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11 Slide Slide 2005 Thomson/South 2005 Thomson/South- -Western Western


Chapter 3 Chapter 3
Descriptive Statistics: umerical !easures Descriptive Statistics: umerical !easures
"art # "art #
!easures o$ %ocation !easures o$ %ocation
!easures o$ &aria'ilit( !easures o$ &aria'ilit(
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!easures o$ %ocation !easures o$ %ocation
)$ the measures are computed )$ the measures are computed
$or data $rom a sample* $or data $rom a sample*
the( are called the( are called sample statistics sample statistics++
)$ the measures are computed )$ the measures are computed
$or data $rom a population* $or data $rom a population*
the( are called the( are called population parameters population parameters++
# sample statistic is re$erred to # sample statistic is re$erred to
as the as the point estimator point estimator o$ the o$ the
correspondin, population parameter+ correspondin, population parameter+
!ean !ean
!edian !edian
!ode !ode
"ercentiles "ercentiles
-uartiles -uartiles
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!ean !ean
The The mean mean o$ a data set is the avera,e o$ all the data o$ a data set is the avera,e o$ all the data
values+ values+
The sample mean is the point estimator o$ the The sample mean is the point estimator o$ the
population mean population mean + +
x
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Sample !ean Sample !ean x
um'er o$ um'er o$
o'servations o'servations
in the sample in the sample
Sum o$ the values Sum o$ the values
o$ the o$ the n n o'servations o'servations
i
x
x
n
=

3
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"opulation !ean "opulation !ean
um'er o$ um'er o$
o'servations in o'servations in
the population the population
Sum o$ the values Sum o$ the values
o$ the o$ the NN o'servations o'servations
i
x
N
=

// Slide Slide 2005 Thomson/South 2005 Thomson/South- -Western Western


Sevent( e$$icienc( apartments Sevent( e$$icienc( apartments
0ere randoml( sampled in 0ere randoml( sampled in
a small colle,e to0n+ The a small colle,e to0n+ The
monthl( rent prices $or monthl( rent prices $or
these apartments are listed these apartments are listed
in ascendin, order on the ne1t slide+ in ascendin, order on the ne1t slide+
Sample !ean Sample !ean
21ample: #partment 3ents 21ample: #partment 3ents
.
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.25 .30 .30 .35 .35 .35 .35 .35 ..0 ..0
..0 ..0 ..0 ..5 ..5 ..5 ..5 ..5 .50 .50
.50 .50 .50 .50 .50 ./0 ./0 ./0 ./5 ./5
./5 .40 .40 .42 .45 .45 .45 .50 .50 .50
.50 .55 .60 .60 .60 500 500 500 500 510
510 515 525 525 525 535 5.6 550 540 540
545 545 550 560 /00 /00 /00 /00 /15 /15
Sample !ean Sample !ean
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Sample !ean Sample !ean
3.* 35/
.60+50
40
i
x
x
n
= = =

