
- pulse code modulation sampling
- Noise
- NSS-05-0202.pdf
- Principles of Communication
- 2014 Noise and what does V_√Hz actually mean
- Data Transmission
- Principles of Communication
- Ringdal_PEPI1990_Spectral Analysis of Seismic Signals and Noise
- Representation of Signals
- Principles of Communication
- 23738883 5 Principles of Communication
- Principles of Communication
- Random Signals and Noise
- 1_8
- Print
- Parametric Sensitivity Analysis of a Thermal Test Cell Model Using Spectral Analysis
- raspored predavanja na TM I
- § - Circuits for Voltage Tuning the Parameters of Chua s Circuit - Experimental Application for Musical Signal Generation
- lec7

You are on page 1of 130

Venkata Rao

1 CHAPTER 1

Representation of Signals

1.1 Introduction

The process of (electronic) communication involves the generation,

transmission and reception of various types of signals. The communication

process becomes fairly difficult, because:

a) the transmitted signals may have to travel long distances (there by

undergoing severe attenuation) before they can reach the destination i.e.,

the receiver.

b) of imperfections of the channel over which the signals have to travel

c) of interference due to other signals sharing the same channel and

d) of noise at the receiver input1.

In quite a few situations, the desired signal strength at the receiver input

may not be significantly stronger than the disturbance component present at that

point in the communication chain. (But for the above causes, the process of

communication would have been quite easy, if not trivial). In order to come up

with appropriate signal processing techniques, which enable us to extract the

desired signal from a distorted and noisy version of the transmitted signal, we

must clearly understand the nature and properties of the desired and undesired

signals present at various stages of a communication system. In this lesson, we

begin our study of this aspect of communication theory.

1

Complete statistical characterization of the noise will be given in chapter 3, namely, Random

Signals and Noise.

1.1

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Signals physically exist in the time domain and are usually expressed as a

function of the time parameter1. Because of this feature, it is not too difficult, at

least in the majority of the situations of interest to us, to visualize the signal

behavior in the Time Domain. In fact, it may even be possible to view the signals

on an oscilloscope. But equally important is the characterization of the signals in

the Frequency Domain or Spectral Domain. That is, we characterize the signal

in terms of its various frequency components (or its spectrum). Fourier analysis

(Fourier Series and Fourier Transform) helps us in arriving at the spectral

description of the pertinent signals.

Signals can be classified in various ways such as:

a) Power or Energy

b) Deterministic or Random

c) Real or Complex

d) Periodic or Aperiodic etc.

develop the spectral description of these signals.

Def. 1.1: A signal x p ( t ) is said to be periodic if

xp (t ) = xp (t + T ) , (1.1)

1

We will not discuss the multi-dimensional signals such as picture signals, video signals, etc.

1.2

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

the period of x p ( t ) .

1.3

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

namely, A e (

j 2 πf t + ϕ)

or A exp ⎡⎣ j ( 2 π f t + ϕ ) ⎤⎦ , where

f : Cyclical frequency (in Hz)

ϕ : Phase angle at t = 0 (either in radians or degrees)

Both A and f are real and non-negative. As the radian frequency, ω (in

units of radians/ sec), is equal to 2 π f , the complex exponential can also written

j ( ωt + ϕ)

as A e . We use subscripts on A , f (or ω ) and ϕ to denote the specific

values of these parameters.

⎡ ⎛ π ⎞⎤

Fourier analysis uses cos ω t ⎢or sin ω t = cos⎜ ω t − ⎟ ⎥ in the represen-

⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎦

⎣ ⎦

have

( e j ωt )

∗

e j ωt +

cos ω t = ( ∗ denotes the complex conjugate)

2

e j ωt + e − j ωt

=

2

The term e − j ωt

or e − j 2 πf t

is referred to as the complex exponential at

the negative frequency − ω (or − f ).

1.4

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

1

Let x p ( t ) be a periodic signal with period T0 . Then f0 = is called the

T0

T0 is not defined; n = 1 results in the fundamental). Fourier series

namely,

∞ j 2 π n f0 t

xp (t ) = ∑ xn e (1.2a)

n = −∞

x p ( t ) as

1 − j 2 π n f0 t

xn = ∫T xp (t ) e dt (1.2b)

T0

0

where ∫ denotes the integral over any one period of x p ( t ) . Most often, we

T0

⎛ T T ⎞

use the interval ⎜ − 0 , 0 ⎟ or ( 0 , T0 ) . Eq. 1.2(a) is referred to as the

⎝ 2 2⎠

Exponential form of the Fourier series.

xn = xn e j ϕn (1.3)

where xn denotes the magnitude of the complex number and ϕn , the argument

∞ j ( 2 π n f0 t + ϕn )

xp (t ) = ∑ xn e

n = −∞

1.5

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

vs. n (or n f0 ) is called the magnitude spectrum, and ϕn vs. n (or n f0 ) is called

the phase spectrum. It is important to note that the spectrum of a periodic signal

exists only at discrete frequencies, namely, at n f0 , n = 0, ± 1, ± 2, ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ , etc.

1 j 2 π n f0 t

x− n = ∫T xp (t ) e dt

T0

0

= xn∗

That is, for a real periodic signal, we have the two symmetry properties, namely,

x− n = x n (1.4a)

ϕ- n = − ϕn (1.4b)

Properties of Eq. 1.4 are part of an if and only if (iff) relationship. That is, if

x p ( t ) is real, then Eq. 1.4 holds and if Eq. 1.4 holds, then x p ( t ) has to be real.

into a cosine term. As an example, let the only nonzero coefficients of a periodic

*

signal be x ± 2 , x± 1 , x 0 . x0 =X 0 implies, x0 is real and let

π π

j

= x2∗ and x = 3 e

j

x− 2 = 2 e 4 3 = x1∗ and x0 = 1. Then,

−1

π π π π

j j − j − j

xp (t ) = 2 e 4 e − j 4 π f0 t

+ 3e 3 e − j 2 π f0 t

+ 1 + 3e 3 e j 2 π f0 t

+ 2e 4 e j 4 π f0 t

⎛ π⎞ ⎛ π⎞

x p ( t ) = 4 cos ⎜ 4 π f0 t − ⎟ + 6 cos ⎜ 2 π f0 t − ⎟ + 1

⎝ 4⎠ ⎝ 3⎠

1.6

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

periodic rectangular pulse train (This example is to be found in almost all the

textbooks on communication theory).

Example 1.1

For the unit amplitude rectangular pulse train shown in Fig. 1.2, let us

compute the Fourier series coefficients.

OFF during the remaining half. The fundamental frequency f0 = 250 Hz.

T0

2

1 j 2π n f0 t

xn = ∫ e− dt

T0 T

− 0

2

T0

4

1

= ∫T e− j 2 π n f0 t

dt

T0

− 0

4

⎛ nπ⎞

1 sin ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠

=

T0 n π f0

1.7

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

⎛nπ⎞

sin ⎜ ⎟

= ⎝ 2 ⎠

nπ

As can be seen from the equation for xn , all the Fourier coefficients are

real but could be bipolar (+ve or –ve). Hence ϕn is either zero or ± π for all n .

Fig. 1.3: Magnitude and phase spectra for the x p (t) of example 1.1

1.8

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

1

i) x0 , the average or the DC value of the pulse train is . For any periodic

2

T0

2

1

signal, the average value is ∫ x p ( t ) dt .

T0 T

− 0

2

spectrum).

iii) the curve drawn with broken line in Fig. 1.3(a) is the envelope of the

magnitude spectrum. The envelope consists of several lobes and the

maximum value of each lobe keeps decreasing with increase in frequency.

iv) the plot of xn vs. frequency is symmetric and the plot of ϕn vs. frequency is

One of the functions that is useful in the study of Fourier analysis is the

sinc ( ) function defined by

sin ( π λ )

sinc λ = sinc ( λ ) = (1.5)

πλ

A plot of the sinc λ vs. λ along with a table of values are given in

appendix A1.1, at the end of the chapter.

1.9

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

1 ⎛n⎞

as, xn = sinc ⎜ ⎟ .

2 ⎝2⎠

Exercise 1.1

⎛ τ ⎞

For the x p ( t ) of Fig .1.4, show that xn = ⎜ ⎟ sinc ( n f0 τ )

⎝ T0 ⎠

used to obtain the magnitude spectrum of periodic signals (frequency resolution,

frequency range over which the spectrum can be measured etc. depend on that

particular instrument). We have given below a set of four waveforms (output of a

function generator) and their line spectra, as indicated by a spectrum analyzer.

⎡x ⎤

The spectral plots 1 to 4 give the values of 20 log10 ⎢ n ⎥ for the

⎣⎢ x1 ⎥⎦

waveforms 1 to 4 respectively. The units for the above quantities are in decibels

(dB).

1.10

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

1.

Waveform 1

Spectral Plot 1

1.11

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Comments on spectral plot 1: Waveform 1 has only two Fourier coefficients,

namely, x − 1 and x 1 . Also, we have x−1 = x1 . Hence the spectral plot has only

x1

two lines, namely at ± 10 kHz, and their values are 20 log10 = 0 dB.

x1

2.

Waveform 2

1.12

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

τ 1

Waveform 2: Periodic square wave with = ; T0 = 0.1 msec.

T0 5

Comments on Spectral Plot 2: Values of various spectral components are:

i) fundamental: 0 dB

⎡ sin c ( 0.4 ) ⎤

ii) second harmonic: 20 log10 ⎢ ⎥

⎣⎢ sin c ( 0.2 ) ⎦⎥

= 20 log10 0.809 = − 0.924 dB

⎡ sin c ( 0.6 ) ⎤

iii) third harmonic: 20 log10 ⎢ ⎥

⎣⎢ sin c ( 0.2 ) ⎦⎥

⎡ 0.504 ⎤

= 20 log10 ⎢ ⎥

⎣ 0.935 ⎦

= 20 log10 (0.539) dB

= − 5.362

⎡ sin c ( 0.8 ) ⎤

iv) fourth Harmonic: 20 log10 ⎢ ⎥

⎣⎢ sin c ( 0.2 ) ⎦⎥

= − 12.04 dB

⎡ sin c (1) ⎤

v) fifth harmonic: 20 log10 ⎢ ⎥

⎢⎣ sin c ( 0.2 ) ⎥⎦

= 20 log10 ( 0 ) = − ∞

Similarly, the values of other components can be calculated.

1.13

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

3.

Waveform 3

1.14

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

4.

Waveform 4

1.15

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

The Example 1.1 and the periodic waveforms 1 to 4 all have fundamental

as part of their spectra. Based on this, we should not surmise that every periodic

signal must necessarily have a nonzero value for its fundamental. As a counter to

the conjuncture, let x p ( t ) = cos ( 20 π t ) cos ( 2000 π t ) .

This is periodic with period 100 msec. However, the only spectral

components that have nonzero magnitudes are at 990 Hz and 1010 Hz. That is,

the first 99 spectral components (inclusive of DC) are zero!

average power, denoted by Pxp , as

1

xp (t ) d t

2

Px p =

T0 ∫

T0

∞

∑

2

Pxp = xn

n = −∞

1.16

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

x p ( t ) = xn e (

j 2 π n f0 t + ϕ )

then, Px p = xn2

In other words, Parseval’s power theorem implies that the total average power in

x p ( t ) is superposition of the average powers of the complex exponentials

present in it.

take special forms. Let us first define some of these symmetries (We assume

x p ( t ) to be real).

⎛ T ⎞

xp ⎜ t ± 0 ⎟ = − xp (t ) (1.6c)

⎝ 2⎠

With respect to the symmetries defined by Eq. 1.6, we have the following

special forms for the coefficients xn :

i) x p ( t ) even:

1.17

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

T0 2

1

xp (t ) e

− j 2 π n f0 t

xn =

T0 ∫ dt

− T0 2

1 ⎡ ⎤

0 T0 2

= ⎢ ∫ xp ( t ) e− j 2 π n f0 t

dt + ∫ x p (t)e − j 2 π n f0 t

d t⎥

T0 ⎢ − T 2 ⎥⎦

⎣ 0 0

1⎡0 ⎤

T 2 T0 2

xp (t ) e xp (t ) e

j 2 π n f0 t − j 2 π n f0 t

T0 ⎢ 0∫ ∫

= ⎢ dt + d t⎥

⎣ 0 ⎥⎦

2 ⎡0 ⎤

T /2

= ⎢ ∫ x p ( t ) ( cos 2 π n f0 t ) d t ⎥

T0 ⎢ 0 ⎥⎦

⎣

x −n = x n .

ii) x p ( t ) odd:

1⎡ ⎤

0 T0 2

xn = ⎢ ∫ xp ( t ) e− j 2 π n f0 t

dt + ∫ xp ( t ) e− j 2 π n f0 t

d t⎥

T0 ⎢ − T 2 ⎥

⎣ 0 0 ⎦

Changing t to - t , in the first integral and noting that x p ( − t ) = − x p ( t ) ,

we have

1⎡0 ⎤

T 2 T0 2

= ⎢ ∫ − xp (t ) e j 2 π n f0 t

d t + ∫ xp (t ) e

− j 2 π n f0 t

d t⎥

T0 ⎢ 0 ⎥⎦

⎣ 0

T0 2

1

x p ( t ) ⎡e

− j 2 π n f0 t j 2 π n f0 t ⎤

=

T0 ∫ ⎣

−e

⎦

dt

0

T0 2

2j

= − ∫ x p ( t ) sin ( 2 π n f0 t ) d t

T0 0

1.18

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

1⎡ ⎤

0 T0 / 2

xn = ⎢ ∫ xp (t ) e− j 2 π n f0 t

dt + ∫ xp (t ) e− j 2 πn f0 t

d t⎥

T0 ⎢ −T / 2 ⎥⎦

⎣ 0 0

1 ⎡0 ⎤

T /2 T0 / 2

− j ( n ω0 t +π n )

xn = ⎢ ∫ x p (t + T0 /2) e d t + ∫ x p ( t )e − j n ω0 t

d t⎥

T0 ⎢ 0 ⎥⎦

⎣ 0

⎧− 1, n odd

e− j π n = ⎨

⎩ 1, n even

As seen from Eq. 1.2, the representation of a periodic function in terms of

Fourier series involves, in general, an infinite summation. As such, the issue of

convergence of the series is to be given some consideration.

convergence. These are stated below.

i) ∫ xp (t ) < ∞

T0

That is, the function is absolutely integrable over any period. It is easy to

verify that the above condition results in xn < ∞ for any n .

ii) x p ( t ) has only a finite number of maxima and minima over any period T0 .

iii) There are only finite number of finite discontinuities over any period1.

M

Let xM ( t ) = ∑ xn e j 2 π n f0 t (1.7)

n = −M

1

For examples of periodic signals that do not satisfy one or more of the conditions i) to iii), the

reader is referred to [1, 2] listed at the end of this chapter.

1.19

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

and eM ( t ) = x p ( t ) − xM ( t )

M → ∞

M → ∞

Dirichlet conditions are sufficient but not necessary. Later on, we shall

have examples of Fourier series for functions that voilate some of the Dirichet

conditions.

