Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 16

1

SVPre ci s _ 12
t h
_ Mat hs

Modul e 2

Mat ri ce s & De t e rmi nant s


















2
MATRICES

* Lets Acquaint with:
Introduction
Types of matrices
Operations on Matrices
Transpose of the Matrix
Symmetric and skew symmetric Matrix
Elementary Transformation of the a Matrix
Invertible Matrix
*
This chapter is completely new for, you. You are required only basic Binary operation.

* Weightage:
6-7
Marks
1 mark (1), 6 mark (1)
2 mark (2), 4 mark

* Abstract:
1. A rectangular arrangement of mn elements in the form of an ordered set of m rows
consisting an ordered set of n elements is called an m x n matrix. m x n is read as m by n.
The number of which each matrix is constituted are called the elements or entries.
In compact form a matrix is written as
[]


A is called a matrix of order (type)
PONDER OVER
Consider a matrix [



]
a) How many rows are there?
b) How many columns are there?
c) what is the order o the matrix?
d) Name the elements

?
e) Is any value the matrix have? Why or why not?


2. Types of Matrices
a. Row Matrix: A matrix having only one row is called a row matrix. e.g: [2,4]
b. Column Matrix: A matrix having only one column is called a column matrix. eg.
2
4
7
(
(
(
(


c. Zero Matrix:An m x n matrix whose each element is zero, is called a zero matrix. eg.
0 0
0 0
(
(


d. Square Matrix: A matrix in which the no. of rows equals to the number of columns,
then the matrix is called a square matrix eg. [



] is a square matrix of order 3.
i.e. []

is a square matrix of order




3
Note: Diagonal of a matrix : The element of a square matrix [ ] for which are called
diagonal elements and the line along which these elements lie is called diagonal of the
matrix
e. Diagonal Matrix : A square matrix whose all the elements except the diagonal are
zeroes is called the diagonal matrix. e.g*


+ [



]
f. Scalar Matrix: A diagonal matrix whose all the diagonal elements are equal and non
zero is called a scalar matrix i.e. for a scalar matrix [

{



g. Identify Matrix: A scalar matrix in which each diagonal element is unity is called an
identity matrix. It is also known as unit matrix. i.e., for identity matrix [

{



Identify matrix of order is denoted by

*


+

[



]

3. Equal Matrices: Two matrices [

] and [

] are said to be equal iff they are same


order and their corresponding elements are equal.
e.g. If *


+ [


] then

4. Operation on Matrices:
a. Addition of Matrices: If are two matrices of the same order, then their sum
is the matrix obtained by adding the corresponding elements of
b. Subtraction of Matrices: If A and B are two matrices of the same order, their difference
A B is the matrix obtained by subtracting the corresponding elements of A and B,
taken in order.
For eg. *


+ *


+ then their sum,
*


+
*


+ similarly, *


+
For eg. *


+ *


+ then their sum ,
*


+
*


+
Similarly, *


+
5. Properties of Matrix Addition
a. Commulative :
b. Associative , ( ) ( )
c. Additive identity : i.e. O is the additive identity
d. Additive inverse is the additive inverse of A
6. Multiplication

a. Multiplication of a matrix by a scalar (number)


4
If [], then [

eg. *


+ then *


+
Properties:
i. ( )
ii. ( )
iii. () () ()
iv.
v.
b. Multiplication of two Matrices:
Let A and B be two matrices, then the product AB, taken in order is defined iff the
number of columns in A is equal to the numbers of rows in B. i.e
If [ ]( ) [ ]( ) [ ]( ) where

Properties
i. ()
ii. ( )
iii. () ()
iv. () () ()
v. If [ ] is an matrix, then here, is the identity matrix
of order and

is the identity matrix or order


vi. If [ ]( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ()
Here ( ) Matrix of order ( ) matrix or order

vii.

or all positive integers . Here is any square matrix











7. Transpose of a Matrix:
If [

] be an matrix then transpose of is the matrix obtained from by


interchanging its row and columns. Transpose of the matrix is denoted by


Eg If [



] then

*


+

Properties
a. (


b. ()


c. ()


d. ( )


e. ( )


f. ()