.25 .30 .30 .35 .35 .35 .35 .35 ..0 ..0
..0 ..0 ..0 ..5 ..5 ..5 ..5 ..5 .50 .50
.50 .50 .50 .50 .50 ./0 ./0 ./0 ./5 ./5
./5 .40 .40 .42 .45 .45 .45 .50 .50 .50
.50 .55 .60 .60 .60 500 500 500 500 510
510 515 525 525 525 535 5.6 550 540 540
545 545 550 560 /00 /00 /00 /00 /15 /15
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66 Slide Slide 2005 Thomson/South 2005 Thomson/South- -Western Western
!edian !edian
Whenever a data set has e1treme values* the median Whenever a data set has e1treme values* the median
is the pre$erred measure o$ central location+ is the pre$erred measure o$ central location+
# $e0 e1tremel( lar,e incomes or propert( values # $e0 e1tremel( lar,e incomes or propert( values
can in$late the mean+ can in$late the mean+
The median is the measure o$ location most o$ten The median is the measure o$ location most o$ten
reported $or annual income and propert( value data+ reported $or annual income and propert( value data+
The The median median o$ a data set is the value in the middle o$ a data set is the value in the middle
0hen the data items are arran,ed in ascendin, order+ 0hen the data items are arran,ed in ascendin, order+
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!edian !edian
12 12 1. 1. 16 16 2/ 2/ 24 24 15 15 24 24
7or an 7or an odd num'er odd num'er o$ o'servations: o$ o'servations:
in ascendin, order in ascendin, order
2/ 2/ 15 15 24 24 12 12 1. 1. 24 24 16 16 4 o'servations 4 o'servations
the median is the middle value+ the median is the middle value+
!edian 8 16 !edian 8 16
/
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12 12 1. 1. 16 16 2/ 2/ 24 24 15 15 24 24
!edian !edian
7or an 7or an even num'er even num'er o$ o'servations: o$ o'servations:
in ascendin, order in ascendin, order
2/ 2/ 15 15 24 24 12 12 1. 1. 24 24 30 30 5 o'servations 5 o'servations
the median is the avera,e o$ the middle t0o values+ the median is the avera,e o$ the middle t0o values+
!edian 8 916 : 2/;/2 8 22+5 !edian 8 916 : 2/;/2 8 22+5
16 16
30 30
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!edian !edian
.25 .30 .30 .35 .35 .35 .35 .35 ..0 ..0
..0 ..0 ..0 ..5 ..5 ..5 ..5 ..5 .50 .50
.50 .50 .50 .50 .50 ./0 ./0 ./0 ./5 ./5
./5 .40 .40 .42 .45 .45 .45 .50 .50 .50
.50 .55 .60 .60 .60 500 500 500 500 510
510 515 525 525 525 535 5.6 550 540 540
545 545 550 560 /00 /00 /00 /00 /15 /15
#vera,in, the 35th and 3/th data values: #vera,in, the 35th and 3/th data values:
!edian 8 9.45 : .45;/2 8 .45 !edian 8 9.45 : .45;/2 8 .45
4
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!ode !ode
The The mode mode o$ a data set is the value that occurs 0ith o$ a data set is the value that occurs 0ith
,reatest $re<uenc(+ ,reatest $re<uenc(+
The ,reatest $re<uenc( can occur at t0o or more The ,reatest $re<uenc( can occur at t0o or more
di$$erent values+ di$$erent values+
)$ the data have e1actl( t0o modes* the data are )$ the data have e1actl( t0o modes* the data are
'imodal 'imodal++
)$ the data have more than t0o modes* the data are )$ the data have more than t0o modes* the data are
multimodal multimodal++
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!ode !ode
.25 .30 .30 .35 .35 .35 .35 .35 ..0 ..0
..0 ..0 ..0 ..5 ..5 ..5 ..5 ..5 .50 .50
.50 .50 .50 .50 .50 ./0 ./0 ./0 ./5 ./5
./5 .40 .40 .42 .45 .45 .45 .50 .50 .50
.50 .55 .60 .60 .60 500 500 500 500 510
510 515 525 525 525 535 5.6 550 540 540
545 545 550 560 /00 /00 /00 /00 /15 /15
.50 occurred most $re<uentl( 94 times; .50 occurred most $re<uentl( 94 times;
!ode 8 .50 !ode 8 .50
5
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"ercentiles "ercentiles
# percentile provides in$ormation a'out ho0 the # percentile provides in$ormation a'out ho0 the
data are spread over the interval $rom the smallest data are spread over the interval $rom the smallest
value to the lar,est value+ value to the lar,est value+
#dmission test scores $or colle,es and universities #dmission test scores $or colle,es and universities
are $re<uentl( reported in terms o$ percentiles+ are $re<uentl( reported in terms o$ percentiles+
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The The ppth percentile th percentile o$ a data set is a value such that at o$ a data set is a value such that at
least least pp percent o$ the items ta=e on this value or less percent o$ the items ta=e on this value or less
and at least 9100 and at least 9100 - - pp; percent o$ the items ta=e on this ; percent o$ the items ta=e on this
value or more+ value or more+
"ercentiles "ercentiles
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"ercentiles "ercentiles
#rran,e the data in ascendin, order+ #rran,e the data in ascendin, order+
Compute inde1 Compute inde1 ii* the position o$ the * the position o$ the ppth percentile+ th percentile+
ii 8 9 8 9pp/100; /100;n n
)$ )$ ii is not an inte,er* round up+ The is not an inte,er* round up+ The ppth percentile th percentile
is the value in the is the value in the iith position+ th position+
)$ )$ ii is an inte,er* the is an inte,er* the ppth percentile is the avera,e th percentile is the avera,e
o$ the values in positions o$ the values in positions i i and and ii:1+ :1+
15 15 Slide Slide 2005 Thomson/South 2005 Thomson/South- -Western Western
60 60
th th
"ercentile "ercentile
.25 .30 .30 .35 .35 .35 .35 .35 ..0 ..0
..0 ..0 ..0 ..5 ..5 ..5 ..5 ..5 .50 .50
.50 .50 .50 .50 .50 ./0 ./0 ./0 ./5 ./5
./5 .40 .40 .42 .45 .45 .45 .50 .50 .50
.50 .55 .60 .60 .60 500 500 500 500 510
510 515 525 525 525 535 5.6 550 540 540
545 545 550 560 /00 /00 /00 /00 /15 /15
ii 8 9 8 9pp/100; /100;n n 8 960/100;40 8 /3 8 960/100;40 8 /3
