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Step-By-Step Guide to the CCNA Exam, Part I

Need help studying for Cisco's CCNA exam? In this two-part series, our expert guides you through the CCNA exam
objecties!
September 2002 One o the mo!t popu"ar #ertii#ation exam! i! the Ci!#o Certiied Net$or% A!!o#iate &CCNA' exam
&()*0-)0+', $hi#h "ead! to CCNA #ertii#ation, -hi! i! a !in."e-exam #ertii#ation that a"!o a#t! a! a ir!t !tep to$ard
hi.her-"e/e" Ci!#o #ertii#ation! !u#h a! the Ci!#o Certiied Net$or% Proe!!iona" &CCNP', -he exam i! +0 minute! in
"en.th and no$ in#"ude! !imu"ation-ba!ed 1ue!tion!, Bet$een *0 to 00 1ue!tion! are a!%ed, -he exam #on!i!t! o ei.ht
ma2or ob2e#ti/e #ate.orie!3
Brid.in.4S$it#hin.
OSI 5eeren#e 6ode" 7 8ayered Communi#ation!
Net$or% Proto#o"!
5outin.
9AN Proto#o"!
Net$or% 6ana.ement
8AN :e!i.n
Ci!#o Ba!i#!, IOS 7 Net$or% Ba!i#!
In thi! arti#"e $e $i"" "oo% at the ir!t our ob2e#ti/e! throu.h a !erie! o tab"e! that "i!t the !ub-ob2e#ti/e! or ea#h and
the inormation &or "o#ation to the inormation' you !hou"d %no$ to prepare or thi! ob2e#ti/e area, Next month, $e $i""
$or% throu.h the remainin. our ob2e#ti/e #ate.orie!, 9hen $e;re done, you;"" ha/e a .ood .enera" o/er/ie$ o a"" the
materia" #o/ered by the exam;! ob2e#ti/e! p"u! a !o"id #o""e#tion o "in%! or urtherin. your !tudie!,
Objective #1: Bridging/Switching
Sub-Objective Information
Name and describe
two switching
methods.
The two switching methods are store-and-forward and cut-through. With
store-and-forward, the switch reads the entire frame (copying it into a
buffer) and then does a CRC check before sending on (assuming no
error).With cut-through, there is no error checking - thus decreasing atency.
The forwarding is done after the header is read (and actuay, ony the
destination !"C address of the header).
#istinguish between
cut-through and store-
and-forward $"N
switching.
This is a further itemi%ation of the first ob&ecti'e. (n cut-through switching,
there is no CRC check done, and the packet is forwarded on based upon
the address in the header. The whoe packet does not e'en need to be
recei'ed before being forwarded. With store-and-forward, the entire packet
must be recei'ed and a CRC check done on it when it arri'es. "fter the
CRC check 'erifies the contents, then the packet is forwarded on toward its
destination.
#escribe the
operation of the
)panning Tree
*rotoco and its
benefits.
The primary purpose of the )panning Tree *rotoco is to eiminate (as much
as possibe) oops. This is accompished by bocking connections that can
ead to oops. Cisco has pubished the *#+ fie, ,-nderstanding )panning-
Tree *rotoco, here.
#escribe the benefits
of 'irtua $"Ns.
.irtua $"Ns aows managers to ogicay group networks that span
topoogies. This aows the manager/administrator to add, remo'e, and
mo'e de'ices as they need to and sti maintain performance. Cisco0s
co'erage of .$"Ns can be found in a *#+ fie here.
Objective #2: OSI Reference Model & Laered !o""#nication$
Sub-Objective Information
#escribe data ink and
network addresses
and identify key
differences between
them.
#ata ink addresses are physica addresses most often referred to as the
!"C address (!edia "ccess Contro). !"C addresses are e1pored further
in the ne1t ob&ecti'e.
Network addresses e1ist at the Network ayer and are ogica ('ersus
physica) addresses.
