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1

S VPr e c i s _ 1 2
t h
_ Ma t h s

Mo d u l e 1

Relation and Function
&
Inverse Trigonometric Function









2
CHAPTER 1: Relation & Function

Let us Acquaint with:
Different kinds of relations
Different kinds of functions
Composition of functions
Inverse of a function
Binary operation

Requisite
Definition of Relation
Definition of Functions
Various type of real value functions, their domain, range and
graph of some particular functions

Weightage
[5 6 marks]
- 1 mark (1), 4 mark (1), or
- 6 mark (1)
+ Abstract:
Some particular Relation on a set:
i. Empty Relation: As | c | is also the relation on A. This relation is called empty
relation.
e.g.
e
ii. Universal Relation: As c is the relation on this relation is called
universal relation.
e.g.
e
iii. Identify Relation: The relation

= e is called the identity relation.


e.g.




3
Types of relations on a set:
i. Reflexive relation iff e e
ii. Symmetric relation iff
If e e
iii. Transitive relation iff
If ( e e e . . abc A e
Equivalence relation: A relation R on A is said to be equivalence if it is
Reflective, symmetric and transitive trio.
e.g. Let R
1
, R
2
, R
3
and R
4
are relations on A = { a, b, c} given as:

= (Reflexive)

= (Symmetric)

= (Transitive)

= (Equivalence)
Ponder Over
(a) Difference between identity and Reflexive relation?
(b) The relation s
r
to on the set of all straight lines drawn in a plane is
symmetric?

Function

Type of Function:
1. One - one function or Injective function: A function f: is said to be one one
mapping if different elements of have different images in . Thus no two elements of
set can have the same image.







4

2. Many one function: A function is said
to be many one function if two or more elements
of set have the same image in .
i.e., Thus the function which not one-one is many
one.





To Check whether a function is one one or many one
Let


Such that


Solving it if we get


then is one one other wise many one
Ponder Over

(a) The behaviour of graphs of one-one and many one functions.
(b) The other methods for checking the function whether it is one-or many one
(c) The nos. of the mappings from X to Y.

3. Onto function or Subjective function: A function f X Y = is said to be subjective or
onto function if each element of Y is the f image of at least one element in A.
Thus Range of f = co domain i.e. f (x) = y.



4. Into Function: A function an into function if there exists
an element of having no pre image in . Thus A function which is


5
not onto is into.
To check whether function is onto or into:
Find the range of the given function.
If range = codomain ( ) f x is onto, otherwise into.

Ponder Over
a) Then no. of onto and into
functions/mappings A to set B
(b) The example of such function which are
combination of one-one onto.
Many one onto etc.
Note:
a. A function which is one-one and onto is called bijective function.
b. If for a function = then is odd function.
Eg


c. It for a function then is even function
Eg


5. Composite Function
Let

and

are two functions then a function such that


is called
the composition of function
is denoted as
is denoted as .
Remember: exist only if range of _ domain of
exist only if range of _
domain of






6









6. Inverse Function: If be a one one function as well as onto function and
there exist a function such that
e e Then is said to be inverse of .

Remember: For the existence of inverse of any function the function must be bijective
(i.e, one- one onto).










Ponder Over
(a) The nature of the graph of the inverse of the function.
(b) Two different inverse functions exist for a single
function?
(c) The function which is the inverse of itself
(d) The graph of the composition of two functions.

Binary Operation:- A binary operation on a non-empty set if function * :
. It is a rule that associate with every ordered pair of elements of some
unique element a
the operation is called cumulative iff - - e
the operation is called associative iff - - - - e
An element e if it exists, is called, identity elements of the operation iff
.


7
If there exist an element b A e such that , hen b is called the
inverse of a and is denoted as

.
Identity element is unique (if exists)
Inverse of an element is unique (if exits)
Operation table: operation is a square array indicating all possible outcomes for
and operation - on a non-empty set A.

EXERCISES
LEVEL I
1. Let be the set of all straight lines in a given plane Let on be defined as

for

Can we say is transitive? Give reasons.


