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Materials System Specification

32-SAMSS-005 16 September 2008


Manufacture of Atmospheric Tanks
Vessels Standards Committee Members
Naffaa, Mahmoud Youniss, Chairman
Sudairy, Jaralla Ali, Vice Chairman
Anezi, Mohammed Ali
Anizi, Salamah Salem
Gahtani, Moraya Saif
Kim, Steve Un
Muir, William Rhodes
Niemeyer, Dennis Charles
Sharhan, Ziyad Sharhan



Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

Table of Contents

1 Scope............................................................ 2
2 Materials........................................................ 5
3 Design........................................................... 6
4 Fabrication.................................................... 12
5 Erection........................................................ 13
6 Methods of Inspecting J oints........................ 17
7 Welding Procedure and
Welder Qualifications................................... 18
8 Marking......................................................... 18
9 Coatings and Painting.................................. 19
10 Documentation............................................ 19
11 Disinfection.................................................. 20

Appendix B Recommendations for Design
and Construction of Foundations for
Aboveground Oil Storage Tanks.................. 21
Appendix C External Floating Roofs................ 22
Appendix G Structurally Supported
Aluminum Dome Roofs................................ 26
Appendix H Internal Floating Roofs................. 28



Previous Issue: 31 December 2003 Next Planned Update: 16 September 2013
Revised paragraphs are indicated in the right margin Page 1 of 33
Primary contact: Naffaa, Mahmoud Youniss on 966-3-8760183

CopyrightSaudi Aramco 2008. All rights reserved.
Document Responsibility: Vessels 32-SAMSS-005
Issue Date: 16 September 2008
Next Planned Update: 16 September 2013 Manufacture of Atmospheric Tanks


