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International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),

Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 01-18 IAEME


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AN EXPLORATORY STUDY ON BRAND MANAGEMENT: CURRENT
TRENDS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS


HEMANTKUMAR P. BULSARA
1
, MEENU SHANT PRIYA
2*
, SAMANT SHANT PRIYA
3

1
Assistant Profesor, Incharge - Management Section, AMH Department, Sardar Vallabh National
Institute of Technology, Surat, India
2
Research Scholar, Sardar Vallabh National Institute of Technology, Surat, India
3
Faculty, Sinhgad Institute of Business Adminsitration and Computer Application, Lonavala, India



ABSTRACT

Brands are perceived as valuable assets from both consumer and company perspectives.
Business leaders are fully aware of the importance of brand, branding and brand management for
their survival and maintaining sustainable development in competitive and globalized world. The
importance of brand, branding and brand management is not only felt and experienced by corporate
but even the countries, individuals and political parties are not untouched with this.
This paper provides a synthesis of the fragmented literature on brand management that is
organized under seven heads: different definitions on brand, layers of brand, importance of brand
management, brand concept management, brand management models, current trends in brand
management and conclusions. The ultimate section of the work that is future scope will open the path
for future research in the area of brand, branding or brand management.

Keywords: Brand, Brand Management, Sustainable Development.

1. INTRODUCTION

In the words of Philip Kotler, a leading Marketing Guru; The art of marketing is largely
brand building. If not a brand, it will be viewed as a commodity.
Globalization has made the whole world as a village. The competition has compelled
companies to focus on product differentiation for maintaining and sustaining survival and long term
success in the market. Companies are trying to create an image in the mind of customers that may
influence customer satisfaction and drive a significant role in generating demand for products and
may help in creating the market share and finally value for the company.
Sarkar & Singh (2005) in their work have clearly reported that the study on brand
management is age old and was event pertinent in the civilizations like Mesopotamia and Greek
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where they have cited the use of marks, sign and name identity to identify their products. The word
brand is derived from the old Norse word BRANDAR, which means to burn, as brand were & still
are the means by which owners of livestock mark their animals to identify them The studies on brand
and brand management has become even more important than it was a decade ago as the product life
cycle is shrinking every now and then and thats why the researchers and practitioners as well all
around the world seem to be digging deep in this area.
Buchholz and Wordemann (2000) have proved that product universe is expanding and the
consumers universe is shrinking. Not only that, product and services have also become
interchangeable. So it is impossible to sell the product on the basis of quality and price only.
Although, consumers are enriched with huge information of product and competitive products in the
same category and so it is impossible for them to remember all. Hence in that case, managing
product is possible only with the help of unique brand management practices. Brand management is
the terminology used by different researchers, practitioners and industrialists in order to secure long
term success. Davis `(1995) has indicated that brand management should take a long term
perspective and has suggested that management wants to change its ways and start managing its
brands much more like assets and increasing their value overtime. In present situation, brands play
incredible role. Branding is everything, Said Matt Haig. Companies LIVE OR DIE on the
strength of their brands. Brands have penetrated in almost every part of our life: social, economic,
cultural, and sports etc.
The journey of brand management that started by burning the skins of the animals for
recognisition, today is the foundation between business and its customers to achieve the targets of
the company and to satisfy the willingness of the customers.
In this article we have explored the available literature by putting the key words used for this
work; brand, brand management, Layers of brand, the importance of brand management, brand
concept management, models of brand management and current trends in brand management. After
the conceptual framework is summarized areas for further research identify.