2. Let be a relation in the set of natural no.,defined by . I s
relation reflexive? Give reason.
3. Let and Write the relation
.
4. Let Then find the no. of equivalence relations containing
5. I f and R be the relation is greater than on the Set A. Write R as a set of
ordered pairs. I s the relation an equivalence relation?
6. I f || [] Find (

) (ii) fog (

)
7. I f : f R R is given by
( )
1
5
5
( ) 5 f x x = then find
8. Show that the function defined by is one-one , where Q is the set of
rational nos.
9. Give examples of two one-one functions

from such that

is not
one-one.
10. Show that the function defined by is not onto.
11. Given function , defined as I s function onto? Give reasons.
12. I f

g show that
13. I f f(x)=

I s
14. I f

) show that ()
15. Write the inverse of
16. I f write


17. I f ,

- is a function defined by

find

range of ,

-
18. Let is the relation Is greater than from B= . Write the
relations and


19. I f the binary operations on
20. A binary operation- on set of rational no. 2 is given

evaluate (i) (ii)





8
21. Let be defined on N by

. I s a binary operation on N. J ustify your answer.


22. I s

is a binary operation on Q. J ustify your answer.


23. Let be defined on the set by . of a and b. Is a binary
operation. J ustify.
24. I f , then find the no. of binary operations on A.
25. I f is defined on the set R by

,find the identity element.


ANSWERS

(1) NO. (2) No. (3) Empty relation (4) 2. (5)
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
7,3 , 7,1 , 3,1 , . No (6). (i) 1
(ii) 2 (7) x
(8)
1 2
( ) 3 , ( ) 3 f x x f x x = = (11) NO. (13). No. (15)
1
5
( )
3
x
f x

=
(16)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
1
5,1 , 3, 2 , 0,3 , 2, 4 f

= (17)
1
3
( )
2 5
x
f x
x

(18)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
1
3, 2 , 4, 2 , 5, 2 , 6, 2 , 6, 5
2, 3 , 2, 4 , 2, 5 , 2, 6 , 5; 6
R
R

=
=

(19) (i)-15 (ii) 5 (iii) 34 (20) (I) 5 (ii)
7
2

(21) No,
3 4 7
3 4
2 2
N
+
- = = e
(22)Yes.
(23) No, 5 4 20 - = e the set. (24) 16 (25)
7
3


LEVEL - II
1. Let be the set of all integers and be the relation on defined by is
divisible by 5. Prove that R is an equivalence relation. Find the set of all elements of
related to ..
2. Let be the set of all points in a plane and the relation in set be defined as
. Show that the relation R
is not equivalence relation.
3. Let be the set of all natural nos. and let be a relation on , defined by
Show that is an equivalence relation.
4. Show that the function defined by

is many one into


function.


9
5. Let R be the set of all real nos. Show that the function : f R R defined by
( ) where , and , f x ax b x R a b R a O = + e e = is a one-one correspondence.
6. Show that the function : f R R defined by
3
( ) 2 7 f x x = for all x R e is bijective.
7. Let
{ } { } 2 and 1 . show that the function : A R B R f A B = = defined by
1
( )
2
x
f x
x

is
bijective.
8. I f f is a real valued function given by f(x)=7x-5, show that f is invertiable, Also find the
inverse of f
9. Show that the function
{ } { }
3
: 1 1 given by ( )
1
x
f R R f x
x

=
+
is a bijective function.
10. Show that
{ } { } : 1 1 given by ( )
1
x
f R R f x
x
=
+
is invariable. Also find
1
f


11. Let ) ( )
2 2
( ) , then show that (
1 1 3
x x
f x fofof x
x x
= =
+ +

12. Let
( ) ( ) ( ) { } ( ) ( ) ( )( ) { }
3,1 , 9,3 , 12, 4 and g = 1,3 , 3,3 , 4,9 5,9 f = show that gof and fog are
both defined. Also, find fog and gof.
13. Let f be a real valued function defined by f ( ) 4 3. f x x = + Find the real valued function g
such that gof =fog =I
R
.
14. Find the inverse of the function
3 5
( ) .
5 3
x
f x
x
+
=

Also verify that fof is an identity function.