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The following paragraph numbers refer to API STD 650, Tenth Edition, November
1998 with Addendum 3, September 2003, which is part of this specification. The text in
each paragraph below is an addition, exception, or deletion to API STD 650
requirements as noted. Paragraph numbers not appearing in API STD 650 are new
paragraphs to be inserted in numerical order.
1 Scope
1.1 General
1.1.6 Appendix B and all other pertinent requirements of this specification shall
be used as the basis for developing detailed design and construction of
foundations for storage tanks.
1.1.7 Additional requirements for external floating roofs are contained in
Appendix C of this specification.
1.1.11 Additional requirements for optional self-supporting aluminum dome roofs
are contained in Appendix G of this specification.
1.1.12 Additional requirements for internal floating roofs are contained in
Appendix H of this specification.
1.1.23 This specification shall be attached to and form an integral part of a
purchase order.
1.3 Compliance
1.3.1 Any conflicts between this Specification and other Saudi Aramco
Materials System Specifications (SAMSSs), Saudi Aramco Engineering
Standards (SAESs), industry codes and standards, and Saudi Aramco
Standard Drawings (SASDs) and Forms shall be resolved in writing by the
Company or Buyer Representative through the Manager, Consulting
Services Department of Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.
1.3.2 Direct all requests to deviate from this specification in writing to the
Company or Buyer Representative, who shall follow internal company
procedure SAEP-302 and forward such requests to the Manager,
Consulting Services Department of Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.
1.4 Referenced Publications
Materials or equipment supplied to this specification shall comply with the
latest edition of the references listed below and those referenced in
API STD 650, unless otherwise noted.
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1.4.1 Saudi Aramco References
Saudi Aramco Engineering Procedures
SAEP-302 Instructions for Obtaining a Waiver of a
Mandatory Saudi Aramco Engineering
Requirement
SAEP-327 Disposal of Waste Water from Cleaning,
Flushing and Hydrostatic Tests
SAEP-1142 Qualification of non-Saudi Aramco NDT
Personnel
Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards
SAES-A-007 Hydrostatic Testing Fluids and Lay-Up
Procedures
SAES-A-102 Ambient Air Quality and Source Emission
Standard
SAES-A-112 Meteorological and Seismic Design Data
SAES-A-206 Positive Material Identification
SAES-B-017 Fire Water System Design
SAES-B-018 Air Foam Systems for Storage Tanks
SAES-B-067 Safety Identification & Safety Colors
SAES-H-001 Selection Requirements for Industrial
Coatings
SAES-J-300 Level
SAES-J-600 Pressure Relief Devices
SAES-L-105 Piping Material Specifications
SAES-W-017 Welding Requirements for Tanks
Saudi Aramco Materials System Specifications
09-SAMSS-107 Application of Composite
Fluoropolymer/Ceramic Coatings to
Fasteners
32-SAMSS-017 Side-Entry Mixers
34-SAMSS-319 Radar Tank Gauging Equipment
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Saudi Aramco Standard Drawings
AB-036003 Manholes and Vents for Tanks
AD-036061 Roof Center Vents for Cone-Roof Tanks
AD-036129 Details of Gauger's Platform for Floating
Roof Tanks
AA-036256 Radar, Temperature, and Manual Gauging
AA-036355 Impressed Current Tank Bottom Cathodic
Protection Details
AB-036387 Tank Grounding
AA-036504 Assembly and Details of Gage Well and
Guide Pole for Floating Roof Tanks
Saudi Aramco Inspection Requirements
Form 175-324900 Tanks: Atmospheric, Steel within the Scope of
32-SAMSS-005
Saudi Aramco Forms and Data Sheets
Form 2693-ENG Safety Instruction Sheet-Tanks
Form 2696-ENG Appurtenance Schedule and Orientations
Form NMR-7918-1 Nonmaterial Requirements for Tanks
Form NMR-7918-2 Nonmaterial Requirements for Floating and
Internal Floating Roofs
1.4.2 Industry Codes and Standards
American Petroleum Institute
API STD 650 Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage
API STD 2000 Venting Atmospheric and Low-Pressure
Storage Tanks
API RP 2003 Protection against Ignitions Arising out of
Static, lightning, and Stray Currents
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (Boiler and Pressure
Vessel Code)
ASME B16.11 Forged Fittings, Socket-Welding and
Threaded
ASME SEC V Nondestructive Examination
Document Responsibility: Vessels 32-SAMSS-005
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National Fire Protection Association
NFPA 68 Guide for Venting of Deflagration
NFPA 255 Standard Method of Test of Surface Burning
Characteristics of Building Materials
American Water Works Association
AWWA C652 Disinfection of Water Storage Facilities
1.5 Definitions
Design Engineer: The Engineering Company responsible for specifying
the design requirements on the Storage Tank Data Sheet.
Design Metal Temperature: The lowest of the following temperature
values:
1) The lowest one-day mean atmospheric temperature (LODMAT) per
SAES-A-112, or
2) The minimum operating temperature, or
3) The hydrostatic test temperature
Saudi Aramco Engineer: The Supervisor of the Process Equipment Unit,
Consulting Services Department, Dhahran.
Saudi Aramco Inspector: The person or company authorized by the
Saudi Aramco Inspection Department to inspect tanks to the requirements
of this specification.
Tank Manufacturer: The Company responsible for the design and
fabrication of tanks.
2 Materials
2.1 General
2.1.1 The Tank Manufacturer shall submit a complete material specification
with the proposal.
The Tank Manufacturer may propose the use of alternative materials to
those that are listed in API STD 650. The alternative materials shall comply
with all the other requirements of API STD 650 and this specification. The
