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Просмотров: 144 стр.Increasing human population causes rise in
many problems and huge traffic on the roads. Many
techniques have been used in past to model the traffic
flow specially on roads of big cities. Cellular Automata
(CA) based models are the best ones to represent the
traffic flow in a very realistic way by taking into
account the behaviour of individual vehicles. By using
CA, different types of traffic flows have been modelled
i.e., single-lane traffic, two-lane traffic, sensitive driving
in two-lane etc. But now a days traffic lights are
essential part of traffic system, so a new model is
required which can encompass not only sensitive
driving in two-lane but can also take into account the
behaviour of vehicles in the presence of traffic lights. In
this paper a new novel model is presented for two-lane
traffic which incorporates the behaviour of vehicles
when traffic light signals are part of traffic system.
Proposed model is an enhancement of cellular automata
model for two lane traffic based on anticipation effects,
information interaction and sensitive driving.

May 24, 2014

© © All Rights Reserved

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Increasing human population causes rise in
many problems and huge traffic on the roads. Many
techniques have been used in past to model the traffic
flow specially on roads of big cities. Cellular Automata
(CA) based models are the best ones to represent the
traffic flow in a very realistic way by taking into
account the behaviour of individual vehicles. By using
CA, different types of traffic flows have been modelled
i.e., single-lane traffic, two-lane traffic, sensitive driving
in two-lane etc. But now a days traffic lights are
essential part of traffic system, so a new model is
required which can encompass not only sensitive
driving in two-lane but can also take into account the
behaviour of vehicles in the presence of traffic lights. In
this paper a new novel model is presented for two-lane
traffic which incorporates the behaviour of vehicles
when traffic light signals are part of traffic system.
Proposed model is an enhancement of cellular automata
model for two lane traffic based on anticipation effects,
information interaction and sensitive driving.

© All Rights Reserved

Просмотров: 14

Increasing human population causes rise in
many problems and huge traffic on the roads. Many
techniques have been used in past to model the traffic
flow specially on roads of big cities. Cellular Automata
(CA) based models are the best ones to represent the
traffic flow in a very realistic way by taking into
account the behaviour of individual vehicles. By using
CA, different types of traffic flows have been modelled
i.e., single-lane traffic, two-lane traffic, sensitive driving
in two-lane etc. But now a days traffic lights are
essential part of traffic system, so a new model is
required which can encompass not only sensitive
driving in two-lane but can also take into account the
behaviour of vehicles in the presence of traffic lights. In
this paper a new novel model is presented for two-lane
traffic which incorporates the behaviour of vehicles
when traffic light signals are part of traffic system.
Proposed model is an enhancement of cellular automata
model for two lane traffic based on anticipation effects,
information interaction and sensitive driving.

© All Rights Reserved

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A New Cellular Automata Model for Two Lane Traffic System

Incorporating Sensitive Driving and Traffic Light Signals

Saima Zia, Mudassar Ahmad

Department of Computer Science, University of AgricultureFaisalabad, Pakistan.

Department of Computing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

Abstract- Increasing human population causes rise in

many problems and huge traffic on the roads. Many

techniques have been used in past to model the traffic

flow specially on roads of big cities. Cellular Automata

(CA) based models are the best ones to represent the

traffic flow in a very realistic way by taking into

account the behaviour of individual vehicles. By using

CA, different types of traffic flows have been modelled

i.e., single-lane traffic, two-lane traffic, sensitive driving

in two-lane etc. But now a days traffic lights are

essential part of traffic system, so a new model is

required which can encompass not only sensitive

driving in two-lane but can also take into account the

behaviour of vehicles in the presence of traffic lights. In

this paper a new novel model is presented for two-lane

traffic which incorporates the behaviour of vehicles

when traffic light signals are part of traffic system.

Proposed model is an enhancement of cellular automata

model for two lane traffic based on anticipation effects,

information interaction and sensitive driving.

Keywords-Cellular Automata, Two Lane Model,

I. INTRODUCTION

Traffic flow modelling is an important step in the

design and control of transportation systems. A distinctive

feature of Cellular Automata (CA) models is that they can

capture micro-level dynamics and can use this information

to state the behaviour of macro-level traffic flow. CA

models can represent the complexity of a traffic flow

system in a very compact way by taking into account

vehicles different behaviours like acceleration /

deceleration, lane changing, reaction due to other vehicles

etc. The most striking characteristic of CA models is that

they are capable of representing both single lane and multi

lane traffic which is important for traffic modelling of

highways.

A. Single-Lane Models

Many models have been proposed for single lane traffic,

for example NaSch [1], VDR [2], CD [3], MCD [4] and

FMCD [5] models. These models represent different

characteristics of single lane traffic flow system like

minimal features of a traffic flow system, slow to start

notion, brake-light influence, synchronized flow, sensitive

driving and randomization in update rules.

B. Two-Lane Models

In big cities the traffic system incorporates two lanes or

multi lanes so modelling two lane traffic flow system is

dire need of the day. There are some parameters that should

be considered while modelling two-lane traffic: movement

in one-lane and behaviour of vehicles during lane change.