15. I f ( ) sin , ( ) cos and ( ) 2 f x x g x x h x x = = = , show that
( ) . ho fg foh =
16. Consider the infimum binary operation A on the set S =
{ } 1, 2,3, 4,5 defined by a b A
=Minimum of a and b. write the composition table of the operation A.
17. Let A = N x N and - be a binary operation on A define by
( ) ( ) ( ) , , , , , , a b c d ac bd a b c d N - = e . Show that - is cumulative and associative
binaryoperation on A.
18. Let - b e a binary operation on N given by
( ) , , , . a b HCF a b a b N - = e
(i) Find 12 4, 18 24, 7 5 - - - (ii) Check the commutativity and associativity of - on N.
19. Let - be a binary operation on Q
o
(set of all non-zero rational nos) defined by
, ,
4
o
ab
a b a b Q - = e Then find the
a. I dentity element in
o
Q
b. I nverse of an element in
o
Q
20. Let - be a binary operation of N, given by a - b =L.C.M of (a,b), a,b eN.
a. Find (2,4) (ii) I s N
-
associative.


10
ANSWERS
(1)
{ } ........, 9, 4,1, 6,11......... (8)
1
5
( )
7
x
f x

+
= (10)
1
( )
1
x
f x
x


(12)
( ) ( ) ( ) { } ( )( )( ) ( ) { }
3,3 , 9,3 , 12,9 1,1 3,1 4,3 , 5,3 gof fog = = (13)
3
( )
4
x
g x

=
(14)
1
3 5
( )
5 3
x
f x
x

+
=

(18) (i) 4,6,1 (19) (i) 4 (ii)


16
a
(20) (i) 4S (ii) Yes.
(16)

A 1 2 3 4 5
1 1 1 1 1 1
2 1 2 2 2 2
3 1 3 3 3 3
4 1 4 4 4 4
5 1 5 5 5 5


LEVEL- III
1. Find the value of parameter o for which ( ) 1 , 0 f x x o o = + = is the inverse of itself.
2. I f the function : f N R be defined as
2
( ) 4 12 15 f x x x = + + . Show that : f N Range of
f is invertiable find the inverse of f
3. | |
2 1
6 -1
Consider : 5, given by ( ) 9 6 5. Show that is invertiable with ( )
3
t
x
f R f x x x f f x

+
= + =

4. Consider function : 0,
2
f R
t (

(

given by ( ) sin f x x = and 0,
2
g R
t (

(

given by
( ) cos . g x x = Show that ' ' f and are one-one but f g + is not one-one.

5. Let X be a none empty set. P (X) be its power set. Let - be an operation defined on
elements of P(X) by
( ) , A B A B A B P - = e


11
Then,
a. Prove that - is a binary operation in P(X).
b. I s - commutative?
c. Find the identity element P(X) w.r.t -
d. Find all invertiable elements of P (X)
e. I s - associative?
f. Let O is another binary operation defined on P(X) as AOB A B = ,then verify that
O distributes itself ones.
6. A Relation : R N N is given by
( ) { }
, : is divisible by a . R a b b = Check whether R is an
equivalence relation.
7. Let R be a relation on the set A of ordered pairs of positive integers defined by
( , ) ( , ) x y R u w xv yu = , Show that R is an equivalence relation.
8. Let relation
( ) { }
, : 2 4 R x y w w y x = e = . I f (a-2) and (4,b
2
) belong to relation find the
values of a and b.
9. Let the function : f I I be defined by
2 1 If x is odd
( )
2 1, If x is even
x
f x
x
+
=


find , (i) f (3), (ii) f(4), (iii) x, if f(x)=-9 I s this function one-one.
10. Show that the function
{ } : : , 1 1 f R x x R x e < < given by ( )
1
x
f x
x
=
+
is one-one and
onto.
11. Show that the modulus function : f R R given by ( ) f x x = is neither one-one nor onto.
12. Let
{ } , , A a b c = and
{ } , , B o | = and a function : f A B be given by
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
, , , , , . f a b c o | = I s f invertiable? I f so find f
-1
and verify that
1 1
and
A B
f of I fof I

= = where and I
A B
I are identity functions on A and B respectively.