#vera,in, the /3rd and /.th data values: #vera,in, the /3rd and /.th data values:
60th "ercentile 8 9550 : 560;/2 8 555 60th "ercentile 8 9550 : 560;/2 8 555
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60 60
th th
"ercentile "ercentile
.25 .30 .30 .35 .35 .35 .35 .35 ..0 ..0
..0 ..0 ..0 ..5 ..5 ..5 ..5 ..5 .50 .50
.50 .50 .50 .50 .50 ./0 ./0 ./0 ./5 ./5
./5 .40 .40 .42 .45 .45 .45 .50 .50 .50
.50 .55 .60 .60 .60 500 500 500 500 510
510 515 525 525 525 535 5.6 550 540 540
545 545 550 560 /00 /00 /00 /00 /15 /15
>#t least 60? >#t least 60?
o$ the items o$ the items
ta=e on a value ta=e on a value
o$ 555 or less+@ o$ 555 or less+@
>#t least 10? >#t least 10?
o$ the items o$ the items
ta=e on a value ta=e on a value
o$ 555 or more+@ o$ 555 or more+@
/3/40 8 +6 or 60? /3/40 8 +6 or 60? 4/40 8 +1 or 10? 4/40 8 +1 or 10?
20 20 Slide Slide 2005 Thomson/South 2005 Thomson/South- -Western Western
-uartiles -uartiles
-uartiles are speci$ic percentiles+ -uartiles are speci$ic percentiles+
7irst -uartile 8 25th "ercentile 7irst -uartile 8 25th "ercentile
Second -uartile 8 50th "ercentile 8 !edian Second -uartile 8 50th "ercentile 8 !edian
Third -uartile 8 45th "ercentile Third -uartile 8 45th "ercentile
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Third -uartile Third -uartile
.25 .30 .30 .35 .35 .35 .35 .35 ..0 ..0
..0 ..0 ..0 ..5 ..5 ..5 ..5 ..5 .50 .50
.50 .50 .50 .50 .50 ./0 ./0 ./0 ./5 ./5
./5 .40 .40 .42 .45 .45 .45 .50 .50 .50
.50 .55 .60 .60 .60 500 500 500 500 510
510 515 525 525 525 535 5.6 550 540 540
545 545 550 560 /00 /00 /00 /00 /15 /15
Third <uartile 8 45th percentile Third <uartile 8 45th percentile
i i 8 9 8 9pp/100; /100;n n 8 945/100;40 8 52+5 8 53 8 945/100;40 8 52+5 8 53
Third <uartile 8 525 Third <uartile 8 525
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!easures o$ &aria'ilit( !easures o$ &aria'ilit(
)t is o$ten desira'le to consider measures o$ varia'ilit( )t is o$ten desira'le to consider measures o$ varia'ilit(
9dispersion;* as 0ell as measures o$ location+ 9dispersion;* as 0ell as measures o$ location+
7or e1ample* in choosin, supplier # or supplier A 0e 7or e1ample* in choosin, supplier # or supplier A 0e
mi,ht consider not onl( the avera,e deliver( time $or mi,ht consider not onl( the avera,e deliver( time $or
each* 'ut also the varia'ilit( in deliver( time $or each+ each* 'ut also the varia'ilit( in deliver( time $or each+
12
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!easures o$ &aria'ilit( !easures o$ &aria'ilit(
3an,e 3an,e
)nter<uartile 3an,e )nter<uartile 3an,e
&ariance &ariance
Standard Deviation Standard Deviation
Coe$$icient o$ &ariation Coe$$icient o$ &ariation
2. 2. Slide Slide 2005 Thomson/South 2005 Thomson/South- -Western Western
3an,e 3an,e
The The ran,e ran,e o$ a data set is the di$$erence 'et0een the o$ a data set is the di$$erence 'et0een the
lar,est and smallest data values+ lar,est and smallest data values+
)t is the )t is the simplest measure simplest measure o$ varia'ilit(+ o$ varia'ilit(+
)t is )t is ver( sensitive ver( sensitive to the smallest and lar,est data to the smallest and lar,est data
values+ values+
13
25 25 Slide Slide 2005 Thomson/South 2005 Thomson/South- -Western Western
3an,e 3an,e
.25 .30 .30 .35 .35 .35 .35 .35 ..0 ..0
..0 ..0 ..0 ..5 ..5 ..5 ..5 ..5 .50 .50
.50 .50 .50 .50 .50 ./0 ./0 ./0 ./5 ./5
./5 .40 .40 .42 .45 .45 .45 .50 .50 .50
.50 .55 .60 .60 .60 500 500 500 500 510
510 515 525 525 525 535 5.6 550 540 540
545 545 550 560 /00 /00 /00 /00 /15 /15
3an,e 8 lar,est value 3an,e 8 lar,est value - - smallest value smallest value
3an,e 8 /15 3an,e 8 /15 - - .25 8 160 .25 8 160
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)nter<uartile 3an,e )nter<uartile 3an,e
The The inter<uartile ran,e inter<uartile ran,e o$ a data set is the di$$erence o$ a data set is the di$$erence
'et0een the third <uartile and the $irst <uartile+ 'et0een the third <uartile and the $irst <uartile+
)t is the ran,e $or the )t is the ran,e $or the middle 50? middle 50?o$ the data+ o$ the data+
)t overcomes the sensitivit( to e1treme data values+ )t overcomes the sensitivit( to e1treme data values+
1.
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)nter<uartile 3an,e )nter<uartile 3an,e
.25 .30 .30 .35 .35 .35 .35 .35 ..0 ..0
..0 ..0 ..0 ..5 ..5 ..5 ..5 ..5 .50 .50
.50 .50 .50 .50 .50 ./0 ./0 ./0 ./5 ./5
./5 .40 .40 .42 .45 .45 .45 .50 .50 .50
.50 .55 .60 .60 .60 500 500 500 500 510
510 515 525 525 525 535 5.6 550 540 540
545 545 550 560 /00 /00 /00 /00 /15 /15
3rd -uartile 9 3rd -uartile 9QQ3; 8 525 3; 8 525
1st -uartile 9 1st -uartile 9QQ1; 8 ..5 1; 8 ..5
)nter<uartile 3an,e 8 )nter<uartile 3an,e 8 QQ3 3 - - QQ1 8 525 1 8 525 - - ..5 8 50 ..5 8 50
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The The variance variance is a measure o$ varia'ilit( that utiliBes is a measure o$ varia'ilit( that utiliBes
all the data+ all the data+
&ariance &ariance
)t is 'ased on the di$$erence 'et0een the value o$ )t is 'ased on the di$$erence 'et0een the value o$
each o'servation 9 each o'servation 9xx
ii
; and the mean 9 $or a sample* ; and the mean 9 $or a sample*
$or a population;+ $or a population;+
x
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&ariance &ariance
The variance is computed as $ollo0s: The variance is computed as $ollo0s:
The variance is the The variance is the avera,e o$ the s<uared avera,e o$ the s<uared
di$$erences di$$erences 'et0een each data value and the mean+ 'et0een each data value and the mean+
$or a $or a
sample sample
$or a $or a
population population