#efine and describe
the function of the
!"C address.
!"C addresses are uni2uey assigned to de'ices and there are no
dupicates. They are he1adecima addresses (34 digits) that are separated
by dashes. The first si1 digits identify the manufacturer, and the ast si1
identify the de'ice.
The primary function of !"C addresses is to uni2uey identify the network
interface card (N(C) or other de'ice. (n TC*/(*, "R* ("ddress Resoution
*rotoco) is used to map the (* address (ogica) to the !"C address
(physica).
"n e1ampe of a !"C address is5 66-67-89-7c-3c-4:
$ist the key
internetworking
functions for the ;)(
Network ayer.
Rather than repeat what you aready know if you0'e worked with networking
for anytime at a, your time is best spent ooking at what Cisco wants you to
know for this ob&ecti'e at http5//www.cisco.com/warp/pubic/:7:/4.htm
(dentify at east three
reasons why the
industry uses a
ayered mode.
<, Changes in one area do not affect other areas.
2, #i'iding the tasks makes each eement ess compe1.
=, .endors can impement soutions at one or more ayers without
ha'ing to recreate the entire mode.
#escribe the two parts
of network
addressing< then
identify the parts in
specific protoco
address e1ampes.
The two parts of the network address are the network id and the host id.
The di'ision between the two, in TC*/(*, is obtained by
comparing/contrasting the subnet mask against the (* address. =ou must
know the three casses of host addresses (", >, and C), and how to subnet,
as detaied at5
http5//www.cisco.com/uni'ercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito?doc/ip.htm
#efine and e1pain the
fi'e con'ersion steps
of data encapsuation.
<, -pper ayers con'ert the message to data and send it to the
Transport ayer.
2, The Transport ayer con'erts the data to segments and sends it
down to the Network ayer.
=, The Network ayer con'erts the segments to packets and sends
them to the #ata $ink ayer.
*, The #ata $ink ayer con'erts the packets to frames and sends them
to the *hysica ayer.
0, The *hysica ayer con'erts the frames to 30s and 60s (eectrica
signas) and sends them across the network.
"t each ayer, header information is added. "t the recei'ing end, the
process is re'ersed, with headers being stripped off at each ayer.
#escribe connection-
oriented network
ser'ices and
connectioness
network ser'ice, and
identify their key
differences.
"s the name impies, connection-oriented ser'ices must ha'e a connection
in order to communicate. " cassic e1ampe of this is +T*, used to transfer
fies from one host to another. " connection must e1ist between the two
hosts before communication can commence.
Connection-ess protocos communicate without a dedicated connection
e1isting. The cassic e1ampe of this is e-mai -- when you send a message,
it may reach the host it is intended for immediatey or 2uite a whie ater.
=ou send the e-mai without a dedicated connection.
(n the word of TC*/(*, TC* is the Transport ayer protoco that is used
when a connection is re2uired< whie -#* is used in its pace with a
connection is not re2uired. " primer from Cisco on understanding TC*/(*
can be found here.
(dentify the parts in
specific protoco
address e1ampes.
This is basicay commonsense and o'eraps with earier ob&ecti'es. "n (*
address has two parts, and so on. =ou shoud re'iew NetWare *rotocos as
posted here.
#escribe the $"N segmentation reduces the number of nodes per segment and makes
ad'antages of $"N
segmentation.
administration easier, reduce bandwidth waste, and impro'e scaabiity.
#escribe $"N
segmentation using
bridges.
The key issue is that the bridge reies upon the !"C address to determine
whether the host to be reached is on this network segment or not. (f the
host is on this segment, then the data is eft aone to tra'e throughout the
network (and reach the host). (f the host is not on this segment, then the
data is sent across the bridge. >ridges can be used to connect two
segments together, and no more than two.
"n ;.@. o'er'iew from Cisco can be found within this document.
#escribe $"N
segmentation using
routers.
The router aows more than one segment to be communicated with.