2. VARIOUS DEFINITIONS OF BRAND

The exploration of available literature could not have resulted in a universally accepted
definition of brand. Various thinkers have proposed different definitions which seem to be correct in
that context and perspectives in which the researches were set. The reported definitions are tabulated
below as a quick reference in chronological order;

TABLE NO 1.1: TABLE SHOWING DEFINITIONS PROPOSED BY VARIOUS
RESEARCHERS
Sr. No. Author/institution Year Description
1 Gardner and Levy 1955 A brand name is more than the label employed to
differentiate among the manufacturers of a product.
It is a complex symbol that represents a variety of
ideas and attributes.
2 American management
association
1960 The American Marketing Association (AMA)
definition of a brand is a name, term, sign,
symbol, or design, or a combination of them,
intended to identify the goods and services of one
seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them
from those of competitors
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 01-18 IAEME
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3 Farquhar 1989 Defines a brand as a name, term, design or mark
that enhances the value of a product beyond its
functional purpose
4 Kotler 1991 A name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or
combination of them which is intended to identify
the goods and services of one seller or groups of
sellers and to differentiate them from those of
competitors.
5



Aaker 1991 A brand signals to the customer the source of the
product, and protects both the customer and the
producer from competitors who would attempt to
provide products that appear to be identical.


6
Ambler 1995 A brand is a bundle of functional, economic and
psychological benefits for the end user.
7 Aaker 1996 Brand is defined as the assets or liabilities
associated with the brand that add to, or subtract
from, the value the product provided.
8 Hutton 1997 This is reflected in buyers willingness to pay a
premium for a favored brand in preference to
others, recommend to peers, and give consideration
to other company offerings.
9 Chernatony and
McDonald
1998 Brand is an identifiable product, service, person or
place, augmented in such a way that the buyer or
user perceives relevant, unique added values which
match their needs most closely.
10 Dalrymple & Parsons 2000 A Brand is a name; term, sign, symbol or design
intended to distinguish the goods and services of
one seller from another.
11 Srinvasan, Park &
Chang
2005 Brands basically create perceptions in the mind of
the consumer that it is unique and there is no other
similar product or service in the market.
12 Logo Design works 2007 Customers simple understanding of brand is to
associate and reckon with easy information
processing about products purchasing and being
certain about the brand to build their trust with
time.
13 Kapferer 2008 A brand is not the name of a product. It is the
vision that drives the creation of products and
services under that name.
14 De Chernatony 2009 More recent work where a brand is defined as a
cluster of values that enables a promise to be made
about a unique and welcomed experience.


International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976
Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp.

If one critically analyzes all the above men
is some promise or set of promises delivered for a mutual beneficial relationship between the parties
selling and purchasing it.

3. THE LAYERS OF A BRAND

To understand the brand in real sense, researcher
Levitt brand are made of four layers.

1) Core product and services 2) Basics brand 3) Augmented brand 4) Potential brand.

Given below is a diagrammatic representation of layers of brand

FIGURE No. 1.1:
Source: Adapted from Levitt T.., Marketing Success through differentiation
Business Review January- February 1980, Pg. 86

Name
Design
Packaging
Features
Quality
Service
Delivery and
Installation
Guarante
Credit
&
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 6502(Print), ISSN 0976
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If one critically analyzes all the above mentioned definitions, it may be concluded that brand
is some promise or set of promises delivered for a mutual beneficial relationship between the parties
To understand the brand in real sense, researcher has mentioned layers of brand. According to
Levitt brand are made of four layers.
product and services 2) Basics brand 3) Augmented brand 4) Potential brand.
Given below is a diagrammatic representation of layers of brand
FIGURE No. 1.1: Layers of Brand

Levitt T.., Marketing Success through differentiation of anything. Harvard
February 1980, Pg. 86

Quality
6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
tioned definitions, it may be concluded that brand
is some promise or set of promises delivered for a mutual beneficial relationship between the parties
has mentioned layers of brand. According to
product and services 2) Basics brand 3) Augmented brand 4) Potential brand.

of anything. Harvard
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 01-18 IAEME
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In the figure (layers of brand) above it has been expressed that survival of product is not
possible only with functional benefits which has been given in core product and service. For this
reason company start branding their product with basics brand strategy such as name, logo, quality,
packaging etc or amalgam of all these to differentiate one seller product to other. After that
successful company will enlarge the core product and services with supplementary paradigm
information and quick services which enhance the consumer total purchasing power and experience
and to overcome the competitors. At last, a brand achieves its positions as a potential brand by
adding more values to product and services and creates loyalty among customers to purchase
products even rise in price of the product.