chemical compositions and mechanical properties of non-ASTM materials
shall be submitted to the Saudi Aramco Engineer for approval.
Document Responsibility: Vessels 32-SAMSS-005
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Materials proposed by the Tank Manufacturer that are equivalent to those
specified in API STD 650 shall be approved by the Saudi Aramco Engineer.
2.1.2 (Exception) All materials shall be clearly identified and provided with mill
test certificates. Materials shall be alloy-verified by the Tank Manufacturer
in accordance with SAES-A-206.
2.2 Plates
2.2.1 General
2.2.1.5 Annular plate material shall be of the same material group per
API STD 650 as the lowest shell course.
2.2.1.6 Rimmed and capped steels shall not be used for shell, bottom and roof
plates.
2.2.9.3 (Exception) The design metal temperature as defined in paragraph 1.5 of
this specification shall be used as the basis for impact test exemption of
Figure 2.1 of API STD 650.
2.7 Bolting
Flange bolting material shall conform to A193 Grade B7 bolts with A194
Grade 2H nuts. All bolting shall be coated with a fluoropolymer/ceramic
coating in accordance with 09-SAMSS-107.
2.9 Gaskets
Gasket materials shall be non-asbestos according to SAES-L-105.
3 Design
3.1 J oints
3.1.3 Restrictions on J oints
3.1.3.5 Lap-welded joints shall be lapped at least five times the nominal thickness
of the thinner plate joined; however, with double-welded lap joints, the lap
need not exceed 50 mm (2 in.), and with single-welded lap joints, the lap
shall not be less than 25 mm (1 in.).
3.1.5 Typical J oints
3.1.5.3a (Exception) Top angles shall be attached to the shell by butt welds with
complete penetration and complete fusion.
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3.2 Design Considerations
3.2.6 Information provided by the Design Engineer on the API STD 650 Storage
Tank Data Sheet and a completed Saudi Aramco Form 2696-ENG shall be
used for the tank design in accordance with API STD 650 and this
specification.
3.2.7 Nozzle Loads
3.2.7.1 Associated piping systems loads shall be specified on the tank data sheet.
3.2.7.2 Tank Manufacturer shall ensure that stresses at nozzle-to-tank connections,
due to piping loads specified on the tank data sheet, are within the
allowable limits.
3.3 Special Considerations
3.3.4 Weld Hardness
Weld hardness testing requirements and acceptance criteria shall be in
accordance with SAES-W-017.
3.3.5 A foundation drip ring shall be provided in order to prevent the ingress of
rainwater or condensation between the tank bottom and foundation. The
ring shall meet the following requirements.
1) Material shall be carbon steel, 3.2 mm (1/8 inch) thick.
2) Continuously seal welded to the edge of the tank bottom or annular
plate. All radial joints between the drip ring sections shall also be
seal welded.
3) Extend at least 75 mm (3 inch) beyond the outer periphery of the
concrete ring wall.
4) Turn down at its outer diameter at a 45-degree angle.
5) The top of the drip ring and a 75 mm (3 inch) height of the tank shell
shall be painted with a 250-300 microns (10-12 mils) thick epoxy
coating in accordance with SAES-H-001.
3.3.6 Under-tank leak detection and sub-grade protection
3.3.6.1 Tanks in services other than water shall be provided with under tank leak
detection and sub-grade protection according to API STD 650, Appendix I.
Acceptable construction details are Figures I-1, I-2, I-3, I-6, I-7, I-8, I-9
and I-10.
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3.3.6.2 Flexible membrane leak-barrier (liner) of minimum 1000 microns
(40 mils) thickness compatible with the stored product shall be specified
under the tank bottom. The liner shall be placed in accordance with SASD
AA-036355, extending to the internal top edge of the ring foundation.
3.3.6.3 J oints in the liner shall satisfy the leak tightness, permeability and
chemical resistance requirements for the liner material.
3.3.6.4 Alternative under-tank leak detection and sub-grade protection systems
shall not be permitted without the prior approval of the Saudi Aramco
Engineer.
3.3.7 Reinforcing pads and all other external attachment pads shall have rounded
corners of minimum 50 mm (2 inch) radius. Pads that cover shell seams
shall be provided with a 6 mm telltale hole.
3.4 Bottom Plates
3.4.4 Tank bottom shall be sloped in accordance with the specification provided
on the Storage Tank Data Sheet.
3.4.5 Bearing plates shall be provided under all fixed roof support columns. The
bearing plates shall be twice the diameter of the column section with a
minimum 356 mm diameter (14 inch), 12.7 mm (1/2 inch) thick, and shall
be attached to the bottom by 4.8 mm (3/16 inch) continuous fillet welds.
3.6 Shell Design
3.6.5 Design methods other than the one-foot method and the variable-design-
point method provided in API STD 650 shall be approved by the Saudi
Aramco Engineer.
3.7 Shell Openings
3.7.1 General
3.7.1.10 Number, size, type, and orientation of nozzles and manways shall be in
accordance with SASD AB-036003 and as specified on the Storage Tank
Data Sheet.
3.7.6 Shell Nozzles and Flanges
3.7.6.4 All shell nozzles shall be the API Low Type, unless otherwise specified.
3.8 Shell Attachments and Tank Appurtenances
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3.8.2 Bottom Connections
When specified, bottom connections shall be designed in accordance with
API STD 650, Appendix O.
Connections shall be fabricated from elbows; miter joints are prohibited.
Vortex breakers shall be provided for bottom connections.
3.8.5 Roof Nozzles
3.8.5.3 All open vents shall be protected by bird screens, except those in asphalt
service.
3.8.9 Threaded Connections
Threaded and socket welded connections shall be in accordance with
ASME B16.11.
3.8.10 Platforms, Walkways, and Stairways
3.8.10.1 Type and location of stairway shall be as specified on the Storage Tank
