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Venkata Rao

CHAPTER 7

Schemes

7.1 Introduction

The process of (electronic) communication becomes quite challenging

because of the unwanted electrical signals in a communications system. These

undesirable signals, usually termed as noise, are random in nature and interfere

with the message signals. The receiver input, in general, consists of (message)

signal plus noise, possibly with comparable power levels. The purpose of the

receiver is to produce the desired signal with a signal-to-noise ratio that is above

a specified value.

schemes discussed in chapters 4 to 6. The results of our analysis will show that,

under certain conditions, FM is superior to the linear modulation schemes in

combating noise and PCM can provide better signal-to-noise ratio at the receiver

output than FM. The trade-offs involved in achieving the superior performance

from FM and PCM will be discussed.

modulations schemes. In this context, it is the performance of the detector

(demodulator) that would be emphasized. We shall first develop a suitable

receiver model in which the role of the demodulator is the most important one.

7.1

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Modulation

Consider the superheterodyne receiver shown in Fig. 4.75. To study the

noise performance we shall make use of simplified model shown in Fig. 7.1.

Here, Heq ( f ) is the equivalent IF filter which actually represents the cascade

filtering characteristic of the RF, mixer and IF sections of Fig. 4.75. s ( t ) is the

N0

Gaussian noise process with the two sided spectral density of . We treat

2

Heq ( f ) to be an ideal narrowband, bandpass filter, with a passband between

SSB, we take the filter passband either between fc − W and fc (LSB) or fc and

modulation schemes whereas it is W for the case of SSB). Also, in the present

context, fc represents the carrier frequency measured at the mixer output; that is

fc = fIF .

7.2

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

N0

spectral density SN ( f ) = over the passband of Heq ( f ) . (As Heq ( f ) is

2

treated as a narrowband filter, n ( t ) represents the sample function of a

7.2.2 Figure-of-merit

The performance of analog communication systems are measured in

terms of Signal-to-Noise Ratio ( SNR ) . The SNR measure is meaningful and

unambiguous provided the signal and noise are additive at the point of

measurement. We shall define two ( SNR ) quantities, namely, (i) ( SNR )0 and

(ii) ( SNR )r .

Average power of the message at receiver output

(SNR )0 = (7.1)

Average noise power at the receiver output

The reference signal-to-noise ratio is defined as,

⎛ Average power of the modulated ⎞

⎜ ⎟

⎝ message signal at receiver input ⎠

(SNR )r = (7.2)

⎛ Average noise power in the message ⎞

⎜ ⎟

⎝ bandwidth at receiver input ⎠

The quantity, ( SNR )r can be viewed as the output signal-to-noise ratio which

modulation as shown in Fig. 7.2. Here, m ( t ) is the baseband message signal

with the same power as the modulated wave. For the purpose of comparing

different modulation systems, we use the Figure-of-Merit ( FOM ) defined as,

7.3

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

(SNR )0

FOM = (7.3)

(SNR )r

the noise performance of the given communication system.

quantify the outputs expected of the (idealized) detectors when the input is a

narrowband signal. Let x ( t ) be a real narrowband bandpass signal. From Eq.

⎪

x (t ) = ⎨

⎪⎩ A ( t ) cos ⎡⎣ωc t + ϕ ( t ) ⎤⎦ ( 7.4b )

xc ( t ) and xs ( t ) are the in-phase and quadrature components of x ( t ) . The

envelope A ( t ) and the phase ϕ ( t ) are given by Eq. 1.56. In this chapter, we will

detector and a frequency detector when signals such as x ( t ) are given as input.

terms of the quantities involved in Eq. 7.4. These are listed below. (Table 7.1)

7.4

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

i) Coherent detector xc ( t )

1 d ϕ (t )

iv) Frequency detector

2π d t

x ( t ) could be used to represent any of the four types of linear modulated signals

or any one of the two types of angle modulated signals. In fact, x ( t ) could even

7.5

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Signal xc (t ) x s (t ) A (t ) ϕ (t )

1 DSB-SC 0, m ( t ) > 0

Ac m ( t ) zero Ac m ( t )

Ac m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) π, m (t ) < 0

2 DSB-LC (AM)

Ac [1+ g m m ( t )] cos ( ωc t ) , Ac [1 + g m m ( t )] zero Ac [1 + g m m ( t )] zero

Ac [1 + g m m ( t )] ≥ 0

3 SSB

Ac (t ) ⎤

m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) Ac m ( t ) (t )

Ac m Ac 2

l (t ) −1 ⎡ m

2 ± m

2

(t ) + m tan ⎢− ⎥

A l

2 2 2 ⎣ m (t ) ⎦

± c m ( t ) sin ( ωc t )

2

4 Phase modulation

Ac cos [ ωc t + ϕ ( t )] , Ac cos ϕ ( t ) Ac sin ϕ ( t ) Ac kp m (t )

ϕ (t ) = kp m (t )

5 Frequency modulation

Ac cos [ ωc t + ϕ ( t )] , t

t

Ac cos ϕ ( t ) Ac sin ϕ ( t ) Ac 2 π kf ∫ m ( τ) d τ

ϕ ( t ) = 2 π kf ∫ m ( τ) d τ

− ∞

− ∞

Example 7.1

Let us compute and sketch the output v ( t ) of an ideal frequency detector when

s ( t ) is its input.

From Table 7.1, we find that an ideal frequency detector output will be

1 d ϕ (t )

proportional to . For the DSB-SC signal,

2π d t

7.6

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

⎧⎪0 , m ( t ) > 0

ϕ (t ) = ⎨

⎪⎩π , m ( t ) < 0

( )

For the example, m ( t ) = cos ⎡ 2 π × 103 t ⎤ . Hence ϕ ( t ) is shown in Fig. 7.3(b).

⎣ ⎦

7.7

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Example 7.2

1

Let m ( t ) = . Let s ( t ) be an SSB signal with m ( t ) as the message

1 + t2

signal. Assuming that s ( t ) is the input to an ideal ED, let us find the expression

l (t ) = 1

m

1 + t2

1

⎧ l ( t ) ⎤ 2 ⎫ 2 , we have

As the envelope of s ( t ) is ⎨ ⎡⎣ m ( t ) ⎤⎦ + ⎡m

2

⎩ ⎣ ⎦ ⎬⎭

1

v (t ) = .

1 + t2

7.3.1 DSB-SC

The receiver model for coherent detection of DSB-SC signals is shown in

Fig. 7.4. The DSB-SC signal is, s ( t ) = Ac m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) . We assume m ( t ) to

SM ( f ) , limited to ± W Hz.

7.8

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Ac2

Rs ( τ ) = RM ( τ ) cos ( ωc τ ) (7.5a)

2

where RM ( τ ) is the autocorrelation function of the message process. Fourier

Ac2

Ss ( f ) = ⎡SM ( f − fc ) + SM ( f + fc ) ⎤⎦ (7.5b)

4 ⎣

Let PM denote the message power, where

∞ W

PM = ∫ SM ( f ) d f = ∫ SM ( f ) d f

−∞ −W

∞ fc + W

A2 Ac2 PM

Then, ∫ Ss ( f ) d f = 2 c ∫ SM ( f − fc ) d f = .