8. Symmetric and Skew-Symmetric Matrices
A square matrix []

is called symmetric iff

i.e.,



A square matrix [

is called skew-symmetric iff

i.e.,


PONDER OVER
a) Does holds true? If does in which condition?
b) If
1
A B


1
BA


c) *


+ such that How will you proceed to find the matrix



5
Every square matrix can be expressed as the sum of a symmetric matrix and a skew-
symmetric matrix.

where

)() and

) ()
9. Elementary operation of Matrix
An elementary row (or column) operation may be any of the following three types:
a. The interchange of two rows (or columns)
b. The multiplication of the elements of any row (or column) by a non-zero real no.
c. The addition to the elements of any row (or column), the corresponding elements of any
other row (or column) multiple by any non-zero real no.
Inverse of a matrix by elementary operation
- For the sequence of row operation Let A=IA and finally we get I = BA, the matrix B is the
inverse of A.
- For the sequence of column operation Let A= AI and finally we get I = AB, the matrix B is
the inverse of A.
Ponder over
the uniqueness of inverse of a
matrix.
()

why not



EXERCISES
LEVEL I
1. A matrix has 2 rows and 3 columns. How many elements a matrix has? Find the number of
elements of a
matrix if it has 3 rows and 2 coloumns?
2. A matrix has 18 elements. Write the possible orders of the matrix.
3. Construct a matrix [

] whose elements
a.


b.

()


c.

|( )|
4. Given a matrix [

] and where

Write the element


a.


b.


c.


d.


5. Simplify : *


+ *


+
6. If () *


+, write ()(

) ()( )
7. Give a matrix *


+ find a matrix where


8. Find so that where
[


] [


]
9. If *


+ find


10. Find if *


+ *


+
11. Find *


+ *


+


6
12. If [

] and [

], write the orders AB and BA


13. If *


+ and [



], then write the orders of AB and BA
14. Give an example of two non-zero matrices such that
15. If *


+ then find ()


16. If *


+

and

then find the value of


17. If and then show that


18. If A and B are symmetric matrices, then show that AB is symmetric iff
19. If be a symmetric matrices of the same order. Then show that is a
symmetric matrix.
20. Evaluate [


]+[


] *


+
ANSWERS

(1) (2) (3) (a) *


+ (b)[

] (c) *


+
(4) ) ) ) ) (5) *


+ (6) (a) *


+ (b) [
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
]
(7) [


] (8) (9) *


+ (10) *


+ (11) *


+ (12)
(13) (14) *


+ *


+ (15) [



] (16)

(20) *


+

LEVEL II
1. Find the matrix C such that A+B+C is a zero matrix wher [



] and [



]
2. If [



] and [



]. Find X and Y.
3. Find a matrix such that where *


+ *


+
4. Construct a matrix [

], whose elements are given by


5. If *


+, find the value of and such that ( )

.
6. Find a matrix B such that*


+ *


+
7. Solve for and , given that *


+ *

+ *

+
8. Solve for given that*


+ *

+
9. For the matrices verify that ()

where *


+ and *


+
10. If *


+, prove that

is a skew symmetric matrix.


11. Express the matrix *


+ as the sum of a symmetric and a skew symmetric matrix.


7
12. If *


+ , *


+ find the matrix such that
13. Find the value of *


+ *


+=*


+
14. If *


+ and *


+ then find so that


15. If [

] and [

] verify that ()


ANSWERS
(1) [



] (2) [



] , [



] (3) *


+ (4) [



] (5)

(6) *


+
(7)


(8) (11) Symmetric =
[

skew symmetric=
[


(12)*


+ (13)
(14)

LEVEL III
1. Find the value of such that [ ] [



] [

]
2. Let *


+ and ()

Show that () Use the result to find


3. If *


+, prove that ( )


4. If *


+ , then find the value of satisfying the equation


5. If [



] is a matrix satisfying

then find the values of


6. Find the inverse of the following matrices using elementary operation.
a. *


+
b. [



]
c. [



]
d. [



]
e. [



]
f. [



]
7. Let [

] and be the identity matrix of order 2. show that (


) *


+
8. If *


+ and *


+then prove that

then Prove that



9. Let *


+for every positive integer


8
10. If [

] [

] then show that is a zero


matrix, provided
( ) is the odd multiple of


ANSWER
(1) or (2)

*


+ 4)

(5) (6) (a)


[

] (b)

[



] (c) [



] (d) [

] e)
[


(f) -

[



]

LEVEL IV (HOTS)
1. The total number of elements in a matrix represents a prime no. How many possible
orders can have.
2. If are symmetric matrices, then prove that is a symmetric matrix.
3. If t is not necessarily true that . i.e., like ordinary algebra, prove that the
matrices in the identity cannot be cancelled.
4. Evaluate[


]

ANSWERS

(1) 2 (4) [


]




