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It is with great pleasure that we congratulate Andy Liu on yet another

award, con rming the high regard with which he is held in the international

mathematical community. CRUX with MAYHEM is very proud to have had

Andy Liu on its Editorial Board for many years.

The following can be seen on the World Wide Web at

http:

and

The Canadian Council for Advancement and Support of Education

1998-1999 CANADIAN PROFESSORS OF THE YEAR

OUTSTANDING UNIVERSITY PROFESSOR

66

Andy Liu joined the faculty of the University of Alberta Mathematical

Sciences department in 1980 and has been making a profound impact on the

institution and its students ever since. His passions include a commitment

to the study of mathematics and to developing innovative techniques that

allow him to share his knowledge with students of all ages. Students must

not settle into passive learning but must be challenged to participate in the

process," explains Liu.

Liu's success stems from his unique knack for presenting di cult concepts in a clear and logical manner. Former student William Willette said,

I have not been inspired to think and achieve by anyone more than Liu. He

is not the type of instructor who just gives answers all the time; he inspires

students to think." By providing practical examples of theoretical concepts,

Liu helps his students understand and learn rather than simply memorize.

Those of us working in the area of education of gifted and talented children have long considered Liu to be a resource par excellence in mathematics

education," said a colleague, Carolyn R. Yewchuk.

In the classroom, Liu uses his lively sense of humour to maintain students' interest. His pleasant demeanour creates a comfortable learning environment. In every class, I know the names of all the students by the time of

the midterm test," says Liu. He has even mastered the art of writing upside

down so students can follow his written explanations while meeting with him

at his desk.

Liu extends himself beyond the campus in a variety of ways. His onand o -campus lectures as well as the courses he has designed, re ect his

extraordinary talent. Liu is a strong supporter of mathematical competitions as a way to motivate and promote interest in mathematics. He has

participated in mathematical competitions on the local, provincial, national,

and international levels. He has provided training sessions for University of

Alberta undergraduate students, prepared training materials for a number of

national Mathematical Olympiad teams, and conducted training sessions for

the International Mathematical Olympiad IMO teams of Australia, Canada,

Hong Kong, Taiwan and the United States. In 1995, he received the IMO

Certi cate of Appreciation and in 1996 received the David Hilbert International Award for the promotion of mathematics worldwide. Liu explains,

I feel that the University is an integral part of the community, and its involvement must extend beyond the con nes of the campus. Also, learning

is a universal endeavour which transcends political boundaries, and the university is rst and foremost an international institution."

67

No. 23

Bruce Shawyer

Shawyer, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Memorial University

of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada. A1C 5S7

Here is the rst of four articles from the 1998 Canadian Undergraduate Mathematics Conference, held at the University of British Columbia in July 1998.

Abstracts R
sum
s

e e

Canadian Undergraduate Mathematics Conference

1998 | Part 1

Tracer Kinetic Modelling in Dynamic Positron Emission Tomography

Mark Andermann

McGill University

Dynamic positron emission tomography PET has often been used in the quantitative estimation of physiological parameters in vivo. For example, tracer kinetic

modelling of time-series data has been employed on a voxel by voxel basis using

various methods of non-linear regression analysis. However, due to the low signalto-noise ratio and large data sets present in PET studies, such methods are often

unstable and computationally intensive. In this lecture, mathematical theory underlying current and past methods which have attempted to increase the precision of

tracer kinetic modelling will be reviewed. Subsequently, a novel technique involving

principal components analysis, split-and-merge image segmentation using hypothesis testing with both heuristic and statistical likelihood tests, as well as some aspects

of spectral analysis will be introduced. Bene ts and disadvantages of this method

will then be discussed.

You Can Disprove That?

Shabnam Beheshti

McGill University

Prove or disprove the following: If two sets A and B of reals are homeomorphic, then they are both dense respectively meagre. How many times have you

been faced with a question like this on a nal? If you have experienced the wrath

68

of a professor who enjoys giving rigorous multiple choice" examinations, then perhaps the importance of studying and constructing counterexamples has been revealed

already. Every student of mathematics is faced with a choice: either conjuring up

a creative counterexample or waiting for divine intervention the latter sometimes

takes awhile. Many times, we implicitly assume intuitively sound but analytically

false properties of our system, forcing us to draw incorrect conclusions; the power

of counterexample is thus discovered. Such an error hindered progress towards the

proof of Fermat's Last Theorem. I will attempt to survey the search for a proof to

the theorem of Fermat and present a variation of Kummer's counterexample to the

purported proof due to Lam
.

e

Trigonometry, Astronomy, and Computation:

The Historical Quest for an Elusive Constant

Abraham Buckingham

The King's University College

Ancient astronomy gave rise to some of the best historical mathematics, especially in the realm of trigonometry. Accurate trigonometric tables were critical

to good astronomy, and accurate trigonometric tables relied on an accurate value of

the sine of one degree for the majority of values. Unfortunately an exact value for

this sine is impossible to nd using ruler and compass methods alone. This problem was worked on by Claudius Ptolemy 100-175 AD and Jamshd al-K sh ?-1429

AD. Ptolemy's geometric method stood for 1200 years, but al-K sh was not satisa

ed and constructed an improved geometric estimation for the sine of one degree.

Still not satis ed, al-K sh went on to develop a xed point iteration scheme for the

a

calculation. I will describe and compare these methods within their context.

Invariants and shoelaces

Benoit Charbonneau

Universit
du Qu
bec a Montr
al

e

e

e

In the Montreal phone directory, there are seven entries for Jacques Labelle.

If X 's name is Jacques Labelle, we need more information to identify him. But we

know for sure he is not Nicolas Bourbaki although this is a subtle question.

One eternal question of mathematics is Are two objects in fact the same object?

Up to what we call isomorphisms, some properties of objects don't change. We

call them invariants. After this talk, you won't look at life the same way!

Invariants et lacets de chaussures

Benoit Charbonneau

Universit
du Qu
bec a Montr
al

e

e

e

Dans le bottin t
l
phonique de Montr
al, il y a sept entr
es pour Jacques Laee

e

e

belle. Si le nom de X est Jacques Labelle, on a besoin de plus d'information pour

l'identi er. On est cependant sur qu'il n'est pas Nicolas Bourbaki quoique la question est subtile.

Une question eternelle des math
matiques est Est-ce que deux objets sont

e

identiques ?

Certaines propri
t
s des objets ne changent pas a isomorphisme pr s, on les

ee

e

appelle des invariants. Suite a cet expos
, vous ne verrez plus jamais la vie de la m^ me

e

e

fa on !

c

69

Ranking the Participants in a Round-Robin Tournament

University of Regina

tournament have been proposed. However, none of these are considered entirely

satisfactory. We will consider the Kendall-Wei method, a method of ranking tournaments using iterated strength vectors, which leads to the Perron vector i.e. vector

of relative strengths of the corresponding dominance matrix of the tournament. We

will investigate such questions as: how easily can the iterated strength vectors be

calculated?" and can we determine the relative ordering of the strengths of the participants without calculating the Perron vector?"

What is the 57; 5-cage?

Jennifer de Kleine

University of Northern British Columbia

what this means, and the open question of whether there exists a 57; 5-cage with

572 + 1 vertices. Time permitting, I will discuss the connection between estimating

the permanent of 0; 1 matrices and a possible approach to using a computer to

search for a 572 + 1 vertex 57; 5-cage.

Les nombres de Stirling

Caroline Desjardins

Universit
du Qu
bec a Montr
al

e

e

e

Jacob Stirling, math
maticien anglais du 18e si cle a publi
un article int
ressant

e

e

e

e

Methodus di erentialis". L'article contient deux triangles de nombres entiers apparent
s au triangle de Pascal dont les diverses composantes permettent d'obtenir

e

des r
sultats int
ressants en analyse, en combinatoire et en probabilit
s. Ce sont

e

e

e

ces nombres que l'on appelle les nombres de Stirling. On peut obtenir ces nombres

en trouvant les matrices de changement de base de deux base de R x ou bien,

en utilisant les relations de r
currences que ces nombres suivent. Les liens reliant

e

ces nombres aux nombres de partition en k-classes et de fonction surjectives d'un

ensemble a n el
ments vers un ensemble a k el
ments, sont quelquesexemples d'ap
e

e

plication des nombres de Stirling.

Applications of Group Theory to Chemistry

Norman Dreger

University of British Columbia

theory. Some key terms will be de ned and the concepts of symmetry elements and

symmetry groups introduced. The nomenclature of symmetry elements with regards

to chemistry will then be discussed. Finally some applications of symmetry to experimental chemistry will be examined. Only a rudimentary knowledge of group theory

is prerequisite.

70

No. 196

R.E. Woodrow

Woodrow, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Calgary,

Calgary, Alberta, Canada. T2N 1N4.

We lead o this issue with the problems of the 19th Austrian-Polish

Mathematics Competitions, written in Poland, June 26 28, 1996. My thanks

go to Ravi Vakil, Canadian Team Leader to the IMO at Mumbai as well as to

regular supporters Marcin E. Kuczma, Warszawa, Poland and Walther Janous,

Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria for supplying copies of the contest

material.

19th AUSTRIAN-POLISH MATHEMATICS

COMPETITION 1996

June 26 27, 1996 Time: 4.5 hours

positive

integers n with the following properties:

a The decimal representation of n consists of exactly k digits.

b All digits of n are odd.

c The number n is divisible by 5.

d The number m = n has k odd decimal digits.

5

2. A convex hexagon ABCDEF satis es the following conditions:

a The opposite sides are parallel; that is, AB kDE , BC kEF , CDkFA.

b The distances between the opposite sides are equal; that is,

dAB; DE = dBC; EF = dCD; FA, where dg;h denotes the

distance between lines g and h.

c FAB and CDE are right angles.

Show that diagonals BE and CF intersect at an angle of 45 .

3. The polynomials Pnx are de ned recursively by P0x = 0,

P1x = x and

Pnx = xPn,1x + 1 , xPn,2x for n 2 .

For every natural number n 1 nd all real numbers x satisfying the equation Pn x = 0.

1

71

and x2 + y 2 + z 2 + t2 = 1. Prove that ,1 xy + yz + zt + tx 0.

5. A convex polyhedron P and a sphere S are situated in space in

such a manner that S intercepts on each edge AB of P a segment XY with

AX = XY = Y B = 1 AB. Prove that there exists a sphere T tangent to

3

all edges of P .

6. Natural numbers k, n are given such that 1 k n. Solve the

system of n equations

x3 x2 + x2+1 + + x2+k,1 = x2,1 for 1 i n

i

i

i

i

i

with n real unknowns x1 , x2 , : : : , xn . Note: x0 = xn , xn+1 = x1 ,

xn+2 = x2 , and so on.

Problems of the Team Contest Poland

June 28, 1996 Time: 4 hours

that k! + 48 = 48k + 1m .

8. Show that there is no polynomial P x of degree 998 with real

coe cients satisfying for all real numbers x the equation

P x2 , 1 = P x2 + 1 .

a cube. The edge lengths are integers. For every triple of positive integers

a; b; c, not all equal, there is a su cient supply of a b c bricks. Suppose

that the bricks are completely tiling a cubic 10 10 10 box.

a Assume that at least 100 bricks have been used. Prove that there exist

at least two bricks situated in parallel, in the sense that if AB is an edge of

one of them and A0 B 0 is an edge of one of the other, and if AB kA0 B 0 , then

AB = A0 B0.

b Prove the same statement for a number less than 100 of bricks used.

The smaller number, the better the solution.

Next we move to a country whose contest materials have not been very

often available in CRUX with MAYHEM with the problems of the 3rd Turkish

Mathematical Olympiad, Second Round, written December 8 9, 1995. My

thanks go to Ravi Vakil, Canadian Team Leader to the IMO at Mumbai for

collecting the problems.

72

Second Round First Day

and 2mi mi+1 for 1 i k , 1. Show that there are in nitely many

integers x which do not satisfy any of the congruences

x ai mod m1 , x a2 mod m2 , : : : , x ak mod mk .

2. For an acute triangle ABC , k1, k2, k3 are the circles with diameters BC , CA , AB , respectively. If K is the radical centre of these

circles, AK k1 = fDg, BK k2 = fE g, CK k3 = fF g and

AreaABC = u, AreaDBC = x, AreaECA = y , and AreaFAB = z ,

show that u2 = x2 + y 2 + z 2 .

3. Let N denote the set of positive integers. Let A be a real number

and fan g1 be a sequence of real numbers such that a1 = 1 and

n=1

1

an

k

such that 1 Aann A for all n 2 N.

b If k takes every value at most m times, show that there exists a real

number C 1 such that C n Aan for all n 2 N.

bisectors of the angle A intersect the line BC at D and E , respectively. If the

feet of the perpendiculars from a point F on the circle with diameter DE to

the lines BC , CA, AB are K , L, M , respectively, show that jKLj = jKM j.

5. Let tA denote the sum of elements of A for a non-empty subset

A of integers, and de ne t = 0. Find a subset X of the set of positive

integers such that for every integer k there is a unique ordered pair of subsets

Ak; Bk of X with Ak Bk = and tAk , tBk = k.

6. Let N denote the set of positive integers. Find all surjective

functions f : N ! N satisfying the condition

for all m, n 2 N.

73

Along with the Turkish Olympiad we have the questions of the Turkish

Team Selection Examination for the 37th IMO, written March 23 24, 1996.

Thanks again go to Ravi Vakil, Canadian Team Leader to the IMO at Mumbai

for forwarding these to me.

THE 37th IMO

First Day | March 23, 1996

Time: 4.5 hours

a , a , : : : , am are non-zero and k k km . Find a .

^

2. In a parallelogram ABCD with mA 90 , the circle with diam1996

=1

1996

tangent to this circle at A intersects the line BD at P . Show that the points

P , F , E are collinear.

3. Given real numbers 0 = x1 x2 x2n x2n+1 = 1 with

xi+1 , xi h for 1 i 2n, show that

1,h

2

n

X

x2ix2i+1 , x2i,1 1 + h .

2

i=1

Time: 4.5 hours

AC BD = fEg, and the parallels from E to the line segments AD ,

DC , CB , BA intersect AB , BC , CD , DA at the points K , L,

M , N , respectively. Compute the ratio

Area KLMN

.