∫ xp (t )

2

dt < ∞ , then the series converges in the mean. That is,

T0

∫ eM ( t )

2

lim dt = 0 (1.8)

M → ∞

T0

Note that Eq. 1.8 does not imply that lim eM ( t ) is zero. There could be

M →∞

nonzero values in lim eM ( t ) ; but they occur at isolated points, resulting in the

M →∞

integrable. This is illustrated in Fig. 1.5(a). From the figure, we see that

1.20

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

sufficiently large). The period of oscillations (whose amplitudes keep decreasing

T0

with increasing t , t > 0 ) is . These oscillations (with the peak overshoot as

2M

well as the undershoot of amplitude 0. 09 A) persist even as M → ∞ . In the

limiting case, all the oscillations converge in location to the point t = t1 (the point

1.21

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

developed an instrument called Harmonic Analyzer (HA), which was capable of

computing the first 80 coefficients of the Fourier series. HA could also be used a

signal synthesizer. In other words, it has the ability to self-check its calculations

by synthesizing the signal using the computed coefficients. When Michelson tried

this instrument on signals with discontinuities (with continuous signals, close

agreement was found between the original signal and the synthesized signal), he

observed a strange behavior: synthesized signal, based on the 80 coefficients,

exhibited ringing with an overshoot of about 9% of the discontinuity, in the vicinity

of the discontinuity. This behavior persisted even after increasing the number of

terms beyond 80. J. W. Gibbs, professor at Yale, investigated and clarified the

above behavior by taking the saw-tooth wave as an example; hence the name

Gibbs Phenomenon.)

Gibbs oscillations can be seen from the animation that follows. You have been

provided with three options with respect to the number of harmonics M to be

summed. These are: M = 10, 25 and 75 .

Aperiodic (also called nonperiodic) signals can be of finite or infinite

duration. A few of the aperiodic signals occur quote often in theoretical studies.

Hence, it behooves us to introduce some notation to describe their behavior.

⎛t ⎞

i) Rectangular pulse, ga ⎜ ⎟

⎝T ⎠

⎧ T

⎪ 1, t <

⎛t ⎞ ⎪ 2

ga ⎜ ⎟ = ⎨ (1.9a)

⎝ T ⎠ ⎪0, t > T

⎪⎩ 2

1.22

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

⎛t ⎞

symbol ga ( ) ]. In view of the above A ga ⎜ ⎟ refers to a rectangular pulse

⎝T ⎠

of amplitude A and duration T , centered at t = 0 .

⎛t ⎞

ii) Triangular pulse, tri ⎜ ⎟

⎝T ⎠

⎧ t

⎛t ⎞ ⎪1− , t ≤ T

tri ⎜ ⎟=⎨ T (1.9b)

⎝T ⎠ ⎪

⎩ 0 , outside

⎛t ⎞

iii) One-sided (decaying) exponential pulse, ex1 ⎜ ⎟ :

⎝T ⎠

⎧ −t

⎪e T , t > 0

⎪

⎛ t ⎞ ⎪ 1

ex1 ⎜ ⎟ = ⎨ , t = 0 (1.9c)

⎝T⎠ ⎪ 2

⎪ 0 , t < 0

⎪⎩

⎛t ⎞

iv) Two-sided (symmetrical) exponential pulse, ex 2 ⎜ ⎟ :

⎝T ⎠

⎧ −t

⎪e T , t > 0

⎛ ⎞ ⎪

t

ex 2 ⎜ ⎟ = ⎨ 1 , t = 0 (1.9d)

⎝T ⎠ ⎪ t

⎪ eT , t < 0

⎩

Fig. 1.6 illustrates specific examples of these pulses.

1.23

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

∞

∫ x ( t ) dt

2

Ex = (1.10)

−∞

(When no specific signal is being referred to, we use the symbol E without any

subscript to denote the energy quantity.)

Like periodic signals, aperiodic signals also can be represented in the

frequency domain. However, unlike the discrete spectrum of the periodic case,

we have a continuous spectrum for the aperiodic case; that is, the frequency

components constituting a given signal x ( t ) lie in a continuous range (or

ranges), and quite often this range could be ( −∞, ∞ ) . Eq. 1.2(a) expresses x p ( t )

as a sum over a discrete set of frequencies. Its counterpart for the aperiodic case

is an integral relationship given by

1.24

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

∞

x (t ) = ∫ X (f ) e

j 2 πf t

df (1.11a)

−∞

Eq. 1.11(a) is given the following interpretation. Let the integral be treated

as a sum over incremental frequency ranges of width ∆f . Let X ( fi ) ∆f be the

large number of such complex exponentials, the resulting signal should be a very

good approximation to x ( t ) . This argument, carried to its natural conclusion,

integral, where a continuous range of frequencies, with the appropriate complex

amplitude distribution will synthesize the given signal x ( t ) .

(IFT) relation. Quite often, we know x ( t ) and would want X ( f ) . The companion

−∞

X (f ) = ∫ x (t ) e

− j 2 πf t

dt (1.11b)

∞

Eq. 1.11(b) is referred to as the Fourier Transform (FT) relation or, the

analysis equation, or forward transform relation. We use the notation

X ( f ) = F ⎡⎣ x ( t ) ⎤⎦ (1.12a)

x (t ) = F −1

⎡⎣ X ( f ) ⎤⎦ (1.12b)

Eq. 1.12(a) and Eq. 1.12(b) are combined into the abbreviated notation, namely,

x ( t ) ←⎯→ X ( f ) . (1.12c)

X (f ) = XR (f ) + j XI (f )

1.25

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

= X (f ) e

j θ( f )

X R ( f ) = Real part of X ( f ) ,

X I ( f ) = Imaginary part of X ( f )

X ( f ) = magnitude of X ( f )

= X R2 ( f ) + X I2 ( f )

⎡ X (f ) ⎤

θ ( f ) = arg ⎡⎣ X ( f ) ⎤⎦ = arc tan ⎢ I ⎥

⎢⎣ X R ( f ) ⎥⎦

phase spectrum.

Example 1.2

⎛t ⎞

Let x ( t ) = A ga ⎜ ⎟ . Let us compute and sketch X ( f ) .

⎝T ⎠

T

2

X (f ) = ∫ Ae− j 2 πft

dt = AT sin c (f T ) ,

− T

2

where

sin ( π λ )

sin c ( λ ) =

πλ

Appendix A1.1 contains the tabulated values of sin c ( λ ) . Its behavior is shown in

⎧1 , λ = 0

Fig. A1.1. Note that sin c ( λ ) = ⎨

⎩0 , λ = ± 1, ± 2 etc.

Fig. 1.7(a) sketches the magnitude spectrum of the rectangular pulse for AT = 1 .

1.26

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

m m +1

During the interval, < f < , with m odd, sin c ( f T ) is negative. As the

T T

magnitude spectrum is always positive, negative values of sin c ( f T ) are taken

1.7(b).

Remarkable balancing act: A serious look at the magnitude and phase plots

reveals a very charming result. From the magnitude spectrum, we find that a

rectangular pulse is composed of frequency components in the range

−∞ < f < ∞ , each with its own amplitude and phase. Each of these complex

exponentials exist for all t . But when we synthesize a signal using the complex

exponentials with the magnitudes and phases as given in Fig. 1.7, they add up to

1.27

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

a constant for t < T and then go to zero forever. A very fascinating result

2

indeed!

Fig. 1.7(a) illustrates another interesting result. From the figure, we see

that most of the energy, (that is, the range of strong spectral components) of the

1

signal lies in the interval f < , where T is the duration of the rectangular pulse.

T

Hence, if T is reduced, then its spectral width increases and vice versa (As we

shall see later, this is true of other pulse types, other than the rectangular). That

is, more compact is the signal in the time-domain, the more wide-spread it would

be in the frequency domain and vice versa. This is called the phenomenon of

reciprocal spreading.

Example 1.3

Let x ( t ) = ex1( t ) . Let us find X ( f ) and sketch it.

∞

1

X ( f ) = ∫ e − t e − j 2πf t dt =

0

1 + j 2πf

1

Hence, X ( f ) =

1 + ( 2πf )

2

A plot of the magnitude and the phase spectrum are given in Fig. 1.8.

1.28

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

(b) Phase spectrum

Given X ( f ) , Eq. 1.11(a) enables us to synthesize the signal x ( t ) . Now

s

Dirichlet conditions for the Fourier series, we have a set of sufficient conditions,

(also called Dirichlet conditions) for the existence of Fourier transform, which are

stated below:

1.29

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

∞

∫ x ( t ) dt < ∞

−∞

∞

X (f ) = ∫ x (t ) e

− j 2 πf t

dt

−∞

∞

X (f ) = ∫ x (t ) e

− j 2 πf t

dt

−∞

∞ ∞

∫ x (t ) e ∫ x ( t ) dt

− j 2 πf t

≤ dt = <∞

−∞ −∞

(ii) x ( t ) is single valued and has only finite number of maxima and minima

(iii) x ( t ) has a finite number of finite discontinuities with in any finite interval.

W

(s )

( t ) = Wlim X ( f ) e j 2 πf t df , then x( ) (t ) x (t )

→∞ ∫

s

If x converges to

−W

∞

∫ x (t )

2

dt < ∞ (Finite energy signal), then we have the convergence in the

−∞

mean, namely

∞ 2

∫ x ( t ) − x ( ) ( t ) dt = 0

s

−∞

1.30

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

s

Fourier Transform has a large number of properties, which are developed

in the sequel. A thorough understanding of these properties, and the ability to

make use of them appropriately, helps a great deal in the analysis of various

signals and systems.

P1) Linearity

Let x1 ( t ) ←⎯→ X1 ( f ) and x2 ( t ) ←⎯→ X 2 ( f ) .

a1 x1 ( t ) + a2 x2 ( t ) ←⎯→ a1 X1 ( f ) + a2 X 2 ( f )

It is very easy to see the validity of the above transform relationship. This

property will be used quite often in the development of this course material.

If x ( t ) ←⎯→ X ( f ) , then

∞

∫ x ( t ) dt = X ( 0 )

−∞

example of this property, we have the transform pair

⎛t ⎞

ga ⎜ ⎟ ←⎯→ T sin c ( fT )

⎝T ⎠

By inspection, area of the time function is T , which is equal to T sin c ( f T ) | f = 0 .

1.31

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

∞

If x ( t ) ←⎯→ X ( f ) , then x ( 0 ) = ∫ X ( f ) df

−∞

As an illustration of this property, we have

1

x ( t ) = ex1( t ) ←⎯→ X ( f ) =

1 + j 2πf

∞ ∞ ∞

1 1 − j 2πf

Hence ∫ X ( f ) df = ∫ df = ∫ 1 + ( 2πf )2 df

−∞ −∞

1 + j 2πf −∞

∞

2πf

Noting that ∫ 1 + ( 2πf )2 df = 0 , we have

−∞

∞ ∞

1 1

∫ X ( f ) df = ∫ 1 + ( 2πf )2 df = , which is the value of ex1( t ) | t = 0

−∞ −∞

2

1 ⎛f ⎞

If x ( t ) ←⎯→ X ( f ) , then x ( αt ) ←⎯→ X ⎜ ⎟ , where α is a real

α ⎝α⎠

constant.

Proof: Exercise

1.32

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Fig. 1.9: A triangular pulse and its time compressed and reversed version

x ( − t ) ←⎯→ X ( − f ) . That is, both the time function and its Fourier transform

1

ex1( t ) ←⎯→

1 + j 2πf

1

Hence ex1( −t ) ←⎯→

1 − j 2πf

ex1( t ) + ex1( − t ) = ex 2 ( t )

transform pair

ex 2 ( t ) = exp ( − t ) ←⎯→

1 1

+

1 + j 2πf 1 − j 2πf

2

=

1 + ( 2πf )

2

1 ⎛f ⎞

x ( 2t ) ←⎯→

2 ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠

X

1.33

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

1 ⎛f ⎞

Let us compare X ( f ) with X ⎜ ⎟ by taking x ( t ) = ex1( t ) , and

2 ⎝ 2⎠

y ( t ) = ex1( 2t ) . That is,

⎧ e − 2t , t > 0

⎪

⎪ 1

y (t ) = ⎨ , t =0

⎪ 2

⎪ 0 , t <0

⎩

1 ⎡ 1 ⎤

Y (f ) = ⎢ ⎥

2 ⎣⎢ 1 + j 2π ( f 2 ) ⎥⎦

1

=

2 + j 2πf

Let X ( f ) = X ( f ) e x ( ) and

θ f

θy ( f ) 1

Y (f ) = Y (f ) e , where Y ( f ) =

2 1 + π2 f 2

θy ( f ) = − arc tan ( π f )

Fig. 1.10 gives the plots of X ( f ) and Y ( f ) . In Fig. 1.10(a), we have the

Fig. 1.10(c) gives the plots of θ x ( f ) and θy ( f ) . From Fig. 1.10(b), we see that

⎛f ⎞

of the original signal. (In fact, if X ( f ) is band limited to W Hz, then X ⎜ ⎟

⎝ 2⎠

will be band limited to 2W Hz.)

1.34

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

1.35

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

different frequencies (Note that Y ( f ) ≠ k X ( f ) where k is a constant).

new, higher frequency components (if the original signal is band limited) or

making the latter part of the original spectrum much more significant; the

remaining spectral components are distorted (both in amplitude and phase). On

the other hand, time expansion would result either in the loss or attenuation of

higher frequency components, and distortion of the remaining spectrum.

will impart shrillness to the audio, besides distorting the original signal. Similarly,

if the audio is compressed, we have loss of “sharpness” in the resulting signal

and severe distortion. This property of the FT will now be demonstrated with the

help of a recorded audio signal.

If x ( t ) ←⎯→ X ( f ) then,

x ( t − t0 ) ←⎯→ e − j 2 πf t0 X ( f )

1.36

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

∞

− j 2 πf ( λ + t )

F ⎡⎣ x ( t − t0 ) ⎤⎦ = ∫ x (λ) e 0

dλ

−∞

∞

= e − j 2 π f t0 ∫ x (λ)e

− j 2 πf λ

dλ

−∞

= e − j 2 π f t0 X ( f )

If x ( t ) ←⎯→ X ( f ) , then

e ± j 2 πfc t x ( t ) ←⎯→ X ( f ∓ fc )

Proof: Exercise

As an application of the above result, let us consider the spectrum of

y ( t ) = 2 cos ( 2πfc t ) x ( t ) ; that is, we want the Fourier transform of

⎣ ⎦

y ( t ) = 2 cos ( 2πfc t ) x ( t ) ←⎯→Y ( f ) = X ( f − fc ) + X ( f + fc ) . If X ( f ) is as shown

1.37

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

P5) Duality

If we look fairly closely at the two equations constituting the Fourier

transform pair, we find that there is a great deal of similarity between them. In

Eq.1.11a, ' f ' is the variable of integration where as in Eq. 1.11b, it is the variable

' t ' . The sign of the exponent is positive in Eq. 1.11a where as it is negative in

Eq. 1.11b. Both t and f are variables of the continuous type. This results in an

interesting property, namely, the duality property, which is stated below.

If x ( t ) ←⎯→ X ( f ) , then

Note: This is one instance, where the variable t is associated with a function

denoted using the upper case letter and the variable f is associated with a

function denoted using a lower case letter.

∞

Proof: x ( t ) = ∫ X ( f ) e df

j 2 πf t

−∞

∞

x (−t ) = ∫ X (f ) e

− j 2 πf t

df

−∞

The result follows by interchanging the variables t and f . The proof of the

second part of the property is similar.

given set. We shall illustrate the duality property with the help of a few examples.

Example 1.4

If z ( t ) = A sin c 2W t , let us use duality to find Z ( f ) .

1.38

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

A ⎛ t ⎞

We know that if x ( t ) = ga ⎜ ⎟ , then,

2W ⎝ 2W ⎠

X ( f ) = A sin c ( 2W f ) and

X ( t ) = A sin c ( 2W t ) = z ( t ) ⇒

A ⎛ f ⎞

Z (f ) = x ( − f ) = ga ⎜ − ⎟

2W ⎝ 2W ⎠

As ga( − f ) = ga( f ) , we have

⎛ A ⎞ ⎛ f ⎞

Z (f ) = ⎜ ⎟ ga ⎜ ⎟.

⎝ 2W ⎠ ⎝ 2W ⎠

Example 1.5

2

Find the Fourier transform of z ( t ) = .