ANSWERS

(1) 1 (2)
3 6
2
x +
(5) (ii) Yes (iii) X (iv) only X
(v) Yes
(8) a =1, b=2 (9) (i) 7 (ii) 7 (iii) 4 (iv)No. (12)
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
1
, , , , , f a b c o |

=


12



LEVEL- IV (HOTS)
1. I f for
( ) ( )
( ) ,
ax b
f x f f x x
cx d
+
= =
+
, find the relation between a and d
2. I f : f A B and : g B C are onto functions show that gof is an onto function.
3. I f

( ) and ( ) log , 0
x
e
f x e g x x x = = > find and Is fog gof fog gof =
4. Let : f R R and defined by ( ) .
2
x x
e e
f x

= I s f(x) invertible? I f so, find its inverse.


5. Let
1 , 0 x 2
( ) find fof (x)
3 , 2 3
x
f x
x x
+ s s
=

< s


6. Let : f A B be an invertible function. Show that the inverse of
1
is f f


7. Find number of surjection from A to B where
{ } { } 1, 2,3, 4 , , A B a b = =
8. I f : f R R is defined by
2
( ) 1 f x x = + , then find value of
1 1
(17) and ( 3) f f


9. I s the function : f N N defined by
2
( ) 2 f m m m = + + one-one?
10. I f
{ } { } , and 1,3,5 A a b B = = then find the no. of one-one functions from A to B.
11. I f
{ } , A a b = and
{ } 1, 2,3 B = , then find the no. of onto functions from A to B.
12. Define a binary operation - on the set
{ } 0,1, 2,3, 4,5 A= as
if a+b<6
6 if a+b 6
a b
a b
a b
+
- =

+ >


Show that O is the identity for this operation and each element a of set is invertible with (6-
a) being the inverse of a.
13. Let : f R R be the Signum function defined as
1, 0
( ) 0, 0 :
1, 0
x
f x x andg R R
x
>

= =

<

be the
greatest integer function by g[x]. Then prove that and fog gof coincide in [-1,0]


13



ANSWERS

(1) a+d =0 (3) fog x gof = = . (4)
(
)
1 2
( ) log 1 f x x x

= + +
(5)
2 0 1
2 1< 2
4 2< 3
x x
x x
x x
+ s s

(7) 14 (8)
{ } 4, 4 + (9) Yes (10) 6 (11) 0

Some Important Facts:-
1. All the functions are relation but all relations may not be a function.
2. Many one mapping is a kind of function but one-many is not a function at all.
3. The intersection of two equivalence relations on set A is an equivalence relation on the
set.
4. The union of two equivalence relations on set is not necessarily an equivalence relation
on the set.
5. The inverse of an equivalence relation is an equivalence relation
6. If f and g are two bijective functions then gof is also a bijective
7. The inverse of bijection is unique
8. If f:XY and g:YA be two functions such that fog:I
y
. Then, f is an onto function and
g is one-one function
9. The composition of function is not commutative i.e. fog gof = .
10. If the line parallel to X-axis cuts the graph of a function at only one point then the
function is on-one otherwise many one.
11. If the line parallel to Y-axis cuts the graph of function more then one point then the
graph is not a function at all.
12. Any function and its inverse are symmetrical (mirror image) about the line y=x.