Area ABCD

5.

6. For which ordered pairs of positive real numbers a; b is zero the

value of the limit of every sequence fxn g satisfying the condition

nlim axn+1 , bxn = 0 ?

!1

74

To round out the contests for your puzzling pleasure we give the two

papers of the Australian Mathematical Olympiad 1996. My thanks go to

Ravi Vakil, Canadian Team Leader of the IMO at Mumbai, once again, for

providing me with the contest materials.

Paper 1

and each diagonal of the pentagon is parallel to one of its sides. Prove that

all the angles in the pentagon are equal, and that all sides are equal.

2. Let px be a cubic polynomial with roots r1, r2, r3. Suppose that

p , 1 + p ,, 1 = 1000 . Find the value of 1 + 1 + 1 .

2

2

p0

f f f f

f f f f f

f f f f f f

f f f f f f f

f f f f f f

f f f f f

f f f f

A number of tubes in the bundle can be 1, 7, 19, 37 as shown, 61, 91; : : : .

If this sequence is continued, it will be noticed that the total number of tubes

is often a number ending in 69. What is the 69th number in the sequence

which ends in 69?

4. For which positive integers n can we rearrange the sequence

1, 2, : : : , n to a1, a2, : : : , an in such a way that jak , kj = ja1 , 1j 6= 0

for k = 2, 3, : : : , n?

Paper 2

number such that

i a1 a2 an ;

ii a1 + a2 + + an = 0;

iii ja1 j + ja2 j + + jan j = s.

Prove that

an , a1 2s .

n

75

the sides AB and AD respectively such that AP = CD and AQ = BC . Let

M be the point of intersection of AC and PQ. Show that M is the mid-point

of PQ.

7. For each positive integer n, let n denote the sum of all positive

integers that divide n. Let k be a positive integer and n1 n2 be an

in nite sequence of positive integers with the property that ni , ni = k

for i = 1, 2, : : : . Prove that ni is a prime for i = 1, 2, : : : .

8. Let f be a function that is de ned for all integers and takes only the

values 0 and 1. Suppose f has the following properties:

i f n + 1996 = f n for all integers n;

ii f 1 + f 2 + + f 1996 = 45.

Prove that there exists an integer t such that f n + t = 0 for all n for which

f n = 1 holds.

Now, an alternate and more general solution to problem 2 of the Dutch

Mathematical Olympiad, Second Round, 1993 than the one given in the Corner in the October 1998 number 1997: 197 , 1998: 330 .

2. Given a triangle ABC , A = 90 . D is the mid-point of BC , F

is the mid-point of AB , E the midpoint of AF and G the mid-point of FB .

AD intersects CE, CF and CG respectively in P , Q and R. Determine the

ratio P Q .

QR

Cq

q qD

qR

Pq Q

q

q

qB

Aq

E Fq G

Alternate Solution by Geo rey A. Kandall, Hamden, Connecticut, USA.

We rst establish the following:

Lemma.

PQ = CP EF CG .

QR CE FG CR

Proof.

QR

CQR

CEF CFG CQR

CP CQ EF CF CG = CP EF CG .

= CE CF FG CQ CR

CE FG CR

76

We now solve the problem, without using the hypothesis that A = 90 .

By the lemma

PQ = CP EF CG = CP CG .

QR CE FG RC CE RC

CD BA EP = 1 , hence EP = 1 ,

DB AE PC

PC 4

CP = 4 ; 1

CE 5

CD BA GR = 1 , hence GR = 3 , CG = 7 . 2

DB AG CR

CR 4

CR 4

PQ = 4 7 = 7 .

Consequently

QR 5 4 5

This method can be used with di erent ratios CD : DB and AE : EF :

FG : GB.

After the February number was nalized we received a package of solutions from Michael Selby, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario. This

included solutions to problems 1 through 4 of the Croatian National Mathematics Competition 4th Class May 13, 1994 for which the problems were

given 1997: 454 and the solutions 1999: 12 . He also sent a solution to

a problem of the Additional Competition for the Olympiad of the Croatian

National Mathematical Competition, given 1997: 454 .

1. Find all ordered triples a; b;c of real numbers such that for every

three integers x, y , z the following identity holds:

Set x = y = z = 1; we obtain ja + b + cj = 1

1

Set x = 1; y = z = 0 we obtain jaj + jbj + jcj = 1

2

Set x = 1; y = ,1, z = 0 we obtain ja , bj + jb , cj + jc , aj = 2

3

This system is symmetric. Without loss of generality we may assume

a b c.

Now 3 becomes 2a , c = 2 or a , c = 1. Substituting into 1 and

2 gives

j1 + b + 2cj = 1

4

77

and

j1 + cj + jbj + jcj = 1 .

5

Thus b + 2c = 0 or b + 2c = ,2.

If b + 2c = 0, then from 5

j1 + cj + 3jcj = 1 .

Since jcj 1, 1 + c 0, therefore 1 + c + 3jcj = 1 and c + 3jcj = 0. If

c 0, we have 4c = 0 and then c = 0. If c 0, ,2c = 0 giving c = 0.

Therefore b = ,2c = 0, a = 1 + c = 1, in this case.

In case b + 2c = ,2, substitution into 5 yields

j1 + cj + 2j1 + cj + jcj = 1 .

Since 1 + c 0, 31 + c + jcj = 1. If c 0, 3 + 4c = 1 and c = ,1 . This

2

is impossible.

If c 0, 3 + 3c , c = 1 giving c = ,1. Then b = 0 and a = 1 + c = 0.

Therefore we have the solution a = 0, b = 0, c = ,1, and these are the

solutions for a b c.

Hence there are six solutions

Next we turn to solutions by the readers to problems of the 17th AustrianPolish Mathematics Competition given in the February 1998 number 1998: 4 .

COMPETITION

Poland, June 29 July 1, 1994

1. The function f : R ! R satis es for all x 2 R the conditions

Show that f x + 1 = f x + 1 for all x 2 R.

78

Solutions by Michel Bataille, Rouen, France; by Pierre Bornsztein,

Courdimanche, France; by Pavlos Maragoudakis, Pireas, Greece; and by

Edward T.H. Wang, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario. We give

the solution by Bataille.

Let x be an arbitrary real number. Applying the given conditions to

x , 19 and x , 94 respectively, we obtain

f x , 19 f x , 19 and f x , 94 f x , 94 .

Now an easy induction shows that for all n 2 N,

f x + 19n f x + 19n , f x + 94n f x + 94n ,

f x , 19n f x , 19n , and f x , 94n f x , 94n .

Since 1 = 5 19 , 94 and 1 = 18 94 , 89 19, we get:

and

f x + 1 = f x + 5 19 , 94 f x + 5 19 , 94

f x + 5 19 , 94

= f x + 1 ,

f x + 1 = f x + 18 94 , 89 19 f x + 18 94 , 89 19

f x + 18 + 94 , 89 19

= f x + 1 ,

so that f x + 1 = f x + 1, as required.

Comment: the same result can be obtained from the more general hypothesis: for all x 2 R, f x + a f x + a and f x + b f x + b

where a and b are positive relatively prime integers. Indeed, the preceding proof adapts easily as we can nd positive integers m, n, p, q such that

ma , nb = 1 and pb , qa = 1.

2. The sequence fang is de ned by the formulae

2

+a

n

c0 = 4 and cn+1 = c2 , 2cn + 2 for n 0 .

n

Prove that

an = 2c0c1 : : : cn,1 for all n 1 .

cn

Courdimanche, France; by Murray S. Klamkin, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta. We give the solution of Klamkin, which gives an indication

of both types of solutions received.

79

Letting xn = cn n 1, we have xn+1 = x2 where x0 = 3. Hence,

,

n

xn = x2n and cn = 32 + 1. Since c1 = 10 and a1 = 4 it now su ces to

0

5

2an

show that an = 2c c c:::cn, satis es the recurrence an+1 = 1+an for n 0.

n

,

Also since 32n + 132n , 1 = 32n , 1, it follows multiplying by 3 ,1

3

1

that

2n

0 1

20

20

+1

2c0c1 : : : cn,1 = 3 , 1

cn

32n + 1

and by substitution and simpli cation, this satis es the recurrence relation

for an .

Comment: We can obtain another representation for an by letting it

equal tanh n , so that tanh n+1 = tanh 2n , subject to 1 = tanh 0 . It

2

,

,

then follows that an = tanh 2n 0 = tanh 2n arctan h 1 = tanh 2n,1 ln 3 .

2

4. Let n 2 be a xed natural number and let P0 be a xed vertex

of the regular n + 1 gon. The remaining vertices are labelled P1 , P2 , : : : ,

Pn, in any order. To each side of the n + 1 gon assign a natural number as

follows: if the endpoints of the side are labelled Pi and Pj , then ji , j j is the

number assigned. Let S be the sum of all the n + 1 numbers thus assigned.

Obviously, S depends on the order in which the vertices have been labelled.

a What is the least value of S available for xed n?

b How many di erent labellings yield this minimum value of S ?

Solution by Pierre Bornsztein, Courdimanche, France.

P0 Pi1

Pn

Pi2

Pik

e

montre, P0 Pn l'arc r liant P0 a Pn dans le sens contraire.

e

Notons S , la somme des nombres assign ssur P0 Pn idem pour S + .

e

Par d nition,

e

j0 , i1 + i1 , i2 + + ik,1 , ik + ik , nj = n

avec egalit ssi 0 i1 i2 ik n.

e

80

De m^ me,

e

S+ n

avec egalit
ssi les sommets sont class
s dans l'ordre croissant de 1 a n, d'ou

e

e

on en d
duit S = S , + S + 2n.

e

b Pour Pn x
il y a i sommets entre P0 et Pn , le long de P0 Pn ou

e

in2 10, : : : , n , 1g. Il y a donc i nombres a choisir dans f1, : : : ,n , 1g, d'ou

f

, ,

choix.

i

Les nombres, une foix choisis, sont alors dispos
s dans l'ordre croissant

e

de P1 a Pn : l'ordre est donc impos
.

e

De m^ me sur P0 Pn les nombres restants sont impos
s ainsi que leur

e

e

ordre.

P , ,

Il y a donc n=01 n,1 = 2n,1 choix pour la disposition.

i

i

5. Solve the equation

2

in integers.

Solutionsby Michel Bataille, Rouen, France; by Pierre Bornsztein, Courdimanche, France; and by Murray S. Klamkin, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta. We give the write-up of Bataille, although all three solvers used

the same approach.

Let s = x + y + z and

P X = X , xX , yX , z

= X 3 , sX 2 + xy + yz + zxX , xyz .

Then x + y y + z z + x = P s = sxy + yz + xz , xyz and the given

equation may be written

or 2 + P ,s = 0.

As P ,s = ,2x + y + z 2y + z + x2z + x + y , the equation

nally becomes

2x + y + z2y + z + x2z + x + y = 2 .

Either one of the three factors of the left-hand side is 2 and the other two

are 1, 1 or ,1, ,1 or one of the factors is ,2 and the other two are 1, ,1,

or ,1, 1.

The system

8

:

2x + y + z = 2

x + 2y + z = 1

x + y + 2z = 1

is equivalent to

x = 1, y = 0, z = 0.

81

The system

8

2x + y + z = 2

x + 2y + z = ,1

:

x + y + 2z = ,1

is equivalent to

x = 2 , y = ,1 , z = ,1 .

When one of the factors is ,2, the two corresponding systems lead to

4x + y + z = ,2, which is impossible for integral x, y , z .

Since x, y , z have symmetrical roles, there are six solutions altogether

for the triple x; y;z :

1; 0; 0 , 0; 1; 0 , 0; 0; 1 , 2; ,1; ,1 , ,1; 2; ,1 , ,1; ,1; 2 .

7.

x the di erence xa , x is divisible by n.

T.H. Wang, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario. We give Wang's

solution.

Clearly, n j xa , xb for all integers x if a = b. We show that besides

11, 22, : : : , 99 there are exactly three more such n's. These are: n = 15, 28,

and 48. We assume that a 6= b and start o by eliminating some impossible

values of n.

1 If a is even and b is odd, then setting x = 2 leads to n j 2a , 2b and

n j 2a +2b. Thus n j 2a+1, which is clearly impossible since the only possible

divisors of 2a+1 are powers of two while n 1 is odd.

2 If a is odd and b is even, then setting x = 2 again leads to the same

conclusion that n j 2a+1 . Hence n must be a power of two. Since a is odd,

the only possible values are n = 16 and 32. However, 16 6 j 2 , 26 and

32 6 j 23 , 22 , showing that there are no solutions in this case either.

3 If b = 0, then n is even and n j 2a , 1, which is clearly impossible.

Using 1, 2, and 3 we narrow the possible values of n down to the

following set of 32 integers:

f13 , 15 , 17 , 19 , 24 , 26 , 28 , 31 , 35 , 37 , 39 , 42 , 46 , 48 , 51 , 53; 57 ,

59 , 62 , 64 , 68 , 71 , 73 , 75 , 79 , 82 , 84 , 86 , 91 , 93 , 95; 97g .

Since n j xa , xb if and only if n j xb , xa we may assume that a b when

checking whether n satis es the given property. Note that

23 , 2 = 6 eliminates 13 and 31 ;

24 , 22 = 12 eliminates 24 and 42 ;

25 , 2 = 30 eliminates 51 but not 15 ;

25 , 23 = 24 eliminates 35 and 53 ;

26 , 22 = 60 eliminates 26 and 62 ;

26 , 24 = 48 eliminates 46 and 64 ;

82

27 , 2 = 126

27 , 23 = 120

27 , 25 = 96

28 , 22 = 252

28 , 24 = 240

28 , 26 = 192

29 , 2 = 510

29 , 23 = 504

29 , 25 = 480

29 , 27 = 384

eliminates 17 and 71 ;

eliminates 37 and 73 ;

eliminates 57 and 75 ;

eliminates 82 but not 28 ;

eliminates 84 but not 48 ;

eliminates 68 and 86 ;

eliminates 19 and 91;

eliminates 39 and 94 ;

eliminates 59 and 95 ;

eliminates 79 and 97 .