(nstead of reying on !"C (ayer 4) addresses, the router uses Network
(ayer 7) addresses. Cick here for more information.
#escribe $"N
segmentation using
switches.
)witches mo'e the discussion into the .$"N ream and offer performance
increases o'er other soutions due to physica definitions as opposed to
ogica, etc. The best o'er'iew for this topic can be found here.
#escribe the benefits
of network
segmentation with
bridges.
Cick here.
#escribe the benefits
of network
segmentation with
routers
Cick here.
#escribe the benefits
of network
segmentation with
switches
Cick here.
Objective #%: &etwor' (rotocol$
Sub-Objective Information
#escribe the
different casses of
(* addresses (and
subnetting)
There are fi'e casses of (* addresses, distinguishabe by the first digits
(octet)5
Cass " - 6 to 34A
Cass > - 34B to 3C3
Cass C - 3C4 to 447
Cass # - 448 to 47C
Cass D - 486 to 4::
Casses ", >, and C are used for assigning numbers to hosts, whie Cass #
is generay used for !uticasting, and Cass D is used for e1perimentation
and broadcasting. The 349 octet range is reser'ed and cannot be used, as
349.6.6.3 is the oopback address for each host.
-sing a of the numbers within the range, it is possibe to ha'e 3A miion
hosts on a Cass " network, A:,666 on a Cass > network, and 4:8 on a
Cass C network. )ubnetting aows you to di'ide the network into a number
of smaer networks, and reduces the number of hosts that can e1ist (o'era
and on each subnet).
The Cisco o'er'iew a'aiabe here contains the necessary e1am information
on addresses and subnets.
(dentify the
functions of the
TC*/(* network-
ayer protoco.
The Network ayer is where (* addressing and routing take pace. Not ony
does (* operate at this ayer, but (C!* ((nternet Contro !essage *rotoco)
does as we. Think5 addressing, routing, and basic communication. Cick here
for more information.
(dentify the
functions performed
by (C!*.
(C!* first came about as a resut of R+C 9C4 as an e1tension to (*. !ost
famous for the echo capabiities (ping), it supports packets that contain error,
contro, and information messages. Cick here for more information.
Configure (*
addresses.
(* addresses can be configured in one of two ways5 manuay or
automaticay. To configure addresses manuay, you go to the host and enter
an address that is uni2ue within the scope of that host0s communication
range. This means that if the host is directy connected to the (nternet, the
address gi'en to it must be uni2ue within the entire (nternet. ;n the other
hand, if the host communicates ony with a handfu of other hosts, and
reaches the (nternet through a N"T (Network "ddress Transation) ser'er,
then the address need ony be uni2ue among the hosts it communicates
directy with. Dach operating system has a sighty different utiity for entering
the addressing information, but goba among them a is the fact that you
must not ony enter the address for the host, but aso reated information.
Reated information incudes the subnet mask, and can incude such 'ariabes
as the defaut gateway (router), #N) ser'er, W(N) ser'er, etc.
To automaticay configure hosts, you must set up a #EC* (#ynamic Eost
Configuration *rotoco) ser'er on your network and gi'e it a poo (scope) of
addresses that it can issue to hosts. The hosts contact the #EC* ser'er and
it eases them an address (and associated 'ariabes) from the poo for a set
time period. (f the information is no onger needed, it wi be returned to the
poo, but as ong as it is needed, the host wi continuousy try to renew the
ease from the ser'er.
#EC* simpifies administration and management of (* addressing.
.erify (* addresses.
There are a number of toos that can be used to 'erify (* addresses. To see
the 'aues that ha'e been assigned to a host, you can use the ipconfig utiity
with Windows NT and Windows 4666, or the winipcfg utiity with Windows C1.
)imiar functionaity is present with the ifconfig utiity in -ni1 and $inu1.
=ou can test the address by pinging it from and seeing the response.
)imiary, name resoution can be 'erified by pinging the host with the host
name rather than the (* address.