Data Sheet and Saudi Aramco Form 2696-ENG.
3.8.10.2 Gauger's platform in accordance with SASD AD-036129 shall be provided
for external floating roof tanks.
3.8.10.3 Stairs and platforms shall be fabricated of open grating. Checker-plate
grating is not permitted.
3.8.10.4 Walkways shall be fabricated of diamond-pattern (checker-plate) grating
with anti-skid paint.
3.8.10.5 Stairways on insulated tanks shall be provided with stringers on both sides.
3.8.11 Floating Suction Lines
3.8.11.1 Floating suction lines shall be provided, when specified on the Storage
Tank Data Sheet.
3.8.11.2 Floating suction lines using rigid pipe shall be designed to prevent them
from being raised past the vertical axis.
3.8.11.3 Floating suction lines using articulated pipe shall be designed so that the
tip of the suction line is always on the axial centerline of the tank
throughout its total travel.
Document Responsibility: Vessels 32-SAMSS-005
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3.8.12 Inlet Diffusers
3.8.12.1 An inlet diffuser shall be provided for tanks with internal floating roofs.
The inlet diffuser shall be sized based on the maximum pumping in rate
and the maximum permissible exit velocity through the slots in the
diffuser.
3.8.12.2 The diffuser shall be slotted. The slots shall be located at 60 degrees
(2 o'clock and 10 o'clock positions) from the vertical centerline of the
diffuser.
3.8.12.3 Number and dimensions of slots shall be calculated so that the exit
velocity does not exceed 1 m/sec (3.28 ft/sec) at the maximum inlet flow
until there is a minimum of 1m of liquid cover over the inlet.
3.8.13 Mixers
3.8.13.1 Number and type of mixers shall be as specified on the Storage Tank Data
Sheet.
3.8.13.2 Side-entry propeller mixers shall be designed, inspected, and tested in
accordance with 32-SAMSS-017.
3.8.13.3 Nozzles for side-entry mixers shall be designed in accordance with API
STD 650 for manways. Supports for the mixer may be needed to maintain
stresses at the nozzle-to-shell junction within the allowable limits.
3.8.13.4 J et-nozzle mixers shall not be used in tanks with internal floating roofs on
floats.
3.8.14 Foam and Water Systems
Fire or cooling water and foam systems shall be provided in accordance
with SAES-B-017 and SAES-B-018, respectively, when specified on the
Storage Tank Data Sheet.
3.8.15 Gauging
3.8.15.1 External-floating roofs shall be provided with a radar gage assembly in
accordance with SASD AA-036256 and SAES-J -300.
3.8.15.2 External floating roof tanks shall be provided with a radar liquid level
gauge in accordance with 34-SAMSS-319, located adjacent to the gauger's
platform. The top of the gauge piping shall be located from 150 mm
(6 inch) to 300 mm (12 inch) above the platform handrail and
Document Responsibility: Vessels 32-SAMSS-005
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approximately 150 mm (6 inch) horizontally from the gauger's platform for
easy maintenance access.
3.8.15.3 Fixed-roof tanks shall be provided with a radar gauge assembly.
3.8.16 Grounding
3.8.16.1 Tanks in hydrocarbon services shall be provided with grounding lugs in
accordance with SASD AB-036387 at a minimum of four points spaced
equidistantly around the base of the tank.
3.8.16.2 The design of bonding shunts between the tank shell and the roof shall be
in accordance with SASD AB-036387 and API RP 2003 requirements.
3.9 Top and Intermediate Wind Girders
3.9.4 Stiffening Rings as Walkways
Top wind girders, when specified as walkways, shall be located 1067 mm
(42 inch) from the top of the tank.
3.9.7 Intermediate Wind Girders
3.9.7.1 The minimum required thickness for the design condition, excluding
corrosion allowance, shall be used to calculate the maximum height of
unstiffened shell.
3.10 Roofs
3.10.2 General
3.10.2.1 Type of roof shall be as specified on the Storage Tank Data Sheet.
3.10.2.9 When an internal coating is specified for a fixed roof, a self-supported roof
shall be used, and the roof lap joints shall be continuously welded on both
sides.
3.10.4 Supported Cone Roofs
3.10.4.6 (Exception) Only welded joints are permitted for all structural attachments
in the roof supporting system other than the following joints:
a) Rafter clips for the outer row to the tank shell.
b) Column-base clip guides to the tank bottom.
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3.10.5 Self-Supporting Cone Roofs
Only welded joints are permitted for all structural attachments in the roof
supporting system.
3.10.6 Self-Supporting Dome and Umbrella Roofs
Only welded joints are permitted for all structural attachments roofs'
supporting systems in self-supporting roofs, except for self-supporting
aluminum dome roofs.
3.10.8 Tank Venting
3.10.8.1 (Exception) Fixed roof tanks with internal floating roofs shall be treated as
fixed roof tanks when determining their venting requirements.
Commentary Note:
When circulation vents are not installed in fixed roof tanks with an internal
floating roof, individual designated venting devices/arrangement shall be
provided for the fixed roof and the internal floating roof according to venting
requirements of API STD 2000 and this specification.
3.10.8.3 (Exception) Emergency venting capacity per API STD 2000 and explosion
hatch per NFPA 68 shall be provided for API STD 650 fixed roof tanks. A
frangible shell-to-roof joint may be considered as an alternative to
additional venting devices that are normally provided to relieve excess
pressure during emergency conditions for tanks of diameters equal to or
larger than 50 feet. Frangible shell-to-roof joint shall conform to the
requirements of API STD 650.
3.10.8.4 Venting requirements shall be specified in accordance with API STD 2000,
SAES-J-600, SASD AB-036003 and AD-036061 and the requirements of
this specification.
4 Fabrication
4.1 General
4.1.1 Workmanship
4.1.1.3 All flange bolt holes shall straddle the axial centerline of the tank.