Therefore, the only possible values of n are: n = 15, 28 and 48. We now

show that they indeed satisfy the condition that n j xa , xb for all integers x.

a For n = 15, we show that x x5 mod 15. By Fermat's Little Theorem

Fthm, we have x3 x mod 3 and so x5 x3 x mod 3. Also,

x5 x mod 5. Hence x5 x mod 15 follows.

b For n = 28, we show that x2 x8 mod 28. Note that 28 = 22 7.

By Fthm, we have x7 x mod 7 and so x8 x2 mod 7. Further, we

claim that x8 x2 mod 4. This is obvious if x is even. On the other

hand, if x is odd, then x2 1 mod 4 implies x8 1 mod 4 and so

x8 x2 mod 4. Hence x8 x2 mod 28 follows.

c For n = 48, we show that x4 x8 mod 48. Note that 48 = 24 3.

By Fthm, we have x3 x mod 3 and so x4 x2 mod 3. Hence

x8 x4 mod 3. It remains to show that 16 j x8 , x4. This is clear if

x is even. If x is odd, then x = 2k + 1 for some integer k and thus

x8 , x4 = x4 x2 , 1x2 + 1 ,

= 2k + 14 ,4k2 + 4k 4k2 + 4k + 2

= 8kk + 1 ,2k2 + 2k + 1 2k + 14 ,

which is divisible by 16 since kk + 1 is even.

To summarize, n = 10a + b satis es n j xa , xb for all integers x if

and only if n = 11, 22, : : : , 99, 15, 28, 48.

Comment: This is one of the most intriguing problems that I have seen

lately. I will be really surprised if there is a much shorter solution!

8. Consider the functional equation f x;y = a f x;z + b f y;z

with real constants a, b. For every pair of real numbers a, b give the general

form of functions f : R2 ! R satisfying the given equation for all x, y ,

z 2 R.

Solution by Pierre Bornsztein, Courdimanche, France.

Soient a, b 2 R et pour tous x ,y ,z 2 R

f x;y = af x;z + bf y;z .

Alors :

83

Dans le cas ou x = y = z , f x; x = a + bf x;x donc a + b = 1 ou

f x; x = 0. Si a + b 6= 1, pour tout x 2 R, f x;x = 0 et donc pour z = y,

donne

f x;y = af x;y + bf y;y = af x; y .

Donc soit a = 1 ou f x;y = 0.

Dans le cas ou a = 1

f x;y = f x;z + bf y;z ,

observons qu'avec x = y , f x;x = 0 = f y;z 1 + b, et donc f 0 ou

b = ,1.

Maintenent si a = 1 et b = ,1

ou encore

pour tous x, y , z 2 R.

C'est a dire

pour tous x, y , z 2 R, et donc f z;y = ,f y;z . On pose f x; 0 = g x,

alors f 0;x = ,g x et

f x; y = f x; z + f z;y

= f x; 0 + f 0;y

= g x , g y .

Reciproquement, f x;y = g x , g y ou g est une fonction arbitraire.

Alors f x; y = f x;z + f z;y , et f convient.

Dans le cas ou a + b = 1, b = 1 , a, et s' crit

e

f x;y = af x; z + 1 , af y;z ,

et alors f x;x = f x;z et donc pour tous x, y 2 R, f x;y = f x;x.

Maintenant donne

f x;x = af x; x + 1 , af y;y ,

et par cons quence

e

Deux possibilit s se pr sentent. Soit a = 1 ou f x;x = f y;y = f x; y ,

e

e

et f est constante. Si a = 1, b = 0, alors f x;y = f x;z pour tous x,

84

e

fonctions conviennent.

En conclusion :

si a; b = 1; ,1, f x; y = g x , g y ou g : R ! R est arbitraire ;

si a + b 6= 1 et a; b 6= 1; ,1, f 0 ;

si a + b = 1 et a 6= 1 : f constante ;

si a; b = 1; 0 : f x; y = g x pour tous x; y 2 R ou g : R ! R est

arbitraire.

9. On the plane there are given four distinct points A, B, C , D lying

in this order on a line g , at distances AB = a, BC = b, CD = c.

a Construct, whenever possible, a point P , not on g , such that the angles

APB, BPC , CPD are equal.

b Prove that a point P with the property as above exists if and only if the

following inequality holds: a + bb + c 4ac.

Solution by Michel Bataille, Rouen, France.

a If P is a solution, then the lines PB and PC are interior bisectors

PA = BA

in 4APC and 4BPD respectively. Hence we have:

PC

PB = CB and P is simultaneously on E = M : MA = a BC

and

1

PD CD

MC b and

MB b

E2 = M : MD = c .

In the general case where a = b, denoting by B 0 the harmonic conjugate

6

of B with respect to A and C , E1 is the circle with diameter BB 0 and, when

a = b, E1 is the perpendicular bisector of the segment AC . Similar results

hold for E2 .

Conversely, we may construct E1 and E2 and, assuming that they are

secant, choose for P one of their two distinct points of intersection symmetPA = BA , we deduce that PB is one of the bisectors

rical about g . From

PC BC

of APC , more precisely the interior bisector in 4APC since B is between

A and C . Hence APB = BPC . Similarly BPC = CPD and nally:

APB = BPC = CPD.

b The above construction provides a point P solution whenever E1 and E2

are secant. We rst examine the general case where a = b and b = c: E1 and

6

6

E2 are circles with centres I1, I2 and radii r1, r2 respectively. These circles

are secant if and only if:

jr1 , r2j

I1I2

r1 + r2

1

k

Let us denote by k the real number such that BI 1 = BC so that jkj = r1.

b

85

1

b

b

ab , so that

2

Newton's relation, I1 B = I1 A I1 C , we obtain easily k =

a,b

ab . Similarly: r = cb .

r1 = ja , bj

2

jc , bj

2 , ac

2

b

We also compute: I1 I2 =

BC so that I1I2 = jb bjbaj,bacj cj .

b , ab , c

, j ,

We may compute: I1 A = ,

a2c , b2 + c2a , b2 , 2acja , bj jc , bj b2 , ac2

a2c , b2 + c2 a , b2 + 2acja , bjjc , bj

jb2 , ac2 , a2c , b2 + c2a , b2j 2acja , bj jc , bj

ja , bj jc , bj jb2 + ba + c , acj 2acja , bj jc , bj

,2ac b2 + ba + c , ac 2ac

,ac b2 + ba + c 3ac .

Since b2 + ba + c is positive, the latter condition is equivalent to

b2 + ba + c 3ac or a + bb + c 4ac.

E1 and E2 are both lines when a = b = c, but in this case they are

strictly parallel so that no point P exists and the condition

a + bb + c 4ac is not true either.

Lastly, suppose for instance that E1 is a line and E2 is a circle that is,

a = b and b = c. Since E1 is perpendicular to g at B,2E1 and E2 are secant

6

b

if and only if I2 B r2 . We obtain easily: I2 B =

jc , bj and the condition

becomes: b c and the inequality a + bb + c 4ac reduces to b c

as well. The proof of b is now complete.

number of the Corner. The Olympiad Season is nearly upon us. Send me your

national and regional Olympiads for use in the Corner. We also welcome your

nice solutions to problems that appear in the Corner.

86

BOOK REVIEWS

ALAN LAW

published by the Mathematical Association of America, 1996,

ISBN 0-88385-029-X, softcover, 262+ pages, $32.95.

Reviewed by Murray Klamkin, University of Alberta.

This is the fourth edition of a popular classic Carus monograph which

has been revised, updated and augmented by the author's son Harold P.

Boas. The previous editions covered sets, metric spaces, continuous functions and di erentiable functions. This edition adds a chapter on measurable

sets and functions, the Lebesgue and Stieltjes integrals, and applications. The

new material is a rewrite of a draft left over by the author at his death. This

book can be likened to a sequence of lectures on a variety of topics selected

from the foundations of analysis and is done in a friendly and lively manner.

Mathematically Speaking: A Dictionary of Quotations, selected and arranged

by Carl C. Gaither and Alma E. Cavazos-Gaither,

published by Institute of Physics Publishing, 1998,

ISBN 0-7530-0503-7, softcover, 484+xiii pages, $39.00 US.

Reviewed by Bruce Shawyer, Memorial University of Newfoundland.

The book contains hundreds of quotations from hundreds of authors, as

well as many apocryphal quotations from persons unknown. The quotations

are grouped into 199 sets, ordered by topics, running from ABSTRACTION to

ZERO. Most sections are just a few pages long, except for the topics MATHEMATICIAN and MATHEMATICS, which have 29 and 80 pages respectively.

Also included is a complete bibliography of the source material plus

two excellent indices, the SUBJECT BY AUTHOR INDEX and the AUTHOR BY

SUBJECT INDEX.

The quotations vary from the profound to the witty. There are quotations from plays, and quite a few are in poetry, including several mnemonics

for . Unfortunately, this reviewer's favourite is missing!

How I want a drink

3:1415

Alcoholic of course

926

After the heavy lectures

5358

Involving decimal fractions

979

Engineers can substitute quantum mechanics" for decimal fractions".

The authors quoted come from all di erent walks of life, from professional mathematicians and scientists to historians, journalists, philosophers,

87

poets, rap artists and writers. Some are famous, their names being almost

household words; others are much less known. As might be expected, by far

the majority of the quotations come from mathematicians and scientists.

To give a avour of this book, here is a selection of some of the shorter

quotations:

Some quotations from famous mathematicians

Richard Guy

Mathematics often owes more to those who ask questions than to

those who answer them.

Paul Halmos

The only way to learn mathematics is to do mathematics.

Leopold Kronecker

Number theorists are like lotus-eaters | having once tasted of this

food, they can never give it up.

George P

olya

Geometry is the art of correct reasoning on incorrect gures.

Some quotations from others

Ice-T

I write rhymes with addition and algebra, mental geometry.

G.K. Chesterton

Poets do not go mad; but chess-players do. Mathematicians go

mad, and cashiers; but creative artists very seldom.

John Updike

When you look into a mirror rorrim a otni kool uoy nehW

it is not yourself you see ees uoy esruoy ton si ti

but a kind of apish error rorre hsipa fo dnik a tub

posed in fearful symmetry yrtemmys lufraef ni desop

Mae West

A gure with curves always o ers a lot of interesting angles.

Unknown

Trigonometry is a sine of the times!

The book is a wonderful compendium and a great source of useful wisdom

for teachers of mathematics. It is very readable, and, once one has started

to read it, very di cult to put down.

88

No. 36

R.E. Woodrow

We begin with the problems of the Mini demi- nale 1996 of the Vingt

et uni me Olympiade Math
matique Belge, organized by the Belgian Mathe

e

ematics Teachers Society. Twenty- ve of the problems are multiple choice.

The remaining ve require an integer answer between 0 and 999 inclusive.

Students are given 90 minutes. My thanks go to Ravi Vakil, Canadian Team

Leader to the International Mathematical Olympiad at Mumbai for collecting

the materials.

OLYMPIADE MATHEMATIQUE BELGE

Mini demi- nale 1996

Mercredi 6 mars 1996

proche de 100 ?

2. Laquelle des propositions ci-dessous est la n egation de: Chaque

langue europ enne est parl e par l'un de nos guides au moins." ?

e

e

a Chacun de nos guides parle toutes les langues europ ennes.

e

b Chacun de nos guides parle une langue europ enne au moins.

e

c Aucun de nos guides ne parle aucune langue europ enne.

e

d L'un de nos guides ne parle aucune langue europ enne.

e

e L'une des langues europ ennes n'est parl e par aucun de nos guides.

e

e

3. Si P d esigne le p erimetre du triangle ABC et kABk, kAC k, kBC k

les longueures de ses c^ t s, laquelle des relations suivantes est correcte ?

oe

a kAB k = P=3

b kAB k P=3

c kAB k P=2

d kAB k + kAC k = 2P=3

e kAB k + kAC k 2P=3

4. Un parterre rectangulaire de 8 m sur 6 m est entour e ext erieurement

d'un sentier de 1; 5 m de large. Quelle est l'aire de ce sentier ?

a 23; 25 m2

b 37; 5 m2

c 42 m2

d 46; 5 m2

e 51 m2

89

sa vie, les gains de poids en grammes, et par rapport au poids a la naissance

d'un b b dont le poids a la naissance etait de 3; 250 kg.

e e

p g

400

200

0

,200

r

r r

r r

r r

2 4 r6 r 8 10 12 14 t jours

r r r

a 0; 100 kg b 3; 300 kg c 3; 350 kg d 3; 650 kg e 4; 250 kg

6. Si X , Y et Z sont les sommets d'un triangle, quel est le nombre de

parall logrammes admettant X , Y et Z pour sommets ?

e

a 1

b 2

c 3

d 4

e 6

7. Que vaut 3x2 , 7x2x3 , x2 + x , 2 ?

a 6x4 , 17x3 + 10x2 , 13x + 14.

b 6x5 , 17x4 + 10x3 , 13x2 + 14x.

c 6x5 + 17x4 + 10x3 + 13x2 + 14x.

d 6x6 , 17x5 + 10x4 , 13x3 + 14x2 .

e 6x6 , 3x4 , 14x3 + 10x2 , 7x + 8.

8. Sans r ponse pr eformul e | Une bille m etallique a la propri et e de

e

e

rebondir a une hauteur egale aux huit dixi mes de sa hauteur initiale; si elle

e

est l^ ch e d'une hauteur de 1; 25 m, quelle sera, en centim tres, la hauteur

a e

e

de son troisi me rebond ?

e

9. De combien augmente l'aire totale d'un cube lorsque la longueur de

chacune de ses ar^ tes augmente de 50 ?

e

a 50

b 125

c 225

d 237; 5

e 2500

10. Quatre sacs opaques contiennent :

Le sac A, une bille blanche et une bille rouge ;

Le sac B , deux billes blanches et deux billes rouges ;

Le sac C , deux billes blanches, une bille rouge et une bille noire ;

Le sac D, dix billes blanches et dix billes noires.