−∞

4 fc − W

2

Ac2 PM

That is, the average power of the modulated signal s ( t ) is . With the (two

2

N0

sided) noise power spectral density of , the average noise power in the

2

N0

message bandwidth 2 W is 2 W × = W N0 . Hence,

2

Ac2 PM

⎡( SNR ) ⎤ = (7.6)

⎣ r ⎦ DSB −SC 2 W N0

7.9

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Assuming that the local oscillator output is cos ( ωc t ) , the output v ( t ) of the

1 1 1

v (t ) = Ac m ( t ) + nc ( t ) + ⎡⎣ Ac m ( t ) + nc ( t ) ⎤⎦ cos ( 2 ωc t )

2 2 2

1

− Ac ns ( t ) sin ( 2 ωc t )

2

As the LPF rejects the spectral components centered around 2 fc , we have

1 1

y (t ) = Ac m ( t ) + nc ( t ) (7.7)

2 2

i) Signal and noise which are additive at the input to the detector are additive

even at the output of the detector

ii) Coherent detector completely rejects the quadrature component ns ( t ) .

iii) If the noise spectral density is flat at the detector input over the passband

( fc − W , fc + W ) , then it is flat over the baseband (− W , W ) , at the

W .)

⎛ 1⎞

As the message component at the output is ⎜ ⎟ Ac m ( t ) , the average

⎝ 2⎠

⎛ A2 ⎞

message power at the output is ⎜ c ⎟ PM . As the spectral density of the in-phase

⎜ 4 ⎟

⎝ ⎠

noise component is N0 for f ≤ W , the average noise power at the receiver

1 W N0

output is ( 2 W ⋅ N0 ) = . Therefore,

4 2

⎡( SNR ) ⎤ =

( A 4) P

2

c M

⎣ 0 ⎦ DSB −SC

(W N0 ) 2

7.10

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Ac2 PM

= (7.8)

2W N0

From Eq. 7.6 and 7.8, we obtain

(SNR )0

[FOM ]DSB −SC = =1 (7.9)

(SNR )r

7.3.2 SSB

Assuming that LSB has been transmitted, we can write s ( t ) as follows:

Ac A l

s (t ) = m ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) + c m ( t ) sin ( ωc t )

2 2

l ( t ) is the Hilbert transform of m ( t ) . Generalizing,

where m

Ac A l

S (t ) = M ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) + c M ( t ) sin ( ωc t ) .

2 2

We can show that the autocorrelation function of S ( t ) , Rs ( τ ) is given by

Ac2 ⎡

Rs ( τ ) = RM ( τ ) cos ( ωc τ ) + R

l M ( τ ) sin ( ω τ ) ⎤

4 ⎣

c ⎦

where R M

Ac2

power, Rs ( 0 ) = PM

4

Ac2 PM

and (SNR )r = (7.10)

4W N0

(Note that with respect to fc , n ( t ) does not have a locally symmetric spectrum).

1 1

y (t ) = Ac m ( t ) + nc ( t )

4 2

Ac2 PM

Hence, the output signal power is and the output noise power as

16

⎛ 1⎞

⎜ 4 ⎟ W N0 . Thus, we obtain,

⎝ ⎠

7.11

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Ac2 PM 4

(SNR )0,SSB = ×

16 W N0

Ac2 PM

= (7.11)

4W N0

From Eq. 7.10 and 7.11,

( FOM )SSB =1 (7.12)

From Eq. 7.9 and 7.12, we find that under synchronous detection, SNR

performance of DSB-SC and SSB are identical, when both the systems operate

with the same signal-to-noise ratio at the input of their detectors.

In arriving at the RHS of Eq. 7.11, we have used the narrowband noise

description with respect to fc . We can arrive at the same result, if the noise

⎛ W ⎞

quantity is written with respect to the centre frequency ⎜ fc − ⎟.

⎝ 2 ⎠

DSB-LC or AM signals are normally envelope detected, though coherent

detection can also be used for message recovery. This is mainly because

envelope detection is simpler to implement as compared to coherent detection.

We shall now compute the ( FOM ) AM .

s ( t ) = Ac ⎡⎣1 + g m m ( t ) ⎤⎦ cos ( ωc t )

Ac2 ⎡1 + g m

2

PM ⎤

Then the average signal power in s ( t ) = ⎣ ⎦ . Hence

2

(

Ac2 1 + gm

2

PM ) (7.13)

2W N0

7.12

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

noise, the quantity at the envelope detector input, x ( t ) , can be written as

x ( t ) = s ( t ) + nc ( t ) cos ( ωc t ) − ns ( t ) sin ( ωc t )

The various components of Eq. 7.14 are shown as phasors in Fig. 7.5. The

receiver output y ( t ) is the envelope of the input quantity x ( t ) . That is,

{ }

1

y ( t ) = ⎡⎣ Ac + Ac g m m ( t ) + nc ( t )⎤⎦ + (t )

2 2

ns2

We shall analyze the noise performance of envelope detector for two different

cases, namely, (i) large SNR at the detector input and (ii) weak SNR at the

detector input.

Case (i): If the signal-to-noise ratio at the input to the detector is sufficiently

large, we can approximate y ( t ) as (see Fig. 7.5)

y ( t ) ≈ Ac + Ac g m m ( t ) + nc ( t ) (7.15)

On the RHS of Eq. 7.15, there are three quantities: A DC term due to the

transmitted carrier, a term proportional to the message and the in-phase noise

component. In the final output, the DC is blocked. Hence the average signal

7.13

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

2

PM . The output noise power being equal

to 2W N0 we have,

Ac2 g m

2

PM

⎡( SNR ) ⎤ ≈ (7.16)

⎣ 0 ⎦ AM 2W N0

It is to be noted that the signal and noise are additive at the detector output and

power spectral density of the output noise is flat over the message bandwidth.

From Eq. 7.13 and 7.16 we obtain,

2

gm PM

( FOM ) AM = (7.17)

1 + gm

2

Pm

As can be seen from Eq. 7.17, the FOM with envelope detection is less than

unity. That is, the noise performance of DSB-LC with envelope detection is

inferior to that of DSB-SC with coherent detection. Assuming m ( t ) to be a tone

µ2

. With the maximum permitted value of µ = 1 , we find that the

( 2 + µ2 )

1

( FOM ) AM is . That is, other factors being equal, DSB-LC has to transmit three

3

times as much power as DSB-SC, to achieve the same quality of noise

performance. Of course, this is the price one has to pay for trying to achieve

simplicity in demodulation.

In this case, noise term dominates. Let n ( t ) = rn ( t ) cos ⎡⎣ωc t + ψ ( t ) ⎤⎦ . We

now construct the phasor diagram using rn ( t ) as the reference phasor (Fig. 7.6).

y ( t ) ≈ rn ( t ) + Ac cos ⎡⎣ ψ ( t ) ⎤⎦ + Ac g m m ( t ) cos ⎡⎣ ψ ( t ) ⎤⎦ (7.18)

From Eq. 7.18, we find that detector output has no term strictly proportional to

m ( t ) . The last term on the RHS of Eq. 7.18 contains the message signal m ( t )

7.14

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

multiplied by the noise quantity, cos ψ ( t ) , which is random; that is, the message

be noted that signal and noise are no longer additive at the detector output. As

such, ( SNR )0 is not meaningful.

Fig. 7.6: Phase diagram to analyze the envelope detector for case (ii)

threshold effect. That is, there is some value of input SNR , above which the

envelope detector operates satisfactorily whereas if the input SNR falls below

this value, performance of the detector deteriorates quite rapidly. Actually,

threshold is not a unique point and we may have to use some reasonable

criterion in arriving it. Let R denote the random variable obtained by observing

the process R ( t ) (of which r ( t ) is a sample function) at some fixed point in time.