9
DETERMINANTS

* Lets Acquaint with:
The Meaning of determinant
Properties of determinant
Area of triangle using determinants
Minors and co-factors
Adjoint of Matrix
Inverse of a Matrix using determinant
Some applications of determinants and matrices
* Requisites
Basic concept of Matrix.
* Weightage:
4-6 Marks
4 mark (1), 1 mark (1)
4 mark (2), 6 mark (1)
* Abstract:
1. Determinant: There is a unique real number associated with every square matrix [

]
of order ,

is known as determinant. It is denoted by det. ||.


e.g. determinant corresponding to matrix

of order is given by
|| |

| and calculated by: expanding along any of the rows (column) for the
determinant A, expanding along

)
PONDER
OVER
May a determinant be thought as a function. if yes then what is the domain
and rang of it?
consider a matrix [



] Now, find the value of the det. Associated
with it.
Expand it along

.Are the answer same.


2. Properties of Determinants
1. The value of a determinants remains unchanged if its rows and columns are interchanged.
i.e,|| |

|
2. If any two rows (or columns) of a determinants interchanged, then the value of
determinant changes by minus sign only.
3. If any two rows or columns of a determinant are identical, then its value is zero.
4. If each element of a row (or a coloumn) of a determinant is multiplied by the same number
k, then the value of the new determinant is k times the value of the original determinant.
5. If each element of a row (or a column) of a determinant consists of two or more terms, the
determinant can be expressed as the sum of two or more determinants whose other rows or
columns are not altered.
6. If to each element of a row (or a column) of a determinant be added the equi-multiples of
the corresponding elements of one or more rows (or columns), the value of the determinant


10
remains unchanged.
7. The sum of the products of the elements of any row(or columns) with the co-factors of the
corresponding elements of some other row (or columns) is zero.
8. If A and B are square matrices of same order, then || ||||
9. If each element in a row or in a column of a determinant is zero, then the value of the
determinant is zero.
10. If each element on one side of the principal diagonal of a determinant is zero, then the
value of the determinant is the diagonal elements.
11. If A is any diagonal matrix then || is the product of its diagonal elements.
Ponder
over
- Consider |



| verify the first seven properties mentioned above for
this determinant.
- Consider |


| |


| ill property (8) hold true for . will it be for

- consider |



| verify the property (10).
- what is the value of the |



| which property you have used?
3. Minors and Co-factors
Let
|
|

|
|

be a determinant of order then the determinant of order
deleting the

row and ( ) obtained from the determinant after

column is called the minor of the element

and it is, usually denoted


by

where
ij
M where.
If

is the minor of the element

in the determinant , then the number ()

is called
the co-factor of the element

. It is usually denoted by

or

i.e

Ponder Over
- What is the relation between the value of the determinant and co-factors of any
row (or column).
- Consider the |



|
Find


Find


Find


4. Adjoint of a square matrix
Let [

] be a square matrix of order , then the adjoint of is the transpose of the


matrix [

] where

is the co-factor of the element

in || It is denoted by adj A.
( ) 1
i j
ij ij
C A
+
=


11
If [

] then [


Note: If A is a square matrix of order n. Then () || ()
5. Inverse of a Matrix
A square matrix of order n is invertiable if there exists a square matrix B of the same order
such that


AB =
n
I =BA And
say the inverse i.e.,
1
A IB

. then we
Note : For the existence of the inverse of the matrix, the matrix
must be non singular, ie. It determinant value = 0.
for which || is a singular matrix.
If ||

Note:
Every invertiable matrix passes a unique inverse.
if A is an invertiable matrix, then (

.
Some Useful results
- Let be square matrices of the same order n. If is a non-singular matrix, then
a.
b.
- If are invertiable matrices of the same order, then()


- If is an invertiable square matrix, then

is also invertiable and (


- The inverse of an invertiable symmetric matrix is a symmetric matrix.
- If is a non-singular square matrix of order . Then | | ||


- If and are non-singular square matrices of same order, then () () ()
.
- If is an invertiable square matrix, then ( ) ||


- If A is a non-singular mattix, then |

||

- If the product of two non-zero square matrices is a null matrix, then both of then must be
singular matrices.

6. Area of a triangle
If the co-ordinates of the vertices of are (

) (

) (

) then area of the


|
Note:
a. If the points are collinear the area must be zero.
b. The are of the is so we always take absolute value of the determinant.
c. If the area is already given then use values of the determinant for the
calculation
7. Solution of System of Linear Equations
If a system of linear equations has one or more solutions then the system is said to be
consistent, otherwise, it is called inconsistent.
8. Homogeneous system of equation:-
The system of equations in which every liner equation has constant value zero. E.g.

||
()


12



9. Non-homogeneous system of equation: The system of equation in which at least one-
equation has constant value non-zero. Ex.