The other primary utiity you can use is trace (tracert/traceroute/etc. -
dependent upon the operating system). This utiity works ike ping e1cept not
ony does it show you that a response is recei'ed, but it wi aso show the
hops taken to recei'e that response.
$ist the re2uired (*F
address and
encapsuation type.
"n (*F address, ike an (* address, consists of two parts - network and host
(node). 74 its of the address identify the network, whie 8B bits identify the
host for a tota address of B6 bits.
(*F encapsuation occurs at the #ata $ink $ayer and four types can be used
o'er Dthernet5
*, Dthernet?((
0, Dthernet?B64.4
), Dthernet?B64.7
+, Dthernet?)N"* ()ubNetwork "ccess *rotoco)
" description of the four types can be found here.
=ou can see the (*F address with the command5
Show IPX interface {interface}
Where {interface} is repaced by the name of the interface - such as ,ethernet
6,. ;ther commands that woud be usefu incude5
Show ipx route
"nd
Show ipx traffic
+or a ist of (*F commands, cick here.
Objective #): Ro#ting
Sub-Objective Information
#efine fow contro
and describe the three
basic methods used in
networking.
+ow contro is used for data reiabiity -- to make sure the recei'er gets the
information sent by the sender in amounts that it can hande. This can be
accompished with buffering, se2uencing and windowing, or
acknowedgements of transmission. R+C 9C7 incudes fow contro as
discusses siding windows. The 'aue of the siding windows is that the si%e
of the window is set by the recei'er, thus aowing them to manage the fow
of the information they can hande. Cick here for more information.
"dd the R(* routing
protoco to your
configuration.
To add R(* (Routing (nformation *rotoco) to your configuration, the primary
command is5
router rip
" ist of a the commands empoyed can be found here.
"dd the (GR* routing
protoco to your
configuration.
The primary way (GR* differs from R(* is in that each router with (GR* can
ha'e mutipe defaut routes. To add (GR* ((nterior Gateway Routing
*rotoco) to your configuration, the primary command is5
router igrp
Cick here for more information.
Ob$ervation$
A .reat dea" ha! been made o the a#t that thi! exam no$ in#"ude! !imu"ation 1ue!tion! -- the #han.e in number rom
)*0-00+ to )*0-)0+ re"e#t! that, 9hi"e a ne$ type o 1ue!tion $a! added, that $a! the on"y #han.e3 the #ontent remain!
the !ame, -hi! mean! that a"" the boo%! on the mar%et &and there are a pro"ieration o them' $ritten to the )*0-00+ exam
are !ti"" /a"id and #an be u!ed or exam !tudy, :on;t or.et to #he#% out the exam intera#e tutoria" a/ai"ab"e here,
>ou;"" a"!o note rom the "in%! abo/e that Ci!#o ha! po!ted mo!t o the inormation that you need to %no$ or the exam
in a number o P:? i"e! that are u!ed or their o$n trainin. and #u!tomer !upport, 9hen !tudyin. or any exam, there i!
no better materia" you #an ind than that pro/ided by the /endor! them!e"/e!,
8a!t"y, the /a!t ma2ority o inormation re1uired or pa!!in. the!e ob2e#ti/e #ate.orie! !hou"d be %no$n by anyone $ho
ha! been a net$or% admini!trator or any "en.th o time at a"", 9ith a e$ ex#eption!, mu#h o thi! !ame inormation ha!
appeared on be.innin. net$or%in. exam! &!u#h a! 6i#ro!ot;! o"d Net$or%in. E!!entia"!, and No/e"";! Net$or%in.