It is quite reasonable to assume that the detector is operating well into the

threshold region if P [R ≥ Ac ] ≥ 0.5 ; where as, if the above probability is 0.01 or

less, the detector performance is quite satisfactory. Let us define the quantity,

carrier-to-noise ratio, ρ as

average carrier power

ρ =

average noise power in the transmission bandwidth

Ac2 2 Ac2

= =

2W N0 4W N0

We shall now compute the threshold SNR in terms of ρ defined above. As R is

Rayleigh variable, we have

7.15

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

r2

−

r

fR ( r ) = 2 σN

2

e

σN

2

where σN

2

= 2W N0

∞

P [R ≥ Ac ] = ∫ fR ( r ) d r

Ac

Ac2

−

4 W N0

= e

= e− ρ

receiver performance is controlled by the noise and hence its output is not

acceptable whereas for ρ ≥ 6.6 dB, the effect of noise is not deleterious.

However, reasonable intelligibility and naturalness in voice reception requires a

post detection SNR of about 25 dB. That is, for satisfactory reception, we require

a value of ρ much greater than what is indicated by the threshold considerations.

In other words, additive noise makes the signal quality unacceptable long before

multiplicative noise mutilates it. Hence threshold effect is usually not a serious

limitation in AM transmission.

signal with tone modulation. They are in flash animation.

ED - Display 1: SNR at the input to the detector is about 0 dB. ( m ( t ) is a tone

TU UT

noise process. Threshold effect is about to be set in.

ED - Display 2: SNR at the detector input is about 10 dB. Output of the detector,

TU UT

7.16

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

output sine wave and the peaks of the sinewave are not

perfectly aligned.

Example 7.3

In a receiver meant for the demodulation of SSB signals, Heq ( f ) has the

characteristic shown in Fig. 7.7. Assuming that USB has been transmitted, let us

find the FOM of the system.

7.17

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Ac

Signal quantity at the output = m (t )

4

nc ( t )

Noise quantity at the output =

2

W

1

Output noise power =

4 ∫ SNc d f

−W

5

= N0 W

16

⎛ Ac2 PM ⎞

⎜⎜ ⎟

⎝ 16 ⎟⎠

(SNR )0 =

5

N W

16 0

Ac2 PM

=

5 N0 W

Ac2 PM

(SNR )r =

4W N0

(SNR )0 4

Hence FOM = = = 0.8 .

(SNR )r 5

7.18

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Exercise 7.1

In a receiver using coherent demodulation, the equivalent IF filter has

the characteristics shown in Fig. 7.9. Compute the output noise power in the

Example 7.4

In a laboratory experiment involving envelope detection, AM signal at the

input to ED, has the modulation index 0.5 with the carrier amplitude of 2 V. m ( t )

is a tone signal of frequency 5 kHz and fc >> 5 kHz. If the (two-sided) noise

PSD at the detector input is 10− 8 Watts/Hz, what is the expected ( SNR )0 of this

7.19

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Ac2 gm

2

PM

(SNR )0, AM =

2W N0

2

Am

As PM = ,

2

Ac2 ( g m Am )

2

(SNR )0, AM =

4W N0

1

4⋅

(SNR )0, AM = 4

4 × 5 × 10 × 2 × 10 − 8

3

1

=

40 × 10− 5

104

=

4

= 36 dB

1

µ2 1

( FOM ) AM = = 4 =

2 + µ2 2+

1 9

4

( FOM )DSB −SC =1

7.20

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

The receiver model to be used in the noise analysis of angle modulated

signals is shown in Fig. 7.11. (The block de-emphasis filter is shown with broken

lines; the effect of pre-emphasis, de-emphasis will be accounted for

subsequently).

The role of Heq ( f ) is similar to what has been mentioned in the context of

Fig. 7.1, with suitable changes in the centre frequency and transmission

bandwidth. The centre frequency of the filter is fc = fIF , which for the commercial

FM is 10.7 MHz. The bandwidth of the filter is the transmission bandwidth of the

angle modulated signals, which is about 200 kHz for the commercial FM.

Nevertheless, we treat Heq ( f ) to be a narrowband bandpass filter which passes

with a flat spectrum within the passband. The limiter removes any amplitude

variations in the output of the equivalent IF filter. We assume the discriminator to

be ideal, responding to either phase variations (phase discriminator) or derivative

of the phase variations (frequency discriminator) of the quantity present at its

input. The figure of merit ( FOM ) for judging the noise performance is the same

(SNR )0

as defined in section 7.2.2, namely, .

(SNR )r

7.21

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Let,

s ( t ) = Ac cos ⎡⎣ ωc t + ϕ ( t ) ⎤⎦ (7.19)

where

⎪⎪

ϕ (t ) = ⎨ t

⎪2 π kf ∫ m ( τ ) d τ , for FM ⋅⋅⋅ ( 7.20b )

⎪⎩ −∞

x (t ) = s (t ) + n (t ) (7.21a)

where, on the RHS of Eq. 7.21(b) we have used the envelope ( rn ( t ) ) and phase

i) Strong predetection SNR , ( Ac >> rn ( t ) most of the time ) and

Consider the phasor diagram shown in Fig. 7.12, where we have used the

unmodulated carrier as the reference. r ( t ) represents the envelope of the

resultant (signal + noise) phasor and θ ( t ) , the phase angle of the resultant. As

⎪⎧ rn ( t ) sin ⎣⎡ψ ( t ) − ϕ ( t ) ⎦⎤ ⎪⎫

θ ( t ) = ϕ ( t ) + tan− 1 ⎨ ⎬ (7.22a)

⎪⎩ Ac + rn ( t ) cos ⎡⎣ψ ( t ) − ϕ ( t ) ⎤⎦ ⎪⎭

7.22

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Fig. 7.12: Phasor diagram for the case of strong predetection SNR.

If we make the assumption that Ac >> rn ( t ) most of the time, we can write,

rn ( t )

θ (t ) ≈ ϕ (t ) + sin ⎡⎣ψ ( t ) − ϕ ( t ) ⎤⎦ (7.22b)

Ac

rn ( t )

Notice that the second term on the RHS of Eq. 7.22(b) has the factor . Thus

Ac

when the FM signal is much stronger than the noise, it will suppress the small

random phase variations caused by noise; then the FM signal is said to capture

the detector. v ( t ) , the output of the discriminator is given by,

v ( t ) = kd θ ( t ) (phase detector)

kd d θ ( t )

= (frequency detector)

2π d t

where kd is the gain constant of the detector under consideration.

a) Phase Modulation

For PM, ϕ ( t ) = k p m ( t ) . For convenience, let k p kd = 1. Then,

kd rn ( t )

v (t ) ≈ m (t ) + sin ⎡⎣ψ ( t ) − ϕ ( t ) ⎤⎦ (7.23)

Ac

7.23

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

kd rn ( t )

Let nP ( t ) = sin ⎡⎣ψ ( t ) − ϕ ( t ) ⎤⎦ (7.25)

Ac

To calculate the output noise power, we require the power spectral density

of nP ( t ) . This is made somewhat difficult because of ϕ ( t ) in nP ( t ) . The analysis

the PSD of nP ( t ) without making the assumption that ϕ ( t ) = 0 . This has been

done in Appendix A7.1. In this appendix, it has been shown that the effect of

ϕ ( t ) is to produce spectral components beyond W , which are anyway removed

kd rn ( t )

nP ( t ) = sin ⎡⎣ψ ( t ) ⎤⎦

Ac

kd

= ns ( t )

Ac

Hence,

2

⎛k ⎞

SNP ( f ) = ⎜ d ⎟ SNs ( f )