1+ t 2

2

We know that if y ( t ) = e , then Y ( f ) =

− t

1+( 2πf )

2

Let x ( t ) = y ( αt ) , with α = 2π .

1 ⎛ f ⎞

Then X ( f ) = Y⎜ ⎟

2π ⎝ 2π ⎠

1 2

=

2π 1 + f 2

2

or 2π X ( f ) =

1+ f 2

2

As z ( t ) = with f being replaced by t , we have

1+ f 2

Z ( f ) = 2π x ( − f )

− 2π f

= 2π e

1.39

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

2 − 2π f

Hence ←⎯→ 2π e

1+ t 2

If x ( t ) ←⎯→ X ( f ) , then x ∗ ( t ) ←⎯→ X ∗ ( − f )

∞

Proof: X ( f ) = ∫ x (t ) e

− j 2 πf t

dt

−∞

∞

X ∗ (f ) = ∫ x ∗ ( t ) e j 2 πf t dt

−∞

∞

X ∗ (−f ) = ∫ x ∗ ( t ) e − j 2 πf t dt

−∞

From the time reversal property, we get the additional relation, namely

x ∗ ( − t ) ←⎯→ X ∗ ( f )

that

1

xR ( t ) ←⎯→ ⎡ X ( f ) + X ∗ ( − f )⎤

2 ⎣ ⎦

1

xI ( t ) ←⎯→ ⎡ X ( f ) − X ∗ ( − f )⎤

2j ⎣ ⎦

1.40

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

x ( − t ) = − x∗ (t ) .

If x ( t ) is real, then x ( t ) = x ∗ ( t ) .

As a result, X ( f ) = X ∗ ( − f ) or X ∗ ( f ) = X ( − f ) .

Hence, the spectrum for the negative frequencies is the complex conjugate of the

positive part of the spectrum. This implies, that for real signals,

X ( − f ) = X (f )

θ ( − f ) = − θ (f )

Going one step ahead, we can show that if x ( t ) is real and even, then

2

X ( f ) is also real and even. (Example: e ). Similarly, if x ( t )

− t

←⎯→

1 + (2 π f )

2

is real and odd, its transform is purely imaginary and odd (See Example 1.7).

If x1 ( t ) ←⎯→ X1 ( f )

x2 ( t ) ←⎯→ X 2 ( f )

∞ ∞

then, x1 ( t ) x2 ( t ) ←⎯→ ∫ X1 ( λ ) X 2 ( f − λ ) d λ = ∫ X 2 ( λ ) X1 ( f − λ ) d λ

−∞ −∞

(Note that ∗ in between two functions represents the convolution of the two

quantities where as a superscript, it denotes the complex conjugate)

1.41

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Proof: Exercise

Let x1 ( t ) ←⎯→ X1 ( f )

x2 ( t ) ←⎯→ X 2 ( f )

∞

then, F −1

⎡⎣ X1 ( f ) X 2 ( f ) ⎤⎦ = ∫ x1 ( λ ) x2 ( t − λ ) d λ

−∞

∞

= ∫ x2 ( λ ) x1 ( t − λ ) d λ

−∞

we have

x1 ( t ) ∗ x2 ( t ) ←⎯→ X1 ( f ) X 2 ( f )

Proof: Let x3 ( t ) = x1 ( t ) ∗ x2 ( t )

∞

That is, x3 ( t ) = ∫ x1 ( λ ) x2 ( t − λ ) d λ

−∞

∞ ∞⎡∞ ⎤

X 3 ( f ) = F ⎣⎡ x3 ( t ) ⎦⎤ = ∫ x3 ( t ) e − j 2 πf t

dt = ∫ ⎢ ∫ x1 ( λ ) x2 ( t − λ ) d λ ⎥ e − j 2π f t

dt

−∞ −∞ ⎢

⎣− ∞ ⎥⎦

∞ ⎡∞ ⎤

X3 (f ) = ∫ x1 ( λ ) ⎢ ∫ x2 ( t − λ ) e − j 2 π f t dt ⎥ d λ

−∞ ⎢⎣ − ∞ ⎥⎦

x2 ( t − λ ) ←⎯→ e − j 2πf λ X 2 ( f )

Hence,

1.42

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

∞

X3 (f ) = ∫ x1 ( λ ) X 2 ( f ) e

− j 2 πf λ

dλ

−∞

∞

= X2 (f ) ∫ x1 ( λ ) e

− j 2 πf λ

dλ

−∞

= X1 ( f ) X 2 ( f )

Property P7(b), known as the Convolution theorem, is one of the very useful

properties of the Fourier transform.

systems. As will be shown later, the input and output of a linear, time- invariant

system are related by the convolution integral. For a fairly detailed treatment of

the properties of systems, convolution integral etc. the student is advised to refer

to [1 - 3].

Example 1.6

⎛t ⎞

In this example, we will find the Fourier transform of T tri ⎜ ⎟ .

⎝T ⎠

⎛t ⎞ ⎛t ⎞

T tri ⎜ ⎟ can be obtained as the convolution of ga ⎜ ⎟ with itself. That is,

⎝T ⎠ ⎝T ⎠

⎛t ⎞ ⎛t ⎞ ⎛t ⎞

ga ⎜ ⎟ ∗ ga ⎜ ⎟ = T tri ⎜ T ⎟

⎝T ⎠ ⎝T ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

⎛t ⎞

As ga ⎜ ⎟ ←⎯→ T sin c ( f T ) , we have

⎝T ⎠

⎛t ⎞

T tri ⎜ ⎟ ←⎯→ ⎡⎣T sin c ( f T ) ⎤⎦

2

⎝T ⎠

1.43

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

P8) Differentiation

P8a) Differentiation in the time domain

Let x ( t ) ←⎯→ X ( f ) ,

d

then, ⎡ x ( t ) ⎤⎦ ←⎯→ j 2πf ⎡⎣ X ( f ) ⎤⎦

dt ⎣

d n x (t )

←⎯→ ( j 2πf ) X ( f )

n

Generalizing, n

dt

Proof: We shall prove the first part; generalization follows as a consequence

this. We have,

∞

x (t ) = ∫ X ( f ) e df

j 2 πf t

−∞

d ⎡ ⎤

∞

d

⎡⎣ x ( t ) ⎦⎤ = ⎢ ∫ X ( f ) e j 2 πf t df ⎥

dt dt ⎢ − ∞ ⎥⎦

⎣

Interchanging the order of differentiation and integration on the RHS,

∞

d ⎡ d j 2 πf t ⎤

⎡ x ( t ) ⎤⎦ = ∫ X ( f ) ⎢⎣ dt e ⎥⎦ df

dt ⎣ −∞

∫ ⎡⎣ j 2πf X ( f )⎤⎦ e

j 2 πf t

= df

−∞

d

From the above, we see that F − 1 ⎡⎣ j 2πf X ( f ) ⎤⎦ is x ( t ) . Hence the property.

dt

Example 1.7

Let us find the FT of the doublet pulse x ( t ) shown in Fig. 1.12 below.

1.44

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

d ⎡ ⎛t ⎞⎤

x (t ) = ⎢T tri ⎜ T ⎟ ⎥ . Hence,

dt ⎣ ⎝ ⎠⎦

⎡ ⎛ t ⎞⎤

X ( f ) = j 2πf F ⎢T tri ⎜ ⎟ ⎥

⎣ ⎝ T ⎠⎦

sin2 ( π fT )

= ( j 2πf )T 2

( π fT )( π fT )

sin ( π fT )

= j 2T sin ( π fT )

( π fT )

= j 2T sin c ( π fT ) sin ( π fT )

Let x3 ( t ) = x1 ( t ) ∗ x2 ( t )

Then X 3 ( f ) = X1 ( f ) X 2 ( f )

= X1 ( f ) ⎡⎣ j 2πf X 2 ( f ) ⎤⎦

That is,

1.45

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

d d

⎡⎣ x1 ( t ) ∗ x2 ( t ) ⎤⎦ = ⎡ x1 ( t ) ⎤⎦ ∗ x2 ( t )

dt dt ⎣

d

= x1 ( t ) ∗ ⎡ x2 ( t ) ⎤⎦

dt ⎣

Let x ( t ) ←⎯→ X ( f ) .

d X (f )

Then, ⎡⎣( − j 2πt ) x ( t ) ⎤⎦ ←⎯→

df

⎡ ⎤ d n X (f )

Generalizing, ( − j 2πt ) x ( t ) ←⎯→

n

⎣ ⎦ df n

Proof: Exercise

The generalized property can also be written as

⎛ j ⎞ d X (f )

n n

t x ( t ) ←⎯→ ⎜

n

⎟

⎝ 2π ⎠ df n

Example 1.8

⎛t ⎞

Find the Fourier transform of x ( t ) = t ex1⎜ ⎟.

⎝T ⎠

1

We have, ex1( t ) ←⎯→

1 + j 2πf

⎛t ⎞ 1

Hence, ex1⎜ ⎟ ←⎯→ T

⎝T ⎠ 1 + j 2πfT

⎛t ⎞ j d ⎡ T ⎤

t ex1⎜ ⎟ ←⎯→

⎝T ⎠ 2π df ⎣ 1 + j 2πfT ⎥⎦

⎢

j − ( j 2πT )

←⎯→ T

2π (1 + j 2πfT )2

1.46

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

⎡ T2 ⎤

←⎯→ ⎢ ⎥

⎢⎣ (1 + j 2πf T ) ⎥⎦

2

This property will be developed subsequently.

This theorem states that, E x , energy of the signal x ( t ) , is

∞

∫ X ( f ) df

2

Ex =

−∞

∞ ∞

∫ x1 ( t ) x2∗ ( t ) dt = ∫ X1 ( f ) X 2∗ ( f ) df

−∞ −∞

Proof: We have

∗

∞ ∞ ⎡∞ ⎤

∫ x1 ( t ) x2∗ ( t ) dt = ∫ x1 ( t ) ⎢ ∫ X 2 ( f ) e j 2πf t df ⎥ dt

⎢⎣ − ∞ ⎥⎦

−∞ −∞

∞ ⎡∞ ⎤

= ∫ X 2∗ ( f ) ⎢ ∫ x1 ( t ) e − j 2πf t dt ⎥ df

−∞ ⎢⎣ − ∞ ⎥⎦

∞

= ∫ X 2∗ ( f ) X1 ( f ) df

−∞

If x1 ( t ) = x2 ( t ) = x ( t ) , then

∞ ∞

∫ x (t ) ∫ X ( f ) df

2 2

dt = E x =

−∞ −∞

1.47

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

∞ ∞ ∞

∫ x1 ( t ) x2 ( t ) d t = ∫ X1 ( f ) X 2 ( − f ) d f = ∫ X 2 ( f ) X1 ( − f ) d f

−∞ −∞ −∞

magnitude spectrum. In a few situations, this may be easier than computing the

energy in the time domain. (Some authors refer to this result as Parseval’s

theorem)

Example 1.9

Let us find the energy of the signal x ( t ) = 2 AW sin c ( 2W t ) .

2

Ex = dt

−∞

⎛ f ⎞

1.4, X ( f ) = A ga ⎜ ⎟ . Hence,

⎝ 2W ⎠

W

Ex = ∫ A2 df = 2W A2

−W

More important than the calculation of the energy of the signal, Rayleigh’s

2

2

2

centered at f = f1 . Let

−W

⎛t ⎞

signal is confined to the interval f ≤ W . Consider the rectangular pulse ga ⎜ ⎟.

⎝T ⎠

1

The first nulls of the magnitude spectrum occur at f = ± . The evaluation of

T

1.48

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

1 1

T T

X ( f ) df = T sin c 2 ( f T ) df

2

∫1 ∫1 will yield the value 0.92 T , which is 92

− −

T T

⎛t ⎞ ⎛ 1 1⎞

percent of the total energy of ga ⎜ ⎟ . Hence, the frequency range ⎜ − T , T ⎟ can

⎝T ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

⎛ 2 2⎞

be taken to be the spectral width of the rectangular pulse. [The interval ⎜ − , ⎟

⎝ T T⎠

may result in about 95 percent of the total energy].

So far, we have represented the periodic functions by Fourier series and

the aperiodic functions by Fourier transform. The question arises: is it possible to

unify these two approaches and talk only in terms of say, Fourier transform? The

answer is yes provided we are willing to introduce Impulse Functions both in

time and frequency domains. This would also enable us to have Fourier

transforms for signals that do not satisfy one or more of the Dirichlet’s conditions

(for the existence of the Fourier transform).

Impulse function is not a function in its strict sense [Note that a function

f( ), takes a number y and a produces another number, f ( y ) ]. It is a

on another function. The symbol δ ( t ) is fairly common in the technical literature

to denote the unit impulse. We define the unit impulse as any (generalized)

function that satisfies the following conditions:

(i) δ ( t ) = 0, t ≠ 0 (1.13a)

(ii) δ ( t ) = ∞, t = 0 (1.13b)

1.49

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

∞ ε

−∞ −ε

ε ∞

∫ δ (t ) d t = ∫ δ (t ) d t = 1 (1.13d)

−ε −∞

approaches δ ( t ) . We cite a few such functions below:

Let

1 ⎛t ⎞ 1 ⎛t⎞ 1 ⎛t⎞

(a) p1 ( t ) = ga ⎜ ⎟ (b) p2 ( t ) = tri ⎜ ⎟ (c) p3 ( t ) = sin c ⎜ ⎟

ε ⎝ε⎠ ε ⎝ε⎠ ε ⎝ε⎠

Then, lim pi ( t ) = δ ( t ) , i = 1, 2, 3 . p3 ( t ) is shown below in Fig. 1.13.

ε→0

1.50

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

⎛ 1 ⎛t⎞ ⎞

⎜ Note that ε sin c ⎜ ε ⎟ ←⎯→ ga ( ε f ) . Hence the area under the time function = 1. ⎟

⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠

From the above examples, we see that the shape of the function is not

very critical; its area should remain at 1 in order to approach δ ( t ) in the limit.

normally shown as a spear (Fig. 1.14) with the weight or area of the impulse

shown in parentheses very close to it.

1.51

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

P1) Sampling (or sifting) property

Let p ( t ) be any ordinary function. Then for a < t0 < b ,

b

∫ p ( t ) δ ( t − t0 ) dt = p ( t0 )

a

change of variable t − t0 = τ and noting δ ( τ ) is zero for τ ≠ 0 . Note that

consequence.

P2) Replication property

Let p ( t ) be any ordinary function. Then,

p ( t ) ∗ δ ( t − t0 ) = p ( t − t0 )

The proof of this property follows from the fact, that in the process of

convolution, every value of p ( t ) will be sampled and shifted by t0

resulting in p ( t − t0 ) .

impulse function.)

1.52

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

1

δ ( αt ) = δ (t ), α ≠ 0

α

∞ ∞

1 1

∫ δ ( αt ) dt = ∫ α

δ ( τ) d τ =

α

−∞ −∞

∞

1

δ ( t ) dt

α −∫∞

=

∞

1

=

α ∫ δ ( t ) dt

−∞

∞ ∞

1 1

∫ δ ( αt ) dt = ∫ δ ( τ) d τ =

−∞ −∞

α α

∞

1

=

α ∫ δ ( t ) dt

−∞

1

It is easy to show that δ ⎡⎣ α ( t − t0 ) ⎤⎦ = δ ( t − t0 ) .

α

p1 ( t ) to p3 ( t ) , which are all even functions of t . Hence some authors call this

as the even sided delta function. It is also possible to come up with delta

functions as a limiting case of functions that are not even; that is, as a limiting

case of one-sided functions. In such a situation we have a left-sided delta

function or right-sided delta function etc. Left-sided delta function will prove to be

useful in the context of probability density functions of certain random variables,

subject matter of chapter 2.