During lane change, two points are important, incentive for

lane change and safety rules. These lane changing rules

were first introduced by Rickert [6] and Knospet [7].

II. RELATED WORK

The basic CA model [8] for one dimensional flow of

traffic is Rule 184 given by Wolfram. Many other models

are based on this model. According to this rule there are

23=8 possible configurations for a cell and its two

immediate neighbors. The rule defining the Cellular

Automata must specify the resulting state for each of these

possibilities so there are 28=256 possible elementary

cellular automata. Stephen wolfram assigned each rule a no

from 0 to 255 which has become a standard. Each possible

current configuration is written in order:

111,110,,001,000 and the resulting state for each of these

configurations is written in same order and interpreted as

binary representation of an integer. This number is taken to

be the rule no of the automata. For example 184 is written

in binary as 10111000.

NaSch model [1] is a variation of Rule 184. This model

is capable of anticipating the realistic behavior of vehicles

by taking into account acceleration and deceleration

phenomena. According to this model speed of car can be

determined as a function of lambda which can be adjusted.

Based on one dimensional NaSch model a two-lane traffic

model was also investigated, but the update rules were not

defined in the same manner as in Nasch model so it could

not satisfy the two lane traffic conditions.Another model

named VDR [2] was proposed by Barlovic which

introduced meta-stable states missing in NaSch model.

According to VDR model the randomization probability is

dependent on velocity which supports slow to start notion.

Knospe and Santen proposed CD [3] model incorporating

synchronized flow to some extent .It is an enhancement of

International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) volume 4 Issue 8 August 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 2408

VDR model. This model not only enhances the effect of

brake light but also takes into account the phenomena of

anticipation which allows the driver to anticipate the

behavior of the predecessor vehicle. MCD [4] and FMCD

[5] models were then proposed which incorporated all the

features of synchronized flow. These models were

enhancement of CD model. FMCD model is considered to

be the best model depicting the synchronized flow of

single-lane traffic. Another one dimensional model FI [9]

was proposed by Fukui and Ishibashi which generalizes the

cellular automata rule 184.according to this model a car can

move by at most sites if there are no cars ahead of it or cars

ahead do not block it. The basic difference between NS and

FI model is that in NS model a vehicle can move only with

the speed of one site at a time but according to FI model it

can move many sites at a time. A two dimensional version

of the above Fukui-Ishibashi model was presented and

elaborated by Wang et al. [12] it considered single-lane

traffic by taking into account the exchange of vehicles

between the first and the second lane. A new model was

proposed by B. Jia, R. Jiang, Q. S. Wu, and M. B. Hu

which introduced the Honk effect into the basic symmetric

two-lane CA model [10].

III. PROPOSED MODEL

The proposed model is enhanced form of model proposed

by Yang-Jie Chu, Xin-wei Chen [11]. But their model does

not incorporate behaviour of vehicles in the presence of

traffic signal lights which are now essential part of every

traffic control system. So the proposed model has the

ability to represent all the parameters of an efficient traffic

control system. There are two cases of the proposed

system, single lane model and two lane model.

A. Single-lane Model

For single lane model following suppositions are made.

Vehicle (n+1)

represents predecessors of n

th

vehicle. b

n

(t)

represents brake light of n

th

vehicle at time t. the condition

b

n

(t)=0 if brake light off and b

n

(t)=1 if light is on. The gap

between the predecessor and the nth vehicle is denoted

by(d

n

=x

n+1

-x

n

-l) where l is the length of the vehicle, x

n

is

the position of the nth vehicle. (t

r,n

)

denotes the time taken

to reach the position of the predecessor. (t

s,n

)

denotes the

time the nth vehicle will stop. (L

g

) represents green signal

light. (L

y

) represents yellow signal light. (L

r

) represents red

signal light. (d

seff

)

represents effective distance from signal

lights. d

peff

represents effective distance from the

predecessor. (v

anti,n+1

)

is the anticipated velocity of (n+1)

th

vehicle in next time step. (t

f,n

)

denotes the time that vehicle

n moves a velocity larger than(v

c

)

(speed in synchronized

flow). (Pdr) represents predecessor then, the detail of

update rules regarding acceleration and braking are

expressed in Eqs. (1 to 5).

1) Green light ON, Eq.(1): If brake light of (n+1)

th

vehicle is off OR time taken by n

th

vehicle to reach the

position of predecessor is greater than the time it will take

to stop AND n

th

vehicle is moving then in next interval of

time speed of n

th

vehicle will be increased by two units and

If brake light of (n+1)

th

vehicle is off OR time taken to

reach the position of predecessor is greater than the time it

will take to stop AND n

th

vehicle is stationary then in next

interval of time speed of vehicle n will be increased by one

unit because standing vehicles take time to accelerate.

2) Red light ON, Eq(2): If there is no predecessor, then

velocity is reduced by the effective distance from signal

light. If there is a predecessor, then speed of vehicle will

be decreased based on the effective distance from the

predecessor.

