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Elementary Quality

Assurance Tools
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BOSCH
QUALI TY
Eil./.Werkz. Q.-Tech engl. 27.07.2001 13:54 Uhr Seite 1
Table of Contents
Quality-conscious action is one of the most important factors in ensuring
company success and safeguarding jobs. Prerequisites for this are knowledge
of the elementary quality assurance tools, especially in the area of planning
and production, and continuous application of these as part of the
Continuous Improvement Process (CIP).
This brochure will introduce you to selected procedures which have proven
effective worldwide. Each tool is described briefly and clearly. The table of
contents and register of terms should help you to quickly find the
appropriate tool for your problems.
The Corporate Quality Promotion (ZQF) will gladly answer your
questions and receive your suggestions.
We would ask you to use the elementary quality assurance tools as often as
possible in your everyday work and wish you every success in doing so.
Planned Action 4
Brainstorming 6
Cause-and-Effect Diagram 8
Check List 9
Flow Chart 10
Data Collection 11
Tally Sheets 13
Data Evaluation 15
Original Value Sequence 18
Histogram 19
Stratification 22
Pareto Analysis 23
Correlation Diagram 24
Good/Bad Comparison 26
Control Charts 28
Company Success Based on
Quality-Conscious Action
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
1992, 1997 Robert Bosch GmbH
Manfred Graf
Central Quality
Assurance Department
Hubert Zimmerer
Coordinator of the
Continuous Improvement Process
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Planned action leads to systematic, efficient problem solving.
Plan, Do, Check, Act
The planning process can be organized into four phases: Plan, Do,
Check, Act. These planning phases may be conducted again and again
and are suited to improve existing and observable sequences/
processes, e.g. for CIP (Continuous Improvement Process).
Setting and Reaching Goals
It makes sense to define milestones if goals are long-term goals. If
goals cannot be reached, the planning phases may be conducted
again.
Procedure
The system presented on page 5 is effective and should be preferred
over spontaneous solutions, even if it seems that the required time
is not available. Anyone can define planned action which is adapted
to his or her own problem. The method illustrated can then serve
as an example.
Planned Action
4 5
3
4
2
1 Plan
Do
Check
Act
Define Path to Goal
Identify problem
Formulate goal
(realistic, plannable, measurable)
Analyze problem
Look for solutions
Evaluate solutions
Select action
Carry Out Plan
Define action plan
Implement action plan
Check Effects
Measure characteristics
Evaluate result
Define Modified Procedure
Record changes
(e.g. work instructions)
Present and document results
Use experiences with similar
problems
Phases Steps
When planning, all those involved should be included.
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Brainstorming
Many spontaneous ideas on a subject are documented and then
evaluated in order to find the best solution for a certain problem.
Brainstorming is a way of finding ideas. Brainstorming can be done
by an individual as well as a group. Group brainstorming is described
here.
Group Brainstorming
In order to find a large number of good ideas through the
cooperation of all group members, the following should be observed
in the initial phase:
a) Collecting Ideas
The ideas expressed by the participants (no criticism!!) are documented
by one person so that all participants can read the suggestions (Black
board, pin board overhead projector, flip chart, etc.)
- Variety (quantity) is desired.
- Unusual ideas are allowed.
- Combinations and variations produce further ideas.
b) Preparing Ideas
Ideas/suggestions are first organized. One possibility is to use the
categories man, machine, material, method and environment. The
proposals can be organized and explained by a Cause-and-Effect
Diagram.
6 7
Any type of criticism of proposals from other participants is
strictly prohibited. However, ideas from others may be picked
up on and developed further.
Attach cover
No keyboard
(e.g. use voice
commands)
Put on gloves
before operation
Develop voice
commands
Apply
protective
varnish
Avoid dirt
Provide sink to
wash hands
Clean regularly
Provide special
keyboard
Use protective foil
Protect keyboard by
overhead installation
Mount keyboard
in a drawer
Example: PC keyboard failure owing to soiling
by oil in production
c) Documentation/Action
Finally, the ideas/suggestions are discussed. By keeping minutes, the
results of the discussion are documented. The proposals can be
implemented by using a planned action.
Similar ways of finding ideas are Brainwriting and the 635 Method.
In the case of Brainwriting, ideas are written (on cards) by the
participants. With 635 Method, the ideas that have been written
down are passed-on to other participants for development.
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Check Lists are derived from written inspection procedures and
handling instructions which are checked off point-by-point. They make
sure that a planned systematic sequence of work steps is followed.
Check Lists can be made for repeat processes.
The Check List is prepared according to individual items and is
clearly formulated. By checking off items, documentation is provided
on whether or not the respective inspection or handling instruction
was carried out.
It makes sense to group the
individual items of the Check
List according to their
appropriate order or charac-
teristics (time, location,...)
Each item may be accompanied
by an explanation, e.g. tire tread
depth > 2.5 mm.
It may also make sense to
document that each indivi-
dual item was performed by
providing the date and name
of person checking it.
The Check List can be
developed further to create
a questionnaire or form.
Check List
9
1. Check Parts Important
for Safety
Lights
Tire Tread Depth
Bumpers
Steering
Brakes
2. Clean Car
Interior
Windshield
Lights
3. Check, Fill
Brake Fluid
Battery Water
Coolant
Windshield Washer System
Frost Protection
Fuel
Tire Pressure
Maps
Music Cassettes
Example: Prepare Car for
Vacation