De quel sac faut-il tirer une bille au hasard pour avoir le plus de chances que

la bille tir e soit blanche ?

e

a Le sac A

b Le sac B

c Le sac C

d Le sac D

e Le choix est indi erent

90

a

e

b

c

d

e

chi res, il est certain que :

a chacun des trois nombres est sup rieur a 10 ;

e

b deux des nombres, au moins, sont inf rieurs a 50 ;

e

c aucun des trois nombres n'est sup rieur a 50 ;

e

d les trois nombres sont di erents ;

e le produit des trois nombres est inf rieur a 35 000.

e

13. Avant son d epart en vacances, une personne a achet e 3000 francs

fran ais pour 18 270 francs belges. Cette personne, en France, a d^ changer

c

u

a nouveau de l'argent: pour 10 000 francs belges, elle a re u 1600 francs

c

fran ais. Si elle avait achet en Belgique, avant son d part, tout l'argent

c

e

e

fran ais dont elle a eu besoin,

c

a elle aurait gagn 480 francs belges ;

e

b elle aurait gagn 256 francs belges ;

e

c cela serait revenu au m^ me ;

e

d elle aurait perdu 256 francs belges ;

e elle aurait perdu 480 francs belges.

pour un total de 100 F exactement. Parmi les suivants, quel est le nombre

de timbres a 5 F qu'elle ne peut pas avoir achet ?

e

a 5

b 8

c 9

d 11

e 17

o

la redescendre ensuite a la vitesse moyenne de 48 km h. Si la mont e a dur

e

e

22 min 30 s de plus que la descente, quelle est la longueur de cette c^ te ?

o

a 6 km

b 8 km

c 12 km

d 13; 5 km

e 15 km

91

16.

A

D

F

lequel les c^ t s oppos s sont paroe

e

all les et de m^ me longueur. Le trie

e

angle ABC est n cessairement ape

pliqu sur le triangle DEF par

e

b une sym trie orthogonale

e

c une sym trie central

e

d une rotation de 90

e aucune des transformations pr c dentes

ee

17. Quel est le nombre maximum de points communs a un cercle et

au bord d'un losange ?

a 2

b 4

c 6

d 8

e 10

18. Laquelle des a rmations suivantes est vraie ?

a Il existe des carr s qui ne sont pas des rectangles.

e

b Un carr n'est jamais un rectangle.

e

c Tout parall logramme est un losange.

e

d Tout losange est un parall logramme.

e

e Certains rectangles ne sont pas des parall logrammes.

e

19. Dix nombres sont tous inf erieurs a 20 et leur moyenne arithm etique

vaut 18. Laquelle des a rmations suivantes est certainement correcte a pro

pos de ces nombres ?

a L'un d'entre eux, au moins, est egal a 18.

b Un nombre pair d'entre eux sont egaux a 18.

c Un nombre impair d'entre eux sont egaux a 18.

d Ils sont tous sup rieus a 16.

e

e Ils sont tous positifs.

20. Sans r ponse pr formul ee | Les roues avant d'un wagonnet ont

e

e

7 cm de circonf rence et les roues arri re ont 9 cm de circonf rence. Lorsque

e

e

e

les roues avant ont fait 10 tours de plus que les roues arri re, de combien de

e

centim tres a avanc le wagonnet ?

e

e

21. La somme de deux nombres premiers est toujours

a un nombre pair ;

b un nombre impair ;

c un nombre premier ;

d strictement sup rieure a 3 ;

e

e inf rieure a 1000.

e

22. Le poids moyen des 30 e leves d'une classe est de 47 kg; si chacun

de ces el ves grossit de 3 kg, de combien augmentera le poids moyen ?

e

a 0; 1 kg

b 2 kg

c 3 kg

d 90 kg

e Une autre valeur

92

23.

10

20

10

repr sent ci-contre, lorsque la

e e

roue R fait un tour dans le sens des

aiguilles d'une montre, de combien

tourne la roue S ? Les nombres

indiqu s donnent le nombre de

e

dents de chaque engrenage. Deux

cercles concentriques repr sentent

e

deux roues solidaires du m^ me axe.

e

b De 2 tours dans le sens des aiguilles d'une montre.

c De 4 tours dans le sens des aiguilles d'une montre.

d De 2 tours dans le sens oppos a celui des aiguilles d'une montre.

e

e De 4 tours dans le sens oppos a celui des aiguilles d'une montre.

e

e

e

qui valaient au total 21 000 F, mais le grossiste lui a consenti une remise de

10. Ce marchand souhaite qu'en accordant une remise de 25 sur le prix

de vente a ch , il lui reste encore un b n ce egal a 30 du prix de vente

e

e e

r el. A combien doit-il a cher l'ourson ?

e

a 341; 25 F

alors,

b 360 F

c 400 F

d 34 125 F

e

e

e

e

b il existe n cessairement une sym trie orthogonale appliquant x sur y ;

e

e

c il existe n cessairement une translation appliquant x sur y ;

e

d il existe n cessairement une rotation appliquant x sur y ;

e

e aucune des propositions pr c dentes n'est vraie.

ee

93

son voyage aller, il a de face un vent de 40 km h; au retour, il a le m^ me vent

e

dans le dos. Quelle est sa vitesse moyenne sur l'ensemble du trajet ?

a 390 km h b 396 km h c 398 km h d 400 km h e 410 km h

Last issue we gave the problems of the Old Mutual Mathematical

Olympiad 1992. Thanks go to John Grant McLoughlin, Faculty of Education, Memorial University, St. John's, Newfoundland for the problem set

and solutions. Here are the answers:

1.

5.

9.

13.

17.

c

a

a

e

a

2.

6.

10.

14.

18.

b

c

b

a

e

3.

7.

11.

15.

19.

d

c

e

c

a

4.

8.

12.

16.

20.

c

d

b

e

e

That completes the Skoliad Corner for this issue. Please send me contest materials and suggestions for other features of the Corner.

XXXX

Y

YY

Y

X

XX

Y

X

YYY

YY

XXX

XX

YYY YY

Y

XX

YY

XXXXX

YYYY

94

MATHEMATICAL MAYHEM

Mathematical Mayhem began in 1988 as a Mathematical Journal for and by

High School and University Students. It continues, with the same emphasis,

as an integral part of Crux Mathematicorum with Mathematical Mayhem.

All material intended for inclusion in this section should be sent to the

Mayhem Editor, Naoki Sato, Department of Mathematics, Yale University,

PO Box 208283 Yale Station, New Haven, CT 06520 8283 USA. The electronic

address is still

mayhem@math.toronto.edu

The Assistant Mayhem Editor is Cyrus Hsia University of Toronto.

The rest of the sta consists of Adrian Chan Upper Canada College, Jimmy

Chui Earl Haig Secondary School, David Savitt Harvard University and

Wai Ling Yee University of Waterloo.

Non-mathematical Problem

In Problem Book for First Year Calculus, by George W. Bluman, SpringerVerlag, Problem 13.7 asks: Choose a non-mathematician:

a John von Neumann.

b Mick Jagger.

c Georg Cantor.

d Pablo Casals.

e Stanley I. Grossman.

f Ren
Descartes.

e

g Guy La eur.

The answer at the back of the book? Possibly b, d, g."

r

n , r n + r , 1 n = n n +2rr , 1 2rr :

r

The individual with the rst correct solution that is strictly combinatorial will

get a free book prize and the solution published here.

Reference

Tucker, Alan. Applied Combinatorics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Toronto.

1995 pp. 221.

95

Richard Hoshino

In his Oscar-winning role in the movie Rain Man, Dustin Ho man plays

an idiot savant who can perform complex calculations instantly in his head.

Like the Rain Man", various people have displayed their outstanding capacity for mental arithmetic on TV, and many others have written books teaching these powerful techniques. However, hardly any have ever ventured to

justify the validity of these algorithms, as the mathematics involved is surprisingly elementary. In this article, we detail some of the famous tricks that

the human calculators" have used over the years, explain why these methods work, and you will see that, with a little practice, you too can be a human

calculator.

Trick 1. Squaring two-digit numbers ending in 5.

To square any two-digit number that ends in 5, add one to the rst digit

and multiply that sum by the rst digit. This will be the rst two digits of

the answer. The last two digits will always be 25.

For example, 852 = 7225 since 8 8 + 1 = 8 9 = 72, and likewise,

2 = 625 since 2 3 = 6. We can extend this to larger numbers, for

25

example, 1952 = 38025, since 19 20 = 380.

If you are wondering why this method works, a little algebra will quickly

convince you:

Thus, the rst two digits will be AA + 1, and the last two digits will

be 25.

Let us take this idea one step further. Let us multiply pairs of two-digit

numbers whose tens digits are the same, and whose units digits sum to ten.

For example, 37 33 = 1221, 36 34 = 1224, and 98 92 = 9016.

Do you see the pattern? Like in the case above, the rst two digits of

the answer are determined in the same way. But what about the last two

digits? Do you see how they are obtained? If so, use a little algebra and

convince yourself that it always works.

Copyright c 1999 Canadian Mathematical Society

96

Trick 2. Squaring any two-digit number.

Take any two-digit number n. Now we know that

n2 = n2 , d2 + d2 = n , dn + d + d2 ,

so let us try to nd a value of d so that the product n , dn + d can be

easily calculated. Consider the multiple of 10 that is closest to n, and let the

di erence between the number and this multiple of 10 be d. For example, if

we take n = 87, then the multiple of 10 that is closest to 87 is 90, and since

90 , 87 = 3, we have d = 3. Similarly, if n = 94, we have d = 4.

If we perform this calculation for any integer n, then one of n , d or

n+d will be a multiple of 10, and the calculation becomes signi cantly easier.

The following examples illustrate this technique:

292 = 29 + 129 , 1 + 12 = 30 28 + 1 = 841 ,

962 = 96 + 496 , 4 + 42 = 100 92 + 16 = 9216 .

Use this technique to compute the following: 372 , 522, 19992.

One of the more interesting demonstrations performed by mathemagicians" is the calendar trick. Namely, an audience member calls out her

birthday, or some historical date, and the human calculator is able to tell her

what day of the week that event took place.

The rst thing to do is to memorize the following table:

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

It appears challenging to remember this, but there is an interesting pattern here. Reading the row of numbers from left to right in threes, we have

144, 025, 036 and 146. Notice that 144, 025 and 036 are perfect squares,

and the last number is just 2 more than the rst perfect square, 144. This

should make the memorization easier.

Let Y be the last two digits of the year in question. Let D be the day

we are searching for, and let M be the integer that corresponds to the month

in the above table. Thus, if we are searching for July 25th, 1978, Y would

be 78, D would be 25, and M would be 0, since July corresponds to 0.

Compute the value of

Y +D+M,

Y+ 4

and divide that sum by 7. Whatever remainder you get corresponds to the day

of the week you are seeking, namely 0 is Saturday, 1 is Sunday,

2 is Monday, 3 is Tuesday, 4 is Wednesday, 5 is Thursday, and 6 is Friday.

97

A small note to remember. If the year is a leap year, and the month is

January or February, you must subtract 1 from the total. This is due to the

fact that the extra day in a leap year occurs on February 29th, and so if the

day you are searching is before that, then the formula is o by one day.

Let us look at a historical date in the 20th century. The famous stock

market crash of 1929 occurred on October 29th , so let us use our formula to

determine what day of the week Black Tuesday" occurred.

We have Y = 29, M = 1, and D = 29. Hence b 29 c = 7, and our

4

sum is 29 + 7 + 29 + 1 = 66. Dividing this number by 7, we nd that the

remainder is 3. We conclude that October 29th, 1929 was indeed a Tuesday.

Unfortunately, this formula only works with dates in the 1900's, because in the Gregorian calendar, not all years that are divisible by 4 are leap

years. For example, 1800 and 1900 are not leap years, but 2000 is. And

thus, we must alter our formula to compensate for this. To calculate dates

in the 1800's, use the same formula, but go forward two days in the week.

To calculate dates in the 2000's, go one day back. If we use our formula, we

nd that January 1st, 2000 is a Sunday remember, 2000 is a leap year!. Go

back one day, because it really is a Saturday.

In the past, it was believed that a year had precisely 365:25 days, and

so we compensated for the extra quarter day by adding February 29th to our

calendar once every four years. Unfortunately, a year has 365:2422 days, so

we cannot add an extra day exactly once every four years. It would be nice

however if we could, for then this formula would always hold.

Using this method, determine what day of the week you were born on.

Trick 4. Extracting Cube Roots.

We now detail the method for determining the cube roots of all perfect

cubes under one billion.

First, you must rst learn the cubes of the integers 0 through 9.

n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

n3 0 1 8 27 64 125 216 343 512 729

Let us rst nd the cube root of numbers that are below one million.

Hence, the cube root will be at most 99. Say we want to nd the cube root of

314; 432. We separate the number into two parts, separated by the comma.

Thus, 314 is the rst part, and 432 is the second part. The desired cube root

has two digits. We will use the rst part to get the rst digit, and we will use

the second part to get the second digit.

Take the rst part and determine where it lies in the table of cubes. In

our example, 314 lies between 216 and 343. Thus, 216; 000 314; 432

343; 000, which implies that the desired cube root lies between 60 and 70,

since 603 = 216; 000 and 703 = 343; 000. Hence, it follows that the rst

digit of our cube root must be 6.

98

Now we determine the second digit. If we look at the table of cubes,

notice that each cube ends in a di erent digit. So if a certain cube ends in 2,

we know that its cube root must end in 8, because 8 is the only digit whose

cube ends in 2. Since 432 ends in 2, the second digit of the cube root must

be 8. Thus, the desired cube root is 68.

Before, you go further, determine the cube roots of the following numbers in your head: 157; 464; 185; 193; 778; 688; 12; 167.

With a little practice, you will nd that it is faster to do this exercise in

your head rather than punching it in your calculator!

So that we do not confuse the digits in the following example, let us

introduce some variables. Let n = 100p +10q + r3 ; that is n is the perfect

cube, and 100p +10q + r is the cube root of n, where p, q and r are its digits.

To do this trick, once again, you need to memorize a small table:

A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

B 1 7 9 5 3 8 6 2 4 10

Just keep repeating one-seven-nine- ve-three, eight-six-two-four-ten", to

remember the right order in the B row. It might help to notice that the rst

ve entries are odd, and the last ve entries are even.

Now, let us move on to the cubes of three-digit numbers. Let us say

we wanted to nd the cube root of n = 101; 847; 563. First, let us separate

this large number into three smaller ones, separated at the commas.