⎝ Ac ⎠

⎧ B

⎪N0 , f ≤ T

But, SNs ( f ) = ⎨ 2

⎪⎩ 0 , otherwise

BT is the transmission bandwidth, which for the PM case can be taken as the

Post detection LPF passes only those spectral components that are within

2

⎛k ⎞

( − W , W ) . Hence the output noise power = ⎜ d ⎟ 2W N0 , resulting in,

⎝ Ac ⎠

7.24

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

PM

(SNR )0, PM = 2

⎛k ⎞

2W N0 ⎜ d ⎟

⎝ Ac ⎠

Ac2

= k p2 PM (7.26)

2W N0

As, (SNR )r , PM =

(A ) 2 2

c

N0 W

we have,

(SNR )0

( FOM )PM = = k p2 PM (7.27a)

(SNR )r

We can express ( FOM )PM in terms of the RMS bandwidth. From Eq. A5.4.7,

= 2 k p PM Brms ( )M

( Brms )PM

2

Hence k p2 PM =

4 ( Brms )

2

M

( )

2

⎡B ⎤

⎣ rms PM ⎦

( FOM )PM = (7.27b)

( )

2

4 ⎡ Brms ⎤

⎣ M⎦

b) Frequency Modulation

kd d θ ( t )

v (t ) = (7.28a)

2π d t

kd d ns ( t )

= kf kd m ( t ) + (7.28b)

2 π Ac d t

7.25

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

kd d ns ( t )

v (t ) = m (t ) +

2 π Ac d t

kd d ns ( t )

Let nF ( t ) =

2 π Ac d t

2

⎛ k ⎞

Then, SNF ( f ) SNS ( f )

2

= ⎜ d ⎟ j 2πf

⎝ 2 π Ac ⎠

d ns ( t )

The above step follows from the fact that can be obtained by

dt

kd2 f 2

SNF ( f ) = SNS ( f )

Ac2

BT

As SNS ( f ) is flat for f ≤ , we find that SNF ( f ) is parabolic as shown

2

in Fig. 7.13.

f > W . Hence,

7.26

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

W

kd2 f 2 N0

The output noise power = ∫ Ac2

df

−W

kd2 N0 ⎛ 2 ⎞ 3

= ⎜ ⎟W (7.29)

Ac2 ⎝ 3 ⎠

Again, as in the case of PM, we find that increasing the carrier power has

a noise quietening effect. But, of course, there is one major difference between

SNP ( f ) and SNF ( f ) ; namely, the latter is parabolic whereas the former is a fiat

spectrum.

The parabolic nature of the output FM noise spectrum implies, that high

frequency end of the message spectrum is subject to stronger degradation

because of noise. Completing our analysis, we find that

3 Ac2 PM

(SNR )0, FM = (7.30a)

2 kd2 N0 W 3

3 2 Ac2 PM

= kf (7.30b)

2 N0 W 3

⎛ Ac2 ⎞ 3 kf2 PM

= ⎜ ⎟⎟ (7.30c)

⎜ 2N W 2

⎝ 0 ⎠ W

Let us express ( FOM )FM in terms of Brms ( )FM . From Appendix A5.4, Eq. A5.4.5,

( Brms )FM = 2 kf RM ( 0 )

= 2 kf PM

( )

2

⎡B ⎤

That is, kf2 PM = ⎣ rms FM ⎦

7.27

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

( )FM ⎤⎥

2

⎡

Ac2 3 ⎢ Brms

Hence, ( SNR )0, FM =

2 N0 W 4 ⎢ W ⎥

⎣ ⎦

As ( SNR )r is the same as in the case of PM, we have

( )FM ⎤⎥

2

⎡

kf2 PM 3 ⎢ Brms

( FOM )FM = 3 = (7.31)

W2 4⎢ W ⎥

⎣ ⎦

For a given peak value of the input signal, we find that the deviation ratio D is

kf

proportional to ; hence ( FOM )FM is a quadratic function of D . The price paid

W

to achieve a significant value for the FOM is the need for increased transmission

bandwidth, BT = 2 ( D + k )W . Of course, we should not forget the fact that the

result of Eq. 7.31 is based on the assumption that SNR at the detector input is

sufficiently large.

will result in the improvement of the output SNR ? Let us look at Eq. 7.28(b). On

kd d ns ( t )

the RHS, we have two quantities, namely kf kd m ( t ) and . The

2 π Ac d t

latter quantity is dependent only on noise and is independent of the message

kd d ns ( t )

signal. being a constant, is the quantity that causes the

2 π Ac dt

perturbation of the instantaneous frequency due to the noise. Let us that assume

that it is less than or equal to ( ∆ f )n , most of the time. For a given detector, kd is

7.28

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

( ∆ f )n ( ∆ f )n

<

( ∆ f )2 ( ∆ f )1

In other words, as the frequency derivation due to the modulating signal keeps

increasing, the effect of noise becomes less and less significant , thereby

increasing the output SNR .

Example 7.5

A tone of unit amplitude and frequency 600 Hz is sent via FM. The FM

receiver has been designed for message signals with a bandwidth upto 1 kHz.

The maximum phase deviation produced by the tone is 5 rad. We will show that

Ac2

the ( SNR )0 = 31.3 dB, given that = 105 .

2 N0

kd2 N0 ⎛ 2 ⎞ 3

⎜ ⎟ W . For the problem on hand, W = 1 kHz. Hence output noise

Ac2 ⎝ 3 ⎠

power = kd2 ⋅

1

⋅

(1000 )

3

. We shall assume kf kd = 1 so that kd =

1

.

105 3 kf

FM

∆f k A

But β = = f m.

fm fm

As Am = 1, we have

kf

5 = . That is, kf = 3000 . Then,

600

1

kd = .

3000

1 1 109

Output noise power = ⋅ ⋅

( 3000 )2 105 3

7.29

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

1

=

2700

1

Output signal power =

2

Hence ( SNR )0 = 1350 .

= 31.3 dB

Example 7.6

( )

Compare the FOM of PM and FM when m ( t ) = cos 2 π × 5 × 103 t . The

⎛ kp ⎞ '

For the case of PM, we have, ∆ f = ⎜ ⎟ mp

⎝ 2π ⎠

2 π × 50 × 103

kp = = 10

2 π × 5 × 103

Therefore,

( FOM )PM = k p2 PM

1

= × 100 = 50

2

For the case of FM,

∆ f = kf m p

As mp = 1, we have kf = ∆ f = 50 × 103

Therefore,

kf2 PM

( FOM )FM = 3

W2

7.30

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

( 50 × 10 )

2 1

3

= 3 2

(5 × 10 )

2

3

3

= × 100 = 150

2

The above result shows, that for tone modulation and for a given

frequency deviation, FM is superior to PM by a factor of 3. In fact, FM results in

2

( )

2

superior performance as long as 2 π W mp < 3 m'p

Example 7.7

( ) (

Let m ( t ) = 3 cos 2 π × 103 t + cos 2 π × 5 × 103 t . Assuming that the )

( FOM )PM

frequency deviation produced is 50 kHz, find .

( FOM )FM

mp = 3 + 1 = 4

kp

We have m'p = kf mp = 50 × 103 . That is,

2π

kp 2 π mp 1

= =

kf mp' 2 × 103

Hence,

( FOM )PM 1 ⎛ kp ⎞

2

1 1

= ⎜ ⎟ W = ×

2

× 25 × 106

( FOM )FM 3 ⎝ kf ⎠ 3 4 × 10 6

25

= ≈ 2.1

12

7.31

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

This example indicates that PM is superior to FM. It is the PSD of the input

signal that decides the superiority or otherwise of the FM over PM. We can gain

further insight into this issue by looking at the expressions for the FOM in terms

of the RMS bandwidth.