Cause-and-Effect
Diagram
Cause
Environment Driver
Effect
Air Resistance Weight
Tire Width Window Opening
Trailer
Passengers
Amount of Fuel
Driving Style
Speed
Route Selection
Air Pressure
Temperature
Wind
Direction
Strength
Terrain
Gradients
Road Characteristics
Surface
Condition
Attached Parts
Luggage Rack
Traffic Density
Time
Location
Ventilation
Luggage
8
Fuel
Consump-
tion of Car
A great deal of information about a question, e.g. a problem at hand,
can be organized in a clear fashion in a Cause-and-Effect Diagram.
Cause-and-Effect Diagrams are also called Fishbone or Ishikawa
Diagrams. The starting point for this may be unorganized infor-
mation from the brainstorming session.
Questions about the effects of man, machine, material, method and
environment provide starting points for subclassification.
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Data Collection
11
Flow charts show process steps in graphical form. Beginning with a
starting point, instructions for action are organized in a clear way and
described by symbols.
Any symbols can be used for flow charts. Their meaning must be
adequately clear.
Flow Chart
10
Branching
(Check/
Compare)
Connect
End
Yes
1
No
Below
Scrapping
Cutting
Process
Manufacture
Workpiece
Specified
Dimensions
Reached
Start/End
Action