4. BRAND MANAGEMENT AND ITS IMPORTANCE

The researchers considered the importance as argued by Keller, (2006) and Berthon et.al
(1999). They coded brand provide value to both firms and customers that has been explained below
with the help of table(2.1) mentioning the roles played by brands (Keller, 2006) and functions of
brand as elaborated in the figure below given by Berthon et al. (1999) (Fig No. 2.2)

Table No. 2.1: Roles That Brands Play
To Consumers To Manufacturers
Identification of sources of product. Means of identification to simplify handling
or tracing.

Assignment of responsibility to product
maker.

Means of legally protecting unique features.
Risk reducer. Signals of quality level to satisfied
customers.

Search cost reducers. Means of endowing products with unique
associations.

Promise, bond or pact with maker of product. Source of competitive advantage.

Symbolic device and Signal of quality. Source of financial returns.

(Source: Keller, 2006)

With the help of this table, Keller has given important benefits to both consumer &
manufactures. In summary, to consumers perspectives, the special meaning that brands take on can
change their perceptions and experiences with a product. Brand simplify decision making, reduce
risk and enrich the lives of customers. Accordingly, Manufactures can benefit from branding
whenever consumers are in a choice situation. (E.g. profit, competitive advantage, quality product
and legal protection).


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Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 01-18 IAEME
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FIGURE No. 2.2: Importance of Brand Management as Suggested By Brethon et. al(1996)


Importance of brand has been illustrated by Brethon,et al. with the help of above figure. They
stated that brand drives various prominent functions/importance for the buyer as well as for the
seller. Brands help buyers to easily identify the product which lead to simplify their purchasing
decision by reduction in search cost. Furthermore buyer perceives a lower risk because of quality
purchasing good & services.
On the other hand, Brand is fruitful to seller perspective as well. Seller can get profit from
repeat purchase, launch new products and can even simplify promotional work of company.
Subsequently, promote brand loyalty and fascinate premium pricing for company.


Product Identification
facilitates repeat
Purchases
Product
Differentiation
facilitates
premium pricing


Familiarity
facilitates
new product
introduction


Ability to
identify
facilitates
promotional
efforts


Coherent message
facilitates market
Segmentation
Identification facilitates
loyalty in purchasing
category
Status and Prestige
reduces psychological
risk
Assurance of quality reduces
perceived risk
Identification
reduces search Cost
Functions of a Brand
BUYERS
SELLERS
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The researchers finally concluded with the following thoughts on the importance of the brand.

1) Customer satisfaction: Brands provide identification, reduction in search cost, reduces risk and
finally quality of the good and services.

2) Share performance: Strong brands enhance market performance and benefits a range of
constituents from the companies themselves to individual shareholders, institutional
investments --- etc.

3) Brand develops economics of scale and Competitive economy: Brand develops economic of
scale and ensures a competitive economy by distinguishing the good and services. And it also
helps the economy to adapt and grow. In spite of that brand enhances business cross
geographical and cultural border as well.

4) Benefits all stakeholders: such as supplier, consumers, supporters, shareholders, legislators,
business partners, regulators, employees and even competitors.

5) Brands ensure business is accountable for their social responsibility: Brand ensures that
companies act responsibly. Past experiences has shown that well to do brands manage and
maintain the corporate social responsibility and business ethics.

6) Brands develop globalized world - In spite of that brand enhances business cross geographical
and cultural border as well.

7) Brands develop unity in diversity- brand integrates the individual, social, culture, nation and
international etc.

Overall, brand management is the foundation of building synergy with company and
customers. It helps in generating healthy, wealthy and prosperous global economy. In order to
understand the literature review of brand management in proper manner researcher has considered
the BRAND CONCEPT MANAGEMENT.