1.53

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Example 1.10

Find the value of

4

∫ t δ ( t − 5 ) dt

3

(a)

−4

5.1

∫ t δ ( t − 5 ) dt

3

(b)

4.9

(b) As the range of integration includes the impulse, we have a nonzero value for

the product t 3 δ ( t − 5 ) . As δ ( t − 5 ) occurs at t = 5 , we can write

t 3 δ ( t − 5 ) = 53 δ ( t − 5 ) .

Hence,

5.1 5.1

∫ t δ ( t − 5 ) dt = 5 ∫ δ ( t − 5 ) dt = 125

3 3

4.9 4.9

Example 1.11

⎛t⎞

Let p ( t ) = tri ⎜ ⎟ . Find ⎡⎣ p ( t ) ∗ δ ( 2t − 1) ⎤⎦ .

⎝4⎠

⎡ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ 1⎡ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤

δ ( 2t − 1) = δ ⎢2 ⎜ t − ⎟ ⎥ = ⎢ δ ⎜ t − ⎟⎥

⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎦ 2⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎦

1 ⎡ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ 1 ⎛ 1⎞ 1 ⎛t − 1 2⎞

p (t ) ∗ ⎢δ ⎜ t − 2 ⎟ ⎥ = 2 p ⎜ t − 2 ⎟ = 2 tri ⎜ 4 ⎟

2 ⎣ ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

have,

∞

F ⎡⎣δ ( t ) ⎤⎦ = ∫ δ (t ) e

− j 2 πf t

dt = 1 (1.14a)

−∞

1.54

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

How do we interpret this result? The spectrum of the unit impulse consists

of frequency components in the range ( − ∞, ∞ ) , all with unity magnitude and

zero phase shift, a fascinating result indeed! Hence exciting any electric network

or system with a unit impulse is equivalent to exciting the network simultaneously

with complex exponentials of all possible frequencies, all with the same

magnitude (unity in this case) and zero phase shift. That is, the unit impulse

response of a linear network is the synthesis of responses to the individual

complex exponentials and we intuitively feel that the impulse response of a

network should be able to characterize the system in the time domain. (We shall

see a little later that if the network is linear and time invariant, a simple relation

exists between the input to the network, its impulse response and the output).

1 ←⎯→ δ ( − f ) = δ ( f ) (1.14b)

Based on Eq. 1.14(a) and Eq. 1.14(b), we make the following observation:

a constant in one domain will transform into an impulse in the other domain.

and hence its spectral content ought to be confined to f = 0 ; δ ( f ) is the proper

quantity for the transform because it is zero for f ≠ 0 and its inverse transform

yields the required constant in time (note that only an impulse can yield a

nonzero value when integrated over zero width).

Because of the transform pair,

1 ←⎯→ δ ( f ) ,

e j 2 π f0 t ←⎯→ δ ( f − f0 ) (1.15a)

e− j 2 π f0 t

←⎯→ δ ( f + f0 ) (1.15b)

1.55

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

e j 2 π f0 t + e − j 2 π f0 t

As cos ω0 t = , we have,

2

1

cos ω0 t ←⎯→ ⎡δ ( f − f0 ) + δ ( f + f0 ) ⎤⎦ (1.16)

2 ⎣

Similarly,

1

sin ω0 t ←⎯→ ⎡δ ( f − f0 ) − δ ( f + f0 ) ⎦⎤ (1.17)

2j ⎣

Note that the impulses in Fig. 1.15(b) have weights that are complex. It is

fairly conventional to show the spectrum of sin ω0 t as depicted in Fig. 1.15(b); or

else we can make two separate plots, one for magnitude and the other for phase,

where the magnitude plot is identical to that shown in Fig. 1.15(a) and the phase

π π

plot has values of − at f = f0 and + at f = − f0 .

2 2

with a discontinuity that is not finite), and using impulses in the frequency

domain, we have developed the Fourier transforms of the periodic signals such

1.56

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

as e ± j 2 π f0 t

, cos ω0 t and sin ω0 t , which are neither absolutely integrable nor

square integrable.

transform in a unified framework and talk only of Fourier transform whether the

signal is aperiodic or not. This is because, for a periodic signal x p ( t ) , we have

∞

xp (t ) = ∑ xn e j 2 π n f0 t

n = −∞

⎡ ∞ ⎤

F ⎡⎣ x p ( t ) ⎤⎦ = X p ( f ) = F ⎢ ∑ xn e j 2 π n f0 t ⎥

⎢⎣ n = − ∞ ⎥⎦

∞

= ∑ xn F ⎡⎣e j 2 π n f0 t ⎤⎦

n = −∞

∞

= ∑ xn δ ( f − nf0 ) (1.18)

n = −∞

impulses in the spectrum. As such, the differences between the line spectrum of

sec. 1.1 and spectral representation given by Eq. 1.18 are only minor in nature.

They both provide the same information, differing essentially only in notation.

one period of a periodic signal. Let,

1.57

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

⎧ T0 T

⎪x (t ) , − < t < 0

x (t ) = ⎨ p 2 2

⎪⎩ 0 , outside

T0

2

1

xn = ∫ xp (t ) e− j 2 π n f0 t

dt

T0 T

− 0

2

⎡ T0 ⎤

1 ⎢ 2

= ⎢ ∫ x (t ) e− j 2 π n f0 t

dt ⎥⎥

T0 T0

⎢⎣ − 2 ⎥⎦

⎛n⎞

1 ⎡ ⎤

∞ ∞ − j 2 π⎜ ⎟t

1

= ⎢ ∫ x (t ) e− j 2 π n f0 t

dt ⎥ = ∫ x (t ) e ⎝ T0 ⎠ dt

T0 ⎢ − ∞ ⎥⎦ T0

⎣ −∞

f =

T0

1 ⎛n⎞

Hence, xn = X⎜ ⎟ (1.19)

T0 ⎝ T0 ⎠

Example 1.12

Find the Fourier transform of the uniform impulse train

∞

xp (t ) = ∑ δ ( t − nT0 ) shown in Fig 1.16 below.

n = −∞

1.58

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

T0 T

Let x ( t ) be one period of x p ( t ) in the interval, − < t < 0 . Then,

2 2

x ( t ) = δ ( t ) for this example. But as δ ( t ) ←⎯→ 1, from Eq. (1.19) we have,

1

xn = for all n . Hence,

T0

∞

1

X p (f ) =

T0

∑ δ (f − n f0 ) (1.20)

n = −∞

A uniform periodic impulse train in either domain will transform into

another uniform impulse train in the other domain.

∞

F −1

[1] = ∫e

j 2 πf t

df = δ ( t )

−∞

∞

As δ ( − t ) = δ ( t ) , we have, ∫e

− j 2 πf t

df = δ ( t )

−∞

∞

That is, ∫e

± j 2πf t

df = δ ( t ) (1.21)

−∞

∞

Let xˆ ( t ) = ∫ X ( f ) e df

j 2 πf t

−∞

∞ ⎡∞ ⎤

∫ ⎢⎢ ∫ x ( λ ) e

− j 2πf λ

= d λ ⎥ e j 2 π f t df

− ∞ ⎣− ∞ ⎥⎦

∞ ∞

j 2 π f (t − λ )

= ∫ ∫ x (λ) e df dλ

−∞ −∞

∞ ⎡ ∞ j 2 πf t − λ ⎤

( )

= ∫ x ( λ ) ⎢ ∫ e df ⎥ dλ

−∞ ⎢

⎣− ∞ ⎥⎦

1.59

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

∞

= ∫ x (λ ) δ (t − λ ) dλ = x (t )

−∞

Let x ( t ) be the input to a Linear, Time-Invariant (LTI) system resulting in

∞

x (t ) = x (t ) ∗ δ (t ) = ∫ x ( τ) δ (t − τ) d τ

−∞

Let R ⎡⎣ δ ( t ) ⎤⎦ denote the output (response) of the LTI system, when the

input is exited by the unit impulse δ ( t ) . This is generally denoted by the symbol

h ( t ) and is called the impulse response of the system. That is, when δ ( t ) is

invariant, R ⎡⎣ δ ( t − τ ) ⎤⎦ = h ( t − τ ) .

⎡ ∞ ⎤ ∞

and R ⎣⎡ x ( t ) ⎦⎤ = y ( t ) = R ⎢ ∫ x ( τ) δ (t − τ ) d τ⎥ = ∫ x ( τ) h (t − τ) dτ

⎢⎣− ∞ ⎥⎦ −∞

Convolution operation

P1) is commutative

P2) is associative

1.60

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

∞ ∞

That is, ∫ x1 ( τ ) x2 ( t − τ ) d τ = ∫ x2 ( τ ) x1 ( t − τ ) d τ .

−∞ −∞

convolution pair gives rise to bounded output.

P3) implies that x1 ( t ) ∗ ⎡⎣ x2 ( t ) + x3 ( t ) ⎤⎦ = x1 ( t ) ∗ x2 ( t ) + x1 ( t ) ∗ x3 ( t ) .

Note that the properties P1) to P3) are valid even if the independent variable is

other than t .

Y (f ) = X (f ) H (f ) (1.23)

the frequency response of the system and describes the frequency domain

Y (f )

behavior of the system. (As H ( f ) = , it is also referred to as the transfer

X (f )

as two different plots, namely, the magnitude response: H ( f ) vs. f and the

1.61

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Example 1.13

RC-lowpass filter (RC-LPF) is one among the quite often used LTI

systems in the study of communication theory. This network is shown in Fig.

1.17. Let us find its frequency response as well as the impulse response.

One of the important properties of any LTI system is: if the input

x ( t ) = e j 2 π f0 t , then the output y ( t ) is also a complex exponential given by

y ( t ) = H ( f0 ) e j 2 π f0 t .

1

j 2 π f0 C

But, y ( t ) = e j 2 π f0 t

1

R+

j 2 π f0 C

1

or y (t ) = e j 2 π f0 t , when x ( t ) = e j 2 π f0 t

1 + j 2 π f0 R C

Generalizing this result, we obtain,

1

H (f ) = (1.24)

1 + j 2πf RC

That is,

1

H (f ) = (1.25a)

1 + (2 π f R C )

2

1.62

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

1

Let = F . Then,

2πRC

1

H (f ) = 2

(1.26)

⎛f ⎞

1+ ⎜ ⎟

⎝F ⎠

(b) Phase response

1.63

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

1

ex1( t ) ←⎯→

1 + j 2πf

1 ⎛ t ⎞ 1

Hence, ex1⎜ ⎟ ←⎯→

RC ⎝ RC ⎠ 1 + j 2πf RC

That is,

1 ⎛ t ⎞

⎡⎣ h ( t ) ⎤⎦ = ex1 ⎜ ⎟ (1.27)

RC − LPF RC ⎝ RC ⎠

This is shown in Fig. 1.19.

Example 1.14

The input x ( t ) and the impulse response h ( t ) of an LTI system are as

1.64

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Fig. 1.20: The input x ( t ) and the impulse response h ( t ) of an LTI system

∞

Let y ( t ) = ∫ h ( τ) x (t − τ) d τ

−∞

iii) Integrate the result of (ii) to obtain y ( t1 ) .

we first reverse x ( τ ) to get x ( − τ ) and then shift by t , the time instant for which

of great help to have the plots of the quantities in step (i). These have been

1.65

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

t = 2.

∞

∫ h ( τ) x (t − τ) d τ = 0.

−∞

1.66

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

(a): h ( τ )

1.67

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Using the similar arguments, y ( t ) can be computed for t > 2 . The result

even be sticky1.)

Exercise 1.3

⎧⎪ e − αt , t ≥ 0

Let x ( t ) = ⎨

⎪⎩ 0 , otherwise

⎪⎧ e − βt , t ≥ 0

h (t ) = ⎨

⎪⎩ 0 , otherwise

1

Some people claim that convolution has driven many electrical engineering students to

contemplate theology either for salvation or as an alternative career (IEEE Spectrum, March

1991, page 60). For an interesting cartoon expressing the student reaction to the convolution

operation, see [3].

1.68

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Exercise 1.4

Find y ( t ) = x ( t ) ∗ h ( t ) where

⎧ 2 , t < 2

x (t ) = ⎨

⎩ 0, outside

⎧⎪ 2 e− t , t ≥ 0

h (t ) = ⎨

⎪⎩ 0 , outside

Exercise 1.5

⎧1

⎪5 , 950 < f < 1050 Hz

⎪

⎪1

Let X ( f ) = ⎨ , − 1050 < f < − 950 Hz

⎪10

⎪0 , elsewhere

⎪

⎩

(a) Compute and sketch Y ( f ) = X ( f ) ∗ X ( f )

Def. 1.4: Signum Function

We denote the signum function by sgn ( t ) and define it as,

⎧ 1, t > 0

⎪

sgn ( t ) = ⎨ 0 , t = 0 (1.28)

⎪ − 1, t < 0

⎩

We denote the unit step function by u ( t ) , and define it as,

1.69

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

⎧1 , t > 0

⎪1

⎪

u (t ) = ⎨ , t = 0 (1.29)

⎪2

⎪⎩ 0 , t < 0

F ⎡⎣ sgn ( t ) ⎤⎦ :

Let x ( t ) = e − α t u ( t ) − e α t u ( − t ) (1.30)

α→0

Fig. 1.23.

1 1 − j 4 πf

X (f ) = − =

α + j 2πf α − j 2πf α2 + ( 2 π f )

2

1

F ⎡⎣sgn ( t ) ⎤⎦ = lim X ( f ) = (1.31)

α→0 j πf

F ⎡⎣u ( t ) ⎤⎦

1

As u ( t ) = ⎡1 + sgn ( t ) ⎤⎦ , we have

2 ⎣

1.70

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

1 1

U (f ) = δ (f ) + (1.32)

2 j 2πf

Properties of FT continued...

P9) Integration in the time domain

Let x ( t ) ←⎯→ X ( f )

t

1 X (0)

Then, ∫ x ( τ) d τ ←⎯→

j 2πf

X (f ) +

2

δ (f ) (1.33)

−∞

Proof:

∞

Consider x ( t ) ∗ u ( t ) = ∫ x ( τ) u (t − τ) d τ . As u ( t − τ ) = 0 for τ > t ,

−∞

t

x (t ) ∗ u (t ) = ∫ x ( τ ) d τ. But F ⎡⎣ x ( t ) ∗ u ( t ) ⎤⎦ = X ( f ) U ( f ) .

−∞

t

⎡ 1 δ (f ) ⎤

Hence, ∫ x ( τ ) d τ ←⎯→ X ( f ) ⎢ + ⎥

−∞ ⎣ j 2πf 2 ⎦

t

X (f )

(i) X ( 0 ) = 0 ; then ∫ x ( τ) d τ ←⎯→

−∞

j 2πf

t

X (f ) X (0) δ (f )

(ii) X ( 0 ) ≠ 0 ; then ∫ x ( τ) d τ ←⎯→ +

−∞

j 2 πf 2

1 ⎛t ⎞

Let p 1 ( t ) = ga ⎜ ⎟ . Then, we know that lim p1 ( t ) = δ ( t ) .

ε ⎝ε⎠ ε→0

0 0

1

But lim ∫ε p1 ( t ) dt = ∫ p1 ( t ) dt =

ε→0 2

− −∞

2

1.71

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

ε

2 ∞

and lim ∫ε p1 ( t ) dt = ∫ p1 ( t ) dt = 1.

ε→0

− −∞

2

That is,

t

∫ δ ( τ) d τ = u (t ) (1.34a)

−∞

d u (t )

or = δ (t ) (1.34b)

dt

1 1

u ( t ) ←⎯→ δ (f ) + .

