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Antioksidan
Pengetahuan bahan
Agroindustri
Pendahuluan
Antioxidants are molecules capable of
reducing the causes or effects of oxidative
stress
Oxidative stress can be caused by
environmental factors, disease, infection,
inflammation, aging (ROS production)
ROS or reactive oxygen species include free
radicals and other oxygenated molecules
resulting from these factors
The body produces some endogenous
antioxidants, but dietary antioxidants may
provide additional line of defense
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Pendahuluan
Flavonoids & other polyphenolics,
Vitamins C & E, and carotenoids
are the most common dietary
antioxidants
Many herbs and botanicals also
contain antioxidants
Oxidation
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Oxidation
Oxidation: the loss of electrons
from a molecule.
Reduction: the gain of electrons by
a molecule.
Oxidation and reduction usually
occur together as an exchange
reaction.
Free Radicals and Diseases
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Antioxidants
Substances that are able to
neutralize reactive molecules and
reduce oxidative damage
Result of metabolic processes and
environmental sources
Vitamin C, Vitamin E, beta-
carotene, Vitamin A, selenium,
iron, zinc, copper and manganese
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Sources of antioxidants in the diet
Sources of antioxidants in the diet:
Polyphenols, carotenoids & vitamins
Red wine (tannins, resveratrol, flavonoids)
Cranberries & blueberries (flavonoids & tannins)
Strawberries (ellagic acid, ellagitannins)
Tea (EGCG & other catechins, tannins)
Chocolate (catechins)
Onions (quercetin)
Spinach & leafy greens (lutein & zeaxanthin)
Eggs (lutein)
Citrus fruits (Vitamin C)
Plant oils (Vitamin E & omega-3)
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The French Paradox
In certain regions of
France, the incidence
of cardiovascular
disease is relatively
low, despite a diet
high in saturated fats
Resveratrol
&
Flavonoids
Flavonoids protect against
effects of cardiovascular
disease
The Zutphen Elderly Study
A large cohort of Dutch men aged 50 to 69 years
were examined in 1970 and followed up for 15
years for dietary factors and incidence of disease
Dietary intake of flavonoids correlated with
reduced incidence of stroke and reduced coronary
heart disease mortality
(Hertog, et al, Lancet 1993)
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Resveratrol
the fountain of youth?
Produced by plants in response to stress
Found in red wine, grape and cranberry juice,
legumes
Thought to contribute to the French Paradox
Decreases lipoprotein oxidation leading to
cardiovascular disease (early 90s)
Anticancer & antiinflammatory activity (1997)
Extends lifespan through sirtuin activation,
enhancing mitochondrial function (2006)
Factors Affecting the Efficiency of
Antioxidant
1. Activation energy of antioxidants to
donate hydrogen should be low
2. Oxidation potential should be high
3. Reduction potential should be low
4. Stability to pH and processing.
5. Solubility in oil should be .
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Antioxidant Safety
Food Additive, Meat Inspection, and Poultry Inspection Acts.
Total concentration of authorized antioxidants added singly or in
combination, must not exceed 200 parts per million by weight
on the basis of fat content of the food.
Ideal Antioxidants
No harmful physiological effects
Not contribute an objectionable flavor, odor, or color to the fat
Effective in low concentration
Fat-soluble
Carry-through effect No destruction during processing
Readily-available
Economical
Not absorbable by the body