-e#hno"o.ie!' or year!, Gi/en that, thi! portion o the exam !hou"d not pro/e to be too mu#h o a dii#u"ty or mo!t
te!t-ta%er!,
Objective #*: +,& (rotocol$
Sub-Objectives Information
Recogni%e key
+rame Reay terms
and features
+rame Reay is a packet-switching protoco that was initiay created to use
o'er ()#N interfaces for high bandwidth networking. The header for
+rame Reay uses a data ink connection identifier (#$C() to pass
information on a hop-by-hop basis, minimi%ing the processing done on
each frame (thus aowing for faster transfers). TIP: Whene'er thinking of
+rame Reay, aways think of ,fast.,
" wonderfu BA-page booket, ,The >asic Guide to +rame Reay
Networking,, pubished by the +rame Reay +orum can be found here
(*#+ format). "fter reading this, read CiscoHs take on the technoogy and
enhancements to it here.
$ist commands to
configure +rame
Reay $!(s, maps,
and subinterfaces
The $!( ($oca !anagement (nterface) is CiscoHs set of enhancements to
the basic +rame Reay specification. The most common commands to
know when discussing +rame Reay are5
show frame-relay PVC
show frame-relay map
The first command shows the status of the *.C (permanent 'irtua circuit),
whie the second wi show if a remote (* address has been reso'ed to a
#$C(. " compete ist of commands for configuring and troubeshooting
frame reay can be found here. This document aso contains the
information on the mutipoint subinterfaces and maps.
$ist commands to
monitor +rame
Reay operation in
the router
;nce +rame Reay is up and running, the ne1t phase becomes monitoring
the information and statistics it produces. !ost of the commands begin
with ,show, and are run in DFDC mode to see the 'arious statistics. "
compete ist of the monitoring commands can be found here.
)tate a ree'ant
use and conte1t for
()#N networking
()#N ((ntegrated )er'ices #igita Network) is a ree'ant technoogy to use
anytime you need to empoy 'oice/'ideo/data o'er teephone wires. This is
typicay done in the creation of a W"N and can empoy either >R( (>asic
Rate) or *R( (*rimary Rate) ()#N, with the primary (there are others)
difference between the two being the speed< >R( can operate up to 3C4
kbps, whie *R( can reach 4.68B !bps.
CiscoHs o'er'iew of ()#N can be found here. "so pay attention to the
sampe configuration (and ree'ant commands) for >R( that can be found
here.
(dentify ()#N
protocos, function
groups, reference
points, and
channes
()#N protocos fa into three series5 those that start with the etter ,D,,
those that start with the etter ,(, and those that start with the etter ,I.,
Those that start with D a reate to the e1isting teephone network and
()#NHs use with it. Those that start with ( are merey concepts, 'arious
aspects (terminoogy) and interfaces. Those that start with the etter I are
used for switching and signaing.
+unctions and references points are things that reate to standards for
ser'ice pro'iders. +unctions are hardware (physica de'ices such as
termina e2uipment and termina adapters) whie reference points are
interfaces (ogica entities). There are four different reference point
abbre'iations to know5
R J used between a termina adapter and termina e2uipment
) J used between a termina and a network termination
T J used between two network terminations
- J used between a network termina and a ine terminator
Channes are >R( or *R( (discussed in the pre'ious ob&ecti'e).
(dentify ***
operations to
encapsuate W"N
data on Cisco
routers
*** (*oint-to-*oint *rotoco) is used for encapsuating and transporting (*
data across point-to-point inks. "s commonsense woud dictate, in order
to use ***, it must be a'aiabe J and in use J on both de'ices.
E#$C (Eigh-$e'e #ata $ink Contro) is used within *** for encapsuating
the datagrams. E#$C is an enhancement o'er )#$C ()ynchronous #ata
$ink Contro).
CiscoHs o'er'iew of *** can be found here.
" ist of the *** (and )$(*) configuration commands can be found here.
Objective #-: &etwor' Manage"ent
Sub-Objectives Information
Configure standard
access ists to
figure (* traffic
>ecause of the simiarities between the two ob&ecti'es, both standard and
e1tended access ists (the ne1t sub-ob&ecti'e) are discussed here.