14
CHAPTER 2: Inverse Trigonometric Functions

* Lets Acquaint with:
The existence of inverse of the trigonometric functions.
Their domain and range
Their behaviour through graphical representation.
* Requisite
Domain and range of trigonometric function.
Function Domain Range
[ ]
[ ]

,

-



,

-


+ Concept of one-one and onto function
Weightage:
4-5 marks
- 1 mark (1), 4 mark (1), or only 4 mark (1)
Abstract
Although, functions are many-one function, but their inverse can be found out in the certain
interval of the domain. We can restrict the interval of the domain to make it one-one and so for
the existence of the inverse.
Intervals for inverse functions
a.

belongs to
b.

belongs to
c. quadrant is used for all the inverse functions
d. quadrant is not used for inverse function
e. quadrant is used in clockwise direction (

)











15
Properties of Inverse Trigonometric Function
I.
a.

+
b.

[ ]
c.

+
d.

+
e.

[ ]


f.

[ ]
II.
a.

[ ]
b.

[ ]
c.


d.

] [
e.

] [
f.


III.
a.

[ ]
b.

[ ]
c.


d.

] ]
e.

] [
f.


IV.
a.

, ] [
b.

, ] [
c.



V.
Functions Domain Range

[ ]
*

[ ] [ ]


] [
*

+


16
a.

[ ]
b.


c.

] [
VI.
a.

)


b.

)

VII.

a.




b.




VIII.
a.

)


b.

)




17

EXERCISES

LEVEL-I
1. Find the principal value of

)
2. Find the principal value of

)
3. Write the range of one branch of

, other than the principal branch.


4. I f

) , Find the value of .


5. I f

) , find the value of x.


6. Prove that

.
7.

)prove that
8. Write

in simplest form.
9. Evaluate (

))
10. Solve for


11. Simplify

(


)


12. Find the principal value of

( (

))
13. I f

find .
14. Evaluate (

)
15. Solve:


16. Evaluate


17. Show that


18. Simplify:

)
19. Find the domain of the function


20. Prove that:

)


18


ANSWER
(1)

(2) (3)[ ] (4)

(5)

(8)
1 (9) 1 (10)

(11)

(12)

(13)


(14) 0 (15)

(16) 5 (18)

(19) [ ]

LEVEL- II
1. Prove that:(

)) (


2. Prove that:


3. Solve for


4. Prove that:


5. Prove (


6. Prove that

)
7. Solve for

)
8. Prove:


9. Write



in the simplest form.
10. Draw the graph of inverse trigonometric functions:


11. Solve for


12. Solve for

)
13. Write the

(


)
1
cos sin
tan ,
cos sin
x x
x
x x
t

| |
<
|
+
\ .
in simplest
form.
14. Prove:

)
15. Write

) in simplest form.
16. Write

) in simplest form.
17. Prove that

where


18. I f

()

,prove that

)


19
19. Simplify:

(


)
20. Prove:

)

ANSWERS
(3)

(7)
1
8,
4
(9)

( 11) (12)

(13)

(15)

(16)

(19)

)

LEVEL- III
1. Prove that:

*


+



2. Prove that:

+ =





3. Prove that:



4. Prove that:


+ =

if



5. I f

) , prove that



6. I f

prove that


-
7. I f

, prove that:


8. Evaluate

)where


9. I f

)then prove that



10. Solve for




20
11. Solve:


12. Solve:

))
13. I f

) , then prove that


14. Find the value of x for


15. I f

prove that

ANSWERS



LEVEL - IV (HOTS)
1. Solve the Equation


2. Evaluate:


3. Find the value of

and


4. What is the value of

((

))
5. I f

are two angles of a triangle. Then find the third angle.


6. I f
| | , , 1,1 x y z e such that
1 1 1
3
sin sin sin ,
2
x y z
t

+ + = Find the value


7. Find the no., of positive integral solution of the equation:

)
8. I f

. (

))/. Then prove that

.

ANSWERS
(1) 0,-1 (2)
2
1
1 x +
(3) 4 10 and not defined t
(4)

(5)

4
t
(7) two solutions (1,2) and (2,7)

(8) o (10)

(11) (12)

(16)