2 j 2πf

d u (t )

As = δ (t ) ,

dt

j 2 π f U (f ) = 1

1

or U (f ) =

j 2πf

But this is valid only for f ≠ 0 because of the following argument.

u ( t ) + u ( − t ) = 1. Therefore,

U (f ) + U ( − f ) = δ (f )

U ( 0 ) + U ( − 0 ) = 2 U ( 0 ) = δ ( f ) or

1

U (0) = δ ( f ) . Hence,

2

⎧1

⎪⎪ 2 δ ( f ) , f = 0

U (f ) = ⎨

⎪ 1 , f ≠ 0

⎪⎩ j 2 π f

1.72

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Example 1.15

(a) For the scheme shown in Fig. 1.24, find the impulse response (This system is

referred to as Zero-Order-Hold, ZOH).

(b) If two such systems are cascaded, what is the overall impulse response

(cascade of two ZOHs is called a First-Order-Hold, FOH).

a) h ( t ) of ZOH:

When x ( t ) = δ ( t ) , we have

v (t ) = δ (t ) − δ (t − T )

ZOH

⎛ T⎞

t t

⎜t − 2 ⎟

∫ δ ( τ) d τ − ∫ δ ( τ − T ) d τ = u (t ) − u (t − T ) = ga ⎜ ⎟

−∞ −∞ ⎜ T ⎟

⎝ ⎠

b) Impulse response of two LTI systems in cascade is the convolution of the

impulse responses of the constituents. Hence,

⎡ T⎤ ⎡ T⎤

⎢t − 2 ⎥ ⎢t − 2 ⎥

⎡⎣ h ( t ) ⎤⎦ = ga ⎢ ⎥ ∗ ga ⎢ ⎥

FOH T

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ T ⎥

⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

⎛t −T ⎞

= T tri ⎜ ⎟

⎝ T ⎠

1.73

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

From Eq. 1.33, with x ( t ) = δ ( t ) and X ( f ) = 1 ,

t

1 1

∫ δ ( τ) d τ ←⎯→

j 2πf

+

2

δ ( f ) = U ( f ) . That is,

−∞

∫ δ ( τ) d τ = u (t )

−∞

Consider the pulse p ( t ) shown in Fig. 1.25(a).

(b) Derivative of the signal at (a)

p ( t ) can be written as

p ( t ) = u ( t + 2 ) − 2 u ( t + 1) + u ( t − 3 )

1.74

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Hence,

d p (t )

= δ ( t + 2 ) − 2 δ ( t + 1) + δ ( t − 3 )

dt

which is shown in Fig. 1.25(b). From this result, we note that if there is a step

discontinuity of size A at t = t1 in the signal, its derivative will have an impulse

of weight A at t = t1 .

Example 1.16

Let x ( t ) be the doublet pulse of Example 1.7 (Fig.1.12). We shall find

X (f )

d x (t )

from .

dt

d x (t )

= δ (t + T ) − 2 δ (t ) + δ (t − T )

dt

Taking Fourier transform on both the sides,

j 2 π f X ( f ) = e j 2 π f T − 2 + e− j 2 πf T

( )

2

= e j π f T − e− j πf T

X (f ) = 2 j T

(e j πf T

− e− j πf T

) (e j πf T

− e− j πf T

)

2 j πf T 2j

= 2 j T sin c ( f T ) sin ( π f T )

Example 1.17

Let x ( t ) , h ( t ) and y ( t ) denote the input, impulse response and the

x ( t ) = t e − 2 t u ( t ) and h ( t ) = e − 4 t u ( t ) .

Find a) Y ( f )

1.75

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

b) y ( t ) = F − 1 ⎡⎣Y ( f ) ⎤⎦

c) y ( t ) = x ( t ) ∗ h ( t )

Y (f ) = X (f ) H (f )

1

If z ( t ) = e − 2 t u ( t ) , then Z ( f ) = .

2 + j 2πf

⎛ j ⎞ d Z (f ) 1

As x ( t ) = t z ( t ) , we have X ( f ) = ⎜ ⎟ =

⎝ 2 π ⎠ df ( 2 + j 2 π f )2

1

H (f ) =

4 + j 2πf

1 1

Hence, Y ( f ) =

(2 + j 2πf )

2

4 + j 2πf

Y (f ) =

( − 14 ) +

1

2 +

1

4

2 + j 2πf (2 + j 2 π f ) 2

4 + j 2πf

⎛ 1⎞ 1 1 − 4t

Hence, y ( t ) = ⎜ − ⎟ e − 2 t u ( t ) + t e − 2 t u ( t ) + e u (t )

⎝ 4⎠ 2 4

∞

(c) y ( t ) = ∫ x ( τ) h (t − τ) d τ

−∞

∞

− 4( t − τ )

= ∫ τ e − 2τ u ( τ ) e u (t − τ) d τ

−∞

t

− 4( t − τ )

y (t ) = ∫τ e

− 2τ

e dτ

0

1.76

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

t

= e− 4 t ∫τ e

2τ

dτ

0

t

⎡ e2 τ e2 τ ⎤

∫ 2 ⎥⎦

− 4t

= e ⎢τ − d τ

⎣ 2 0

⎧ ⎡ e2 τ ⎤ ⎪⎫

t

− 4t ⎪ e2 t

= e ⎨t − ⎢ ⎥ ⎬

⎪⎩ 2 ⎣ 4 ⎦ 0 ⎪⎭

e− 2t ⎡ e2 t − 1⎤

= t − e− 4 t ⎢ ⎥, t ≥ 0

2 ⎣ 4 ⎦

= 0 for t < 0

Exercise 1.6

⎧ T0

⎪⎪1 + cos ( 2 π f0 t ) , t <

Let x ( t ) = ⎨ 2

⎪ T

0 , t > 0

⎪⎩ 2

1

where T0 is the period of the cosine signal and f0 = .

T0

(a) Show that

d 3 x (t ) 2 ⎧

⎪ ⎛ T ⎞ ⎛ T ⎞ d x ( t ) ⎫⎪

= ( 2 π f0 ) ⎨δ ⎜ t + 0 ⎟ − δ ⎜ t − 0 ⎟ − ⎬

d t3 ⎪⎩ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ dt ⎪⎭

f0

X (f ) = sin c ( f T0 )

f0 − f 2

2

1.77

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Two basic operations that arise in the study of communication theory are:

(i) convolution and (ii) correlation. As we have some feel for the convolution

operation by now, let us develop the required familiarity with the correlation

operation.

When we say that there is some correlation between two objects, we imply

that there is some similarity between them. We would like to quantify this intuitive

notion and come up with a formal definition for correlation so that we have a

mathematically consistent and physically meaningful measure for the correlation

of the objects of interest to us.

similarity between a transmitted signal and the received signal or between two

different transmitted or received signals etc. We shall first introduce the cross

correlation functions; this will be followed by the special case, namely, auto-

correlation function.

energy signals and power signals. Accordingly, we make the following definitions.

Let x ( t ) and y ( t ) be signals of the energy type. We now define their

∞

Rx y ( τ ) = ∫ x (t ) y (t − τ) d t

∗

(1.35a)

−∞

1.78

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

∞

Ry x ( τ ) = ∫ y (t ) x (t − τ) d t

∗

(1.35b)

−∞

accounting for the shift in y ∗ ( t ) . Note that the variable of integration in Eq. 1.35

T

2

1

Rx y ( τ ) = Tlim

→∞ T ∫T x ( t ) y ( t − τ ) dt

∗

(1.36a)

−

2

T

2

1

Ry x ( τ ) = lim ∫T y ( t ) x ( t − τ ) dt

∗

(1.36b)

T →∞ T

−

2

The power signals that we have to deal with most often are of the periodic

variety. For periodic signals, we have the following definitions:

T0

2

1

Def. 1.8(a): Rx p y p ( τ ) = ∫ x p ( t ) y p∗ ( t − τ ) dt (1.37a)

T0 T

− 0

2

T0

2

1

Def. 1.8(b): Ry p x p ( τ ) = ∫ y p ( t ) x p∗ ( t − τ ) dt (1.37b)

T0 T

− 0

2

∞

Rx y ( τ ) = ∫ x (λ + τ) y (λ ) dλ

∗

−∞

= Ry∗ x ( − τ ) (1.38)

1.79

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

consider the situation shown in Fig. 1.26.

∞

If we compute ∫ x ( t ) y ( t ) dt , we find it to be zero as x ( t ) and y ( t ) do not

−∞

⎛ 1⎞

overlap. However, if we delay x ( t ) by half a unit of time, we find that x ⎜ t − ⎟

⎝ 2⎠

1

and y ( t ) start overlapping and for τ > , we have nonzero value for the

2

integral. For the value of τ 2.75 , we will have a positive value for

1.80

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

−∞

For values of τ > 2.75 , Ry x ( τ ) keeps decreasing, becoming zero for τ > 5 .

max

max

system, then we are willing to accept x ( t ) as the likely transmitted signal (we can

treat the received signal as a delayed and distorted version of the transmitted

signal) whereas if z ( t ) is received, it would be difficult for us to accept that x ( t )

could have been the transmitted signal. Thus the parameter τ helps us to find

time-shifted similarities present between the two signals.

(i) Shift y ∗ ( t ) by τ

The above steps closely resemble the operations involved in convolution. It is not

difficult to see that

Rx y ( τ ) = x ( τ ) ∗ y ∗ ( − τ ) , because

∞

x ( τ) ∗ y ∗

( − τ) = ∫ x ( t ) y ⎡⎣− ( τ − t )⎤⎦ dt

∗

−∞

∞

= ∫ x ( t ) y ( t − τ ) dt =

∗

Rx y ( τ ) (1.39a)

−∞

Let E x y ( f ) = F ⎡⎣Rx y ( τ ) ⎤⎦ .

Then, E x y ( f ) = F ⎡⎣ x ( τ ) ∗ y ∗ ( − τ ) ⎤⎦ = X ( f ) Y ∗ ( f ) (1.39b)

1.81

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Example 1.18

⎛t⎞

Let x ( t ) = exp1 ( t ) and y ( t ) = ga ⎜ ⎟ .

⎝ 2⎠

Let us find (a) Rx y ( τ ) and (b) Ry x ( τ ) .

From the results of (a) and (b) above, let us verify Eq. 1.38.

(a) R x y ( τ ) :

(i) τ < − 1:

Rx y ( τ ) = 0 for τ < − 1.

ii) − 1 ≤ τ < 1:

1+ τ

Rx y ( τ ) = e − t dt = 1 − e ( )

− 1+ τ

∫

0

1.82

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

(iii) τ ≥ 1:

τ+1

Rx y ( τ ) = e − t dt = e ( ) − e ( )

− τ−1 − τ+1

∫

τ−1

⎛ 1⎞

= e− τ ⎜ e − ⎟

⎝ e⎠

(b) Ry x ( τ ) :

1

− (t − τ)

Ry x ( τ ) = ∫e dt

τ

= e τ ⎡⎣e − τ − e − 1 ⎤⎦

= 1− e ( )

− 1− τ

(iii) For τ ≤ − 1,

1

− (t − τ)

Ry x ( τ ) = ∫e dt

−1

⎛ 1⎞

= eτ ⎜ e − ⎟

⎝ e⎠

1.83

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Ry x ( τ ) = R x y ( − τ )

∞

∫ x ( t ) y ( t ) dt

∗

= 0 (1.40)

−∞

Rx y ( τ ) τ=0 = 0 (1.41a)

Ry x ( 0 ) = 0 , if x ( t ) and y ( t ) are orthogonal. (1.41b)

1.84

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Rx p y p ( τ + nT0 ) = Rxp y p ( τ )

A1.2.

ACF can be treated as a special case of CCF. In Eq. 1.35(a), let

x ( t ) = y ( t ) . Then, we have

∞

Rx x ( τ ) = ∫ x ( t ) x ( t − τ ) dt

∗

(1.42a)

−∞

signals. Hence Rx ( τ ) can provide some information about the time variations of

the signal.

∞

Rx ( τ ) = ∫ x (τ + λ ) x (λ ) d λ

∗

−∞

∫ x ( t + τ ) x ( t ) dt

∗

= (1.42b)

−∞

1.85

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

1.42(a), we keep x ( t ) fixed and move x ∗ ( t ) to the right by τ and take the

product; in Eq. 1.42(b), we keep x ∗ ( t ) fixed and move x ( t ) to the left by τ . This

does not change the integral of Eq. 1.42(a), because if we let t = t1 and τ = τ1 ,

quantities are obtained and hence the integral for a given τ1 remains the same.

If x ( t ) is a power signal, then the ACF is special case of Eq. 1.36(a). That

T

2

Rx ( τ ) = lim ∫T x ( t ) x ( t − τ ) dt

∗

(1.43a)

T →∞

−

2

T

2

Rx ( τ ) = lim ∫T x ( t + τ ) x ( t ) dt

∗

(1.43b)

T →∞

−

2

T0

2

1

Rx ( τ ) = ∫ x p ( t ) x p∗ ( t − τ ) dt (1.44a)

T0 T

− 0

2

T0

2

1

= ∫ x p∗ ( t ) x p ( t + τ ) dt (1.44b)

T0 T

− 0

2

P1) ACF exhibits conjugate symmetry. That is,

Rx ( − τ ) = Rx∗ ( τ ) (1.45a)

1.86

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Proof: Exercise

∞

Rx ( 0 ) = ∫ x (t )

2

P2) d t = Ex (1.45b)

−∞

Proof: The proof of the above property follows from Schwarz’s inequality;

which is stated below.

Let g1 ( t ) and g 2 ( t ) be two energy signals.

2

∞ ∞ ∞

∫ g1 ( t ) g2 ( t ) dt g1 ( t ) dt g 2 ( t ) dt .

2 2

Then, ≤ ∫ ∫

−∞ −∞ −∞

Let g1 ( t ) = x ( t ) and g 2 ( t ) = x ∗ ( t − τ ) .

2

∞ ∞ ∞

x ( t ) x ( t − τ ) dt x ( t ) dt x ∗ ( t − τ ) dt

2 2

∫ ∫ ∫

∗

≤

−∞ −∞ −∞

Rx ( τ ) ≤ ⎡⎣Rx ( 0 ) ⎤⎦ or

2 2

Rx ( τ ) ≤ Rx ( 0 ) (1.45c)

P4) Let E x ( f ) denote the Energy Spectral Density (ESD) of the signal x ( t ) .

∞

That is, ∫ Ex ( f ) df = Ex

−∞

Then, Rx ( τ ) ←⎯→ E x ( f )

Proof

From Eq. 1.39(b),

Ex y (f ) = X (f ) Y ∗ (f )

1.87

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

2

Rx ( τ ) ←⎯→ X ( f )

2

2

Ex (f ) = Ex x (f ) = X (f )

2

Hence,

Rx ( τ ) ←⎯→ E x ( f ) (1.45d)

resemblance to y ( t ) ; but their ACFs will be the same. In other words, ACF does

not provide a unique description of the signal. Given x ( t ) , its ACF is unique;

but given some ACF, we can find many signals that have the given ACF.

P5) Let x ( t ) = y ( t ) + v ( t ) . Then,

Rx ( τ ) = Ry ( τ ) + Rv ( τ ) + Ry v ( τ ) + Rv y ( τ ) (1.45e)

Proof: Exercise

If Ry v ( τ ) = Rv y ( τ ) ≡ 0 (that is, y ( t ) and v ∗ ( t − τ ) are orthogonal for all

τ ), then, Rx ( τ ) = Ry ( τ ) + Rv ( τ ) (1.45f)

E x ( f ) = E y ( f ) + Ev ( f ) (1.45g)

We list below the properties of the ACF of periodic signals. Proofs of these

properties are left as an exercise.