4.1.4 Marking
4.1.4.1 Marking shall be done with water soluble materials containing no
substances that would attack or harmfully affect the tank at both ambient
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and operating temperature.
4.1.4.2 Marking materials shall be free of lead, sulfur, zinc, cadmium, mercury,
chlorine or any other halogens.
4.1.5 Shipping
All flange faces and other machined surfaces shall be greased and properly
protected for shipping.
4.2 Shop Inspection
4.2.3 Saudi Aramco Inspector shall have the right to inspect the fabrication at
any state and to reject material or workmanship, which does not conform
to the specified requirements.
5 Erection
5.1 General
5.1.1 The Tank Manufacturer shall check to ensure that the dimensional
tolerances of the tank foundation are satisfactory prior to start of erection.
5.1.6 The bottom side of the bottom plates shall be cleaned of all foreign matter
and grit-blast cleaned prior to being coated and placed in position for
welding. The topside surface of bottom plates, regardless whether coating
is required or not, shall also be grit-blast cleaned prior to welding. Surface
preparation shall be according to APCS-3 or APCS-113, as applicable.
5.2 Details of Welding
5.2.1 General
5.2.1.11 Documentation that details the welding sequences for the tank shall be
provided to Saudi Aramco prior to the start of field erection.
5.2.1.12 All structural attachment welds to the tank shell, bottom, roof, and
appurtenances shall be continuously seal welded.
5.2.1.13 All welds shall be free from coarse ripples, undercuts, grooves, overlaps,
abrupt ridges and valleys to avoid stress concentration points and
interference with interpretation of NDT results.
5.2.2 Bottoms
5.2.2.4 Weld crowns of the bottom annular plate joints shall be ground flush at the
Document Responsibility: Vessels 32-SAMSS-005
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contact areas with the first shell course.
5.2.4 Shell-to-Bottom Welds
5.2.4.1 (Exceptions)
a) Perform oil-penetrate leak test on the entire length of the first weld
pass by applying high flash point penetrant oil such as light diesel oil
for a minimum 4 hours (preferably overnight).
b) Perform oil-penetrate leak test on the entire length of the first
completed weld, before welding the second fillet weld, by applying
high flash point penetrant oil such as light diesel oil for a minimum
4 hours (preferably overnight). Alternatively, apply a vacuum test at
35 kPa gauge (5 psig), using a vacuum box fit to the shell-to-bottom
junction.
c) The inside fillet welds of the shell-to-bottom joint in a cylindrical
flat-bottom tank shall be examined by either the dye-penetrant or
wet-fluorescent magnetic particle method before hydrotest.
5.2.4.2 Delete this paragraph.
5.2.4.3 Delete this paragraph.
5.2.5 Roofs
5.2.5.1 Internal floating roofs shall be installed in accordance with the instructions
provided by the internal floating roof manufacturer.
5.2.5.2 Prior to the installation of fixed roof plates, roof's column supports shall be
inspected for plumbness. Roof support columns with out-of-plumbness
exceeding 1/200 of the total tank shell height shall be realigned.
5.2.5.3 All internal clips, lugs, brackets, etc., that are used temporarily for
construction purposes shall be removed from the roof supporting columns
and shell plates and ground flush and smooth prior to roof installation.
5.3 Inspection, Testing, and Repairs
5.3.1 General
5.3.1.1 Inspection shall be in accordance with Saudi Aramco Inspection
Requirement Form 175-324900, SAES-W-017 and the following
additional requirements.
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5.3.1.5 All required Nondestructive Examination shall be performed in accordance
with inspection procedures that are in complete compliance with ASME
SEC V and this specification. This written procedure shall address each
inspection method and technique used including acceptance criteria.
When required by the purchase order the procedure(s) shall be submitted
to Saudi Aramco Inspection Department for approval.
5.3.1.6 All Nondestructive Examination, including Magnetic Particle and Liquid
Penetrant examinations, shall be performed by personnel certified in
accordance with SAEP-1142, or equivalent National Certification
Programs that has been approved by the Saudi Aramco Inspection
Department. Personnel responsible for interpretation of Nondestructive
Examination results shall be certified to a minimum of Level II.
5.3.1.7 Prior to final inspection and pressure testing, the inside and outside of the
tank shall be thoroughly cleaned of all slag, scale, dirt, grit, weld spatter,
paint, oil, etc.
5.3.1.8 Saudi Aramco Inspector may reject the use of any materials, equipment, or
tools that do not conform to the specification requirements, jeopardize the
safety of personnel, or impose hazard or damage to Saudi Aramco
property.
5.3.1.9 Testing shall be in accordance with Saudi Aramco Inspection Requirements
Form 175-324900 and the following additional requirements.
5.3.3 Inspection of Tank Bottom Welds
(Exception) Only vacuum box test method is permitted.
5.3.5 Testing of the Shell
5.3.5.1 Tanks shall be hydrostatically tested by filling it with water of quality in
accordance with SAES-A-007 as follows:
1) to the maximum design liquid level, H specified in API STD 650,
2) for a fixed roof tank , to 50 mm (2 in.) above the weld connecting the
roof plate or compression bar to the top angle or shell; or
3) to a level lower than that specified in items (a) or (b) when restricted
by overflow, an internal floating roof, or other freeboard.
5.3.5.2 Hydrostatic testing duration shall be minimum 24 hours. The water-filling
rate shall not exceed the rate shown in the following table:
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Water Filling Rate Table