5. BRAND CONCEPT MANAGEMENT

Brand concept management was introduced by Part, Jaworski and Macinnis in1986. Brand
concept is created from consumer basic needs and can be divided in to three main categories
dependent on the motives of consumption: functional, symbolic and experiential needs. The brand
concept management is managed by three stages-1) Introduction 2) Elaboration and 3) Fortification
(Park et al, 1986). This model focuses on building brand equity for a company in its introduction
phase which is based on communicating the brand and expatriating the operating activities. These
two tasks are co-dependent to achieve the marketing mix target and creating synergy effect (Part et
al, 1986).
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
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FIGURE No. 3.1: Brand Concept Model Source; Adopted from Part et. al (1986)

In general, brand concept management should be regarded as the long term investment,
which will provide long term competitive advantage to company by differentiating strength and
performance of the products. Although, the decision made in each stage will influence the effect in
next stage as well. Therefore, the framework of brand concept management provides key elements in
deciding the brand position.
After understanding the brand concept management, the next phase of article based on brand
management model.

6. BRAND MANAGEMENT MODELS

In this section the researchers present two brand management models. First strategic brand
management process given by keller in 2006 based on SBMP and second a conceptual model for
brand building based on review of published literature.

STRATEGIC BRAND MANAGEMENT PROCESS

Strategic brand management process includes the design and implementation of marketing
programs to build, measure, and manage brand equity. Hence, SBMP model involves four main steps

Identifying and establishing brand positioning and values
The brand strategies start with brand positioning. Kotler defined brand positioning as the act
of designing the companys offer and image so that it occupies a distinct and valued place in the
target customers mind. Brand positioning involves brand mantra and core brand values. Core brand
values are related to attribute and benefit that characterizes a brand and the brand mantra is shown as
the most important aspect of brand and core brand. Both are heart and soul of the brand.

Planning and implementing brand marketing programs
Once the brand positioning strategies are determined, the next step of marketing program is
to create and maintain unique identification of brand in the market. This is possible by integrating the
brand element into marketing activities, supporting the marketing program and the final way to build
brand equity to leverage secondary association.
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Measuring and interpreting brand performance
For understanding the impact of brand marketing
interpret brand performance. Useful tools in this regard brand value chain, brand audit, brand
tracking and brand equity management system. This provides a systematic overview of key concept
in measuring brand equity.

Grow and sustain brand equity
Finally, the last step in brand strategies is to grow and sustain brand equity or maintain and
expand brand with the help of brand
reinforcement and revitalization.


FIGURE No. 4.1: Strategic Brand Management Process Keller (2006)


6.2) PCDL MODEL :A CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR BUILDING BRAND
A conceptual model for brand building based on literature review known as PCDL Model,in
competitive markets is mentioned below.
Communicating the Brand message, Delivering the Brand performance and Leveraging the Brand
Equity explained below.

Identify and Establish
Brand Positioning and
values
Mental Maps
Competitive Frame of reference
Points of parity and Points of Differences
Core Brand Values
Brand Mantra
Measure and Interpret brand
performance
Brand value chain
brand audits
Brand tracking
Brand equity management system
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Measuring and interpreting brand performance
For understanding the impact of brand marketing program, it is essential to measure and
interpret brand performance. Useful tools in this regard brand value chain, brand audit, brand
tracking and brand equity management system. This provides a systematic overview of key concept
Finally, the last step in brand strategies is to grow and sustain brand equity or maintain and
expand brand with the help of brand-product matrix, brand portfolios, brand expansion and
Strategic Brand Management Process Keller (2006)
PCDL MODEL :A CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR BUILDING BRAND
A conceptual model for brand building based on literature review known as PCDL Model,in
competitive markets is mentioned below. The conceptual model elements are; Postioning the Brand,
Communicating the Brand message, Delivering the Brand performance and Leveraging the Brand
Identify and Establish
Brand Positioning and
reference
Points of parity and Points of Differences
Core Brand Values
Plan and implement
brand marketing of
program
Mixing and matching of brand elements
Integrating brand marketing activities
leverage of secondary association
Measure and Interpret brand
Brand value chain
Brand equity management system
Grow and sustain Brand equity
Brand-product matrix
Brand portfolio and hierarchies
Brand expansion strategies
Brand reinforcement and revitalization
Strategic Brand
Management
Process
6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
program, it is essential to measure and
interpret brand performance. Useful tools in this regard brand value chain, brand audit, brand
tracking and brand equity management system. This provides a systematic overview of key concept
Finally, the last step in brand strategies is to grow and sustain brand equity or maintain and
product matrix, brand portfolios, brand expansion and