1.88

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Rx p ( − τ ) = Rx∗p ( τ ) (1.46a)

T0

2

1

P2) Rx p ( τ ) x p ( t ) d t = Px p

2

τ = 0

=

T0 ∫

T0

(1.46b)

−

2

P3) Rx p ( τ ) ≤ Rx ( 0 ) (1.46c)

where T0 is the period of x p ( t ) . That is, the ACF of a periodic signal is also

P5) Let Px p ( f ) denote the Power Spectral Density (PSD) of x p ( t ) . That is,

∫ Px ( f ) df

p

= Px p . Then,

−∞

Rx p ( τ ) ←⎯→ Px p ( f ) (1.46e)

Exercise 1.7

⎧ T T

⎪xp (t ) , − 0 < t < 0

Let x ( t ) = ⎨ 2 2 and x ( t ) ←⎯→ X ( f ) .

⎪⎩ 0 , outside

2

1 ∞ ⎛n⎞ ⎛ n⎞

Show that F ⎡Rx p ( τ ) ⎤ = Px p ( f ) = 2

⎣ ⎦ ∑ X ⎜ ⎟ δ⎜f − ⎟

T0 n = −∞ ⎝ T0 ⎠ ⎝ T0 ⎠

Example 1.19

a) Let x ( t ) be the signal shown in Fig. 1.29. Compute and sketch Rx ( τ ) .

1.89

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

b) x ( t ) of part (a) is given as the input to an LTI system with the impulse

a) Computation of Rx ( τ ) :

We know that the maximum value of the ACF occurs at the origin; that is, at

τ = 0 and Rx ( 0 ) = E x .

1

Rx ( 0 ) = 1. 1 + . 2 = 1.5

4

Consider the product x ( t ) x ( t − τ ) for 0 < τ ≤ 1. As τ increases in this range,

the overlap between the positive parts of the pulses x ( t ) and x ( t − τ ) (and also

between the negative parts and these pulses) decreases, which implies a

decrease in the positive value for the integral of the product. In addition, a part of

x ( t − τ ) that is positive overlaps with the negative part of x ( t ) , there by further

⎛ 1⎞

slope) until τ = 1 . The value of Rx (1) is ⎜ − ⎟ . For 1 < τ < 2 , the positive part

⎝ 4⎠

of x ( t − τ ) fully overlaps with the negative part of x ( t ) ; this makes Rx ( τ ) further

negative and the ACF reaches its minimum value at τ = 2 . As can easily be

1.90

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

⎛ 1⎞

checked, Rx ( 2 ) = ⎜ − ⎟ . As τ increases beyond 2, the Rx ( τ ) becomes less

⎝ 2⎠

and less negative and becomes zero at τ = 3 . As Rx ( − τ ) = Rx ( τ ) , we have all

b) Calculating h ( t ) :

We have y ( t ) = x ( t ) ∗ h ( t )

= Rx ( t − 3 )

= Rx ( t ) ∗ δ ( t − 3 )

Hence, y ( t ) = x ( t ) ∗ ⎡⎣ x ( − t ) ∗ δ ( t − 3 ) ⎤⎦

= x ( t ) ∗ x ⎡⎣ − ( t − 3 ) ⎤⎦

That is, h ( t ) = x ⎡⎣ − ( t − 3 ) ⎤⎦

1.91

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Example 1.20

Let x ( t ) = A cos ( ω0 t + θ ) . We will find Rx ( τ ) .

Method 1:

T0

2

1

Rx ( τ ) = ∫ A2 cos ( ω0 t + θ ) cos ⎡⎣ω0 ( t − τ ) + θ ⎤⎦ dt

T0 T

− 0

2

T0

A2 2

=

T0 ∫

1

2

{cos ( 2 ω0 t − ω0 τ + 2 θ ) + cos ω0τ} dt

T

− 0

2

A2

= cos ω0 τ

2

We find that:

(i) Rx ( τ ) is periodic with the same period as x ( t ) .

A2

(iii) The maximum value is which is the average power of the signal.

2

(iv) Rx ( τ ) is independent of θ .

1.92

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Method 2:

⎡ A j ω t + θ ) A − j ( ω0 t + θ ) ⎤

A cos ( ω0 t + θ ) = ⎢ e ( 0 + e ⎥

⎣2 2 ⎦

= v (t ) + w (t )

As x ( t ) = v ( t ) + w ( t ) , we have

Rx ( τ ) = Rv ( τ ) + Rw ( τ ) + Rv w ( τ ) + Rw v ( τ ) .

Rx ( τ ) = Rv ( τ ) + Rw ( τ )

Rx ( τ ) = 2 Re ⎡⎣Rv ( τ ) ⎤⎦

⎡ 2

T0 ⎤ T0

A ⎢1 2

A2 2

dt ⎥⎥ =

j ⎣⎡ω0 ( t − τ ) + θ ⎦⎤

e ( 0

j ω t + θ) −

Rv ( τ ) = ∫ e ∫ e j ω0 τ dt

4 ⎢T0 4T0

⎢⎣ −

T 0

2

⎥⎦ −

T0

2

A2 j ω0 τ

= e

4

A2

Hence Rx ( τ ) = cos ( ω0 τ )

2

Example 1.21

Let x ( t ) = sin ( 2 π t ) , 0 ≤ t ≤ 2 . Let us find its ACF and sketch it.

In Fig. 1.32, we show x ( t ) and x ( t − τ ) for 0 < τ < 2 . Note that if τ > 2 ,

1.93

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Fig. 1.32: (a) Sinusoidal pulse of Example 1.21 and (b) its shifted version

2

Rx ( τ ) = ∫ sin ( 2 π t ) sin ⎡⎣2 π ( t − τ )⎤⎦ dt

τ

2

cos ( 2 π τ ) − cos ( 4 π t − 2 π τ )

= ∫ 2

dt

τ

⎡ sin ( 4 π t − 2 π τ ) ⎤

2 2

⎡ t cos 2 π τ ⎤

= ⎢ ⎥ − ⎢ ⎥

⎣ 2 ⎦τ ⎣ 4π ⎦τ

τ cos ( 2 π τ ) sin ( 8 π − 2 π τ ) − sin ( 2 π τ )

= cos ( 2 π τ ) − −

2 4π

τ cos 2 π τ sin 2 π τ

= cos ( 2 π τ ) − + , 0 ≤ τ ≤2

2 2π

As Rx ( − τ ) = Rx ( τ ) , we have

⎧ τ cos ( 2 π τ ) sin ( 2 π τ )

⎪cos ( 2 π τ ) − + , τ ≤ 2

Rx ( τ ) = ⎨ 2 2π

⎪

⎩ 0 , otherwise

1.94

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Let x ( t ) be the input of an LTI system with the impulse response h ( t ) .

y (t ) = x (t ) ∗ h (t )

or Y (f ) = X (f ) ∗ H (f )

θ y ( f ) = θ x ( f ) + θh ( f ) (1.47b)

From Eq. 1.47 we see that an LTI system alters, in general, both the magnitude

spectrum and the phase spectrum of the input signal. However, there are certain

networks, called all pass networks, which would alter only the (input) phase

spectrum. That is, if H ( f ) is the frequency response of an all pass network, then

1.95

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Y (f ) = X (f )

θ y ( f ) = θ x ( f ) + θh ( f )

An interesting case of all-pass network is the ideal delay, with the impulse

response h ( t ) = δ ( t − td ) . Though θ y ( f ) ≠ θ x ( f ) , phase shift imparted to each

constant being 2 π td . Another interesting network is the Hilbert transformer. Its

(i) Y ( f ) = X ( f ) , f ≠ 0 and

⎧ π

⎪⎪− 2 + θ x ( f ) , f > 0

(ii) θy ( f ) = ⎨

⎪ π + θ (f ) , f < 0

⎪⎩ 2 x

⎛ π⎞

That is, a Hilbert transform is essentially a ⎜ ± ⎟ phase shifter.

⎝ 2⎠

Hence, we define the Hilbert transformer in the frequency domain, with the

frequency response function

H ( f ) = − j sgn ( f ) (1.48a)

⎧ 1 , f > 0

⎪

where sgn ( f ) = ⎨ 0 , f = 0

⎪ −1 , f < 0

⎩

1

As ⎡⎣ − j sgn ( f ) ⎤⎦ ←⎯→ ,

πt

1

h (t ) = (1.48b)

πt

where

1

x̂ ( t ) = x ( t ) ∗

πt

1.96

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

1

∞

x ( τ)

= ∫ (t − τ) d τ

1

(1.49a)

π −∞

Note: Unlike other transforms, both x ( t ) and x̂ ( t ) are functions of the same

Hilbert Transform (HT) will prove quite useful later on in the study of

bandpass signals and single sideband signals. For the present, let us look at

some examples of HT.

Example 1.22

Hilbert transform δ ( t ) .

As δ ( t ) ←⎯→ 1, we have

F ⎡⎣δˆ ( t ) ⎤⎦ = − j sgn ( f ) ⇒

1

δˆ ( t ) =

πt

⎡ 1⎤ 1

This also establishes the relation, ⎢ δ ( t ) ∗ ⎥ = !!

⎣ πt ⎦ πt

Example 1.23

HT of a cosine signal.

Let x ( t ) = cos ( 2 π f0 t ) . Let us find x̂ ( t ) .

1

This integral is actually Cauchy’s principal value.

1.97

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

1

X (f ) = ⎡ δ ( f − f0 ) + δ ( f + f0 ) ⎤⎦

2⎣

Xˆ ( f ) = − j sgn ( f ) X ( f ) . That is,

1

Xˆ ( f ) = ⎡ δ ( f − f0 ) − δ ( f + f0 ) ⎤⎦

2j ⎣

Alternatively,

if x1 ( t ) = e j 2 π f0 t , then xˆ1 ( t ) = e

(

j 2 π f0 t − π

2 )

and if x2 ( t ) = e − j 2 π f0 t

, then xˆ 2 ( t ) = e

(

− j 2 π f0 t − π

2 )

Hence,

1 ⎛ π⎞

x ( t ) = cos ( 2 π f0 t ) = ⎡⎣ x1 ( t ) + x2 ( t ) ⎤⎦ has xˆ ( t ) = cos ⎜ ω0 t − ⎟

2 ⎝ 2⎠

= sin ( ω0 t )

Example 1.24

1

Let x ( t ) = . Let us find x̂ ( t ) .

1 + t2

1

x̂ ( t ) = x ( t ) ∗

πt

∞

1 1

= ∫ dτ

− ∞ (1 + τ ) ( t − τ )

π 2

1 1 ⎡∞ t +τ ∞

dτ ⎤

= ⎢∫ dτ + ∫ t − τ ) ⎥⎥

−∞(

π 1 + t2 ⎢⎣ − ∞ 1 + τ

2

⎦

∞ ∞

τ 1

As ∫ dτ = ∫ d τ = 0 , we have

− ∞1+ τ

2

−∞

t −τ

1.98

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

1 t ⎡∞ 1 ⎤

xˆ ( t ) = ⎢∫ d τ ⎥

π 1 + t2 ⎢⎣ − ∞ 1 + τ

2

⎥⎦

t

xˆ ( t ) =

1 + t2

Exercise 1.8

sin t 1 − cos t

(a) Let x1 ( t ) = . Show that xˆ1 ( t ) =

t t

1

t −

1

(b) Let x2 ( t ) = ga ( t ) . Show that xˆ 2 ( t ) = − ln 2

π t +

1

2

Example 1.25

Let x ( t ) = m ( t ) cos 2 π fc t where m ( t ) is a lowpass signal with

xˆ ( t ) = m ( t ) sin ( 2 π fc t ) = m ( t ) cos ( 2 π fc t ) .

1

X (f ) = ⎡M ( f − fc ) + M ( f + fc ) ⎤⎦

2⎣

1

Xˆ ( f ) = ⎡M ( f − fc ) + M ( f + fc ) ⎤⎦ ⎡⎣ − j sgn ( f ) ⎤⎦

2⎣

But ⎡⎣M ( f − fc ) ⎤⎦ is nonzero only for f > 0

Hence,

⎧1 − j π

⎪⎪ 2 M ( f − fc ) e

2 , f > 0

Xˆ ( f ) = ⎨

π

⎪ 1 M (f + f ) e j 2 , f < 0

⎪⎩ 2 c

1.99

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

1

Consider m ( t ) sin ( 2 π fc t ) ←⎯→ M ( f ) ∗ ⎡ δ ( f − fc ) − δ ( f + fc ) ⎤⎦

2j⎣

1⎡ ⎤

π π

− j − j

←⎯→ M ( f ) ∗ ⎢δ ( f − fc ) e 2 + ejπ e 2 δ ( f + fc ) ⎥

2 ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥

1⎡ ⎤

π π

− j j

←⎯→ M ( f ) ∗ ⎢ δ ( f − fc ) e 2 +e 2 δ ( f + fc ) ⎥

2 ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥

That is,

⎧1 − j

π

⎪ M ( f − fc ) e 2 , f > 0

⎪2

F ⎡⎣m ( t ) sin ( 2 π fc t ) ⎤⎦ = ⎨

π

⎪1 j

⎪⎩ 2 ( + c)

M f f e 2 , f < 0

xˆ ( t ) = m ( t ) sin ( 2 π fc t ) = m ( t ) cos ( 2 π fc t )

V (f ) .

Our area of application of HT is real signals. Hence, we develop the

properties of HT as applied to real signals. We assume that the signals under

consideration have no impulses in their spectra at f = 0 .

∞

X (f ) d f

2

Proof: E x = ∫

−∞

1.100

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

As Xˆ ( f ) = − j sgn ( f ) X ( f )

X̂ ( f ) = X ( f ) . Hence E x = E xˆ .

Note: Though Xˆ ( f ) is zero, it will not change the value of the integral; and

f = 0

That is, applying the HT twice on a given signal x ( t ) changes the sign of the

signal. Intuitively, this is satisfying. Each time we perform HT, we change the

phase of a spectral component in X ( f ) by 900 . Hence, performing the

Proof: xˆ ( t ) ←⎯→ − j sgn ( f ) X ( f )

= ( − j sgn ( f ) ) X ( f ) = − X ( f )

2

Example 1.26

1

Let x ( t ) = . We shall find x̂ ( t ) .

t

1

From Example 1.22, we have δˆ ( t ) = .

πt

Hence,

⎡1⎤

HT ⎡⎣δˆ ( t ) ⎤⎦ = − δ ( t ) = HT ⎢ ⎥ . That is,

⎣ πt ⎦

⎡ 1⎤

HT ⎢ ⎥ = − π δ ( t )

⎣t ⎦

1.101

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

∞ ∞

∫ x ( t ) xˆ ( t ) d t = ∫ X ( f ) Xˆ ( − f ) d f

−∞ −∞

∞ ∞

∫ x ( t ) xˆ ( t ) d t = ∫ X ( f ) ⎡⎣ − j sgn ( − f ) X ( − f ) ⎤⎦ d f

−∞ −∞

As x ( t ) is real, X ( − f ) = X ∗ ( f ) . Therefore,

∞ ∞

x ( t ) xˆ ( t ) d t = − j sgn ( − f ) X ( f ) d f

2

∫ ∫

−∞ −∞

1

z ( t ) = x ( α t ) ∗ h ( α t ) , then z ( t ) = y (α t ) .

α

If z ( t ) = x ( α t ) ∗ h ( α t ) , then

1 ⎛f ⎞ ⎛f ⎞

Z (f ) = X⎜ ⎟ H⎜ ⎟

⎝a⎠ ⎝a⎠

2

α

1 ⎛f ⎞

Also, y ( α t ) ←⎯→

α ⎜⎝ α ⎟⎠

Y , where

⎛f ⎞ ⎛f ⎞ ⎛f ⎞

Y ⎜ ⎟ = X⎜ ⎟ H⎜ ⎟

⎝α⎠ ⎝α⎠ ⎝α⎠

= α Z (f )

2

1

Hence, y ( α t ) ←⎯→ α Z (f ) = α Z (f )

2

y (α t )

That is, z ( t ) =

α

1.102

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

1

HT ⎡⎣ x ( α t ) ⎤⎦ = x ( α t ) ∗

πt

⎛ 1 ⎞

= x (α t ) ∗ α ⎜ ⎟

⎝ α πt ⎠

⎡ 1 ⎤

= α ⎢x (α t ) ∗

⎣ α π t ⎥⎦

⎡ 1⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎤ xˆ ( α t )

As ⎢ x ( t ) ∗ ⎥ = xˆ ( t ) , we have ⎢x (α t ) ∗ π α t ⎥ = .