"ccess ists aow you, the administrator, to imit (restrict) who can access
the network and its resources. (* traffic can be fitered (restricted) based
on address (source or destination), address range, protoco, precedence,
type of ser'ice, icmp-reated, or state of TC* connection. " standard
access ist items fa within the range of 3 J CC. D1tended access ist items
fa within the range of 366 J 3CC.
$ists can be configured with the access-ist command and done by using
numbers or names. >oth methods are described here and here. )ee aso
the third sub-ob&ecti'e in this category.
Configure
e1tended access
ists to fiter (*
traffic
)ee directy abo'e
!onitor and 'erify
seected access
ist operations on
the router
)tandard (* "ccess $ist $ogging is addressed here. =ou shoud aso read
the troubeshooting for dia interfaces found here.
Objective #.: L,& /e$ign
Sub-Objectives Information
#escribe fu- and
haf-dupe1
Dthernet
operations
#upe1ing describes the abiity of data to fow in a particuar direction. Eaf
dupe1ing means that data can ony fow in one direction at a time (simiar
to taking o'er a radio), whie fu-dupe1 aows data to go in both
directions (send and recei'e) at the same time. !any ports can be
configured to aow for either dupe1ing mode, though traditiona Dthernet
operates in haf-dupe1 mode.
"t haf-dupe1 mode, coisions can occur and C)!"/C# (Carrier )ense
!utipe "ccess/Coision #etection) is used to respond to them when they
happen. (n fu dupe1 mode, coisions do not occur.
#escribe network
congestion
probem in
Dthernet networks
The more traffic on a traditiona network (the more *Cs), the more
ikeihood e1ists for coisions to occur. -nder most situations, C)!"/C#
detects the coision and the data is resent after a time deay.
)witches can be used (in pace of hubs) to reduce the congestion. With
the use of the switch, coisions ose their ikeihood of occurring since
separate physica networks are essentiay repacing the one arge
network. Running in fu dupe1, as mentioned in the abo'e ob&ecti'e,
eiminates coisions.
#escribe the
features and
benefits of +ast
Dthernet
+ast Dthernet, aso known as 366>ase-T (or B64.7u), has se'era
ad'antages o'er 36>ase-T wit the most ob'ious being speed. (t sti uses
the e1isting C)!"/C# protoco and can (if supported) run on the e1isting
wiring J re2uiring ony an upgrade in cards and hubs to increase the
speed of an e1isting network ten fod.
(f fu-dupe1 is empoyed, the speed doubes from 366!bps to 466!bps,
as transmissions occur in each direction at the same time.
CiscoHs o'er'iew of +ast Dthernet can be found here.
#escribe the
guideines and
distance imitations
of +ast Dthernet
Cabing and ma1imum distance parameters, as we as comparisons to
other high-speed $"N technoogies can be found here.
Objective #0: !i$co Ba$ic$1 IOS & &etwor' Ba$ic$
Sub-Objectives Information
D1amine router
eements
,+eature-by-+eature Router Configurations, are e1toed upon here.
!anage
configuration fies
from the pri'iege
DFDC mode
The difference between ,user, DFDC mode and ,pri'ieged, DFDC mode
is essentiay the same as changing from a reguar user to a the root user
on a -ni1/$inu1 machine. To mo'e to pri'ieged mode, you enter the
command enable from the user DFDC session, and successfuy doing so
is indicated by the prompt changing from ,K, to ,L.,
Contro router
passwords,
identification, and
banner
,;bser'ing )ystem )tartup and *erforming a >asic Configuration, outines
what you need to know for this ob&ecti'e and can be found here.
@now that there are mutipe passwords and commands (enable secret
and enable password). Cisco (;) *assword facts can be found here.
(dentify the main
Cisco (;)
software
commands for
router startup
"n e1ceent isting of Cisco (;) >asic )kis J incuding configuring the
router from a *C J can be found here.
$og in to a router
in both user and
pri'iege modes
)ee second sub-ob&ecti'e abo'e.