(

)PM ⎤⎦ W 2

2

⎡B

( FOM )PM 1 ⎣ rms

=

( FOM )FM

⎣( rms )M ⎦ ⎣( rms )FM ⎦

3 ⎡ 2 2

B ⎤ ⎡ B ⎤

Assuming the same RMS bandwidth for both PM and FM, we find that PM is

superior to FM, if

( )M ⎤⎦

2

W 2 > 3 ⎡ Brms

⎣

( )M ⎤⎦

2

If W 2 = 3 ⎡ Brms , then both PM and FM result in the same performance.

⎣

This case corresponds to the PSD of the message signal, SM ( f ) being uniformly

( )

2

in most cases of practical interest, then W 2 > 3 ⎡ Brms ⎤ and PM is superior

⎣ M⎦

to FM. This was the situation for the Example 7.7. If, on the other hand, the

spectrum is more heavily weighted at the higher frequencies, then

( )M ⎤⎦

2

W 2 < 3 ⎡ Brms , and FM gives rise to better performance. This was the

⎣

situation for the Example 7.6, where the entire spectrum was concentrated at the

tail end (at 5 kHz) with nothing in between.

In most of the real world information bearing signals, such as voice, music

etc. have spectral behavior that tapers off with increase in frequency. Then, why

not have PM broadcast than FM transmission? As will be seen in the context of

pre-emphasis and de-emphasis in FM, the so called FM transmission is really a

7.32

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

PM or FM alone.

performance of PM and FM, namely, PM is superior to FM, if either

3 m'p

C1) W2 > , or

4 π2 mp2

( )M ⎤⎦

2

C2) W 2 > 3 ⎡ Brms

⎣

is satisfied.

transmission bandwidth where as C2 is based on the RMS bandwidth. Though

C1 is generally preferred, in most cases of practical interest, it may be difficult to

arrive at the parameters required for C1. Then the only way to make comparison

is through C2.

Consider the phasor diagram shown in Fig. 7.14, where the noise phasor

is of a much larger magnitude, compared to the carrier phasor. Then, θ ( t ) can

be approximated as

Ac

θ (t ) ≈ ψ (t ) + sin ⎡⎣ϕ ( t ) − ψ ( t ) ⎤⎦ (7.32)

rn ( t )

7.33

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Fig. 7.14: Phasor diagram for the case of weak predetection SNR

As can be seen from Eq. 7.32, there is no term in θ ( t ) that represents

only the signal quantity; the term that contains the signal quantity in θ ( t ) is

Ac

actually multiplied by , which is random. This situation is somewhat

rn ( t )

Ac

can expect a threshold effect in the case of FM demodulation as well. As ,

rn ( t )

in Fig. 7.15(a).

7.34

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Fig. 7.15: Occurrence of short pulses at the frequency discriminator output for

low predetection SNR.

dθ

When such phase variations go through a circuit responding to , a series of

dt

short pulses appear at the output (Fig. 7.15(b)). The duration and frequency

(average number of pulses per unit time) of such pulses will depend on the

predetection SNR . If SNR is quite low, the frequency of the pulses at the

discriminator output increases. As these short pulses have enough energy at the

low frequencies, they give rise to crackling or sputtering sound at the receiver

(speaker) output. The ( SNR )0 formula derived earlier, for the large input SNR

7.35

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

noise and is said to be working in the threshold region. (To gain some insight into

the occurrence of the threshold phenomenon, let us perform the following

experiment. An unmodulated sinewave + bandlimited white noise is applied as

input to an FM discriminator. The frequency of the sinusoid can be set to the

centre frequency of the discriminator and the PSD of the noise is symmetrical

with respect to the frequency of the sinusoid. To start with, the input SNR is

made very high. If the discriminator output is observed on an oscilloscope, it may

resemble the sample function of a bandlimited white noise. As the noise power is

increased, impulses start appearing in the output. The input SNR value at which

these spikes or impulses start appearing is indicative of the setting in of the

threshold behavior).

above. Display-1 and Display-2 are in flash animation.

FM: Display - 1: (Carrier + noise) at the input to PLL with a Carrier-to-Noise Ratio

TU UT

FM: Display - 2: Output of the PLL for the above input. Note that the response of

TU UT

display-2 is the response of the PLL for the noise input which

again looks like a noise waveform.

FM: Display - 3: Expanded version of a small part of display - 2. This could be

treated as a part of a sample function of the output noise

process.

FM: Display - 4: (Carrier + noise) at the input to the PLL. CNR is 0 dB. The effect

of noise is more prominent in this display when compared to the

15 dB case.

FM: Display - 5: Output of the PLL with the input corresponding to 0 dB CNR.

Appearance of spikes is clearly evident.

7.36

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

FM: Display - 3

FM: Display - 4

FM: Display - 5

7.37

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

As in the case of AM noise analysis, if we set the limit that for the FM

detector to operate above the threshold as, P [Rn > Ac ] ≤ 0.01 , then we find

Ac2

that the minimum carrier-to-noise ratio ρ = required is about 5. But,

2 BT N0

experimental results indicate that to obtain the predicted SNR improvement of

Ac2

the WBFM, ρ is of the order of 20, or 13 dB. That is, if > 20 BT N0 , then the

2

FM detector will be free from the threshold effect.

Ac2

Fig. 7.16 gives the plots of ( SNR )0 vs. ( SNR )r = for the case of

2 N0 W

7.38

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

(Eq. 7.31),

(SNR )0 3 kf2 Pm

=

(SNR )r W2

2

Am

For a tone signal, Am cos ( ωm t ) , Pm = , W = fm and kf Am = ∆ f . As

2

∆f

β = , we have

fm

(SNR )0 3 2

= β .

(SNR )r 2

That is,

⎛ 3 β2 ⎞

10log10 ⎣( SNR )0 ⎦

⎡ ⎤ = 10log10 ⎣( SNR )r ⎦

⎡ ⎤ + 10log10 ⎜

⎜ 2 ⎟⎟

(7.33)

FM FM

⎝ ⎠

That is, WBFM operating above threshold provides an improvement of

⎛ 3 β2 ⎞

10log10 ⎜

⎜ 2 ⎟⎟

dB, with respect to (SNR )r . For β = 2 , this amounts to an

⎝ ⎠

improvement of about 7.7 dB and β = 5 , the improvement is about 15.7 dB. This

is evident from the plots in Fig. 7.16.

(i) Above threshold [i.e. ( SNR )r above the knee for each curve), WBFM gives

with coherent detection. For the latter, ( SNR )0 is best equal to ( SNR )r .

improved further).

transmitted power does not improve (SNR )0 , because of the threshold

7.39

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

effect. For example with ( SNR )r about 18dB, β = 2 and β = 5 give rise to

β = 2.

For many signals of common interest, such as speech, music etc., most of

the energy concentration is in the low frequencies and the frequency components

near about W have very little energy in them. When these low energy, high-

frequency components frequency modulate a carrier, they will not give rise to full

frequency deviation and hence the message will not be utilizing fully the allocated

bandwidth. Unfortunately, as was established in the previous section, the noise

unacceptably low SNR at the high frequency end of the message spectrum.

Nevertheless, proper reproduction of the high frequency (but low energy) spectral

components of the input spectrum becomes essential from the point of view of

final tonal quality or aesthetic appeal. To offset this undesirable occurrence, a

clever but easy-to-implement signal processing scheme has been proposed

which is popularly known as pre-emphasis and de-emphasis technique.

the latter part of the message spectrum. This is accomplished by passing the

message signal m ( t ) , through a filter called the pre-emphasis filter, denoted

performed. This is accomplished by passing the discriminator output through a

filter, called the de-emphasis filter, denoted HDE ( f ) . (See Fig. 7.11.) The de-

7.40

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

original level; this implies the attenuation of the high frequency end of the

demodulated spectrum. In this process, the high frequency noise components

are also attenuated, thereby improving the overall SNR at the receiver output.