⎣ πt ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ α

α

Hence HT ⎡⎣ x ( α t ) ⎤⎦ = xˆ ( α t ) = sgn ( α ) xˆ ( α t ) .

α

1

As a simple illustration of the property, let x ( t ) = and α = 2 . Then

1 + t2

1 ⎡ 1 ⎤

x (α t ) = . Let us obtain HT ⎢ 2⎥

using P4.

1 + 4t2 ⎣ 1 + 4 t ⎦

t ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎡ 2t ⎤ 2t

As xˆ ( t ) = , HT ⎢ 2⎥

= sgn ( 2 ) ⎢ ⎥ =

⎣⎢1 + ( 2 t ) ⎦⎥

1 + t2 ⎣1 + 4 t ⎦

2

1 + 4t2

1

If α = − 2 , x ( α t ) = which is the same as with α = 2 .

1 + 4t2

⎛ − 2t ⎞

With α = − 2 , sgn ( α ) xˆ ( α t ) = − ⎜ 2⎟

⎝1 + 4t ⎠

2t

= , as required

1 + 4t2

Exercise 1.9

⎛ sin t ⎞ 1 − cos t

Using the result HT ⎜ ⎟ = ,

⎝ t ⎠ t

1.103

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Rx xˆ ( τ ) = − Rˆ x ( τ )

Proof: F ⎡⎣Rx xˆ ( τ ) ⎤⎦ = F ⎡⎣ x ( τ ) ∗ xˆ ( − τ ) ⎤⎦

= X ( f ) ⎡⎣ − j sgn ( − f ) X ( − f ) ⎤⎦

= X ( f ) ⎡⎣ − j sgn ( − f ) ⎤⎦ = X ( f ) ⎡⎣ j sgn ( f ) ⎤⎦

2 2

That is,

Rx xˆ ( τ ) = − Rˆ x ( τ )

Exercise 1.10

Show that Rxˆ x ( τ ) = Rˆ x ( τ ) .

Consider a communication system that transmits the signal

s ( t ) = m ( t ) cos 2π fc t , where m ( t ) is a (lowpass) message signal and

1

transmitted signal is S ( f ) = ⎡M ( f − fc ) + M ( f + fc ) ⎤⎦ . If M ( f ) is as shown in

2⎣

Fig 1.34(a), then for a carrier frequency fc = 100 k Hz , S ( f ) will be as shown in

Fig 1.34(b).

1.104

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

(NBBP) signal. Fig 1.35 shows some more spectra that represent NBBP signals.

1.105

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

assume that the rest of the communication system (channel, a part of the

receiver etc.) is also of the bandpass variety. The study of such transmission-

reception schemes becomes a little complicated because of the presence of the

carrier term in some form or the other (The term cos ωc t in m ( t ) cos ωc t is

meant only to “carry” the information m ( t ) and is not part of the information) If

of the carrier, the analysis of the communications schemes would become

somewhat simplified. (That is, bandpass signals and bandpass systems are

studied in terms of their lowpass equivalents.) The mathematical concepts of pre-

envelope and complex envelope have been developed for this purpose. We shall

make use of these concepts in our studies on linear modulation and angle

modulation.

1.106

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

1.8.1 Pre-envelope

Def. 1.10: Let x ( t ) be any real signal with the FT, X ( f ) . We define its pre-

envelope as,

x p e ( t ) = x ( t ) + j xˆ ( t ) (1.50a)

X p e ( f ) = X ( f ) + j ⎡⎣ − j sgn ( f ) X ( f ) ⎤⎦

= X ( f ) + sgn ( f ) X ( f )

That is,

⎧2 X ( f ) , f > 0

⎪

X p e (f ) = ⎨ X (0) , f = 0 (1.50b)

⎪

⎩ 0 , f < 0

components only for f ≥ 0 , some authors use the symbol x+ ( t ) to denote the

Consider the signals x1 ( t ) and x2 ( t ) whose spectra are shown in Fig. 1.36.

1.107

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

The corresponding X1, p e ( f ) and X 2, p e ( f ) are as shown in Fig. 1.37(a) and (b)

respectively.

Fig. 1.37: Fourier transform of (a) x1, p e ( t ) and (b) x2, p e ( t ) of the signals in

1.108

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

∞

xp e (t ) = 2 ∫ X (f ) e

j 2πf t

df (1.51)

0

Example 1.27

1

Let x ( t ) = . Let us find X pe ( f ) and x pe ( t ) .

1 + t2

1 − 2 πf

←⎯→ π e .

1+ t 2

⎧1 , f > 0

⎪1

⎪

Hence X pe ( f ) = 2 π e − 2 π f u ( f ) , where u ( f ) = ⎨ , f = 0.

⎪2

⎪⎩ 0 , f < 0

We require F − 1 ⎡⎣ X pe ( f ) ⎤⎦ .

1

As ex1( t ) ←⎯→

1 + j 2πf

1 1

ex1( 2 π t ) ←⎯→ .

2π 1 + j f

1

From duality, 2 π ex1( 2 π f ) = 2 π e − 2 π f u ( f ) ←⎯→ .

1− jt

1 1+ jt

That is, x pe ( t ) = =

1− jt 1 + t2

1 t

= + j .

1+ t 2

1 + t2

t

Then, xˆ ( t ) = , which is a known result.

1 + t2

1.109

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

in Fig. 1.38(a).

(We can treat fc to be the center frequency in Fig. 1.38(a), by taking the

bandpass spectrum from 94 to 110 k Hz , though the spectrum is zero for the

1.110

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Def. 1.11: We now define the complex envelope of x ( t ) , denoted xc e ( t ) as

xc e ( t ) = x p e ( t ) e − j 2 π fc t

(1.52a)

X c e ( f ) = X p e ( f + fc ) (1.52b)

(We assume that we know the center frequency fc and it is such that

X p e ( f + fc ) is lowpass in nature).

x p e ( t ) = xc e ( t ) e j 2 π fc t (1.53)

x c e ( t ) = xc ( t ) + j xs ( t ) (1.54)

We will show a little later that, both xc ( t ) and xs ( t ) are lowpass in nature. Using

x p e ( t ) = ⎡⎣ xc ( t ) + j xs ( t ) ⎤⎦ e j 2 π fc t

xc ( t ) , which is the coefficient of the cosine term, is usually referred to as the in-

phase component and xs ( t ) , the coefficient of the sine term, as the quadrature

also common in the literature to use the symbol xI ( t ) for the in-phase

1.111

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

⎡ x (t ) ⎤

ϕ ( t ) = tan−1 ⎢ s ⎥ (1.56b)

⎢⎣ xc ( t ) ⎥⎦

Then,

xce ( t ) = A ( t ) e ( )

jϕ t

(1.56c)

x ( t ) = Re ⎡⎣ x p e ( t ) ⎤⎦ = Re ⎡⎣ xc e ( t ) e j 2 π fc t ⎤⎦ (1.57)

= Re ⎡ A ( t ) e ( ) e j 2 π fc t ⎤

jϕ t

(1.58)

⎣ ⎦

Eq. 1.58 resembles phasor representation of a sinusoid. We know that,

A cos ( 2 π fc t + ϕ ) = Re ⎡⎣ A e j ϕ e j 2 π fc t ⎤⎦ (1.59)

⎣ ⎦

signal A cos ( 2 π fc t + ϕ ) . (The phasor is a complex number providing information

about the amplitude and phase (at t = 0 ) of the sinusoid.) The quantity

⎣ ⎦

Comparing Eq. 1.58 with Eq. 1.59, we find that they have a close resemblance.

Phasor of the monochromatic (single frequency) signal has constant amplitude

A and a fixed phase ϕ . In the case of the complex envelope (of a narrowband

narrowband signal with zero spectral width!)

1.112

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

j 2 π f t + ϕ)

the phasor representation used for single frequency sinusoids; the generalization

permits the amplitude and phase to change as a function of time. Note, however,

jϕ t

different modulation schemes are basically different methods of controlling either

A ( t ) or ϕ ( t ) (or both) as a function of the message signal m ( t ) .

1.113

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

⎡ xc e ( t ) + xc∗ e ( t ) ⎤

xc ( t ) = ⎣ ⎦

2

X c e ( f ) + X c∗ e ( − f )

or F ⎡⎣ xc ( t ) ⎤⎦ = X c ( f ) =

2

As X c e ( f ) and X c∗ e ( − f ) are zero for f > W , X c ( f ) is also zero for f > W .

from x ( t ) .

In Fig 1.40, x ( t ) a NBBP signal, with the spectrum confined to the interval

f ± f c ≤ W , where W << fc .

v1 ( t ) = 2 x ( t ) cos ωc t

= 2 xc ( t ) cos2 ωc t − xs ( t ) sin 2 ωc t

1.114

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

⎡1 + cos 2 ωc t ⎤

= 2 xc ( t ) ⎢ ⎥ − xs ( t ) sin 2 ωc t

⎣ 2 ⎦

= xc ( t ) + xc ( t ) cos ( 2 ωc t ) − xs ( t ) sin 2 ωc t (1.60)

response.

⎧⎪1 , f ≤ W

Hl p ( f ) = ⎨

⎪⎩0 , outside

will be filtered out by the ILPF and at the output of the top channel, we obtain

xc ( t ) . Similar analysis will show that the output of the bottom channel is xs ( t ) .

x ( t ) = A ( t ) cos ⎡⎣ωc t + ϕ ( t ) ⎤⎦ (1.61)

is called the natural envelope (or simply the envelope) of x ( t ) and ϕ ( t ) , its

A ( t ) = xce ( t ) = x pe ( t ) (1.62)

1.115

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Example 1.28

Let x ( t ) = cos [ 2 π fc t ] . Let us find x pe ( t ) , xce ( t ) , A ( t ) and ϕ ( t ) .

1

X (f ) = ⎡ δ ( f − fc ) + δ ( f + fc ) ⎤⎦

2⎣

From Eq. 1.50(b), we have

Hence X pe ( f ) = δ ( f − fc ) ⇒ x pe ( t ) = e j 2 π fc t

As X ce ( f ) = δ ( f ) , we obtain xce ( t ) = 1

Example 1.29

⎛t ⎞

Let x ( t ) = ga ⎜ ⎟ cos ωc t . Assume that fc T >> 1 so that x ( t ) can be

⎝T ⎠

taken as a NBBP signal. We shall find x pe ( t ) , xce ( t ) and A ( t ) .

Because of the assumption fc T >> 1 , we can take X ( f ) approximately as

⎧T

⎪⎪ 2 sin c ⎡⎣( f − fc )T ⎤⎦ , f > 0

X (f ) ⎨

⎪T sin c ⎡( f + f )T ⎤ , f < 0

⎪⎩ 2 ⎣ c ⎦

⎧⎪T sin c ⎡⎣( f − fc )T ⎤⎦ , f > 0

X pe ( f ) = ⎨

⎪⎩ 0 , otherwise

Hence,

⎛t ⎞ j 2 π fc t

x pe ( t ) = ga ⎜ ⎟e

⎝T ⎠

1.116

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

xce ( t ) = x pe ( t ) e − j 2 π fc t

⎛t ⎞

= ga ⎜ ⎟

⎝T ⎠

As xce ( t ) is real, we have xs ( t ) = 0 ⇒ ϕ ( t ) = 0 .

⎛t ⎞

A ( t ) = xce ( t ) = g a ⎜ ⎟

⎝T ⎠

Note that for Examples 1.28 and 1.29, the complex envelope is real valued and is

equal to the envelope, A ( t ) .

Comparing the given x ( t ) with Eq. 1.55, we find that it is already in the

⎛t ⎞

canonic form with xc ( t ) = ga ⎜ ⎟ , xs ( t ) = 0

⎝T ⎠

⎛t ⎞

Hence, xce ( t ) = ga ⎜ ⎟

⎝T ⎠

And x pe ( t ) = xce ( t ) e j 2 π fc t

⎛t ⎞

= ga ⎜ ⎟ e j 2 π fc t

⎝T ⎠

⎛t ⎞

A ( t ) = ga ⎜ ⎟ and ϕ ( t ) = 0

⎝T ⎠

Example 1.30

x ( t ) is a NBBP signal with X ( f ) as shown in Fig 1.41. Let us find xc ( t )

and xs ( t ) .

1.117

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Fig. 1.42.

Fig. 1.42: Spectrum of the complex envelope of the signal of Example 1.30

+ 50 sin c ( 50 t ) e j 50 π t

1.118

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Exercise 1.11

Find the pre-envelope of x ( t ) = sin c ( t ) .

Exercise 1.12

Let x ( t ) = ex1( t ) sin ⎡⎣( ωc + ∆ ω) t ⎤⎦ where ωc >> ∆ ω .

Find xce ( t ) .

Exercise 1.13

Find the expression for the envelope of

x ( t ) = ⎡⎣1 + k cos ( ωm t ) ⎤⎦ cos ( ωc t ) where k is a real constant and

Let a signal x ( t ) be input to an LTI system with impulse response h ( t ) . If

2

Y (f ) = X (f ) H (f )

2 2

Ey ( f ) = Ex ( f ) H ( f )

2

(1.63a)

2

Ry ( τ ) = Rx ( τ ) ∗ Rh ( τ )

= Rx ( τ ) ∗ ⎡⎣ h ( τ ) ∗ h∗ ( − τ ) ⎤⎦ (1.63b)

1.119

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

bandpass signal is usually processed a bandpass system; that is, a system with

passband in the interval f ± fc < B where B ≤ W . We would like to study the

were to use complex envelopes of the signals involved.

1

y ce ( t ) = ⎡ xce ( t ) ∗ hce ( t ) ⎤⎦ (1.64)

2⎣

We shall now give an example to illustrate the use of Eq. 1.64.