As we did before, we look at the rst part, 101, to determine what the

rst digit of the cube root is. Since 101 lies between 64 = 43 and 125 = 53 ,

we conclude that the p = 4. The last part is 563, which ends in a 3, and since

73 = 343, we see that r = 7. Hence, we determine the rst and last digits

the same way as we did before with the smaller numbers.

Now take n, and add and subtract the digits of this number in alternating fashion starting from the right. Thus, we compute

3 , 6 + 5 , 7 + 4 , 8 + 1 , 0 + 1 = ,7.

Now repeatedly add or subtract 11 to this number until we get a number

between 0 and 10 inclusive more formally, we say we take this number

modulo 11. Hence, ,7 becomes 4. Let this number be A. If you have

ever seen the test for divisibility by 11, you will see that n A mod 11.

Now take the number A, and look in the above table to determine

the corresponding number B . We see that A = 4 corresponds to

B = 5; thus we have B = 5. Finally, our second digit q is the value of

p + r , B mod 11; that is we add or subtract 11 until we get an integer

between 0 and 10 inclusive, and this will be our digit q . Thus, in our case,

p + r , B = 4 + 7 , 5 = 6, and so we have shown that q = 6.

Therefore, p = 4, q = 6 and r = 7; thus the cube root of

n = 101; 847; 563 is 467. Checking, we see that this is correct.

99

Let us summarize the algorithm.

i Use the rst part of n to determine the rst digit of the cube root. Call

this digit p.

ii Use the last digit of n to determine the last digit of the cube root. Call

this digit r.

iii Take the alternating sum of n to determine A, where A is between 0

and 10. That is, nd the A for which n A mod 11.

iv Use the table to nd the number B that corresponds to A.

v Determine the sum p + r , B , and reduce it modulo 11. This is q .

vi The number with rst digit p, second digit q and third digit r is your

desired cube root.

Now try to nd the cube roots of the following numbers. Note, you can

use a pencil and paper, but you are not allowed to use a calculator!

a 17; 173; 512, b 1; 860; 867, c 758; 550; 528,

d 84; 604; 519, e 170; 953; 875.

Let us now justify why this algorithm works. First of all, take each

value B in the table, and compute B 3 mod 11. You will nd that we will

get the corresponding value of A in each case. That is how the numbers are

determined. Note that there is a bijection between the elements of the two

rows in the table. If this were not the case, then this algorithm would not

work. We have

p , q + r3

A mod 11 .

And from the table, this implies that p , q + r B mod 11; that

is q p + r , B mod 11.

Therefore, q is uniquely determined, as are p and r from before.

With a little practice, you will become comfortable with all of the methods described in this article. Maybe you will even be able to come up with

better ways to perform the tricks described. Nevertheless, through practice

and perseverance, you too can be a human calculator.

100

Mayhem Problems

The Mayhem Problems editors are:

Adrian Chan Mayhem High School Problems Editor,

Cyrus Hsia Mayhem Advanced Problems Editor,

David Savitt Mayhem Challenge Board Problems Editor.

Note that all correspondence should be sent to the appropriate editor |

see the relevant section. In this issue, you will nd only solutions | the

next issue will feature only problems.

We warmly welcome proposals for problems and solutions. With the

new schedule of eight issues per year, we request that solutions from the last

issue be submitted in time for issue 2 of 2000.

Editor: Adrian Chan, 229 Old Yonge Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

M2P 1R5 all238@ipoline.com

H223. In each of the following alphametics, each letter in the addition represents a unique digit:

+

1 9 9 7

1 9 9 8

O L D and +

O L D .

Y E A R

Y E A R

For each alphametic, nd a solution, or prove that a solution does not exist.

Solution. First, we show that the second alphametic has no solution.

If either L or D is greater than 1, then there will be a carry involved in each

step of the addition. Most importantly, from the third column, we obtain

that 1 + 9 + O E mod 10, which implies that O E mod 10.

Thus, O and E represent the same digit, which we cannot have. Hence,

a solution must satisfy LD = 01; that is L = 0 and D = 1. But this leads to

1 9 9 8

O 0 1,

Y E 9 9

to this alphametic.

A solution to the rst alphametic must satisfy L = 0 and D = 1, or

L = 0 and D = 2 by the same reasoning as above. Setting L = 0 and

101

possibilities, for example

1 9 9 7

4 0 1 .

2 3 9 8

BQC , CRD, and DSA, where P , Q, R, and S are points outside of the

square.

a Prove that PQRS is a square.

b Determine the ratio PQ=AB . See how many ways you can solve this!

Solution.

P

60

60

S

D

R

a In the gure, PAS = PBQ = QCR = RDS = 150 , and

AP = AS = BP = BQ = CQ = CR = DR = DS, so triangles

PAS, PBQ, QCR, and RDS are congruent. Hence, PQ = QR = RS =

SP . Also, PAS = 150 , so SPA = PSA = 15 , and SPQ =

APB + BPQ + BPQ = 15 + 60 + 15 = 90 , and by symmetry,

PQR = QRS = RSP = 90 as well, so PQRS is a square.

b By the Cosine Law,

= 2AB 2 , 2AB 2 cos 150 = 2AB 2 1 + cos 30

!

PQ2 = 2 1 + p3 = 2 + p3 = 4 + 2p3

= AB2

2

2

s

PQ = 4 + 2p3 = 1 + p3 = p2 + p6 .

= AB

p2

2

2

102

are originally sitting on 1. On each move, you must stand up and sit down

on an adjacent chair. Make 19 moves, then take away chairs 1 and 5. Then

make another 97 moves, with the three remaining chairs. No matter how

the moves are made, you will always end up on chair 3. Why is this the case?

Solution. Say that chairs 1, 3, and 5 are odd chairs and that chairs 2

and 4 are even chairs. After 1 move, we are on an even chair. After 2 moves,

we are on an odd chair. By a simple parity argument, after 19 moves we

must be on an even chair. Thus, we take away chairs 1 and 5, and are left

with two even chairs and one odd chair.

By parity again, after 97 moves, we will be on an odd chair, namely

chair 3. Hence, we will always end up on chair 3.

H226. The smallest multiple of 1998 that consists of only the digits

0 and 9 is 9990.

a What is the smallest multiple of 1998 that consists of only the digits 0

and 3?

b What is the smallest multiple of 1998 that consists of only the digits 0

and 1?

Solution. a Let N be the smallest multiple of 1998 that only consists

of the digits 0 and 3. Since 1998 = 6 333, we have that 333 divides N=6.

By de nition, N is of the form

for some integers a1 a2 an 0. Then,

N = 5 10a ,1 + 5 10a ,1 + + 5 10an,1 ,

1

which implies that N=6 is an integer that consists of only the digits 0 and 5.

Since 9 divides 333, 9 must divide N=6. By a well known divisibility test, the

number of 5's in N=6 must be a multiple of 9. Hence, N=6 555 555 555,

or N 3 333 333 330.

Checking, we nd that 1998 does indeed divide 3 333 333 330, so this

is the multiple of 1998 we seek.

b Let N be the smallest multiple of 1998 that consists of only the digits 0

and 1. Then N is of the form

for some integers a1 a2 an 0. The last digit of N must

be a 0. Note that 1998 divides N if and only if 999 divides N=2, which

1

103

in turn occurs if and only if 999 divides N=10, so henceforth we consider

N=10 = 10a ,1 + 10a ,1 + + 10an,1. Let bi = ai , 1 for all i.

Let a, b, and c be the number of exponents bi which are congruent to

0, 1, and 2 modulo 3 respectively. Then

1

10

= 10b + 10b + + 10bn

a + 10b + 100c

0 mod 999 ,

1

since 103 1 mod 999. Note that a + 10b + 100c 0 mod 999 implies

that 10a + 100b + c 0 and 100a + b + 10c 0, which we obtain by

multiplying by 10 and 100 respectively. We consider possible values of a, b,

and c.

Suppose that c 10. Since a + 10b + 100c a + 10b + 100c , 10 +

1000 a + 1 + 10b + 100c , 10 mod 999, the triple a + 1; b; c , 10

is also a solution. Similarly, if b 10 or a 10, then we can obtain another

solution by using the two congruences derived above. Hence, by using this

reduction, for any given solution, we can obtain a solution where a, b, and c

are all at most 9. There is no danger of being caught in a cycle, since each

application of the reduction decreases the sum a + b + c by 9.

Now consider such a reduced solution. Each of a, b, and c is at most 9,

but if any is less than 9, then it is apparent that a + 10b + 100c 999, so

the congruence a + 10b + 100c 0 mod 999 cannot hold. Therefore, the

only solution with all of a, b, and c at most 9 is a = b = c = 9. This leads

to the number

N = 111:::1 .

10 | z

27 1's

We have ruled out the case a + b + c 27, and all values such that

a + b + c 27 must lead to a number with at least 27 digits. Therefore, the

desired minimal multiple is

N = 111z 1 0 .

| :::

27 1's

104

Advanced Solutions

Editor: Donny Cheung, c o Conrad Grebel College, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. N2L 3G6 dccheung@uwaterloo.ca

numbers?

Solution.

The answer is yes. The problem reduces to a special case of Pell's equation. Pell's equation is the name given to diophantine equations of the form

x2 , dy2 = 1, where d is a positive, non-square integer.

We want to show that there is an in nite number of integers n such

that the nth triangular number nn , 1=2 is a perfect square. Assume that

nn , 1=2 = a2, or2equivalently nn , 1 = 22a2. By completing the square,

we obtain 2n , 1 , 8a2 = 1, or 2n , 1 , 22a2 = 1.

In other words, the problem reduces to showing that there is an in nite

number of pairs of integer solutions to the equation x2 , 2y 2 = 1. Here

x = 2n , 1 and y = 2a. This is a particular case of Pell's equation, which

has in nitely many solutions. First, note that x0 ; y0 = 3; 2 is a speci c

solution. Then note that for any solution x; y , 3x + 4y; 2x + 3y is also

a solution:

3x + 4y 2 , 22x + 3y 2 = 9x2 + 24xy + 16y2 , 8x2 , 24xy , 18y 2

= x2 , 2y 2 = 1 .

Furthermore, if x is odd and y is even, then 3x +4y is odd and 2x +3y

is even. In this way, we can generate an in nite number of solutions to

x2 , 2y2 = 1 starting from 3; 2. Thus, setting n = xth 1=2, we nd that

+

there is an in nite number of integers n such that the n triangular number

is a perfect square.

A210. Proposed by Naoki Sato.

Let P be a point inside circle C . Find the locus of the centres of all

circles ! which pass through P and are tangent to C .

Solution.

Let the centre of circle C be O and its radius R. We claim that the locus

is an ellipse with foci at P and O, with semi-major axis length R=2. To see

this, let D be a circle passing through P and tangent to the circle C as shown.

Let Q be the centre of this circle.

105

D

r

C

r

qP

q

Q O

show that PQ + QO is a constant. Let the radius of circle D be r. Since the

two circles C and D are tangent, the common tangent point is collinear with

the centres O and Q as shown. Then OQ = R , r, and PQ is the radius of

the circle. Therefore, PQ + QO = r + R , r = R. Thus, the locus is an

ellipse with foci at P and O. Further, the constant is R, so the length of the

ellipse's semi-major axis is R=2.

A211. Do there exist a convex polyhedron and a plane, not passing

through any of its vertices, and intersecting more than 2=3 of all of the edges

of the polyhedron?

Polish Mathematical Olympiad, rst round

Solution.

We rst prove a lemma.

Lemma. For any polyhedron with E edges and F faces, we have the

inequality 2E 3F .

Proof. Each face has at least three edges, so there is a total of at least

3F edges, counting each edge twice. Each edge is counted once for the two

faces it attaches. The total number of edges is given by E , so 2E 3F .

Suppose on the contrary that there are a convex polyhedron and a plane,

not passing through any of its vertices, and intersecting more than 2=3 of all

the edges. Let E , F , and V denote the number of edges, faces, and vertices of

the polyhedron respectively. The plane cuts the polyhedron into a polygonal

region. Suppose the polygon formed in this way has n vertices, and hence

n sides. Each vertex is the intersection of an edge of the polyhedron with

the plane. By assumption, n 2E=3. Now each edge of the polygon is the

intersection of a face of the polyhedron with the plane. Thus, the number of

faces of the polyhedron is at least n. That is, F n.

Together with the lemma, we obtain that 2E=3 F n 2E=3,

which is a contradiction.

106

Editor: David Savitt, Department of Mathematics, Harvard University,

1 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA, USA 02138 dsavitt@math.harvard.edu

This issue, we will be delaying the challenge board solutions until a

later issue. The observant reader will have noticed that the schedule for the

high school and advanced sections have been asynchronous with that of the

challenge board section; this will x this problem.

Note: Although the editor listed, as the proposer for C83 CRUX with

MAYHEM, Vol. 25, Issue 1, the person from whom he heard the problem,

the editor is aware that C83 is an old question. In fact, a version of the

problem has appeared in a competition as recently as 1996, when it was used

in a Romanian IMO team selection contest. Thanks to Mohammed Aassila

for bringing this to our attention.

Jimmy Chui, student, Earl Haig S.S.

that

p

p

p

a + b , c + b + c , a + c + a , b pa + b + pc ,

1996 APMO, Problem 5

Solution. Let s = a + b + c=2, the semi-perimeter, and let x = s , a,

y = s , b, and z = s , c. Then a = y + z, b = z + x, and c = x + y. Note

that x, y , and z are all positive, since x = b + c , a=2, etc., and a, b, and c

are the lengths of the sides of a triangle. This is known as the infamous Ravi

Substitution Ed. at least in Canadian IMO circles . Hence, the inequality

is equivalent to

Recall that the Arithmetic Mean Quadratic Mean AM QM inequality

states that

s

a+b

2

a2 + b2

2

107

for all a, b 0. Then, we have that

2

2 r

2

r

r

2x + 2y + 2y + 2z + 2z + 2x AM QM

2 p

2p

2

= pz + x + x + y + y + z :

Equality holds if and only if x = y = z ; that is, if and only if a = b = c.

triangle, implementing the Ravi Substitution will often alter the expression

to a more manageable form.

1. a Three people, Aretha, Bob, and Chai, throw dice upon the condition that the one who has the lowest result shall give each of

the others the sum of money each of the two winners has already.