Strategic Brand Management Process Keller (2006)
A conceptual model for brand building based on literature review known as PCDL Model,in
Postioning the Brand,
Communicating the Brand message, Delivering the Brand performance and Leveraging the Brand
Plan and implement
brand marketing of
Mixing and matching of brand elements
activities
of secondary association
Grow and sustain Brand equity
product matrix
hierarchies
Brand expansion strategies
Brand reinforcement and revitalization
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Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 01-18 IAEME
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FIGURE No. 4.2: PCDL Model, adapted from Ghodeswar (2008)


Positioning the Brand
Positioning the brand is related with creating perception of brand and unique differentiation
in the customer mind compared to its competitors. By strategically positioning it in the minds of
target audience, the company can build a strong identity for the Brand. Whereas Upshaw(1995)
identified eight alternative positioning tools used by companies as : feature driven prompts; problem
/solution prompt target driven positioning ,emotional, psychological positioning, benefit-driven
positioning, aspiration positioning, and value positioning. Finally, Brand positioning will build up
brand loyalty which helps in customer based Brand equity

Communicating the Brand
How the Brand perceived by the target audience? Answer would be communication!!!!!!!!!!!!
Therefore, long terms integrated marketing communications is must for building the relationships
with customers and the company. The various communication channels are advertisement, word of
mouths, events, internet, promotion ---- etc. which enables the company to rig our sly increase the
brand recognition or recall in the mind of customers which may subsequently enhance the brand
positioning in the mind of the target customers.

Delivering the Brand Performance
Company need to reinforce the eagle eye on their brands against the competitors. They should beat
the competition by identifying how their brands are doing in the markets and this is possible by
keeping the record of their brands performance, brand recognition or recall, brand image, brand
awareness, brand loyalty and finally Brand equity. And this brand equity is managed by company
amalgam of delivering the product performance, service performance, customer care, customer
satisfaction and customer delight and operational standards. (The operational standards are the
assurance to the target audience that the Brands promise delivered to them)

Leveraging the Brand Equity
Keller (2003) defined leveraging process as linking the brand to some other entity that creates
a new set of associations from the brand to the entity as well as affect existing brand associations.
Company employs the different strategy to leveraging the Brand likes line Brand extension, Brand
extension, Ingredient Branding, co-Branding, Brand alliances and social integration.
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 01-18 IAEME
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PCDL model is the path for molding the general customers in to specific customer, by
generating brand equity to particular brands and with the help of customer brand equity companies
are trying to secure customer market share and benefits.

7. CURRENT TRENDS IN BRAND MANAGEMENT

Contemporary issues in brand management have reflected different brand strategies. With
changes in the time, brand has emerged as a top priority of the management in the last decade due to
the realization that brands are one of the most valuable assets that firms have. Managing, maintaining
and sustaining the brands have become prominent part in globalized and competitive world of
twenty first century. Many scholars have conducted researches in the field of branding, but many
opportunities are still in existence in this field which has been cited below;
1) Co-Branding, 2) Corporate Branding, 3) Global Brand, 4) Employer Branding 5) Business to
Business Branding 6) Corporate social responsibility in branding and 7) Green Branding 8) E-
branding