Example 1.31

Let x ( t ) be a sinusoidal pulse given by

x (t ) = ⎨ ⎣ ( )

⎧⎪2 cos ⎡2 π 106 t ⎤ , 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 m sec

⎦

⎪⎩ 0 , outside

xce ( t ) = 2 , 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 m sec

h ( t ) = 2 cos ⎡2 π 106

⎣ ( ) (T − t )⎤⎦

{ ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )}

= 2 cos 2 π 106 T cos 2 π 106 t + sin 2 π 106 T sin 2 π 106 t

{ ( ) ( ) ( )

= 2 cos 2 π × 103 cos ⎡2 π 106 t ⎤ + sin 2 π × 103 sin 2 π × 106 t

⎣ ⎦ }

⎣ ⎦( )

= 2 cos ⎡2 π 106 t ⎤ , 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 m sec

1.120

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

⎧2 , 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 m sec

hce ( t ) = ⎨

⎩0 , outside

⎛t −T ⎞

That is, xce ( t ) = hce ( t ) = 2 ga ⎜ 2⎟

⎜ T ⎟

⎝ ⎠

From Eq.1.64,

⎛t −T ⎞

y ce ( t ) =

1

2

( )

⎡ xce ( t ) ∗ hce ( t ) ⎦⎤ = 2 × 10− 3 tri ⎜

⎣

⎝ T ⎠

⎟

y ( t ) = y ce ( t ) cos ( 2 π fc t )

Exercise 1.14

⎣ ( )

Let x ( t ) = sin c ( 200 t ) cos ⎡ 2 π 106 t ⎤ be the input to an NBBP

⎦

system with H ( f ) =

1 ⎡

2j ⎣

( ) (

H1 f − 106 − H1 f + 106 ⎤

⎦ ) (1.65)

1.121

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Appendix A1.1

Tabulation of sinc ( λ )

0.00 1.000000 1.70 -0.151481

3.40 -0.089038

0.05 0.995893 1.75 -0.128616

3.45 -0.091128

0.10 0.983631 1.80 -0.103943

3.50 -0.090946

0.15 0.963397 1.85 -0.078113

3.55 -0.088561

0.20 0.935489 1.90 -0.051770

3.60 -0.084092

0.25 0.900316 1.95 -0.025536

3.65 -0.077703

0.30 0.858393 2.00 0.000000

3.70 -0.069600

0.35 0.810331 2.05 0.024290

3.75 -0.060021

0.40 0.756826 2.10 0.046840

3.80 -0.049237

0.45 0.698645 2.15 0.067214

3.85 -0.037535

0.50 0.636619 2.20 0.085045

3.90 -0.025222

0.55 0.571619 2.25 0.100035

3.95 -0.012607

0.60 0.504550 2.30 0.111964

4.00 -0.000000

0.65 0.436331 2.35 0.120688

4.05 0.012295

0.70 0.367882 2.40 0.126138

4.10 0.023991

0.75 0.300104 2.45 0.128323

4.15 0.034821

0.80 0.233871 2.50 0.127324

4.20 0.044547

0.85 0.170010 2.55 0.123291

4.25 0.052960

0.90 0.109291 2.60 0.116435

4.30 0.059888

0.95 0.052414 2.65 0.107025

4.35 0.065199

1.00 -0.000001 2.70 0.095377

4.40 0.068802

1.05 -0.047424 2.75 0.081847

4.45 0.070650

1.10 -0.089422 2.80 0.066821

4.50 0.070736

1.15 -0.125661 2.85 0.050705

4.55 0.069097

1.20 -0.155915 2.90 0.033919

4.60 0.065811

1.25 -0.180064 2.95 0.016880

4.65 0.060993

1.30 -0.198091 3.00 0.000000

4.70 0.054791

1.35 -0.210086 3.05 -0.016326

4.75 0.047385

1.40 -0.216236 3.10 -0.031730

4.80 0.038979

1.45 -0.216821 3.15 -0.045876

4.85 0.029796

1.50 -0.212203 3.20 -0.058468

4.90 0.020074

1.55 -0.202833 3.25 -0.069255

4.95 0.010059

1.60 -0.189207 3.30 -0.078036

5.00 0.000000

1.65 -0.171888 3.35 -0.084661

1.122

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

1.123

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Appendix A1.2

Fourier transform of Rxp y p ( τ )

T0

2

1

Rx p y p ( τ ) = ∫ x p ( t ) y p∗ ( t − τ ) dt

T0 T0

−

2

⎧ T0 T

⎪x (t ) , − < t < 0

Let x (t ) = ⎨ p 2 2

⎪⎩ 0 , outside

∞

then, x p ( t ) = ∑ x ( t − nT0 )

n = −∞

∞

Similarly, y ∗p ( t − τ ) = ∑ y ∗ ( t − τ − nT0 )

n = −∞

⎧ ∗ T T

⎪y p (t ) , − 0 < t < 0

where y ( t ) = ⎨

∗

2 2

⎪⎩ 0 , outside

T0

1 2 ⎡ ∞ ⎤

Rx p y p ( τ ) =

T0 ∫ x (t ) ⎢

⎢⎣ n

∑ ( y *

t − τ − nT0 ) ⎥ dt

⎥⎦

T0 = −∞

−

2

∞ T0 / 2

1

= ∑ ∫ x ( t ) y * ( t − τ − nT0 ) dt

n = −∞ T0 −T0 / 2

T0

As x ( t ) = 0 for t > ,

2

1.124

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

∞ ∞

1

Rx p y p ( τ ) =

T0

∑ ∫ x ( t ) y ( t − τ − nT0 ) dt

∗

n = − ∞ −∞

∞

1

=

T0

∑ Rx y ( τ + nT0 )

n = −∞

1 ⎡ ∞ ⎤

F ⎡R x p y p ( τ ) ⎤ =

⎣ ⎦

F⎢

T0 ⎢ n

∑ xy R ( τ + nT )

0 ⎥

⎣ = −∞ ⎥⎦

As Rx y ( τ ) ←⎯→ X ( f ) Y ∗ ( f ) ,

1 ⎡ ∞ ⎤

F ⎡R x p y p ( τ ) ⎤ =

⎣ ⎦

⎢

T0 ⎢ n

∑ X ( f ) Y ∗

( f ) e j 2 π n f T0

⎥

⎥⎦

⎣ = −∞

1 ⎡ ∞ ⎤

= ⎢ X (f ) Y ∗ (f )

T0 ⎢

∑ e j 2 π n f T0

⎥ (A1.2.1)

⎣ n = −∞ ⎥⎦

∞ ⎡

−1 1

∞ ⎤

∑ δ ( t − mT0 ) = F ⎢ ∑ δ ( f − n f )

0 ⎥ (A1.2.2)

m = −∞ ⎢⎣T0 m = −∞ ⎥⎦

1 ⎡ ∞ ⎤

= ⎢

T0 ⎢ m

∑ e j 2 π m f0 t ⎥

⎥⎦

⎣ = −∞

∞

1 ⎡ ∞ ⎤

∑ δ ( f − m f0 ) = ⎢

f0 ⎢ m

∑ e j 2 π m f T0 ⎥

m = −∞ ⎣ = −∞ ⎥⎦

1

As f0 = , we have

T0

∞ ⎛ ∞

1 m⎞

∑ δ⎜f − T ⎟ = ∑ e j 2 π m f T0 (A1.2.3)

T0 m = −∞ ⎝ 0⎠ m = −∞

1.125

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

1 ⎡ ∞ ⎛m⎞ ⎛m⎞ ⎛ m ⎞⎤

F ⎡R x p y p ( τ ) ⎤ = 2 ⎢

⎣ ⎦ T0 ⎢⎣ m

∑ X ⎜T ⎟ Y∗ ⎜T ⎟ δ⎜f − ⎟⎥

T0 ⎠ ⎥

(A1.2.4)

= −∞ ⎝ 0⎠ ⎝ 0⎠ ⎝ ⎦

⎛m⎞

where X ⎜ ⎟ = X ( f ) m

f =

⎝ T0 ⎠ T0

⎛m⎞

and Y ∗ ⎜ ⎟ = Y ∗ ( f ) m .

⎝ T0 ⎠ f =

T0

1.126

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Appendix A1.3

Complex envelope of the output of a BP system

Let x ( t ) , a BP signal, be applied as input to a BP system with impulse response

We know that,

x ( t ) = xc ( t ) cos ωc t − xs ( t ) sin ωc t ,

xce ( t ) = xc ( t ) + j xs ( t ) ,

x ( t ) = Re ⎡⎣ xce ( t ) e j 2 π fc t ⎤⎦ ,

X (f ) =

1

2

{

X ce ( f − fc ) + X ce

∗

⎡⎣ − ( f + fc ) ⎤⎦ . } (A1.3.1)

Similarly, let

hce ( t ) = hc ( t ) + j hs ( t ) , (A1.3.2)

h ( t ) = Re ⎡⎣hce ( t ) e j 2 π fc t ⎤⎦ ,

2 h ( t ) = hce e j 2 π fc t + hce

∗

e− j 2 π fc t

. (A1.3.4)

2 H ( f ) = Hce ( f − fc ) + Hce

∗

⎡⎣ − ( f + fc ) ⎤⎦ (A1.3.5)

But y ( t ) = Re ⎡⎣ y ce ( t ) e j 2 π fc t ⎤⎦ .

Therefore,

Yce ( f − fc ) + Yce

∗

⎡⎣ − ( f + fc ) ⎤⎦

Y (f ) = X (f ) H (f ) = (A1.3.6)

2

Because of Eq. A1.3.1 and A1.3.5, Eq. A1.3.6 becomes

X (f ) H (f ) =

1

4 ⎣

{

⎡Hce ( f − fc ) + Hce

∗

⎡⎣ − ( f + fc ) ⎤⎦ ⎦⎤ ⎣⎡ X ce ( f − fc ) + X ce

∗

}

⎡⎣ − ( f + fc ) ⎤⎦ ⎦⎤

1.127

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Hce ( f − fc ) X ce

∗

⎡⎣ − ( f + fc ) ⎤⎦

∗

⎡⎣ − ( f + fc ) ⎤⎦

∗

⎡⎣ − ( f + fc ) ⎤⎦ do not overlap; hence the

∗

product is zero. Similarly, Hce ⎡⎣ − ( f + fc ) ⎤⎦ X ce ( f − fc ) = 0 . Hence,

Yce ( f − fc ) + Yce

∗

⎡⎣ − ( f + fc ) ⎤⎦ 1

= Hce ( f − fc ) X ce ( f − fc )

2 4

1 ∗

+ Hce ⎡⎣ − ( f + fc ) ⎤⎦ X ce

∗

⎡⎣ − ( f + fc ) ⎤⎦

4

Yce ( f − fc ) has nonzero spectral components only in the range ( fc − B , fc + B ) .

That is,

1 1

Yce ( f − fc ) = ⎡Hce ( f − fc ) X ce ( f − fc ) ⎤⎦ ,

2 4 ⎣

and

1 ∗

2

Yce ⎡⎣ − ( f + fc ) ⎤⎦ =

1

4

⎡Hce

⎣

∗

( − ( f + fc ) ) X ce

∗

( − ( f + fc ) )⎤⎦ .

In other words,

1

Yce ( f ) = X ce ( f ) Hce ( f ) (A1.3.7)

2

Therefore,

1

y ce ( t ) = ⎡ xce ( t ) ∗ hce ( t ) ⎤⎦ (A1.3.8)

2⎣

From Eq. A1.3.8, we obtain the equations for yc (t ) and ys (t ) .

y ce ( t ) =

1

{ }

⎡ xc ( t ) + j xs ( t ) ⎤⎦ ∗ ⎡⎣hc ( t ) + j hs ( t ) ⎤⎦

2 ⎣

Therefore,

yc (t ) =

1

2

{xc ( t ) ∗ hc ( t ) − xs ( t ) ∗ hs ( t )} (A1.3.9)

ys (t ) =

1

2

{xc ( t ) ∗ hs ( t ) + xs ( t ) ∗ hc ( t )} (A1.3.10)

and, y ce ( t ) = y c ( t ) + j y s ( t ) .

1.128

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Exercise A1.3.1

Given the pairs ( xc ( t ) , xs ( t ) ) and ⎡⎣ hc ( t ) , hs ( t ) ⎤⎦ suggest a scheme to

recover y c ( t ) and y s ( t ) .

1.129

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

References

1. Oppenheim, A. V, Willisky, A. S, with Hamid Nawab, S., Signals and Systems

(2nd Edition), PHI, 1997

2. Ashok Ambardar, Analog and Digital Signal Processing (2nd Edition),

Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, Thomson Asia Pvt. Ltd., Singapore, 1999

3. Lathi, B. P., Signal Processing and Linear systems, Berkeley-Cambridge

Press, 1998

Note: The above three books have a large collection of problems. The student is

advised to try to solve them.

1. Couch II, L. W., Digital and Analog Communication Systems (6th Edition)

Pearson Asia, 2001

2. Carlson, A. B., Communication Systems (4th Edition), Mc Graw-Hill, 2003

3. Lathi, B. P., Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems (3rd Edition),

Oxford University Press, 1998

1.130

- EFFECTIVE PRINCIPLE OF ORAL COMMUNICATIONUploaded byabin tijo
- pulse code modulation samplingUploaded byMulk Raj
- NoiseUploaded byreza
- NSS-05-0202.pdfUploaded bysweswemar83
- Principles of CommunicationUploaded byngpvn
- 2014 Noise and what does V_√Hz actually meanUploaded byKrystal Bates
- Data TransmissionUploaded bybigdami2000
- Principles of CommunicationUploaded byngpvn
- Ringdal_PEPI1990_Spectral Analysis of Seismic Signals and NoiseUploaded bySilva Almeida
- Representation of SignalsUploaded byngpvn
- Principles of CommunicationUploaded byngpvn
- 23738883 5 Principles of CommunicationUploaded byJelly Cruz
- Principles of CommunicationUploaded byngpvn
- Random Signals and NoiseUploaded bycitharthan
- 1_8Uploaded byomar9a
- PrintUploaded byANIRUDDHA PAUL
- Parametric Sensitivity Analysis of a Thermal Test Cell Model Using Spectral AnalysisUploaded byAngel Smith
- raspored predavanja na TM IUploaded byDejan Vulin
- § - Circuits for Voltage Tuning the Parameters of Chua s Circuit - Experimental Application for Musical Signal GenerationUploaded byAndrea Maligno
- lec7Uploaded bym_sakarya
- pwechUploaded byDuong Hoang Tin
- Lecture 2Uploaded byMubashir Ghaffar
- Emotional Changes due to Musical RecognitionUploaded byTamara Montenegro
- On Chaotic Nature of Speech SignalsUploaded byrodolfocoelho
- ece_15-19_0Uploaded byvikram_bansal_5
- Ass 1Uploaded byMohamed Tarek Mokhtar
- Url?Sa=t&Source=Web&Ct=Res&CD=4&Url=Http%3A%2F%2Fwww.wellesley.edu%2FPhysics%2Fbrown%2Fpubs%2Fcq1stPaperUploaded byKarlAschnikow
- Vigilance and Wake EEG ArchiteUploaded byGuillermo
- Peeters 2006 Ismir KeyhpsUploaded byPuthani
- Kyle, Sreenivasan - The Instability and Breakdown of a Round Variable-Density Jet (1993)Uploaded byAryce_

- Fomula MathsUploaded byTongYueHern
- 1. Fourier SeriesUploaded byJohn Raymart Rafer
- Acoustic PhoneticsUploaded byAzzad Uddin
- AEM TutorialsUploaded byAaron Solis
- Mathematical Theory of WaveletsUploaded byalmisaany
- ELEG4430_Tut02Uploaded byFung Alex Li
- Revised Syllabus M-301 Ece-1Uploaded bySayan Chowdhury
- Fourier SeriesUploaded byசக்திவேல் கந்தசாமி
- Periodic FunctionUploaded byAnubhav Choudhary
- Mcqs Mth301 SolvedUploaded bycs619finalproject.com
- Fourier Transform and Its Medical ApplicationUploaded byadriveros
- machinery-diagnostic-plots-part-2Uploaded byLuis Romero
- Nabu Goto EquationUploaded byKevin Juan Román Rafaele
- m-iii fourier series -importantUploaded byapi-327973275
- Lecture 9Uploaded bySathish Kumar S
- Ss Assignment 2Uploaded byPreethi Sj
- A. A. Panchishkin, E. T. Shavgulidze - Trigonometric Functions (Problem-Solving Approach) - MIR, 1988.pdfUploaded byJARDEL LEITE
- cst math 2015 - day 2 - functions part ii (1)Uploaded byapi-245317729
- MATHS ProjectUploaded byShrija Padhi
- fourier analysis and inner product spacesUploaded byapi-273667257
- Signals and systems question bankUploaded byEdward Harvey
- model question.pdfUploaded byJohn Leons
- [Doi 10.1017_CBO9781316536483.006] Apte, Shaila Dinkar -- Signals and Systems (Principles and Applications) __ Fourier Series Representation of Periodic SignalsUploaded bymsh-666
- Tutorial 7 SolutionsUploaded byFrantz Clermont
- sine cosineUploaded byapi-274909429
- Definite Integration Zella.in.pdfUploaded byKAPIL SHARMA
- lec2Uploaded bybardaris
- Chapter 5Uploaded byTom Davis
- Fourier SeriesUploaded bysmile0life
- MCQS_MTH301Uploaded bycs619finalproject.com