Advantages
Complex sequences can be checked for completeness.
Possible actions are clear.
Logical inconsistencies are discovered when a flow chart
is created.
Flow charts are a form of concise documentation.
Data is the basis for decisions and quality improvements. For this
reason, the greatest possible care is necessary when collecting data.
The 7 Questions
Why?
Data is frequently required to analyze problems more precisely.
Data should be collected only if one plans to analyze it.
What?
The right data is critical for research into problem causes. General
tips on what data is necessary cannot be given here. Data may be
useless if there is no classification according to time, cause, material
batch etc.
How Much?
Data acquisition and evaluation generate costs. The minimum amount
of data which is adequate must therefore be defined. Unambiguous
value interpretability is crucial here. The statistical confidence interval
and significance of the data must be taken into account.
Where?
It must be possible to compare data. For this reason, the place of data
collection should be defined; for example, on which machine, which
shift, which operator.
Who?
Employees who record data must be sufficiently trained and
qualified.
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b) Several Error Types Error Type Number
Difficult Movement
Not Tight
Wrong Ignition
Angle
No Ignition Pulse
Other
13
Tally Sheets
Recording:
a) Test Values
[mm] Number
12
48.60
48.61
48.62
48.63
48.64
48.65
48.66
48.67
48.68
When?
Problems frequently have to be solved under time constraints. The
time for completing a test should be defined taking into account
urgency, shipping times, and other conditions.
How?
Measuring instruments must be chosen in accordance with the
problem on hand (suitable resolution, estimation of measuring error).
Procedure
After the groundwork has been completed, the data can be recorded
using the prepared tools (test setup, test value form,...). All values
should be documented, i.e. also outliers and repeat measurements
(no anticipation of data evaluation).
The following must be taken into account:
G Guarantee of reproducibility
(documentation of boundary conditions)
G Reduction in defect sources
(inspection instruction, form, sample, check list)
G Definition of sampling procedure
(sample interval and size)
A simple way to collect data is with a Tally Sheet. Occurrences or
test values are recorded as tallies which are entered on prepared forms.
The number of events (e.g. test values, errors) which occur is
recorded. It is possible to distinguish between the type and location
of the failures which have occurred. The general guidelines for data
collection should also be followed when using a tally sheet.
Eil./.Werkz. Q.-Tech engl. 27.07.2001 13:54 Uhr Seite 12
Weekday: Mon Tue Wed Thur Fri
No. of Failures 1 7 9 6 5
Data Evaluation
15
Example: Number of failures of a manufacturing
facility in one week.
c) One failure mode
at several different
locations.
Machine Number
1
2
3
14
d) Errors in failure
mode diagram.
Solder Bath Evaluation
Date Failure Mode Number
Solder System Cold Solder Point
Batch Size Ball Solder Point
Board No. Short Circuit
Tester << 50% Solder Point
(Sinks)
Short of Remaining Wire <100%> 50% Solder Point
Layout Solder Error <Blow Hole>
Example: Evaluating a soldering process.
On average (see page 16 for mean value calculation)
5.6 failures are found per day. To obtain the median,
the failure numbers are arranged in sequential order.
x
i, ordered
= (1, 5, 6, 7, 9) = > x = 6
If an additional day (Saturday) is considered with five
errors, then:
x
i, ordered
= (1, 5, 5, 6, 7, 9)
2
5+6
= 5.5 = > x =
Data, particularly large amounts of data, must be processed in an
appropriate mathematical and graphical way. Often the information
contained in the data can only then be recognized and understood.
Mathematically Determined Statistical Characteristics
G Median x
The median is the value which is in the middle of a
sequentially arranged group of values. For an odd number
of values it is the middle value. For an even number of
values it is the average of the two middle values.
~
~
~
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Normal Distribution
For any normally distributed group of values, approximately 68%
of the values are in the range [ !, + !].
The calculated characteristics ( x, x, R, s) are frequently used to draw
conclusions about the characteristics and ! of a population through
an analysis of samples. A pocket calculator with a statistical function
simplifies calculation of x and s.
Graphical Data Preparation
Depiction of data using a graph (sequences of original values, histogram,
correlation diagram, ...) makes it easier to understand the data a
picture says more than a thousand words.
Mathematically Determined Values for variation
G Range R
Calculate the difference between the largest and
smallest values.
G Standard Deviation s
The standard deviation is calculated as follows:
1. Calculate the mean value.
2. Calculate the sum of squared differences between the
individual values and the mean value.
3. Divide by the number of sample values minus 1.
4. Calculate the square root.
s =
" (x
i
x)
n - 1
1
i = 1
n
17
Example: Diameter of manufactured flange
(numerical values as above).
s = 0.012 mm
16
Example: The diameters of manufactured flanges
measured [mm]
Numerical Values:
48.61 48.60 48.59 48.62 48.62 48.61
48.60 48.62 48.63 48.63 48.61 48.62
R = x
max
x
min
= 48.63mm 48.59mm = 0.04mm

G Arithmetic Mean x (X-Bar)