7.1 CO-BRANDING
Co-branding is a brand alliance strategy in which two or more brands launch a new product
and simultaneously presented to the market. Co-branding, co-partnership and dual branding are the
strategy used by the company to expand the customer base, increment in profitability, strengthen
competitive position through market share, create new customer perceived value, and yield
operational benefits through reduction in cost and enhance the product extension through brand
image.
According to Dignam,(1999), in current scenario 40% annual growth rate in companies is
because of co-branding and it has become a strategic tool to attain higher market share. Rao and
Ruekert (1999) have given co-branding desire to enhance new market and to attend unobservable
quality.
Lance Leuthesser et.al. (2002) have suggested, co-branding has the potential to achieve best
of all worlds synergy that to capitalizes on the unique strengths of each contributing brand.
Grossman,(1997) explain how marketers have began to pair their new brands with existing brands
that have powerful images attached to them in the hopes of linking these positive images with their
products. Wei-Lun, (2009) has cited if the two companies do not consider the position and strategy
adequately they will be taking larger risks and probably face static and uncertain environment
purchase intent and match up dilution. Stavros P.et al(2012) according to them brands with
equivalent equity levels shared the benefited of the Co-branding equally, while lower equity benefit
more from the alliance than higher equity partners.

7.2 CORPORATE BRANDING
Corporate branding has become a significant business strategy in market. Corporate branding
is the practice of corporate brand equity to create product/brand recognition in the mind of the
customer. Corporate brand identity constitutes customers, employee, investor, environmentalist,
shareholder, supplier and society. Under this it include all touch point including logo, customer
service treatment, training of employees, packaging, advertising and quality of product etc. which
help in creating the corporate brand equity for customer.
Anandan pillai(2012),has given in his literature review that Corporate branding has been
gaining importance in the market like combating competition ,increasing stakeholder value and
brand image in the mind of customers. Van Riel (2002) has cited that business unit should use a
corporate brand as communication activities. Marc etal (2012) has explored three main approaches to
corporate branding research (Internal, transactional, external).
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Globalization has made rapid changes in business strategy and it has created complicated and
competitive Business environment. Therefore, the move from product branding to corporate
branding has emerged as a key challenge. This has been supported by many scholars in their finding
namely Aaker and Joachimsthaler(2000), Balmer (1995), Hatch and Schultz(2001),Keller (2000),
and Aaker (2004) define a corporate brand as a brand that represents an organization and reflects its
heritage, values, culture, people, and strategy. McDonald et al. (2001) have focused corporate brand
research on service area. John M.T, Balmer (2001) suggested the three virtues of corporate brands
are that they-Communicate(C), Differentiate (D) and Enhance (E).

7.3 GLOBAL BRAND
According to Levitt(1983) because the world is shrinking- due to leaps in technology,
communication, and so forthwell managed companies should shift their emphasis from
customizing items to offering globally standardized products that are advanced, functional, reliable
and low priced for all. Corporate mantra of success is to meet the global demand in order to
achieve the target of profit. Some pioneer global brands are Coca cola, Nestle, Procter & Gamble,
Apple and Mercedes-Benz more recently Samsung. A number of issues emerge in attempting to
build a global brand. Levitt has argued that companies are needed to learn to operate as if the world
were one large market ignoring superficial regional and national differences. In (2010) Dimofte et
al, has showed direct effect of globalist on perception and purchase of products. Whereas Ozsomer
et.al (2012) has cited that globalization has put global brand in center stage of market.

7.4 EMPLOYER BRANDING
Employer branding is playing a fundamental role in creating, maintaining and retaining
employee in the organization. Employer branding is a term often used to describe how
organizations market their offerings to potential and existing employees, communicate with them
and maintain their loyalty; advancing, internally and externally in the organization, a clear view of
what makes a firm different and desirable as an employer Backhaus and Tikoo (2004) and Ewing
M.T etal.(2002) has given in knowledge management companies are increasingly placing emphasis
on employment branding. Whereas Luthans F and Petersons J. (2002) has stated that relationship
between employer engagement and perceived managerial effectiveness will have direct effect on
rated effectiveness. Morakol and Uncles (2008) explored how companies can successfully implement
employer branding and benefits of their company as staff and employer. And Van Hoye (2011) has
proved that informal communication, like word-of-mouth is playing a significant role in employer
branding.

