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notes and the consecutive popping sound of slap tongue.

The example below shows the


continuous slap-tongue section.
Example 4-. Jungle p. 16, line 68.
According to Christian Lauba, speaking of the slap tongues found here: !ot onl"
do # give them a linguistic content $a sense of diction or phrasing% and form but # use them
as expressive elements& $'mble ())), (*+%.
#n Chopin,s -onata for .iano no. ( in / flat minor op. 0*, the famous 1uneral
2arch& of its third movement and 1inale-.resto& of the fourth movement both have a
ver" similar texture and the sense of storm" breath-taking driving. 3nl" after having
written this piece, did # notice the similarit" between this work and the final movement of
Chopin,s second sonata,& said Christian Lauba $'mble ())), (*+%.
Tdj
Ta4ikistan, officiall" the 5epublic of Ta4ikistan $figure 6-*%, is a mountainous
countr" in Central Asia. #t borders with Afghanistan to the south, '7bekistan to the west,
8"rg"7stan to the north, and .eople,s 5epublic of China to the east. Ta4ikistan also lies
ad4acent to .akistan but is separated b" the narrow 9akhan Corridor. 2ost of Ta4ikistan,s
population belongs to the Ta4ik ethnic group, who shares culture and histor" with the
#ranian peoples and speak the .ersian language $officiall" referred to as Ta4iki in
Ta4ikistan%. 3nce part of the -amanid :mpire, Ta4ikistan became a constituent republic of
the -oviet 'nion in the twentieth centur", known as the Ta4ik -oviet -ocialist 5epublic
$Ta4ik --5%.
Figure 4-1. Tajikistan and Central Asia.
$http:;;www.reliefweb.int;mapc;cis;reg;cau;caucia.html%
#n the first book of Neuf tudes, the four etudes have <uite clear aims of developing
certain techni<ues and the content of the four compositions sta"s within a certain degree of
simplicit", which b" no means implies eas". Tdj is the first etude of the series to which
the composer does not assign specific techni<ues, although it still contains techni<ues like
<uarter-tone vibrato, slap tongue, bisbligando, multiphonics and so on. #n addition, it is the
first etude with an extended length of twelve pages with a total performing time of eight
minutes, which is two or even three times the length of an" of the first four etudes. The
complexit" of the content also lifts the etude out of the frame of a stud" or an etude-like
composition and makes the etude incline more toward a concert piece. The constant
switching demands extended techni<ues, similar to the wa" Lis7t,s tudes dExcution
Transcendante differs from the earlier concert piano etudes= the work does not offer
enough repeated patterns or exercises and makes the etude drift further from its original
definition and more toward a concert piece.
/ecause of its length, this etude is divided into several sections with different
textures, which gives the audience the impression of a form of fast-slow-fast, contrar" to
Lauba,s common approach of slow-fast-slow in other etudes such as Balafon, Savane, and
Gyn.
Tdj is based on three modes:
The beginning of Tdj evokes the music which is pla"ed in T>d4ikistan or #ran
where "ou can find three modes in the same song: our occidental mode, the
pentatonic scale $Chinese mode% and the Arabic mode with ?;0 and ?;6 tones.
6-0
6-0
Christian Lauba, e-mail to author, 1ebruar" ?6, ())@.
Example 4-. Tdj p. 1, line 13.
The whole first page is mainl" composed of onl" two notes: the A $tonic% and
the A $dominant% in a modal s"stem, which <uickl" establishes the musical traits from
middle eastern and central Asia. The strict definitions and articulation of different
attacks are ver" important through the entire piece. :speciall" in the first pages, the
nuances of the subtle differences within each of the different articulations are so vital.
The" are not onl" the languages of the etudes but also the expressions of the phrases.
Bean-2arie Londeix has suggested the saxophonist pla" the first seven lines while
circular breathing $'mble ())), (*+%.
Gyn
As notated on the first page of the score, Gyn is the etude based upon the stud" of
attack and resonance.& The main foci of techni<ues in this etude are multiphonics and
bisbligando, although some extremel" wide interval leaps, along with contrasting
articulations and extremel" d"namic changes, are also extremel" challenging to the
performer.
Calf of the piece is devoted to bisbligando, which is the ver" subtle timbre trill. The
numeration, $or rh"thmi7ation& b" Londeix% of the bisbligando, which

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