All values are added and then divided by the
number of values:
x
1
+x
2
+...+x
n
n
x =
2
_

~
#2,58!
#4! #3! #2! #! +! +2! +3! +4!
+2,58!
x
g(x)
68%
95%
99%
99,73% 0,$35% 0,$35%
99,994%
0,003%
0,003%
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The histogram shows data grouped in the form of rectangular bars
(classes) that lie next to each other. The rectangle lengths are
proportional to the frequencies of the data falling into each class.
The histogram makes it possible to gain an impression of measured
value distribution. First, the numerical range in which the values lie
is sub-divided into sections. These equally sized sub-sections are
called classes. The values which separate classes from each other are
called the class limits.
Class Limits
Class limits should be selected so that no data values fall on a class
limit.
The choice of class limits is essential for good depiction. A less
favorable selection of these limits may falsify the situation or suppress
other important information.
Recording and depiction of data in the sequence in which it occurs.
Frequently, peculiarities of this time curve can be detected straight
away.
Prerequisite
The data must be compiled according to time, e.g. according to a
production sequence or a time sequence (e.g. temperature curve).
Procedure:
G Determine the amount
of data to be obtained.
G Estimate the range of
values for scaling
purposes.
G Plot values in the
sequence in which
they occur. Connect
the points if this helps.
G View and interpret
(when facts are apparent,
other evaluations are
usually superfluous).
G If necessary, conduct other
evaluations
(data evaluation).
19
Histogram
Example: Data values with a resolution of 1/10 mm
(10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4)
Class limits are then defined with a resolution
of 5/100 mm.
Classes : 10.05 10.25 mm
10.25 10.45 mm
10.45 10.65 mm
Frequency Diagram
No. [mm] No. [mm]
18
Original Value
Sequence (Run Chart)
Example: Diameters of Manu-
factured Flanges
1 9.48 11 9.62
2 9.47 12 9.62
3 9.43 13 9.48
4 9.43 14 9.41
5 9.39 15 9.40
6 9.41 16 9.44
7 9.48 17 9.46
8 9.62 18 9.43
9 9.64 19 9.42
10 9.64 20 9.47
G
G
G
G
9.40
9.50
9.60
Eil./.Werkz. Q.-Tech engl. 27.07.2001 13:54 Uhr Seite 18
21
4
8
.
5
7
5
4
8
.
5
8
5
4
8
.
5
9
5
4
8
.
6
0
5
4
8
.
6
1
5
4
8
.
6
2
5
4
8
.
6
3
5
4
8
.
6
4
5
4
8
.
6
5
5