7.5 B2B (BUSINESS TO BUSINESS) BRANDING
Business-to-business (B2B) describes commerce and transactions between businesses, such
as between a manufacturer and a wholesaler, or between a wholesaler and a retailer. Therefore, B2B
products and services are sold from one company to another.Rick Wise and Zednickova (2009) have
shown that B2B branding is more crucial in present scenario. In 2004, Bendixen et al. proved that
business to business buyers are willing to pay a premium price for their preferred brand and they also
expand brand good-will to other product lines and recommend the brand to others. Kuhan et al.
(2008) examined the applicability of Kellers (2003) consumer based brand equity pyramid model to
a B2B context. Vargo,S.L and Lusch(2011) have given contribution of B2B marketing can be seen as
applicable to mainstream marketing. Some studies have taken place in internal brand building within
the company by the Urde (2003).Moreover prior studies on brand equity B2B services were
happened in the contexts- of Financial services (Taylor, Hunter and Lindberg (2007), logistic
services Davis (2008), IT software(Kim and Hyun (2011) and service identity in B2B service by
Darren et al (2011).
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7.6 CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN BRANDING
In contemporary era Companies responsibility is not only profitability but also belongs to
the social responsibility. Carroll (1979), argued that corporate social responsibility has four distinct
themes namely management of stakeholder concern, economic viability, philanthropic action and
ethical practices. Dannielle Bluenthal and Alan Bergstrom (2003), has discussed that branding has
changed from simple image production scheme to a massive organizational alignment tool and
According to Cryer (1997) that consumer really cares business ethics on purchase. Menon and
Menon (1997) have demonstrated that consumers have shown positive change in their purchasing
power toward environment friendly businesses. BhattacharyaSen, Korshun (2008), has given
corporate social responsibilities can be used to attract talented employees. Elisa Arigo (2013) has
cited corporate social responsibility as a source of competitive advantage for global firm.

7.7 GREEN BRANDING
Green branding is the burning topic of the world after Kyoto protocol (1997 Summit) which
compelled the corporate world to introduced sustainable development strategy in market process and
diverted the market strategies toward green branding. Green brands are those brands that associate
with environmental conservation and sustainable business practices. For the last four decades the
researches are on in the area of green marketing and this was mainly contributed by different
researcher. But a very few studies had focused specifically on green branding. Some research work
reflected the concept of green brand effects on attitude of functional versus emotional positioning
strategies this statement was proven by the Patrick Hartmann (2005). Coddington (1993) suggested
that green positioning and green communication as an important instrument for green branding. Yu-
Shan-Chen (2009) has given that Green Brand image, Green trust and Green satisfaction lead Green
brand equity. Vincent Wee and Periyayya(2013),has proposed that Green brand image has a strong
influence towards green branding. Whereas Pui Pong etal (2003) had analyzed that positive
perception of consumer towards a green product and create a green brand value and green equity.

7.8 E-BRANDING
E-branding refers to the sum total of a companys values, competencies, attitudes, vision,
mission personality and appearance that is projected to the audience through online. Ibeh,Luo and
Dinnie (2005) has said that E-brands are increasingly becoming imperative for growth seeking
internet companies where as Gommans, Krishnan and scheffold(2001) has provides a conceptual
framework of e-loyalty and its drivers. McWillam(2001) has given building strong brands through
online communication. And according to Bernd (2000), well designed websites is a powerful
dimension of the corporate brand. Phil Carpenter (2000) has cited that e-brand will prove truly
durable brands.