Aretha loses rst, Bob loses second, and Chai loses the third game.

They discovered that each nished with the same amount of money.

Express the amount of money that each one had at the beginning

in terms of the amount that each had at the end of the third game.

b Find all integer solutions for x, y , and z :

xy + z = 32 ,

yx + z = 65 ,

zx + y = 77 .

2. a Find the sum of the rst 22 terms of the geometric series having

p

rst term i and ratio 1 + i, where i = ,1. Give your answer in

the form a + bi, where a, b 2 R.

b A three-dimensional gure is de ned by the equation

4jxj + 3jy j + 6jz j = 12 .

Identify this gure and determine its volume.

3. A sequence of integers is de ned by the following recursion: x1 = 2,

x2 = 5, and xk = xk,1 + 2xk,2 for k 2. Prove that

n,1 +

n

xn = 7 2 3 ,1 .

108

4. The screen of a drive-in theatre is p units tall and is situated on a hill

q units high. A car is situated a distance x units from the screen such

that the angle subtended by the screen is a maximum. Show that the

p

maximum value of occurs when x = q p + q .

6

p

6 ?

?

5. The lengths of the sides of a triangle are 8, 8, and 11. Find the length

of one of the angle trisectors drawn to the longest side.

6. Consider the set of odd numbers f1, 3, 5, : : : , 101g.

a How many combinations of two distinct numbers can be formed

from this set?

b Determine the sum of the products of the pairs in a.

7. For any convex quadrilateral ABCD, the diagonals AC and BD intersect at E . The centroids of triangles ABE , BCE , CDE , and DAE are

P , Q, R, and S respectively.

a Prove that PQRS is a parallelogram.

b Find the ratio of the area of the parallelogram PQRS to the original quadrilateral.

Do question 8 or 9:

8. Seventeen dots are arranged so that no three are collinear. Each pair of

dots is connected by a line segment which may be drawn using one of

three colours. Prove that there are at least three points connected to

each other with the same colour.

9. Prove the following theorem: If the bisectors of a pair of opposite exterior angles of a cyclic quadrilateral are parallel, then the angles at the

other two vertices are right angles.

109

Final Round

4. The polynomial px of degree n has real coe cients, and px 0 for

all x. Show that

px + p0x + p00x + + pnx 0 .

Iran.

have

Put x = px + p0 x + + pnx. Since pn+1x = 0, we

Now, de ne x = xe,x . Then

exx = px + ex x + ex0x ,

1

0x = ,pxe,x ,

and obviously, for all x 2 R, 0 x 0, so x is a decreasing function.

On the other hand, the degrees of p0 , p00 , : : : , are less than n, and the leading coe cient in both polynomials px and x are equal. The following

lemma is easy to prove:

Lemma. For a non-zero polynomial px, the following two are equivalent:

i limx!+1 px = +1.

ii The leading coe cient of px is positive.

Using the lemma, we nd that x 0 for su ciently large values

of x, and the same is true for x. But x is a decreasing function, so

x 0 for all x. The same is also true for x.

110

PROBLEMS

Problem proposals and solutions should be sent to Bruce Shawyer, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada. A1C 5S7. Proposals should be accompanied by a solution, together with references and other insights which

are likely to be of help to the editor. When a submission is submitted without a solution, the proposer must include su cient information on why a

solution is likely. An asterisk ? after a number indicates that a problem

was submitted without a solution.

In particular, original problems are solicited. However, other interesting problems may also be acceptable provided that they are not too well

known, and references are given as to their provenance. Ordinarily, if the

originator of a problem can be located, it should not be submitted without

the originator's permission.

To facilitate their consideration, please send your proposals and solutions on signed and separate standard 8 1 "11" or A4 sheets of paper.

2

These may be typewritten or neatly hand-written, and should be mailed to

the Editor-in-Chief, to arrive no later than 1 October 1999. They may also

be sent by email to crux-editors@cms.math.ca. It would be appreciated if

A

email proposals and solutions were written in LTEX. Graphics les should

be in epic format, or encapsulated postscript. Solutions received after the

above date will also be considered if there is su cient time before the date

of publication. Please note that we do not accept submissions sent by FAX.

Guang Zhou City, Guang Dong Province, China, and Edward T.H. Wang, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario.

For 1 x e y or e x y , prove that xx y xy

xyx yx.

2415. Proposed by Paul Yiu, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.

Given a point Z on a line segment AB , nd a Euclidean construction of

a right-angled triangle ABC whose incircle touches hypotenuse AB at Z .

2416. Proposed by V aclav Konecn y, Ferris State University, Big

Rapids, Michigan, USA.

Given 4ABC , where C is an obtuse angle, suppose that M is the

mid-point of BC and that the circle with centre A and radius AM meets

BC again at D. Assume also that MD = AB. The circle, ,, with centre

M and radius MB meets AB at E. Let H be the foot of the perpendicular

from A to BC extended. Suppose that AC and EH intersect at I .

Find the angles IAH and AHI as function of ABC .

This proposal was inspired by problem 2316.

111

UK.

2417.

2418.

6

BAC meet the circumcircle of 4ABC again in L and M respectively. The

points L0 and M 0 lie on the extensions of AL and AM respectively, and

satisfy AL = LL0 and AM = MM 0 . The circles ALM 0 and AL0 M meet

again at P .

Prove that AP k BC .

UK.

In 4ABC , the lengths of the sides BC , CA, AB are 1998, 2000, 2002

respectively.

Prove that there exists exactly one point P distinct from A and B on

the minor arc AB of the circumcircle of 4ABC such that PA, PB , PC are

all of integral length.

2419. Proposed by K.R.S. Sastry, Dodballapur, India.

Find all solutions to the alphametic:

M

D

E

I

B

S

X

A

U

E

S

M

1. The letters before the decimal points represent base ten digits, and addition is done in that base.

2. The letters after the decimal points represent base six digits, and addition is done in that base.

3. The same letter stands for the same digit, distinct letters stand for distinct digits, and initial digits are non-zero.

Readers familiar with cricket will realize that this is a real world problem!

Ed. Readers not familiar with cricket may be interested to learn that an

`over' consists of six `deliveries'!!

2420. Proposed by D.J. Smeenk, Zaltbommel, the Netherlands.

Suppose that x, y and z are integers. Solve the equation:

x2 + y2 = 2420z2 .

2421.

What is the probability that the k numbers in the Las Vegas lottery on

a given payout day do not include two consecutive integers? The winning

numbers are an unordered random choice of k distinct integers from 1 to n,

where n k.

112

2422?.

Let A, B , C be the angles of an arbitrary triangle. Prove or disprove

that

p

1+1+1

9 3

.

1=3

A B C

Let x1 , x2 , : : : , xn 0 be real numbers such that x1 +x2 +: : :+xn = 1,

where n 2 is a natural number. Prove that

n

1 Y n , xk .

1+ x

k

k=1 1 , xk

n

Y

k=1

2424. Proposed by K.R.S. Sastry, Dodballapur, India.

In 4ABC , suppose that I is the incentre and BE is the bisector

of ABC , with E on AC . Suppose that P is on AB and Q on AC

such that PIQ is parallel to BC . Prove that BE = PQ if and only if

ABC = 2 ACB.

2425. Proposed by K.R.S. Sastry, Dodballapur, India.

Suppose that D is the foot of the altitude from vertex A of an acuteangled Heronian triangle ABC that is, one having integer sides and area.

Suppose that the greatest common divisor of the side lengths is 1. Find the

smallest possible value of the side length BC , given that BD , DC = 6.

NOTE OF THANKS

In the December 1998 issue of CRUX with MAYHEM 1998: 538

reference was made to whether a copy of the book Exercises de G
om
trie by

e e

F. Gabriel-Marie was available anywhere in Canada.

Dr. Kenneth Williams, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Carleton University, has donated a copy to the Canadian Mathematical Society

for the use of the Editors of CRUX with MAYHEM. We are very grateful to

Dr. Williams for his generous gift. Having ready access to this book will be

of considerable assistance to the members of the Editorial Board of CRUX

with MAYHEM.

113

SOLUTIONS

No problem is ever permanently closed. The editor is always pleased to

consider for publication new solutions or new insights on past problems.

2255. 1997: 300; 1998: 378 Proposed by Toshio Seimiya, Kawasaki,

Japan.

Let P be an arbitrary interior point of an equilateral triangle ABC .

Prove that j PAB , PAC j j PBC , PCB j.

The published solution 1998: 378-379 is incorrect. More precisely,

that solution deals with an inequality that is much simpler than what is given;

among other things, our given inequality does not extend to arbitrary isosceles triangles. We thank Toshio Seimiya for these remarks. Here is his solution.

II. Solution by Toshio Seimiya, Kawasaki, Japan.

Let M be the mid-point of BC . Then AM is the perpendicular bisector

of BC , and if P lies on it, the given relation holds with both sides zero.

We may therefore assume, without loss of generality, that P is an interior

point of 4ABM . We then have PAB

PAC and PBC PCB,

so that j PAB , PAC j = PAC , PAB and j PBC , PCB j =

PBC , PCB. Thus the relation we wish to prove reduces to

PAC , PAB

PBC , PCB .

1

Let Q be the re ection of P in the line AM ; then PAB = QAC and

PCB = QBC . Thus

PAC , PAB = PAC , QAC = PAQ ,

and

PBC , PCB = PBC , QBC = PBQ ,

so that 1 becomes

PAQ

PBQ .

2

Since PQ ? AM and AM ? BC we get PQkBC . Let PQ meet AB and

AC at R and S respectively, and let T be the re ection of B in RS. Then

PTQ = PBQ .

3

Since AM is the perpendicular bisector of both PQ and RS , the circumcentres of 4APQ and 4ARS lie on AM , so that the circumcircle of ABC

is tangent at A to the circumcircles of both 4ARS and 4APQ, which we

denote by , and ,0 respectively. Note that ,0 is contained in ,. Because

TRA = TRQ , ARQ = BRQ , ARQ = 120 , 60 = 60 , while

ASR = 60 , it follows that TRA = ASR. Hence RT is tangent to , so

114

that T is a point outside , and, consequently, T is a point outside ,0 . Since

A and T are on the same side of PQ, we have

PAQ

PTQ .

4

Summary of Seimiya's further comments.

The above argument extends to triangles for which B = C 60 ;

that is j PAB , PAC j j PBC , PCB j also for isosceles triangles

when A 60 . On the other hand, when B = C 60 one can nd

positions for P where the given inequality fails to hold.

Suppose that ABC is a triangle and that P is a point of the circumcircle,

distinct from A, B and C . Denote by SA the circle with centre A and radius

AP . De ne SB and SC similarly. Suppose that SA and SB intersect at P

and PC . De ne PB and PA similarly.

Prove that PA , PB and PC are collinear.

Solution by 12 of the 17 solvers; the notation of our featured solution

is by Florian Herzig, student, Cambridge, UK.

Since SA and SB are symmetric with respect to their line of centres

AB, their intersections P and PC are also symmetric with respect to this

line. Let QC be the mid-point of PPC , etc. By the above conclusion, QC is

the foot of the perpendicular from P onto AB . The points QA , QB and QC

are collinear since they determine the Simson or Wallace line of P with

respect to 4ABC . A dilatation with centre P and factor 2 takes QA to PA ,

etc. Hence PA , PB and PC are collinear as well in a line parallel to the

Simson line .

Also solved by MICHEL BATAILLE, Rouen, France; NIELS BEJLEGAARD, Stavanger,

Norway; FRANCISCO BELLOT ROSADO, I.B. Emilio Ferrari, Valladolid, Spain; MANSUR

BOASE, student, Cambridge, England; GORAN CONAR, student, Gymnasium Vara din,

z

Vara din, Croatia; NIKOLAOS DERGIADES, Thessaloniki, Greece; WALTHER JANOUS, Ursuz

linengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria; MICHAEL LAMBROU, University of Crete, Crete, Greece;

GERRY LEVERSHA, St. Paul's School, London, England; JOEL SCHLOSBERG, student, Bayside, NY, USA; TOSHIO SEIMIYA, Kawasaki, Japan; D.J. SMEENK, Zaltbommel, the Netherlands; PARAYIOU THEKLITOS, Limassol, Cyprus; G. TSINTSIFAS, Thessaloniki, Greece; JOHN

VLACHAKIS, Athens, Greece; and the proposer.

Schlosberg found the problem in a slightly di erent form on page 43 of Ross

Honsberger's Episodes in 19th and 20th Century Euclidean Geometry. Bellot informs us that

the line PA PB PC is called the Steiner line of P with respect to 4ABC ; its properties are discussed in Y. and R. Sortais, La g om trie du triangle, Exercises r solus, Hermann, Paris, 1987.

e e

e

Both he and Seimiya report that the line passes through the orthocentre of 4ABC .

115

2312.

r

The r n gonal number is given by P n;r = n , 2 r2 , n , 4 2 ,

where n 3, r = 1, 2, : : : .

Prove that, in the interval P n;r; P n; r + 1 , there is an n , 1

gonal number.

Solution by Florian Herzig, student, Cambridge, UK.

Assume that for some n 3 and r, s 1,

th

P n , 1; s P n;r P n;r + 1 P n , 1; s + 1 .

Therefore P n , 1; s + 1 , P n , 1; s P n;r + 1 , P n;r.

1

Now

2

2

P n;r + 1 , P n;r = n , 2 r + 1 , r , n , 4 1

2

2

= rn , 2 + 1 .

Similarly, P n , 1; s + 1 , P n , 1; s = sn , 3 + 1.

Hence, from the last inequality above, sn , 3+1 rn , 2+1, and thus

n,

n 4 and s rn , 32 .

Using the fact that P n , 1; s, as a real function in s, is strictly increasing for all s 1 veri ed by di erentiation, we have

2 2

n,

2

P n , 1; rn , 32 = n , 2 r2 , n ,n ,n , 5 r

n , 3

3 2

P n;r;

n , 22 n , 2 and n , 2n , 5 n , 4 .This contradicts 1

since

n,3

n,3

and hence it follows that in P n;r; P n;r + 1 there is an n , 1 gonal

P n , 1; s

number.