2
2
=
( ) x
N
i
s
x
i
x
n
2
2
1
=

( )
30 30 Slide Slide 2005 Thomson/South 2005 Thomson/South- -Western Western
Standard Deviation Standard Deviation
The The standard deviation standard deviation o$ a data set is the positive o$ a data set is the positive
s<uare root o$ the variance+ s<uare root o$ the variance+
)t is measured in the )t is measured in the same units as the data same units as the data* ma=in, * ma=in,
it more easil( interpreted than the variance+ it more easil( interpreted than the variance+
1/
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The standard deviation is computed as $ollo0s: The standard deviation is computed as $ollo0s:
$or a $or a
sample sample
$or a $or a
population population
Standard Deviation Standard Deviation
s s =
2
=
2
32 32 Slide Slide 2005 Thomson/South 2005 Thomson/South- -Western Western
The coe$$icient o$ variation is computed as $ollo0s: The coe$$icient o$ variation is computed as $ollo0s:
Coe$$icient o$ &ariation Coe$$icient o$ &ariation
100 %
s
x



The The coe$$icient o$ variation coe$$icient o$ variation indicates ho0 lar,e the indicates ho0 lar,e the
standard deviation is in relation to the mean+ standard deviation is in relation to the mean+
$or a $or a
sample sample
$or a $or a
population population
100 %



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33 33 Slide Slide 2005 Thomson/South 2005 Thomson/South- -Western Western

= =


5.+4.
100 ? 100 ? 11+15?
.60+50
s
x
2
2
9 ;
2* 66/+1/
1
i
x x
s
n

= =

2
266/+.4 5.+4. s s = = =
the standard the standard
deviation is deviation is
a'out 11? o$ a'out 11? o$
o$ the mean o$ the mean
&ariance &ariance
Standard Deviation Standard Deviation
Coe$$icient o$ &ariation Coe$$icient o$ &ariation
&ariance* Standard Deviation* &ariance* Standard Deviation*
#nd Coe$$icient o$ &ariation #nd Coe$$icient o$ &ariation
3. 3. Slide Slide 2005 Thomson/South 2005 Thomson/South- -Western Western
2nd o$ Chapter 3* "art # 2nd o$ Chapter 3* "art #