Let SNF ( f ) denote the PSD of the noise at the discriminator output. Then

the noise power spectral density at the output of the de-emphasis filter is

2

W

HDE ( f ) SNF ( f ) d f

2

Output noise power with de-emphasis = ∫ (7.34)

−W

⎛ 1 ⎞

⎜⎜ Note that HDE ( f ) = ⎟ , it follows that the improvement in the output

⎝ HPE ( f ) ⎟⎠

SNR is due to the reduced noise power after de-emphasis. We quantify the

improvement in output SNR , produced by PE-DE operation by the improvement

factor I , where

average output noise power without PE - DE

I = (7.35)

average output noise power with PE - DE

2 kd2 N0 W 3

The numerator of Eq. 7.35 is . As the frequency range of interest is

3 Ac2

⎧ 2 kd2 N0 f 2

⎪ , f ≤ W

SNF ( f ) = ⎨ Ac2

⎪

⎩ 0 , otherwise

We can now compute the denominator of Eq. 7.35 and thereby the improvement

factor, which is given by

7.41

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

2W 3

I = W

(7.36)

f HDE ( f ) d f

2

∫

2

3

−W

commercial FM broadcast and calculate the corresponding improvement in

output SNR .

network used in commercial FM broadcast. In terms of the Laplace transform,

1

s+

rC

HPE ( s ) = K1 (7.37)

R+r

s+

r RC

where K1 is a constant to be chosen appropriately. Usually R << r . Hence,

1

s+

rC

HPE ( s ) ≈ K1 (7.38)

1

s+

RC

7.42

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

1

The time constant TC1 = r C normally is 75 µ sec. lf ω1 = 2 π f1 = ,

TC1

TP PT

1

f2 = is not less than the highest audio frequency for which pre-emphasis

2 πTC 2

is desired (15 kHz).

Bode plots for the PE and DE networks are given in Fig. 7.18. Eq. 7.38

can be written as

RC 1+ srC

HPE ( s ) ≈ K1 (7.39a)

rC 1 + s RC

⎛f ⎞

1+ j⎜ ⎟

with s = j 2 π f , HPE ( f ) ≈ K ⎝ f1 ⎠ (7.39b)

⎛f ⎞

1+ j⎜ ⎟

⎝ f2 ⎠

R

where K = K1 .

r

⎡ ⎛ f ⎞⎤

HPE ( f ) = K ⎢1 + j ⎜ ⎟ ⎥

⎣ ⎝ f1 ⎠ ⎦

−1

1 ⎡ ⎛ f ⎞⎤

Hence HDE ( f ) = ⎢1 + j ⎜ ⎟⎥

K ⎣ ⎝ f1 ⎠ ⎦

1

TP PT The choice of f1 was made on an experimental basis. It is found that this choice of f1

maintained the same peak amplitude mp with or without PE-DE. This satisfies the constraint of a

fixed BT .

7.43

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

The factor K is chosen such that the average power of the emphasized

message signal is the same as that of the original message signal m ( t ) . That is,

K is such that

W W

SM ( f ) d f = HPE ( f ) SM ( f ) d f = PM

2

∫ ∫ (7.40)

−W −W

This will ensure the same RMS bandwidth for the FM signal with or without PE.

Example 7.8

⎧ 1

⎪ 2

, f ≤ W

⎪ ⎛f ⎞

Let SM ( f ) = ⎨1 + ⎜ ⎟

⎪ ⎝ f1 ⎠

⎪

⎩ 0 , outside

⎡ ⎛ f ⎞⎤

and HPE ( f ) = K ⎢1 + j ⎜ ⎟⎥

⎣ ⎝ f1 ⎠ ⎦

7.44

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Let us find (i) the value K and (ii) the improvement factor I , assuming f1 = 2.1

W W

1

∫ ⎛f ⎞

2

df = ∫ K df

−W −W

1+ ⎜ ⎟

⎝ f1 ⎠

f1 ⎛W ⎞

or K = tan−1 ⎜ ⎟

W ⎝ f1 ⎠

W

K ∫ Cf2df

−W

and I = −1

(7.41a)

W ⎡ ⎛f ⎞

2⎤

∫

2 ⎢

C f 1+ ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ df

⎢ ⎝ f1 ⎠ ⎥⎦

−W ⎣

⎛W ⎞

2tan− 1 ⎜ ⎟

⎛W ⎞ ⎝ f1 ⎠

I = ⎜ ⎟ (7.41b)

⎝ f1 ⎠ 3 ⎡ W − tan− 1 ⎛ W ⎞⎤

⎢ ⎜ ⎟⎥

⎣ f1 ⎝ f1 ⎠⎦

With W = 15 kHz and f1 = 2.1 kHz, I ≈ 4 = 6 dB.

and tape recording systems. Another application is the SSB/FM transmission of

telephone signals. In this, a number of voice channels are frequency division

multiplexed using SSB signals; this composite signal frequency modulates the

final carrier. (See Exercise 7.3.) PE-DE is used to ensure that each voice

channel gives rise to almost the same signal-to-noise ratio at the destination.

7.45

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Example 7.9

Pre-emphasis - de-emphasis is used in a DSB-SC system. PSD of the

message process is,

1

SM ( f ) = 2

, f ≤ W

⎛f ⎞

1+ ⎜ ⎟

⎝ f1 ⎠

⎡ ⎛ f ⎞⎤

Let HPE ( f ) = K ⎢1 + j ⎜ ⎟ ⎥

⎣ ⎝ f1 ⎠ ⎦

where f1 is a known constant.

emphasis. Let us calculate the improvement factor I .

W W ⎡ ⎛f ⎞ ⎤

2

∫ SM ( f ) d f = ∫ SM ( f ) K ⎢⎢1 + ⎜⎝ f1 ⎟⎠ ⎥⎥ d f

−W −W ⎣ ⎦

⎡ ⎤

⎢ ⎥ ⎡

∞

⎛f ⎞ ⎤

2

⎢ 1 ⎥

= K ∫ ⎢ 2⎥

⎢1 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ d f

− ∞⎢ ⎛f ⎞ ⎥ ⎢ ⎝ f1 ⎠ ⎥⎦

⎣

⎢1 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎥

⎣ ⎝ f1 ⎠ ⎦

That is,

W

f1 ⎛W ⎞

K = ∫ SM ( f ) d f = tan− 1 ⎜ ⎟

−W

W ⎝ f1 ⎠

W

N0

HDE ( f ) d f

2

Nout = ∫ 4

−W

−1

⎡ ⎛f ⎞

2⎤

⎢1 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎥

W ⎢ ⎝ f1 ⎠ ⎥

N0 ⎣ ⎦

=

4 ∫ K

df

−W

7.46

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

N0

= W

2

1

Note that the noise quantity at the output of the coherent demodulator is nc ( t ) .

2

N0 W N0

Noise power without de-emphasis = 2W ⋅ =

4 2

W N0

Hence, I = 2 =1

W N0

2

This example indicates that PE-DE is of no use in the case of DSB-SC.

Exercise 7.2

A signal m ( t ) = 2 cos ⎡⎣(1000 π ) t ⎤⎦ is used to frequency modulate a

very high frequency carrier. The frequency derivation produced is 2.5 kHz. At

the output of the discriminator, there is bandpass filter with the passband in

Ac2

the frequency range 100 < f < 900 Hz. It is given that = 2 × 105 and

2 N0

kd = 1 .

b) If so, find the ( SNR )0 , dB.