Bottom Course Thickness Tank Portion Filling Rate
Top course 300 mm/hour
Less than 22 mm
Below top course 450 mm/hour
Top third of tank 225 mm/hour
Middle third of tank 300 mm/hour 22 mm and more
Bottom third of tank 450 mm/hour

5.3.5.3 Testing of the shell by a method other than hydrotesting such as painting
with highly penetrating oil, applying vacuum or a combination of both
methods is not permitted.
5.3.5.4 Floating roof seals, either primary or secondary, if required per
SAES-A-102, shall be completely contained within the shell when the test
water level reaches the test liquid level.
5.3.5.5 The Tank Manufacturer shall furnish all test materials and facilities,
including blinds, bolting, and gaskets.
5.3.5.6 The tank shall be completely drained and thoroughly dried immediately
after completion of the hydrostatic test. If sea water or raw water is used
for hydrostatic testing of tanks in other than these services, the tank shall
be thoroughly washed with fresh water immediately after draining.
5.3.5.7 The Tank Manufacturer's plan for disposal of hydrotest water shall be
evaluated against SAEP-327 by the engineering contractor.
5.3.6 Testing of the Roof
5.3.6.1 (Exception) All roof weld joints of a tank designed to be gas tight, such as
a tank with peripheral circulation vents or a tank with free or open vents,
shall be vacuum box tested. Applying internal pressure for the detection of
leaks is not permitted. External floating roof testing shall be in accordance
with Appendix C of this specification. Internal floating roof testing shall
be in accordance with Appendix H of this specification.
5.3.8 Magnetic Particle or Liquid Penetrant Examination
The inside fillet welds of the shell-to-bottom weld joint shall be examined
by either the dye penetrant or magnetic particle method before the
hydrostatic test.
Document Responsibility: Vessels 32-SAMSS-005
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5.4 Repairs to Welds
5.4.5 Repairs to welds shall be in accordance with SAES-W-017.
5.6 Tank Settlement Measurements
5.6.1 The base elevation shall be established and recorded at equidistant
locations around the tank circumference in multiples of four, but not to
exceed 10 m (32.8 foot) between each reference point and no less than
eight (8) locations. The measurement points shall be at well marked
locations on the bottom projection outside the tank or on clips welded to
the shell. Elevation readings shall be taken as follows:
1) Before hydrostatic testing has started.
2) At the filled point.
3) At the filled point.
4) After 24 hours from filling the tank at the maximum water fill height.
5) After the tank has been emptied of test water.
5.6.2 Any differential settlement greater than 1.5 mm (60 mils) per meter of
circumference, or a uniform settlement in excess of 50 mm (2 inch), shall
be reviewed by the Saudi Aramco Engineer. Filling shall be stopped until
clearance to continue has been received from the Saudi Aramco Engineer.
5.6.3 For tanks 15.24 m (50 foot) diameter and larger, internal bottom elevation
measurements shall be made before and after the hydrostatic test. These
measurements shall be made at 3 m intervals along diametric lines across
the bottom. The diametric lines shall be spaced approximately 10 m
(32.8 foot) apart at the tank shell.
6 Methods of Inspecting Joints
6.1 Radiographic Method
6.1.1 Application
(Exception) Radiographic inspection is required for the weld joining the
top angle to the shell.
6.1.2 Number and Location of Radiographs
6.1.2.4 (Exception) This requirement is permitted only if a group of tanks are
erected by the same tank manufacturer.
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6.1.5 Radiographic Standards
Tungsten inclusions in gas tungsten arc welds shall be evaluated as
individual rounded indications. Clustered or aligned tungsten inclusions
shall be removed and repaired.
6.1.6 Determination of Limits of Defective Welding
The additional spots to be radiographed shall be specified by the Saudi
Aramco Inspector in accordance with SAES-W-017.
6.2 Magnetic Particle Examination
6.2.5 Magnetic Particle Examination shall be according to SAES-W-017.
6.5 Visual Inspection
Welds shall be visually inspected for any defects prior to performing
nondestructive examination (radiography, magnetic particle, liquid
penetrant, ultrasonic). Visual inspection shall not replace any required
nondestructive examination.
6.6 Vacuum Testing
6.6.3 (Exception) A partial vacuum of 70 kPa gauge (10 psig) shall be used for
the test.
6.6.11 Delete this paragraph.
7 Welding Procedure and Welder Qualifications
7.2 Qualification of Welding Procedures
7.2.1 General Requirements
7.2.1.1 All welding procedures and procedure qualifications shall be in accordance
with SAES-W-017 and be submitted for review by Saudi Aramco.
8 Marking
8.1 Nameplates
8.1.5 All tanks with internal coatings shall have the Approved Protective
Coating Systems specification number (APCS number) marked on the
nameplate.
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8.4 Tank number and content shall be painted in both Arabic and English at
90 degree intervals around the tank in accordance with SAES-B-067.
8.5 Marking shall be done with water soluble materials containing no
substances that would attack or harmfully affect the tank at both ambient
and operating temperature.
8.6 Marking materials shall be free of lead, sulfur, zinc, cadmium, mercury,
chlorine, or any other halogens
9 Coatings and Painting
9.1 Type of coating and painting systems to be applied shall be as specified on
the Storage Tank Data Sheet.
9.2 Surfaces to be coated shall be cleaned and prepared prior to its coating in
accordance with the applicable coating and painting systems.
9.3 Tank placed directly on soil sub-grade shall be coated with APCS-3 or
APCS-113, as applicable, on its soil side leaving minimum 2.5 cm (1 inch)
wide strip of uncoated steel along the underside of the floor plate, centered
on, and directly below the weld seam. This will typically require masking
a strip along the underside of each end (edge) of each bottom plate
approximately 5 cm (2 inch) wide. APCS-3 shall be specified for tank
with maximum operation temperature of 70C (158F), while APCS-113
shall be specified for higher operation temperatures.
9.4 In tanks where internal coating is not required, top side of the bottom and
the bottom portion of the shell, starting from the tank bottom up to
minimum one foot above water line, shall be coated according to the
applicable coating specifications.
9.5 Gasket contact surfaces shall not be coated or painted.
9.6 The tank number and content shall be painted in both Arabic and English
at 90 degree intervals around the tank.
10 Documentation
The Tank Manufacturer and internal floating roof manufacturer shall prepare drawings,
calculations, and data in accordance with Form NMR-7918-1 and Form NMR-7918-2,
Non-Material Requirements, as applicable.
Drawings and calculations, which are approved by the Design Engineer, shall not relieve
the Manufacturer of the responsibility to comply with the Code and this specification.
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11 Disinfection
11.1 All potable water storage tanks shall be disinfected in accordance with
AWWA C652.
11.2 The chlorine and bacteriological tests shall be approved by the
Environmental Health Department of Saudi Aramco.