[mm]
10
20
30
0
10
20
30
Relative Frequency
Number
[%]
Tally List
48.58
48.59
48.60
48.61
48.62
48.63
48.64
48.65
Frequency Diagram
> 25 5
> 30 6
> 45 7
> 60 8
> 75 9
> 100 10
> 250 12
> 1000 15
n k
The following should be considered:
G Resolution of recorded data
Number of test values n
25 % n % 100
n >100
Or from the table
No. of classes k
k & n
k & 5 log (n)
20
Possible 48.60 48.61 48.62
test values
Classes
Empty classes are created.
Possible 48.61 48.63
test values 48.60 48.62 48.64
Classes
G The same number of possible test values per class
In selecting the class limits, resolution was not given enough
consideration. Three possible values will fall in the class on the
left, but only 2 possible values will fall in the class on the right.
No. of Classes
Example: Diameters of manufactured flanges [mm]
Numerical values:
48.63 48.63 48.62 48.63 48.62 48.63 48.63 48.61 48.63
48.63 48.63 48.63 48.61 48.63 48.62 48.61 48.60 48.59
48.63 48.62 48.62 48.62 48.63 48.63 48.62 48.61 48.62
48.63 48.63 48.60 48.62 48.61 48.62 48.61 48.62 48.63
48.62 48.63 48.62 48.61 48.64 48.64 48.63 48.63 48.63
48.63 48.63 48.61 48.60 48.63 48.62 48.64 48.64 48.65
48.62 48.60 48.61 48.63 48.62 48.63 48.62 48.65 48.64
48.63 48.62 48.60 48.62 48.65 48.65 48.63 48.58 48.63
48.63 48.61 48.62 48.61 48.63 48.62 48.64 48.62 48.60
48.61 48.62 48.59 48.60 48.62 48.61 48.62 48.61 48.62
48.62 48.63 48.63 48.63 48.63 48.60 48.61 48.65 48.65
48.63 48.62 48.63 48.64 48.60 48.62 48.58 48.63 48.61
48.62 48.64 48.62 48.63 48.64 48.64 48.65 48.61 48.64
48.64 48.63 48.60 48.59 48.65 48.64 48.62 48.60
Minimum value 48.58 mm, Maximum value 48.65 mm.
According to the rule of thumb, 10 classes should be selected
for the 125 test values. However, some classes would then
remain empty. It therefore makes sense to form 8 classes.
Eil./.Werkz. Q.-Tech engl. 27.07.2001 13:54 Uhr Seite 20
The Pareto Principle says that a problem which can have very many
causes, often has only very few in reality. For this reason, it makes
sense to find these causes and to investigate them in more detail.
The Pareto Analysis (ABC Analysis) organizes the causes (effects)
according to their importance.
Procedure
G List all causes.
G Classify data.
G Plot on a graph (highest to lowest).
Goal
The goal of the analysis is to determine which problems should be
given priority and what improvements may be expected from solving
these problems.
Pareto Analysis
23
10
5
F
a
i
l
u
r
e
s
Failure Cause
B
a
t
c
h

C
h
a
n
g
e
T
o
o
l
C
a
l
i
b
r
a
t
i
o
n
M
a
c
h
i
n
e
ABC Analysis
Example: Failure on Manufacturing Equipment
Stratification means separating data for analysis according to
designated differentiation features.
Stratification features should be considered when data is collected.
Possible influencing factors are suitable stratification characteristics,
e.g. location, machine, tool, and temperature. Influencing factors may
be determined by Brainstorming or Cause-and-Effect-Diagrams.
22
Stratification
Problem
50% bad
100% good 0% good
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G G
G G
G
Result
Machine Machine
Separating Data
?
!
Assumption: One machine is producing defective parts.
A B
A B
Failure Cause No.
G Machine 12
G Tool 3
G Batch Change 4
G Calibration 2
Eil./.Werkz. Q.-Tech engl. 27.07.2001 13:54 Uhr Seite 22
Correlation Forms
y
G
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
G
G
G
G
G
G G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
GG
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G G
G
G G
GG
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G G
G G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G positive
correlation
G negative
correlation
G complex
correlation
G no
correlation
The degree of correlation may be determinated by calculating a
correlation coefficient. The coefficient may have values between
-1 (strong negative) and +1 (strong positive).
Correlation may be falsely indicated if two quantities depend upon
a third, or if the correlation is not assured. The correlation diagram
may show a purely formal correlation (apparent correlation, false
correlation) without there actually being a direct causal connection.
*)
*)
**)
**)
Correlation Diagram
24
0.0
50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
[l/h]
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
A [mm
2
]
C
r
o
s
s

S
e
c
t
i
o
n

A
r
e
a
Flow Rate
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G G
G
G
G
G
G
Example: Correlation between flow rate and cross
section area of a nozzle.
*) strong
**) weak
25
The Correlation Diagram depicts paired data. These are plotted so
that it can be determined whether there is a correlation between the
two variables.
The Correlation Diagram is especially helpful in uncovering
supposed relations between two variables (cause and effect). In a test
situation, it is often desirable to have test quantities which are simple
to handle and which possess strong correlation with other test
quantities.
Eil./.Werkz. Q.-Tech engl. 27.07.2001 13:54 Uhr Seite 24
b) Paired Comparison
Prerequisite
Several good and several bad units are available. They do not
necessarily have to be capable of being dismantled without
destroying them.
Procedure
G Select a good unit and a bad unit.
G Determine differences.
G Test other pairs.
G Analyze differences and evaluate them.
The good and bad units are compared in pairs, until the difference
is significant.
27 26
Good/Bad Comparison