CHRISTOPHER J. BRADLEY, Clifton College, Bristol, UK; RICHARD I. HESS, Rancho

Palos Verdes, California, USA; WALTHER JANOUS, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria;

MICHAEL LAMBROU, University of Crete, Crete, Greece; and the proposer.

It is worth noting that all seven solutions involved di erent methods. Boase showed

lq

m

that P n , 1; n,2 always lies in the interval P n; r; P n; r +1 . Janous and others

n,3

noted that the involvement of n , 1 gonal numbers implies that n , 1 3; that is, n 4.

Referring to the geometry involved, the proposer noted that the problem can be reformulated:

Prove that there are just one or just two n , 1 gonal numbers in P n; r; P n; r + 1 .

116

Let N be a non-negative integer and let a and b be complex numbers

with a, b 62 f0, ,1, ,2, : : : , ,n , 1g. Find a closed form expression for

n

X

,1k ,

k=0 ak bn,k

ak = aa + 1 : : : a + k , 1, k 2 N.

Solution by Michael Lambrou, University of Crete, Crete, Greece.

If S a; b; n denotes the sought sum, we show by induction on n that

, n

+1

Sa; b;n = a ,a1nb ++ , 1 ab ,b1n+1 .

+ n 2 n n

1

+b,

b

Sa; b; 1 = 1 , a = a, bba, 1ab 1 = a ,a1ab, 1, 1b .

b

a+

+ , ab

for all c and t, and the observation

Sa; b; n + 1

n+1

n

X

X

,1k

,1k

, n+1

=

= 1 a b + 1 + a1

b k=0 k

n+1

n,k

k=0 ak bn+1,k

, n+1

= 1 Sa; b + 1; n + a1

b

n+1

n +1 , n+1

, +1

= 1 a+ b1nn ,+ ,1 b+n1 + a1

b a + 1an b n

n+1

nbn+1a + n + ,1n+1a + b + n , 1bn+1

= a , 1n+2 + ,1 a + b + n , 1a b

n+1 n+1

a , 1n+2 + ,1n+1b , 1n+2 ,

= a + b + n , 1a b

n+1 n+1

as required.

Also solved by KEE-WAI LAU, Hong Kong; and the proposer. One other reader submitted

a solution which was not in closed form.

Lau notes that a + b + n , 2 6= 0 is required for this problem, and that if a + b + n , 2 = 0

then the given expression likely does not have a closed form.

117

n

X

The proposer gives a similar expression for ,1kak bn,k , and lists some comk=0

binatorial identities as special cases of these two results. For instance, from the formula for

S 1=2; 1=2; 2n and the observation that 1=2k = 4,k 2k!=k! he obtains

,

2n

X ,1k 4n

1

;

, 2n2k =

1 , 2n

k=0

k

n

X

and as a special case of his formula for ,1kak bn,k he gets

k=0

2n

X ,1k

2n + 1

,2n =

n+1 .

k=0 k

2314.

Given triangle ABC with AB AC . The bisectors of angles B and C

meet AC and AB at D and E respectively, and DE intersects BC at F .

1

Suppose that DFC = 2 DBC , ECB . Determine angle A.

Solution by Florian Herzig, student, Cambridge, UK.

First we show that DI = IE where I is the incentre. We have

2

2

= ECF + EFC = DEC .

Since DIC = DEC + EDB , it follows that DI = EI . Now by the

Sine Law:

AI = ID = IE = AI

sin ADI

sin AEI

sin A

sin A

2

2

and hence either ADI = AEI or ADI + AEI = 180 . From the rst

of these it easily follows that the angles B and C are equal, a contradiction.

From the second it follows that the quadrilateral AEID is cyclic. Hence

180 = A + EID = A + 90 + A ,

and hence A = 60 .

Also solved by FRANCISCO BELLOT ROSADO, I.B. Emilio Ferrari, Valladolid, Spain;

MANSUR BOASE, student, Cambridge, England; CHRISTOPHER J. BRADLEY, Clifton College,

Bristol, UK; GORAN CONAR, student, Gymnasium Vara din, Vara din, Croatia; NIKOLAOS

z

z

DERGIADES, Thessaloniki, Greece; DAVID DOSTER, Choate Rosemary Hall, Wallingford, Connecticut, USA; WALTHER JANOUS, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria; KEE-WAI LAU,

Hong Kong; GERRY LEVERSHA, St. Paul's School, London, England; D.J. SMEENK, Zaltbommel, the Netherlands; PARAYIOU THEOKLITOS, Limassol, Cyprus; and the proposer. There

were two incorrect solutions.

118

versity, Big Rapids, Michigan, USA. s

1 n,1 , where F n is the

n

maximum value of

+ : : : + cos x1 cos x2 : : : sin xn ,

xk 2 0; =2 , k = 1, 2, : : : , n, and n 1 is a natural number.

Solution by Heinz-Jurgen Sei ert, Berlin, Germany.

Let n 2 and let

n

C n = n,p,n1,2 .

n

Then 1998: 119 if a1 , : : : , an 0,

n

n

Xp

Yp

ak

ak + C n .

1

k=1

k=1

n

Xp

k=1

bk F n

n

Y p

k=1

bk + 1 ,

1

p

If x1 , : : : , xn 2 0; =2, let bk = Qn 2 xk . Since bk + 1 = sec xk ,

tan

we obtain, from 1, after multiplying by j =1 cos xj ,

n

X

k=1

sin xk

n

Y

j =1;j 6=k

cos xj F n .

Clearly, the latter inequality remains valid if xk = =2 for some k. Since

there is equality if xk = arcsin1=pn for all k, it follows that F n, in fact,

is the maximum value of the considered expression.

CHRONIS, student, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece; NIKOLAOS DERGIADES, Thessaloniki, Greece; RICHARD I. HESS, Rancho Palos Verdes, California, USA; WALTHER JANOUS,

Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria; MICHAEL LAMBROU, University of Crete, Crete,

Greece; and PANOS E. TSAOUSSOGLOU, Athens, Greece.

The problem was inspired by problem 2214. Janous's solution also made use of 2214.

119

2316.

Given triangle ABC with angles B and C satisfying C = 90 + 1 B .

2

Suppose that M is the mid-point of BC , and that the circle with centre A

and radius AM meets BC again at D. Prove that MD = AB .

Solution by David Doster, Choate Rosemary Hall, Wallingford, Connecticut, USA.

Let E be the other point where the circle centred at A with radius AC

meets line BC . Then AEC = ACE , so that AED = ACM: Also,

AD = AM and ADE = AMC . Therefore, 4ADE 4AMC . Hence,

=

DE = CM . But CM = MB; therefore, DE = MB, so that MD = BE.

Note that AEC = ACE = 90 , 1 B . Hence,

2

1 B
= 90 , 1 B .

BAE = 180 , B + 90 , 2

2

Thus, AB = BE . Therefore, MD = AB .

Also solved by MIGUEL AMENGUAL COVAS, Cala Figuera, Mallorca, Spain; FRANCISCO

BELLOT ROSADO, I.B. Emilio Ferrari, Valladolid, Spain; MANSUR BOASE, student, Cambridge,

England; CHRISTOPHER J. BRADLEY, Clifton College, Bristol, UK; GORAN CONAR, student, Gymnasium Vara din, Vara din, Croatia; NIKOLAOS DERGIADES, Thessaloniki, Greece;

z

z

FLORIAN HERZIG, student, Cambridge, UK; WALTHER JANOUS, Ursulinengymnasium, Inns

bruck, Austria; VACLAV KONECNY, Ferris State University, Big Rapids, Michigan, USA;

MICHAEL LAMBROU, University of Crete, Crete, Greece; GERRY LEVERSHA, St. Paul's School,

London, England; GOTTFRIED PERZ, Pestalozzigymnasium, Graz, Austria; JOEL SCHLOSBERG,

student, Robert Louis Stevenson School, New York, NY, USA; RON SHEPLER, Ferris State University, Big Rapids, Michigan, USA; D.J. SMEENK, Zaltbommel, the Netherlands; PARAYIOU

THEOKLITOS, Limassol, Cyprus; PANOS E. TSAOUSSOGLOU, Athens, Greece; PAUL YIU,

Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida, USA; and the proposer.

California, USA.

2

3

c

e

has integer elements a through e.

The angles as shown are integer

multiples of the smallest.

a What is the smallest possible

value of c?

b What is the smallest possible

value of c if must be obtuse?

We show that the answer to a is c = 5 17 29 1049 = 2585785 and

to b it is c = 19 41 59 139 50539 = 322872394081.

120

a From the Law of Sines on the upper triangle we have

a = b = c

sin

sin 2

sin 3

and as sin2 = 2 sin cos and sin3 = 4 cos2 , 1 sin , this reduces

to

b

a = 2 cos = 4 cos2c , 1 .

Eliminating cos we nd cos = b=2a and so

a2 + ac , b2 = 0 .

1

As a quadratic in a this last must have discriminant a perfect square, say x2 .

That is,

c2 + 2b2 = x2 .

2

Hence there exist s, t, m 2 N with s; t = 1 and

c = s2 , t2m , 2b = 2stm , x = s2 + t2m .

3

Note that if c is odd this is certainly so, but when c is even we may have the

dual relations:

2b = s2 , t2m ,

c = 2stm ,

x = s2 + t2 m .

However, this amounts to the same thing because then, by 2, x is even; so

either m is even or s2 + t2 is even. In the rst case set m = 2M , s1 = s + t,

t1 = s , t and we then have c = s2 , t2M , b =2s1t12M , x = s2 + t2M

1

1

1

1

which is the same as 3. If, instead, m is odd, so s + t is even, we see that

s, t are of the same parity; set s1 = s + t=2, t1 = s , t=2, M = 2m,

and we recapture 3, since s1 , t1 , M 2 N.

From 1 keeping the positive sign only we have

a=

2

2a 2t

From the lower triangle we have 0 3 + 4 180 ; that is

1 cos cos 0:90096887 0:9 .

7

Using cos = s=2t we have

1:8t 2t cos s 2t .

4

7

In particular t cannot be 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5, as there is no integer s in the open

,

interval 2t cos ; 2t . The least allowable t is t = 6 whence s = 11. For

7

the record the next few allowable pairs are t; s = 7; 13, 8; 15, 9; 17.

121

From the Law of Sines on the lower triangle we have

e

c

= sin4 = sin7 .

sin 3

Hence d sin 4 = e sin 3 or

d8 cos3 , 4 cos sin = e4 cos2 , 1 sin .

Using cos = s=2t we get

dss2 , 2t2 = ets2 , t2 .

5

Recall that s; t = 1. We show that we also have

s; s2 , t2 = t; s2 , 2t2 = s2 , 2t2 ; s2 , t2 = 1 .

Indeed, if p is a prime and pjs, pjs2 , t2 , then pjt2 , so pjt. Thus pjs; t = 1,

showing that s; s2 , t2 = 1. Similarly t; s2 , 2t2 = 1, and if pjs2 , 2t2 ,

pjs2 , t2, then pjs2 , t2 , s2 , 2t2 = t2, so pjt, etc., as before.

These conditions of relative primality applied to 5 show that there

exists a constant 2 N such that

d = ts2 , t2

Now

and

e = ss2 , 2t2 .

6

6

80 cos4 24 cos2

sin

c = dsin37 = d64 cos ,4 cos2 ,+1 sin , 1 sin

6

4 2 +

2 4

6

= s , 5s t t3 6s t , t by 6 .

7

Observe that

Indeed the rst, as above, is clear. For the second, note that

so any prime dividing both terms must divide s2 , t2 and t6 and so t, which

is impossible, as above. We conclude from 7 that there is a 2 N such that

m = s6 , 5s4t2 + 6s2t4 , t6 , = t3s2 , t2 ,

122

and hence

= s2 , t2s3 + s2t , 2st2 , t3 s3 , s2t , 2st2 + t3 .

For the least c, we clearly need = 1 any solution for s; t; is larger than

for s; t; 1. We shall show that the least c comes from t = 6, s = 11 and

= 1.

Denote by ct; s the value of c at the pair t; s and = 1. For

6 t 12 the relatively prime pairs t; s satisfying 4 are 6; 11, 7; 13,

8; 15, 9; 17, 10; 19, 11; 20, 11; 21, and 12; 23. They give

c6; 11 = 2585785 the least, c7; 13 1:7 107, c8; 15 7:4 107,

c9; 17 2:4 1089, c10; 19 6:6 108, c11; 20 1:6 108,

c11; 21 1:6 10 , and c12; 23 3:6 109. We now show that

for t 13 we still get larger values than c6; 11 by eliminating c as follows.

By 4 we have for the factors of c:

s2 , t2 1:8t2 , t2 = 2:24t2 ;

s + s t , 2st2 , t3 1:8t3 + 1:8t2 , 22tt2 , t3

= 4:072t3 .

The other factor must be positive since c, and thus the product of the re3

least 1. Hence

c 2:24t24:072t31 9t5 .

Hence if t 13 we have c 9 135 3:3 106 c6; 11.

To conclude part a the least value of c is c6; 11 = 2585785.

b If we insist that is obtuse, we have equivalently 3 + 4 90 ;

that is, 14 . So instead of 4 we have the sharper requirements:

14

2t

that is,

1:949t

2t cos 14

2t .

8

interval 1:949t; 2t. The least t is t = 20 with corresponding s = 39 and

the next few pairs are 21; 41, 22; 43, 23; 45, : : : . We show that the

least value of c is c20; 39 = 19 41 59 139 50539 3:2 1011 .

Certainly, c20; 39 c21; 41 as the expression for c gives c21; 41 =

1240 58799 6719 4:89 1011. Moreover, for larger t we use estimates

123

arising from 8, namely

s2 , t2

s3 + s2t , 2st2 , t3

1:949t2 , t2 2:798t2 ;

1:949t3 + 1:949t2t , 22tt2 , t3

6:202t3 ;

s3 , s2t , 2st2 + t3

1:949t3 , 2t2t , 22tt2 + t3

0:4034t3 .

Multiplying together we nd c

7t8 . Thus for t 22 we have

8 3:8 1011

c 7 22

c20; 39. This concludes the proof.