Revision Summary
16 September 2008 Revised the "Next Planned Update". Reaffirmed the contents of the document, and
reissued with editorial revisions.
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Appendix B Recommendations for Design and Construction
of Foundations for Aboveground Oil Storage Tanks
B.2 Subsurface Investigation and Construction
B.2.6 Top fill layer 10-15 cm (4-6 inch) shall be a mixture of sweet sand and
3% cement (33:1 ratio, i.e., 3% cement). The material specifications and
mixing requirements shall be as follows:
1) The maximum permissible salts content is 0.1%. Sand shall be dried to a
free-moisture content of not more than 2.0% by weight of dry soil.
2) The dry sand must be screened through 6.4 mm ( inch) mesh
(maximum). Care must be taken in using clean mixing and handling
equipment to ensure mixture remains free from foreign matter.
3) The sand shall then be thoroughly mixed with cement in a 33:1 ratio by
weight in a concrete mixer. After laying the mixture shall be rolled a
minimum six times by a 3-ton roller. Vibratory plate tampers may be used
in lieu of rollers for areas where a roller cannot reach and/or cover.
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Appendix C External Floating Roofs

C.2 MATERIAL
(Exceptions)
Galvanized parts shall not be used.
Electrical bonding shunt materials shall be Type 304 stainless steel.
C.3 DESIGN
C.3.3 Decks
C.3.3.1 (Exception) Roofs shall be of the contact type designed to eliminate the
presence of any air-vapor mixture under the deck.
C.3.4 Pontoon Design
C.3.4.1 Floating roofs shall have sufficient buoyancy to remain afloat based on the
lower of the product specific gravity or 0.7, with the primary drain
inoperative for the conditions stated in API STD 650.
C.3.3.5 The deck of single deck pontoon floating roofs shall be in contact with the
liquid during normal operation.
C.3.3.6 Roofs greater than 91 m (300 foot) in diameter shall be of the double-deck
type.
C.3.7 Ladders
C.3.7.1 Rolling ladders shall meet the following requirements:
1) The minimum inside width of the ladder shall be 710 mm (28 inch).
2) Wheels shall be provided at the lower end of the ladder and sized to
prevent binding of the ladder at any position and provided with
sealed non-lubricating bearings.
3) Self-leveling treads shall be used for the ladder.
C.3.8 Roof Drains
(Exception) External floating roofs shall be provided with primary drains
of either the flexible pipe (Coflexip or equal), or the articulated pipe type.
A swing type check valve shall be provided at the inlet of the drain.
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Siphon type drains are not acceptable for primary roof drains. Siphon type
drains, however, may be provided as a secondary roof drain if specified on
the Storage Tank Data Sheet. Emergency drains for double deck floating
roofs shall be of the open-type design.
C.3.9 Vents
C.3.9.1 As a minimum, two overpressure/vacuum bleeder type vents shall be
installed. Vents shall be sized to handle a total of 125% of the maximum
filling/withdrawal rates that are specified on the Storage Tank Data Sheet.
Commentary Note:
Bleeder vents shall be designed to open and close automatically when the
roof is 75mm above its low support legs position upon emptying and filling
the tank, respectively.
C.3.9.2 Vents for protection against overpressure/vacuum, while the roof is
floating, shall be provided as follows:
1) Their overall capacity shall be determined according to API standard
2000 requirements, considering 25% of the filling/emptying rates
and 100% of thermal breathing.
2) Vents shall be evenly distributed and close to the roof periphery
enough vents shall be provided close to the inlet diffuser in services
where gas slugs are expected.
3) Vents shall be designed so as not to allow any carry over of stored
liquid onto the floating roof.
Commentary Notes:
i Normally, vents are of the open type that does not undergo testing but
rather in-situ inspection. In case relief valves are used, their number shall
be such that the total required venting capacity is always available when a
number of valve(s) are removed for testing.
ii) Anticipated operation upset conditions such as an increase in temperature
of the input stream to a tank or chemical injection that will result in
vaporization beyond that associated with the true vapor pressure design
limit of 90 kPa (13 psia) and gas purges shall be also considered in
determining the required venting capacity.
C.3.10 Supporting Legs
C.3.10.3 Support legs shall be carbon steel pipe, Schedule 80 minimum thickness.
C.3.10.4 Support legs shall be adjustable to two positions. The lower position shall
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allow the roof to descend to a position at least 75 mm (3 inch) above
internal accessories or roof seal mechanism. The higher position shall
provide a 2 m (79 inch) clearance between the lowest portion of the roof
and the tank floor.
C.3.10.5 Bearing plates shall be provided under all support legs so as to distribute
the weight of the internal floating roof on the tank bottom plates and to
avoid damage to internal tank coatings. The bearing plates shall be twice
the diameter of the support section, 12.7 mm (1/2 inch) thick, and shall be
attached to the bottom by 4.8 mm (3/16 inch) continuous fillet welds.
C.3.11 Roof Manholes
Roof manholes shall be provided in accordance with AB-036003.
C.3.13 Seals
(Exceptions):
1) If the sealing device employs steel shoes in contact with the shell
(pantograph-type), such shoes shall be made of only Type 304
stainless steel with a minimum nominal thickness of 1.5 mm
(16 gauge).
A low-density polymer type plastic insulation cover shall be
provided at the joint between the middle arm of the pantograph
hanger and the connecting rod of the steel shoe. The insulation cover
shall have a press-type locking system and completely electrically
insulate the pantograph hanger with the seal shoe.
2) Any fabric or non-metallic materials used as a seal or seal component
shall be selected based on the design temperature, flammability,
permeability, abrasion resistance, aging, resistance to aromatics, and
chemical resistance, and selected from the following Table.
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Seal Materials Table