Example: The cylinder rivets from a supplier result in poor


riveting. Several Supplier A rivets are compared
with rivets from Supplier B.
G Drawing data No difference.
G Hardness No difference.
G Spectral Analysis No difference.
G Ground Section No difference.
These tests of good and bad rivets did not show
any results
G Pressure Test A significant difference is
found in the break-off
behavior.
The techniques of Component Search and Paired Comparison will
be presented here. Significant differences between various
subassemblies or system conditions can be determined with them.
a) Components Search
Prerequisite
At least one good and one bad unit are available. The units can be
dismantled.
Procedure
G The good and bad units are dismantled and then
reassembled. In this way proof is provided that the
assembly process does not affect the problem
(compare before/after).
G Individual components are replaced until the component
causing the failure is found (if results are not clear, replace
two components at the same time).
Module replacement on technical equipment is an example of this
procedure. The components which may be causing the failure are
installed in a formerly good unit so the cause of failure can be found.
Eil./.Werkz. Q.-Tech engl. 27.07.2001 13:54 Uhr Seite 26
Control charts are forms used to collect and depict values, statistical
quantities or counting results for comparison with defined action limits.
Measures are implemented when these limits are exceeded
Goals
G Production within limit values based on targed value
G Proof of capability and controllability of a manufacturing
process (also for the customer).
Initially, control charts are nothing more than a graphical
representation of measured results. If these are recorded over a long
time period, process behavior patterns are recognizable.
Procedure
Before data is collected in the form of control charts, the
following should be considered:
Measuring Device
Capability
Is the measuring device
capable of measuring the
characteristic to its
permitted tolerance?
29
The use of control charts in production leads to a process control
system. The information from the control charts should be used
directly to control the process wherever possible (short control loop).
28
Control Charts
- Same material (batch)
- Experienced operator
- Constant ambient
conditions
At least a five-fold sample
- At the beginning of the shift
- When changing the tools
- Batches/shift change
- Tool wear
- Coolant temperature
- Operation of neighboring
machine
Mean value of sample
- Within the limits of
intervention?
- No unusual point (value)
sequence
- Determine the cause
- Corrective action
- Make a decision on the
parts made since the last
sample
Machine Capability
How does the target value
behave under constant/
optimum operating conditions?
Sampling
At what times and in what
amounts is data recorded?
Process Capability
Which factors play a role in
normal operations, and how
great is the resultant (normal)
fluctuation of target quantities?
Control Limits
Which results are accepted
without further testing?
Action Catalog
What can be done if there are
unusual results?
Is dial gauge number
8115656 suited as test device?
Test:
- Accuracy
- Repeat Precision
- Compared Precision
- Linearity and Stability
Eil./.Werkz. Q.-Tech engl. 27.07.2001 13:54 Uhr Seite 28
Significance
31
G
G
30
Process Control System
- Take spot checks
and test.
- Keep quality control
charts and evaluate them.
Introduce corrective action:
- general improvements
- ongoing support
Manufacturing process
influenced by
Man Material
Machine Method
Enviroment
Delivery
Example: Control Chart for a Flange Diameter
28 mm 32 mm
28 mm 32 mm
significant
0 0
1 1
2 2
3 3
60 60
61 61
63 63
62 62
64 64
LCL
LCL
UCL
UCL X
S
Example: If nails are used to hang pictures, a difference
in length of 28 mm to 32 mm is not significant.
However the difference is significant if two boards
are joined which are each 15 mm thick.
A mathematical model representing the distribution of individual