A non-homogeneous system of equation may have
a. Unique solution, the system is called consistent and independent
b. Infinite solution, the system is called consistent and dependent
c. No solution, the system is called inconsistent
Consider the system of linear equation


The sum of linear equation can be written as a single matrix equation
Where [

] [

] [

]
Note
a. If || then the system is consistent and has unique solution given by


b. If || and ( ) then the system is consistent and has infinitely many solution
c. If || and ( ) then the system is consistent and has infinitely many solutions
d. || and ( ) , then the system is inconsistent

Ponder
over
a) what is difference between ||, where is any scalar and is any square
matrix. what is the value of ||
b) How will you find the value of the determinant of 4
th
order
c) If () |

| where

are the functions of , then How will


you find

()?


EXERCISES
LEVEL I
1. If |


| find the value of
2. For what value of , the matrix*


+ has no inverse.
3. Evaluate:|

|
4. Evaluate: |


| where
5. Find if |


| |


|
6. Given|



| find (I)

(ii)




13
7. Find the adjoint of matrix *


+
8. Find the value of such that points ( ) ( ) ( ) are collinear.
9. If *


+ find || and ||
10. Without expanding find the value of |



|

11. Find the area of the triangle whose vertices are ( ) ( ) ( )

12. Find the inverse of the matrix*


+, if possible.

13. If points ( ) ( ) ( ) are collinear, then show that

.

14. If *


+, find | |

15. If [



], find | |

16. If is a square matrix of order 3 such that | | , find ||.

17. If A,B and C are all no. zero square matrices of the same order, the n find the condition on
A such that


18. Find( ) ( ) A adjA for the matrix [



]

19. If A is square matrix of order 3 and || then find( ).

20. If [



] , then find det(()) ( ) ( )
adj adjA
ANSWERS

(1) (2)

(3) (4)

(5) (6) (i) (ii) (7) *




+ (8)

(9)
(10) (11)

(12) not possible (14) (15) (16 ) (17) A must be no


singular (18) [



] 19) (20)


LEVEL - II
Using properties of determinant prove the following (1-10)
1. |



|




14
2. |



| ( )( )


3. |



| ( )
4. |



| (

)(

)
5. |
( )

( )

( )

| ( )( )()( )(

)
6. |

| ( )( )( )( )
7. |



|
8. |



9. |


| |

| ( )( )( )( )
10. |



| ( )


11. Show that|



| where are in
12. Solve: |



|
13. Solve for |

|
14. If ,show that |
( )

( )
|
15. If and |

| show that
16. Show that the matrix *


+ satisfy the equation

Hence find

Hence find


17. If a,b,c, all positive are

term of a G.P.
Prove that|



|
18. For the matrix *


+, Prove that

and hence find

.


15
19. If *


+ , show that

*


+
20. verify, whether the system of equations:



,is consistent or inconsistent

ANSWERS
(11) , ( ) (12) ( ) (16)

*


+ (18) [

] (20)
inconsistent

LEVEL - III
1. For the matrix *


+ , find the numbers a and b such that

Hence
find

.
2. Show that the matrix [



] satisfy the equation

and find

.
3. Find the matrix satisfying the equation *


+ *


+ *


+
4. If

[



] Prove that

.
5. If [



] and [



] verify that ()


6. Solve the following system of equations. Using matrices,

a.




b.




c.




d.





e.





f.




7. Solve the following system of equations, using matrices:



8. Evaluate :|



|
9. If

[



] and [



]Find ()




16
10. If [



], find

an d use it solve the system of equations:




ANSWERS
(1)

*


+ (2)

(3) *


+
(6) ) () () ()
()
1
,
2
x =
1
2
z = () () ()
(9)

[



]


LEVEL IV (HOTS)
1. Evaluate the determinant |



|. Also, Prove that
2. If [ ] denotes the greatest integer function, then find the value of the determinant
|
[] [] []
[] [] []
[] [] []
| where
3. If is a skew symmetric matrix, prove that ||
4. Find the equation of the line joining ( ) ( ) using determinants and find if
( ) is point such that area of is 3 sq. units.
5. If [



] find the value of


6. Find the quadratic function defined by the equation ()

if () ()
() using determinants.
7. For the matrix [



] verify that

hence find


8. Using the properties of determinants. Prove that:|

|
()()()



ANSWERS

(1) (

) (2) (4) ()(6) ()

(7)

[



]