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Technology and Solutions


Protection and Substation Automation

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Topic:
Energy Node
Substation /
Switchgear /
Busbar
Introduction
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Energy Node
r Clarification / Definition
r Switchgear Features
r Common Switchgear Configurations
r Special Switchgear Configurations
r Connections
r Busbar Protection
Objectives / Overview
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Clarification / Definition - Substation
The Substation includes every part in the energy node: Switchgear (of different
voltage levels), Transformers, Buildings etc. E.g. Substation Mettlen
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Clarification / Definition - Switchgear
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Clarification / Definition - Switchgear
380 kV Switchgear & Line
220 kV Switchgear & Line
380 / 220 kV Transformer
150 kV Switchgear & Line
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Clarification / Definition - Busbar
e.g. 380 kV
Busbar 1
Busbar 2
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Switchgear Features
The main distinguishing feature of switchgears
is the Insulation Medium:
AIR: Air Insulated Switchgear (AIS)
GAS (SF6): Gas Insulated Switchgear (GIS)
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The advantages of a GIS are:
q Less space required / Compact
q Low weight
q Higher reliability
q Personal Safety
q Low maintenance
q Long life
The disadvantage:
q Higher purchase cost
(for the switchgear!)
Switchgear Features
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Switchgear Features
Location
Indoor Outdoor
no limitation no limitation Outdoor
no limitation
Usually
132 kV
Indoor
GIS AIS
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Switchgear Features
Data: e.g. example ABB
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Switchgear Features
AIS Layout example
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Switchgear Features
GIS Layout example
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Switchgear Features
GIS Cross Section example
Up to voltages of 170 kV (new
up to 245 kV), the 3 phases are
generally in a common
enclosure (tube), at higher
voltages the phases are
segregated.
The encapsulation consists of
non magnetic and corrosion
resistant aluminium or welted
aluminium sheets.
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Switchgear Features
GIS example
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Common Switchgear Configurations
Circuit Configurations for High- and Medium Voltage
switchgear installations
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Common Switchgear Configurations
Single Busbar
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Common Switchgear Configurations
Double Busbar
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Common Switchgear Configurations
Double Busbar in U connection
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Common Switchgear Configurations
Composite Double /
Bypass Busbar
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Common Switchgear Configurations
Double Busbar with draw- out
circuit breaker
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Common Switchgear Configurations
Two breaker method
with draw- out CB
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Common Switchgear Configurations
Double Busbar with
Bypass Busbar
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Common Switchgear Configurations
Triple Busbar
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Special Switchgear Configurations (mainly outside EU)
Double Busbar with
Shunt Disconnector
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Special Switchgear Configurations (mainly outside EU)
Two Breaker method
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Special Switchgear Configurations (mainly outside EU)
1 CB method
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Special Switchgear Configurations (mainly outside EU)
Cross- tie method
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Special Switchgear Configurations (mainly outside EU)
Ring Busbar
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Connections
Branch / Feeder
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Connections
Busbar Coupling Double Busbar
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Connections
Busbar Coupling Double Busbar with Transfer Bus
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Connections
Busbar Coupling Triple Busbar
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Connections
Busbar Coupling Triple Busbar with Transfer Bus
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Connections
Instrument Transformer
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Busbar Protection
The installed BBP must fit to all
q Features
q Configurations
q Connections
Depending on the Configuration and Position of the
switches more or less components in the Protection
Zone of the BBP:
q Voltage Transformer
q Circuit Breaker
q Disconnector / Earthing Switch
q Transfer Busbar
q Surge Arrester etc.
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Busbar Protection
. some components are located within the Zone of the
BBP, other within the Line or Transformer Protection
Zone
. details in separate lessons
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