Also solved by CHRISTOPHER J. BRADLEY, Clifton College, Bristol, UK; KENNETH

M. WILKE, Topeka, Kansas, USA; and the proposer.

2318. 1998: 108 Proposed by V
aclav Konecn
y, Ferris State University, Big Rapids, Michigan, USA.

Suppose that ABC is a triangle with circumcentre O and circumradius R.

Consider the bisector ` of any side say AC , and let P the pedal

point" be any point on ` inside the circumcircle.

Let K , L, M denote the feet of the perpendiculars from P to the lines

AB, BC , CA respectively.

Show that KLM the area of the pedal triangle KLM is a decreasing

function of = OP , 2 0; R.

Combination of the solutions by Francisco Bellot Rosado, I.B. Emilio

Ferrari, Valladolid, Spain; Michael Lambrou, University of Crete, Crete,

Greece; Gerry Leversha, St. Paul's School, London, England; and Toshio

Seimiya, Kawasaki, Japan.

Either by referring to problem 2236, or R.A. Johnson's Advanced Euclidean Geometry, Dover, 1960, theorem 198, page 139, it is known that

2

, 2

KLM = R 4ROP ABC .

2

Thus, it follows that KLM is a decreasing function of .

Also solved in full by CHRISTOPHER J. BRADLEY, Clifton College, Bristol, UK; GORAN

CONAR, student, Gymnasium Vara din, Vara din, Croatia; NIKOLAOS DERGIADES, Thessaz

z

loniki, Greece; WALTHER JANOUS, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria; D.J. SMEENK,

Zaltbommel, the Netherlands; PARAYIOU THEOKLITOS, Limassol, Cyprus; and the proposer.

Bellot Rosado and Leversha note that there is no need for P to lie on a perpendicular

bisector of a side.

Dergiades and Janous observe that if d = R, then KLM = 0, and so K , L, M lie on

the Simson line.

124

Dergiades recalls the result as being known as Steggals' Theorem. He observes that if

= E and if E0 , E1 , E2 and E3 are the areas of the triangle KLM when P is the

incentre, and the three excentres respectively, then we can deduce, from Euler's Theorem, that

d2 = RR , 2r d2 = RR , 2r1 d2 = RR , 2r2 d2 = RR , 2r3 .

1

2

3

Steggal's Theorem now gives

E0 = r , E1 = r1 , E2 = r2 , E3 = r3 ,

E

2R

E

2R

E

2R

E

2R

and since r1 + r2 + r3 = r + 4R Bobillier's Theorem, we have

E1 + E2 + E3 = E0 + 2E .

ABC

UK.

2319.

points on the semicircle with UP UQ. The tangents to the semicircle at P

and Q meet at R. Suppose that S is the point of intersection of UP and V Q.

Prove that RS is perpendicular to UV .

Editorial note. Some solvers sent in more than one correct solution.

They are indicated by a y after their names.

I. Solution by Diane and Roy Dowling, University of Manitoba,

Winnipeg, Manitoba.

The problem may be generalized slightly as follows: UV is a diameter

of a circle; P and Q are distinct points on the circle; PQ is not a diameter;

P 6= U and Q 6= V ; the tangents to the circle at P and Q meet at R; the lines

UP and V Q meet at S; prove that RS is perpendicular to UV . The given

conditions ensure that the points of intersection R and S exist, are unique

and distinct from each other.

Choose coordinate axes and scale so that the origin O is the centre of

the circle, V = 1; 0 and consequently U = ,1; 0. Let P = a; b; then

a2 + b2 = 1. Let Q = c; d; then c2 + d2 = 1. Let R = x1; y1 and

S = x2; y2.

The equation of PR is ax + by = 1 and the equation of QR is

cx + dy = 1. Since PR and QR intersect at exactly one point, the determinant of the coe cients of this system is non-zero. Solving the system

for x we get the x coordinate of R:

d

x1 = ad , b .

, bc

The equation of UP is bx , a + 1y = ,b and the equation of V Q

is dx , c , 1y = d. Since UP and V Q intersect at exactly one point,

namely S , the determinant of the coe cients of this system is also non-zero.

Solving the system for x we get the x coordinate of S :

bc

x2 = ad + bc + d , b .

ad , + d + b

125

Therefore

2

d

+

d2 , a2 2

x1 , x2 = ad , b , ad , bc + d , b = ad 1 bcad, bbc1 , c+b

, bc ad bc + d + b

,

, +d

2 2

2 2

d

d

= ad , bcbad, bbc + d + b = 0 .

,

It follows that RS is perpendicular to UV .

II. Solution by Toshio Seimiya y, Kawasaki, Japan.

Let T be the intersection of UQ and V P , and let M be the mid-point

of ST . Since UPV = UQV = 90 , T is the orthocentre of triangle SUV ,

so that ST ? UV . Hence we have PTS = PUV . Since SPT = 90

and M is the mid-point of ST we get MP = MT . Thus

MPV = MPT = MTP = PTS = PUV .

Hence PM is tangent to the semicircle. Similarly QM is tangent to the semicircle. Therefore M coincides with R. As ST ? UV , we have RS ? UV .

III. Solution by Keivan Mallahi y, student, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

Let T be the intersection of UQ and PV . Consider the hexagon

QQUPPV . Note that all of its vertices lie on the semicircle. Applying Pas-

cal's Hexagon Theorem we see that the following points are collinear:

QQ PP = R , QU PV = T , UP V Q = S

where QQ and PP are intended to be the tangents at Q and P , respectively. Thus it is su cient to show that the line ST is perpendicular to UV .

To this end note that UQV = V PU = 90 , so the lines UQ and PV

are the altitudes of the triangle SUV . Since the altitudes of a triangle are

concurrent, ST must be the third altitude, which completes the proof.

IV. Solution by Michael Lambrou y, University of Crete, Crete, Greece.

Consider the nine-point Feuerbach circle of triangle UV S . This passes

through P and Q as P and Q are the feet of the perpendiculars from V

and U , respectively, because UPV = UQV = 90 , being angles on the

semicircle. If PV , QU meet at T , the orthocentre, then ST is also an altitude meeting UV at D, say. Note that the nine-point circle also passes

through D, through the mid-point M of ST , and through the mid-point O

of UV so O is the centre of the semicircle on UV . Moreover, MO is a

diameter of the nine-point circle as MDO = 90 . Thus we also have

PM ? PO. But OP is a radius of the semicircle on UV , so PM , being perpendicular to PO at its endpoint P , is a tangent to the semicircle. Similarly

QM is a tangent. In other words the point M is where these two tangents

meet. Thus M and R coincide and clearly SR being the same as SM is an

altitude of SUV . This conclude the proof that SR ? UV .

126

Also solved by MIGUEL AMENGUAL COVAS, Cala Figuera, Mallorca, Spain; MICHEL

BATAILLE, Rouen, France; FRANCISCO BELLOT ROSADO, I.B. Emilio Ferrari, Valladolid,

Spain; MANSUR BOASE, student, Cambridge, England; CHRISTOPHER J. BRADLEY, Clifton

College, Bristol, UK; GORAN CONAR, student, Gymnasium Vara din, Vara din, Croatia;

z

z

NIKOLAOS DERGIADES, Thessaloniki, Greece; DAVID DOSTER, Choate Rosemary Hall, Wallingford, Connecticut, USA; STERGIOU HARAFAPOS y, Greece; RICHARD I. HESS, Rancho

Palos Verdes, California, USA; WALTHER JANOUS, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria; MASOUD KAMGARPOUR, Carson Graham Secondary School, North Vancouver, British

Columbia; KATHLEEN E. LEWIS, SUNY Oswego, Oswego, NY, USA; JOSE H. NIETO, Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela; GOTTFRIED PERZ, Pestalozzigymnasium, Graz, Austria; D.J. SMEENK, Zaltbommel, the Netherlands; PARAYIOU THEOKLITOS, Limassol, Cyprus;

GEORGE TSAPAKIDIS, Agrinio, Greece; PAUL YIU, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton,

Florida, USA; and the proposer y. There was one incorrect solution submitted.

Although four methods of solving are given above, this was not exhaustive. Bataille used

inversion and Theoklitos used radical axes in their proofs.

Two circles on the same side of the line ` are tangent to it at D. The

tangents to the smaller circle from a variable point A on the larger circle

intersect ` at B and C . If b and c are the radii of the incircles of triangles

ABD and ACD, prove that b + c is independent of the choice of A.

Solution by Florian Herzig, student, Cambridge, UK.

Let m be the parallel to ` which is also tangent to the smaller circle.

We will show that

b + c is constant if A is a point outside the region between `

and m so that D is between B and C , and b : c is constant if A

is between these lines.

Denote the larger circle by C1M ; R and the smaller circle by C2 N ; r.

Let S 2 AB and T 2 AC be the points of contact with C2 . Also let IB

and IC be the incentres of triangles ABD and ACD. U and V are the feet

of the perpendiculars from IB and IC to `. We will now calculate the ratio

AS : AD which is constant in both cases: let P be the second intersection of

C2 and AD. Then AP AD = AS2. Also by similarity PD : AD = r : R.

Hence

AS2 = AP AD = AD2 1 , r ,

R

If A is not between ` and m, then

DU = BD + AD , AB = AD , AS = CD + AD , AC = DV

2

2

2

because BD = BS , CD = CT and AS = AT . Therefore the two

incircles touch line AD at the same point, call it Y . It also follows that

127

whence 2DX = b + c, where X = DN IB IC . If L is the mid-point of

AD, then 4DLM 4DY X so that DX : DM = DY : DL.

Using 2DX = b + c, DM = R, and 2DY = 2DU = AD , AS it

follows that

b+c =

AD

R

is constant.

Otherwise, if A is between lines ` and m assume, without loss of

generality, that DB DC . Then 2DV = AD , AS as before, but

DU = AD + BD , AB = AD + AS .

2

2

pR2 , Rr

AD + AS = R + p

Therefore b : c = DU : DV =

AD , AS R , R2 , Rr is constant.

Finally, note that all the calculations of the rst case remain valid

mutatis mutandis if instead of the incircle in the second case we take the

excircle opposite B so that b is the radius of the excircle of 4ABD that

touches the side AD .

Also solved by FRANCISCO BELLOT ROSADO, I.B. Emilio Ferrari, Valladolid, Spain;

CHRISTOPHER J. BRADLEY, Clifton College, Bristol, UK; GORAN CONAR, student, Gymnasium Vara din, Vara din, Croatia; NIKOLAOS DERGIADES, Thessaloniki, Greece; WALTHER

z

z

JANOUS, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria; MICHAEL LAMBROU, University of Crete,

Crete, Greece; GERRY LEVERSHA, St. Paul's School, London, England; TOSHIO SEIMIYA, Kawasaki, Japan; PARAYIOU THEOKLITOS, Limassol, Cyprus; HOE TECK WEE, Singapore; and

the proposer.

Bellot found the problem in the Japanese Encyclopedia of Geometry, volume 4, page 261,

e

which provided the reference Journal de Math
matiques El
mentaires 34 1909, problem 7000.

e

Several readers noted that the statement of our problem was not entirely correct, but Seimiya

was the only solver besides Herzig to provide a correct alternative using an excircle.

2323.

Determine a positive constant c so that the Diophantine equation

uv2 , v2 , uv , u = c

has exactly four solutions in positive integers u and v .

Since u = ,1 , c 0 when v = 1, we have v 2. Then

v2 , v , 1 = v , 22 + 3v , 2 + 1

128

and

2

c

u = v2v, + , 1

v

1

When c = 61, one veri es easily that 1 admits no positive integer

solutions for u if v = 5, 6, 7, 8, while v = 2, 3, 4, 9 would yield four

solutions in u and v : u; v = 65; 2, 14; 3, 7; 4 and 2; 9. Finally, if

v 9, then v , 9v + 7 0 would imply that 2v2 , v , 1 v2 + 61,

+61

making u = vv ,v,1 2. However, if u = 1, then v = ,62 0. Hence 1

admits no positive integer solutions for u if v 9. Therefore 1 has exactly

four solutions as listed above.

2

Also solved by SAM BAETHGE, Nordheim, Texas, USA; MANSUR BOASE, student,

St. Paul's School, London, England; CHRISTOPHER J. BRADLEY, Clifton College, Bristol,

UK; THEODORE CHRONIS, student, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece; FLORIAN

HERZIG, student, Cambridge, UK; RICHARD I. HESS, Rancho Palos Verdes, California, USA;

WALTHER JANOUS, Ursulinengymnasium, Innsbruck, Austria; MICHAEL LAMBROU, University of Crete, Crete, Greece; KEE-WAI LAU, Hong Kong; GERRY LEVERSHA, St. Paul's

School, London, England; DAVID E. MANES, SUNY at Oneonta, Oneonta, NY, USA; PANOS E.

TSAOUSSOGLOU, Athens, Greece; and the proposer. There was also one incorrect solution.

While most solutions gave only one value of c, Manes gave two. Baethge and Chronis

each gave three values of c, while Hess gave the following twelve values and claimed that they

are the twelve lowest" values of c: 51, 61, 156, 321, 336, 402, 431, 486, 526, 611, 761 and

771. In terms of the frequency" of the value of c given, the top three are c = 61, 336 each

given six times and c = 51 given ve times. The largest value of c given was c = 26461,

obtained by Janous. Both Hess and Herzig considered similar problems in which one seeks

the value of c for which the given equation has exactly n solutions for n = 4, 5, 6, : : : .

Herzig used a computer to nd that, for 4 n 10, the corresponding minimum values of c

are 51, 1381, 3966, 33776, 51816 and 14686766, respectively, while Hess list the ten lowest

values of c for each n such that 4 n 8. His lowest values agree with Herzig's.

For those curious, the editor has obtained by computer the next few lowest values of c

for n = 4: 776, 816, 1066, 1071, 1146, 1153, 1172, 1201, 1271 and 1360 as those less than

1381, the lowest value with ve solutions.

Crux Mathematicorum

e

e

e

Editors emeriti R dacteur-emeriti: G.W. Sands, R.E. Woodrow, Bruce L.R. Shawyer

e

Mathematical Mayhem

e

Editors emeriti R dacteurs-emeriti: Philip Jong, Je Higham,

e

J.P. Grossman, Andre Chang, Naoki Sato, Cyrus Hsia

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