3) Yellow Light ON, Eq(3): If vehicle is standing at the

signal due to red light and it turns yellow, then velocity of

vehicle will be increased by one unit. If vehicle is moving

and it encounters a traffic signal and signal light is yellow

and there is no predecessor, then its velocity will be

decreased by 2 units. If vehicle is moving and it encounters

yellow light and there is a predecessor, then its velocity

will be decreased based on effective distance from the

predecessor.

According to Eq. (6), the velocity of the vehicle can be

reduced by one unit due to any reason if required.

International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) volume 4 Issue 8 August 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 2409

Normally the randomization is applied before braking

phenomena. If vehicle is moving in synchronized flow for

a long time and it encounters green light, then it will keep

on moving with the same speed. Else. if it does not

encounter green light then it will have to stop. Eq. (7)

shows the calculation of synchronized folw. Position of car

is updated by the speed it is moving, which is equal to

Fig. 1 Flow chart of cellular automata lane model rules.

B. Two-lane Model

Incentive and safety criteria are the two prerequisites of

lane changing. Eq. (8) shows the incentive for lane change.

It means, brakes are not applied by n

th

vehicle and its

velocity is greater than (d

n

) and if traffic lights are

encountered and green light is on then it will decide to

change the lane. Eqs. (9, 10) shows the safety criteria,

where (d

npeff

) is the effective distance between the n

th

vehicle and its new predecessor if it changes lane. (d

succ)

denotes the gap between the

th

n vehicle and its successor

in the new lane. (V

succ

(t)) denotes the speed of the new

successor. So if criteria in Eq. (8) & Eq. (9) are fulfilled

then n

th

vehicle will turn on its lane changing lamp. Now

whether it change lane or not depends on Eq. (10) means it

will depend on the behavior of its successor in the target

lane that whether it change its speed or not. So if the

successor in new lane slow down its velocity then the lane

change will be performed otherwise the n

th

vehicle will turn

off its lane changing lamp. Flow chart of cellular automata

model rules is shwon in Fig 1.

IV. CONCLUSION

Traffic jams and accidents are issues of serious

concern these days. To anticipate the flow of trafffic many

strategies are used in past but CA is the most popular one.

The ability of its simple rules to model the complex

behaviour of vehicles in critical situations is the main

reason of its popularity in modelling traffic systems. Many

one lane and two lane models have been proposed which

address different issues of traffic system but uptill now

traffic system with traffic lights was not given a serious

consideration. In these days traffic system cannot be made

safe without traffic lights so behaviour of vehichles needs

to be studied and modeled in their presence. So in this

paper a new model for two lane traffic system is proposed

which not only take into account the parameters of

sensitive driving but also incorporates the behavior of

vehicles in the presence of traffic lights. In this way the

proposed model covers all the aspects of a two lane traffic

system in big cities and it will help in regulating the traffic

system, avoiding traffic jams and accidents.

REFERENCES

1. Nagel, K. and M. Schreckenberg, A cellular automaton model

for freeway traffic, J ournal de Physique I, 1992. 2(12): p.

2221-2229.

2. Barlovic, R., et al., Metastable states in cellular automata for

traffic flow, The European Physical J ournal B, 1998. 5(3): p.

793-800.

3. Knospe, W., et al., Towards a realistic microscopic

description of highway traffic, J ournal of Physics A:

Mathematical and General, 2000. 33: p. L477.

4. J iang, R. and Q. Wu., Spatial-temporal patterns at an isolated

on-ramp in a new cellular automata model based on three-

phase traffic theory, J ournal of Physics A: Mathematical and

General, 2004. 37: p. 8197.

5. J iang, R. and Q. Wu., First order phase transition fromfree

flow to synchronized flow in a cellular automata model, The

International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) volume 4 Issue 8 August 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 2410

European Physical J ournal B-Condensed Matter and Complex

Systems., 2005. 46(4): p.

6. Rickert, M., et al., Two lane traffic simulations using cellular

automata, Physica A: Statistical and Theoretical Physics.,

1996. 231(4): p. 534-550.

7. Knospe, W., et al., A realistic two-lane traffic model for

highway traffic, J ournal of Physics A: Mathematical and

General., 2002. 35: p. 3369.

8. Chowdhury, D., L. Santen, and A. Schadschneider, Statistical

physics of vehicular traffic and some related systems* 1,

Physics Reports, 2000.329(4-6): p. 199-329.

9. A. Benyoussef et al, Traffic Flow in a 1 D Cellular Automata

Model with Open Boundaries, Chinese J ournal of Physics.,

Vol. 39, NO. 5, October 2001, PDF file,

http://psroc.phys.ntu.edu.tw/cjp/v39/428.pdf.

10. B. J ia, R. J iang, Q. S. Wu, and M. B. Hu, Honk effect in the

two-lane cellular automaton model for traffic flow, Physica

A, vol. 348, pp. 544552, 2005.Yang-J ie Chu, Xin-wei Chen.,

An improved cellular automaton model for twolane traffic

based on anticipation effects,information interaction and

sensitive driving. IEEE, 2011.

11. L. Wang, B. H. Wang, and B. Hu, Cellular automaton traffic

flow model between the Fukui-Ishibashi and Nagel-

Schreckenberg models, Physical Review E, vol. 63, no. 5,

Article ID 056117, 5 pages, 2001

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