values of the key characteristics is formed.
Usually, normal distribution of the characteristic values is
assumed. Statistical guidelines allow judgements to be reached
about all of the manufactured parts, although only a sample was
investigated.
The theoretical principles of this procedure and the application
possibilities are explained in seminars on this subject.
Significance is defined in the dictionary with the words essential
and meaningful.
Practical Significance
We will consider practical examples of significance.
Eil./.Werkz. Q.-Tech engl. 27.07.2001 13:54 Uhr Seite 30
Confidence Interval
Example: a) Of 100 nails in a box, 99 are 28 mm long.
One 32 mm long nail deviates significantly
from the average length of the other nails.
The random length spread is clearly surpassed.
32
Example: b) There are 100 nails in a box, all having
lengths between 28 mm and 32 mm.
One selected nail which is 32 mm long is not
significantly different from the others. Its length
is within the range of the other lengths.
For statistical considerations, terms such as significance level and error
probability are used. Further information is provided in a seminar on
this subject.
significant
Some physical values (length, weight, etc...) are never arbitrarily
precise. Statistical characteristics (mean, standard deviation, etc.)
calculated from random samples never correspond to the true values
of the parent population.
This information may be of practical significance if values with high
precision are necessary. Instead of a specific value or a statistical
quantity, a range of values is then given in which the true value will
most probably fall. This is the confidence interval. The corresponding
probability is also known as the confidence level.
Usually, the confidence interval is given with 95% or 99% probability
(the confidence level is 95% or 99%). In principle, a greater
probability leads to greater confidence intervals.
The calculation procedures to determine the confidence interval are
explained in a seminar on this subject.
Example: Speed measurement for passenger vehicle.
With a scale value of 100 km/h, the true value
lies in the range of 96 km/h 100 km/h with
95% probability.
Example: Flange Diameter
From spot check values it may be concluded
with 99% probability that the mean value of all
previously manufactured flanges lies in the range
of 48.62 + 0.08 mm.
33
Statistical Significance
In statistics books, significant deviations are described as follows:
a significant deviation is a deviation which no longer can be
explained by chance alone.
Eil./.Werkz. Q.-Tech engl. 27.07.2001 13:54 Uhr Seite 32
Issued by:
Robert Bosch GmbH,
Zentralabteilung Qualittssicherung
(ZQ)
Postfach 30 02 20
D70442 Stuttgart
Responsible:
Zentralstelle Qualittsfrderung
(ZQF)
Telephone +49 7 11 8 11 4 47 88
Facsimile +49 7 11 8 11 2 31 26
ABC Analysis 23
Brainstorming 7
Brainwriting 8
Cause-and-Effect Diagram 9
Check List 10
Class Limits 19
Collecting Ideas 7
Components Search 26
Confidence Interval 33
Control Charts 28
Correlation Diagram 24
Data Evaluation 15
Data Collection 12
Data Separation 22
Failure Mode Diagram 14
Failure Location Diagram 14
Fishbone Diagram 9
Flow Chart 11
Frequency Diagram 19
Good/Bad Comparison 26
Histogram 19
Ishikawa Diagram 9
Limits of Intervention 29
5M 6, 8, 30
635 Method 8
Machine Capability 28
Median 15
Mean Value 16
Normal Distribution 17, 30
Original Value Sequence 18
Paired Comparison 27
Pareto Analysis 23
Plan-Do-Check-Act 5
Planned Action
Planning 5
Process Capability 29
Process Control System 29, 30
7 Questions 11
Range 16
Signifiance 31
Standard Deviation 16
Stratification 22
Tally Sheets 13
Register of Terms
34
Eil./.Werkz. Q.-Tech engl. 27.07.2001 13:54 Uhr Seite 34
Robert Bosch GmbH
Zentralabteilung
Qualittssicherung
Postfach 30 02 20
D-70442 Stuttgart
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1

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Eil./.Werkz. Q.-Tech engl. 27.07.2001 13:54 Uhr Seite 36