Ans: (b) 34 dB

7.47

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Exercise 7.3

Consider the scheme shown in Fig. 7.19.

Each one of the USSB signals occupies a bandwidth of 4 kHz with respect to

its carrier. All the message signals, mi ( t ) , i = 1, 2, ⋅ ⋅ ⋅, 10 , have the same

a) Sketch the spectrum of s ( t ) . You can assume suitable shapes for

M1 ( f ) , M2 ( f ) , ⋅ ⋅ ⋅, M10 ( f )

from m10 ( t ) ?

7.48

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

There are two sources of error in a PCM system: errors due to

quantization and the errors caused by channel noise, often referred to as

detection errors. We shall treat these two sources of error as independent noise

sources and derive an expression for the signal-to-noise ratio expected at the

output of a PCM system. As we have already studied the quantization noise, let

us now look into the effects of channel noise on the output of a PCM system.

We will assume that the given PCM system uses polar signaling. Even if

the transmitted pulse is rectangular, the received pulse pr ( t ) will be distorted

(b) Received pulse with noise

2

. A

7.49

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Gaussian process with a bandwidth greater than or equal to the bandwidth of the

PCM signal. If binary '1' corresponds to + Ap and '0' to − Ap , then,

(

fR ( r '1' transmitted ) is N Ap , σN

2

)

and

fR ( r '0' transmitted) is N ( − A , σ )

p

2

N

that 1's and 0's are equally likely to be transmitted. The above conditional

densities are shown in Fig. 7.21. As can be seen from the figure, the optimum

decision threshold is zero. Let Pe,0 denote the probability of wrong decision,

given that '0' is transmitted (area hatched in red); similarly Pe,1 (area hatched in

1 1

blue). Then Pe , the probability of error is given by Pe = Pe,0 + Pe,1 .

2 2

From Fig. 7.21, we have

∞

⎛ Ap ⎞

Pe,0 = ∫ fR ( r '0' ) d r = Q ⎜ ⎟

0 ⎝ σN ⎠

⎛ Ap ⎞

Similarly Pe,1 = Q ⎜ ⎟ , which implies

⎝ σN ⎠

7.50

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

⎛ Ap ⎞

Pe = Q ⎜ ⎟ (7.42)

⎝ σN ⎠

For optimum results, the receiver uses a matched filter whose output is sampled

once every Tb seconds, at the appropriate time instants so as to obtain the best

⎛ Ap ⎞ 2 Eb

shown that we can replace ⎜ ⎟ by where Eb is the energy of the

⎝ σN ⎠ N0

N0

received binary pulse and represents the spectral height of the, band-limited

2

⎛ Ap ⎞

white Gaussian noise process. Using the above value for ⎜ ⎟ yields,

⎝ σN ⎠

⎛ 2 Eb ⎞

Pe = Q ⎜ ⎟⎟ (7.43)

⎜ N

⎝ 0 ⎠

Assuming that there are R binary pulses per sample and 2W samples/second,

1

we have Tb = where Tb represents the duration of each pulse. Hence

( 2 RW )

Eb Sr

the received signal power Sr is given by, Sr = = 2 RW Eb or Eb = .

Tb 2 RW

Therefore Eq. 7.43 can also be written as

⎛ Sr ⎞

Pe = Q ⎜ ⎟⎟

⎜ RW N

⎝ 0 ⎠

⎛ γ ⎞

= Q⎜

⎜ R ⎟⎟ (7.44)

⎝ ⎠

Sr

where γ = . Eq. 7.42 to 7.44 specify the probability of any received bit

W N0

being in error. In a PCM system, with R bits per sample, error in the

reconstructed sample will depend on which of these R bits are in error. We would

like to have an expression for the variance of the reconstruction error. Assume

the following:

7.51

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

ii) The quantizer output is coded according to natural binary code

iii) Pe is small enough so that the probability of two or more errors in a block

of R bits is negligible.

Then, it can be shown that σc2 , the variance of the reconstruction error

due to channel noise is,

σc2 =

(

4 mp2 Pe 22 R − 1 )

( )

(7.45)

3 22 R

Details can be found in [3]. In addition to the reconstruction error due to channel

∆2

noise, PCM has the inevitable quantization noise with variance σQ

2

= , where

12

2 mp

∆ = and L = 2R . Treating these two error sources as independent noise

L

σe2 = σQ

2

+ σc2

=

mp2

+

4 mp2 Pe L2 − 1 ( ) (7.46)

3 L2 3 L2

Let M 2 ( t ) = PM

PM

Then, ( SNR )0 =

σe2

3 L2⎛P ⎞

= ⎜ M⎟

( )

(7.47)

1 + 4 Pe L − 1 ⎜⎝ mp ⎟⎠

2 2

3 L2 ⎛P ⎞

(SNR )0 = ⎜ M⎟ (7.48)

⎛ γ ⎜⎝ mp2 ⎟⎠

⎞

(

1 + 4 L − 1 Q ⎜⎜

2

⎝

) ⎟

R ⎟⎠

7.52

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Figure 7.22 shows the plot of ( SNR )0 as a function of γ for tone modulation

⎛P 1⎞

⎜ M2 = ⎟ . However, with suitable modifications, these curves are applicable

⎜ mp 2⎟

⎝ ⎠

even in a more general case.

Referring to the above figure, we find that when γ is too small, the

channel noise introduces too many detection errors and as such reconstructed

waveform has little resemblance to the transmitted waveform and we encounter

2

resulting in saturation.

7.53

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

⎛P ⎞

(SNR )0 ( )

= 3 22 R ⎜ M2 ⎟

⎜ mp ⎟

(7.49)

⎝ ⎠

The transmission bandwidth BPCM of the PCM system is k ( 2WR ) where k is a

constant that is dependent on the signal format used. A few values of k are

given below:

1 NRZ polar 1

2 RZ polar 2

3 Bipolar (RZ or NRZ) 1

4 Duobinary (NRZ) 1

2

BPCM

we have R = . Using this in the expression for ( SNR )0 in the saturation

k ( 2W )

region, we obtain

BPCM

⎛P ⎞

(SNR )0 = 3 ⎜ M2 ⎟ 2

⎜ mp ⎟

kW

(7.50)

⎝ ⎠

It is clear from Eq. 7.50 that in PCM, ( SNR )0 increases exponentially with the

transmission bandwidth. Fig. 7.22 also depicts the ( SNR )0 performance of DSB-

FM is appropriate because both the schemes exchange the bandwidth for the

signal -to -noise ratio and they both suffer from threshold phenomenon. In FM,

(SNR )0 increases as the square of the transmission bandwidth. Hence,

doubling the transmission bandwidth quadruples the output SNR . In the case of

7.54

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

PCM, as can be seen from Eq. 7.49, increasing R by 1 quadruples the output

1

SNR , where as the bandwidth requirement increases only by . As an

R

example, if R is increased from 8 to 9, the additional bandwidth is 12.5% of that

required for R = 8. Therefore, in PCM, the exchange of SNR for bandwidth is

much more efficient than that in FM, especially for large values of R1. In addition,

TP PT

as mentioned in the introduction, PCM has other beneficial features such as use

of regenerative repeaters, ease of mixing or multiplexing various types of signals

etc. All these factors put together have made PCM a very important scheme for

modern-day communications.

The PCM performance curves of Fig. 7.22 are based on Eq. 7.48 which is

applicable to polar signaling. By evaluating Pe for other signaling techniques

(such as bipolar, duobinary etc.) and using it in Eq. 7.47, we obtain the

corresponding expressions for the (SNR )0 . It can be shown that the PCM

added to each value of γ .