8. CONCLUSIONS

The goal of this article to discussed the conceptual framework of brand management that
would assist the manager to develop a brand building strategy and academicians studying different
perspectives of brand management.
It was observed during the course of paper that there is no unanimously agreed definition of
brand. There is a brand in every one of you this has been proved as today customers are
deliberately asking for the brands during their purchases and that may be a reason for researchers
who are always in pursuit of development of new brand management processes and for which they
every now and then are developing new brand management models. It was also observed during the
literature review that importance of brand and its management is growing; it is not only growing but
is also becoming complex day by day. The importance of branding is not only significant to
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Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 01-18 IAEME
14

companies involved in it but it has become important to customers and employees as well then article
considered the framework of brand concept management provides key elements in deciding the
brand position which is based on the idea of function, symbolic and experiential brand concept.
Researcher also critically analyzes the brand building model of Keller and Ghodeshwar. And at last,
this article provides the contemporary issues on brand management which will definitely provides
the learning opportunity to all who are interested in studying the new age of brand management like
B2B, Corporate Social Responsibility branding, global branding employer branding, co-branding e-
branding and green branding etc.
Therefore, the implication of this article for managers on brand positioning and brand
building decision on the other hand it will assist the researcher and academician in current trends and
further study on brand, branding and brand management.

8.1 ISSUES FOR FURTHER STUDY


RESEARCH TOPICS

FUTURE SCOPE OF THE STUDY

CORPORATE BRANDING 1) More studied are expected to be based on
corporate branding & its impact on retention of
employees.
2) Future study may be based on corporate brand
that leads the competitive advantage or increasing
market share by taking any country or sector for
the study.
3) Is that corporate branding leads to sustainable
business development?
CO-BRANDING 1) Further study may be based on co-branding to
prove that it is a strategy to win the market share.
This study may be based on any country and
sector.
2) Co-branding is the tool to survival for
company in the recession period.
3) Co-branding and its evil effect on survival of
their partner company.
GLOBAL BRANDING 1) Is global brands decreasing the effects of local
brands?
2) Impact of online purchasing on Global brand is
another issue for further research.
3) Consumer perception toward global brands in
developing countries (specifically rural area
context)
EMPLOYER BRANDING 1) To analyze whether Employer branding is a
tool to attract, develop and retain talented
employees.
2) Impact of employer branding on organizational
effectiveness.
3) Employer value proposition is a key factor in
building employer branding.
4) Impact of Advertisement on employer
branding in Indian context against world.


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BUSINESS TO BUSINESS BRANDING 1) Factors effecting B2B brand equity in different
sectors of the economy.
2) Is that existing measure of brand equity is
applicable to B2B markets.
3) Is that B2B branding applicable to functional
and emotional benefit.
CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
BRANDING
1) Whether Corporate social responsibility affects
the corporate branding.
2) Is Corporate social responsibility branding a
tool for sustainable development for company
and consumers?
3) Whether the CSR branding based companies
have any impact on the perception of the
consumer towards company product & service.
GREEN BRANDING 1) Validate customer based green brand equity .
2) Green branding and its impact on
competitiveness & price elasticity of demand.
3) Impact of communication on green branding.
4) Measuring the perceptual and attitudinal
effects of alternative green positioning strategies
and which may lead to development of more
competitive green branding initiatives.
E-BRANDING 1) Studies are required in the area of e-branding
for virtual companies.
2) Examining the impact of e-branding on retail
sector in developed & developing countries.
3) Analysis of the perception and emotional
effects of e-branding in different nations
especially in Indian context.
POLITICAL BRANDING 1) Analysis the different factor of political
branding.
2) Examine the impact of political branding on
developing the state, nation etc.
3) Role of political branding in making the nation
as an international brand.
Role of financial or ethical promotion in political
branding specially in Indian context.
INDIVIDUAL BRANDING 1) How individual branding specially sport star,
actor etc assist the organization.
2) Is that individual branding enhancing the
competitiveness and value of product?
CULTURAL BRANDING 1) Analysis the different factors influencing the
cultural branding.
2) Cultural branding is the tool for success in
competitive era.


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