Example 7.10

A PCM encoder produces ON-OFF rectangular pulses to represent ‘1’ and

‘0’ respectively at the rate of 1000 pulses/sec. These pulses amplitude modulate

a carrier, Ac cos ( ωc t ) , where fc >> 1000 Hz. Assume that ‘1’s and ‘0’s are

1

TP PT Note that the FM curve for β = 2 and PCM curve for R = 6 intersect at point A . The

improvement in ( SNR )0 of the PCM system where as no saturation occurs in FM. If we take

with β = 2 are the same. This argument can be extended to other values of R and β .

7.55

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

s (t ) = ⎨

⎪⎩ 0 , if the input is '0'

BPF : Bandpass filter, centered at fc with a bandwidth of 2 kHz so that the

DD : Decision device (comparator)

and fY 1 ( y 1) , and sketch them.

b) Assume that the DD implements the rule: if Y ≥ 1, then binary ‘1’ is

transmitted, otherwise it is binary ‘0’.

If fY 1 ( y 1) can be well approximated by N ( 2, 0.1) , let us find the overall

probability of error.

where Ak = ⎨

th

⎪⎩0 , if the k transmission bit is '0'

Y ( t ) = R ( t ) cos [ ωc t + Θ ]

7.56

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

{ }

1

R ( t ) = ⎡⎣ Ak + nc ( t ) ⎤⎦ + ⎡⎣ ns ( t ) ⎤⎦

2 2 2

y2

−

y

fY 0 ( y 0) = e 2 N0

, y ≥ 0

N0

(

where N0 = 0.25 × 10− 4 4 × 103 = 0.1 )

when ‘1’ is transmitted, the random variable Y is Rician, given by

⎛ y2 + 4 ⎞

−⎜

y ⎛ 2y ⎞ ⎜ 2 N ⎟⎟

fY 1 ( y 1) = I0 ⎜ ⎟ e ⎝ 0 ⎠

, y ≥ 0

N0 ⎝ N0 ⎠

∞

− 5y 2

Pe , 0 = ∫ 10 y e d y = e− 5

1

1 −

(y − 2)

2

1

Pe , 1 = ∫ 2 π 0.1

e 0.2 dy

−∞

7.57

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

= Q ( 10 )

1 ⎡ −5

P ( error ) = Pe = e + Q ⎡⎣ 10 ⎤⎦ ⎤

2⎣ ⎦

7.58

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Appendix A7.1

PSD of Noise for Angle Modulated Signals

For the case of strong predetection SNR , we have (Eq. 7.22b),

rn ( t )

θ (t ) ϕ (t ) + sin ⎡⎣ψ ( t ) − ϕ ( t ) ⎤⎦

Ac

rn ( t )

Let λ (t ) = sin ⎡⎣ψ ( t ) − ϕ ( t ) ⎤⎦

Ac

1 j ϕ( t ) j ψ(t ) ⎤

Im ⎡⎢e

−

= rn ( t ) e

Ac ⎣ ⎦⎥

jϕ t jψ t

− j ϕ( t )

Let xce ( t ) = e nce ( t ) = xc ( t ) + j xs ( t ) .

1

Then, λ ( t ) = xs ( t )

Ac

where,

− j Φ( t )

X ce ( t ) = e Nce ( t ) = X c ( t ) + j X s ( t ) (A7.1.1)

Similarly,

1

Λ (t ) = Xs (t ) (A7.1.2)

Ac

1

RΛ ( τ ) = R Xs ( τ ) (A1.7.3a)

Ac2

1

SΛ ( f ) = S Xs ( f ) (A7.1.3b)

Ac2

7.59

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

E ⎡⎣ X ce ( t + τ ) X ce ( t ) ⎤⎦ = 0

− j ⎣⎡ Φ ( t + τ ) + Φ ( t ) ⎦⎤ ⎤

E ⎡⎣ X ce ( t + τ ) X ce ( t ) ⎤⎦ = E ⎡Nce ( t + τ ) Nce ( t ) e

⎢⎣ ⎥⎦

(A7.4.1a)

j Φ(t + τ) + Φ( t ) ⎤

= E ⎡⎣Nce ( t + τ ) Nce ( t ) ⎤⎦ E ⎡⎢e

−

⎣ ⎥⎦

(A7.4.1b)

Eq. A7.4.1(b) is due to the condition that the signal and noise are statistically

independent.

Therefore

E ⎡⎣ X ce ( t + τ ) X ce ( t ) ⎤⎦ = ⎡⎣R X c ( τ ) − R X s ( τ ) ⎤⎦ + j ⎡⎣R X c X s ( τ ) + R X s X c ( τ ) ⎤⎦ = 0

This implies R Xc ( τ ) = R X s ( τ ) .

E ⎡ X ce ( t + τ ) X ce

⎣

∗

{

( t )⎤⎦ = E ⎡⎢⎣e − j Φ(t + τ)

Nce ( t + τ ) ⎤⎥ ⎡⎢e ( ) Nce

⎦⎣

jΦ t ∗

( t )⎤⎥⎦ }

(A7.1.5)

⎡ ⎤

E ⎡ X ce ( ) X ce

∗

( )⎤⎦ = E ⎡Nce ( t + τ ) Nce

∗

(A7.1.6)

⎣ ⎣

⎣

⎦

a1 + j b1 a2 + j b2

= ⎡⎣R X c ( τ ) + R X s ( τ ) ⎤⎦ + j ⎡⎣R X s X c ( τ ) − R X c X s ( τ ) ⎤⎦

= 2 R X s ( τ ) + j ⎡⎣R X s X c ( τ ) − R X c X s ( τ ) ⎤⎦

1

R Xs ( τ ) = Re ⎡⎣( a1 + j b1 ) ( a2 + j b2 ) ⎤⎦

2

7.60

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

1

= ( a1 a2 − b1 b2 )

2

Now b1 = 2 RNs Nc ( τ ) = 0 for symmetric noise PSD, and a1 = 2 Rns ( τ ) . Hence,

R Xs ( τ ) =

1⎡

2⎣

{ }

2 RNs ( τ ) ⎤⎦ E cos ⎡⎣Φ ( t ) − Φ ( t + τ ) ⎤⎦

g ( τ)

That is,

S X s ( f ) = SNs ( f ) ∗ G ( f )

where g ( τ ) ←⎯→ G ( f ) .

1

As SΛ ( f ) = S Xs ( f ) , we have,

Ac2

1 ⎡

SΛ ( f ) = SN ( f ) ∗ G ( f ) ⎤⎦

Ac2 ⎣ s

− j Φ(t ) j Φ(t )

By definition, g ( τ ) is the real part of the ACF of e . We know that e is

bandwidth of G ( f ) >> W , the signal bandwidth. The bandwidth of G ( f ) is

BT

approximately , as shown in Fig. A7.1.

2

7.61

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

∞

Note that g ( 0 ) = ∫ G (f ) d f = E ⎡⎣cos ( 0 ) ⎤⎦ = 1 .

−∞

∞

For f ≤ W , G ( f ) ∗ SNs ( f ) N0 ∫ G (f ) d f = N0 . That is, Φ ( t ) is

−∞

might as well set ϕ ( t ) = 0 in the Eq. 7.22 (b), for the purpose of calculating the

7.62

Principles of Communication Prof. V. Venkata Rao

References

1) Herbert Taub and D. L. Shilling, Principles of Communication systems, (2nd

P P

2) Simon Haykin, Communication systems, (4th ed.) John Wiley, 2001

P P

Saunders International ed., 1983

7.63

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