Fluid Stored Non-Metallic Seal Material
Viton GF (FKM-GF)
Crude Oil
Aflas (TFE/P)
Viton (FKM)
PFA(Perfluoroalkoxy) Refined Products
PTFE(Teflon) laminate
PTFE (Teflon) laminate
KALREZ (Perfluoroelastomer) Gasoline/MTBE Blend
CHEMRAZ (Perfluoroelastomer)
KALREZ (Perfluoroelastomer)
CHEMRAZ (Perfluoroelastomer) MTBE (100%)
PTFE (Teflon) laminate

Materials properties verification shall be performed by an
independent laboratory.
3) The Tank Manufacturer may offer an alternate design and material at
the time of proposal. However, the alternate design shall comply
with the following requirements:
a) Seals shall be located on the skirt.
b) Materials for non-metallic components of seals shall meet
requirements in paragraph C3.13 (2) of this specification.
4) All fabric or non-metallic materials used as a seal or seal component
shall have a flammability spread index not exceeding 25 established
per NFPA 255.
5) All fasteners used in sealing devices shall be Type 304 stainless steel.
6) Design of secondary seals shall permit the inspection of primary
seals without removal of the secondary seals.
7) Fabric seal in sealing devices that employ steel shoes in contact with
the shell may be installed after the hydrostatic test.
C.3.14 Gauging devices shall be provided per paragraph 3.8.15 of this specification.
C.3.15 Bonding Shunts
Bonding shunts shall be provided on floating roofs in accordance with
SASD AB-036387 and API RP 2003 requirements.
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Appendix G Structurally Supported Aluminum Dome Roofs
G.1 General
G.1.4 Special features
G.1.4.2 (Exception) The aluminum dome roof materials shall have a mill finish.
G.2 Materials
G.2.1 General
(Exception) Materials for all roof components shall be compatible with the
intended service. Alternate material for any roof component (structural
frame, roof panels, node covers, bolts, fasteners, sealant and gasket
material, and skylight panels) shall not be used without prior approval of
the Saudi Aramco Engineer, as defined in Section 3 of this specification.
G.2.3 Roof Panels
(Exception) Roof panels and node covers shall be fabricated from Series
3000 (H32 or H34 temper) or 5000(H32 or H34 temper) aluminum with a
minimum nominal thickness of 1.2 mm (0.05 in.).
G.2.4 Bolts and Fasteners
(Exceptions):
Bolts and fasteners shall be of 7075-T73 aluminum, 2024-T4
aluminum, or 300 Series stainless steel (AISI 302 or AISI 304). Only
300 Series stainless steel (AISI 302 or AISI 304) bolts shall be used to
attach aluminum to steel.
400 Series stainless steel or aluminized mild steel HV-Huck-Lock bolts
shall be used for joining structural members (struts) at the space truss
nodes.
G.5 Roof Attachment
G.5.3 Separation of carbon Steel and Aluminum
(Exception) Aluminum shall be isolated from carbon steel by austenitic
stainless steel spacers.
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G.5.5 The dome surface paneling shall be designed as a watertight system under
all design load and temperature conditions. All edges of aluminum panels
shall be covered, sealed, and firmly clamped with batten in an interlocking
manner to prevent slipping or disengagement under all load and
temperature conditions.
G.8 Roof Vents
G.8.4.3 Surface appurtenances and closure panel joints shall be designed
watertight without the use of sealants.
G.10 Testing
G.10.2 100% liquid penetrant examinations shall be performed on structural welds
and components joined by welding.
G.11 Fabrication and Erection
G.11.5 Erection
(Exception) Structural frame members (struts) shall be joined at nodes by
preset-torque level HV-HUCK-Lock bolts.
G.11.6 Workmanship
(Exception) Sealant shall be applied and installed in a manner suitable to
that of architectural class work. J oint surfaces shall be clean to ensure
adhesion of sealants. All exposed sealant surfaces shall be tooled slightly
concave after sealant is placed in joints. Misplaced excess sealant shall be
removed.
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Appendix H Internal Floating Roofs

H.1 Scope
(Exception) Types of internal floating roofs are limited to those specified
in paragraph H.2.2 of this specification. Other types stipulated or
referenced in API STD 650, Appendix H shall not be considered.
H.2 Types
H.2.1 (Exception) The internal floating roof shall be selected by the design
engineer.
H.2.2 (Exception) Only type c(metallic pontoon roofs), type d(metallic double-
deck roofs) or type e(metallic roofs on floats) shall be used.
H.3 Material
H.3.1 (Exception) The Design Engineer shall specify the materials required.
Internal floating roofs with non-metallic components as part of the floats
are prohibited.
H.3.2 Steel
(Exception) Galvanized components shall not be used.
H.3.3 Aluminum
(Exceptions):
Aluminum shall not be used in services where caustic constituents are
present in the stored liquid.
Delete reference to sandwich panel type.
H.4 Requirements for All Types
H.4.1 General
H.4.1.6 (Exception)
H.4.1.6.1 A minimum of four anti-static stranded stainless steel cables of minimum
3 mm in diameter, uniformly distributed, shall be provided from the fixed
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roof to the internal floating roof. Design of the cables shall take into
account strength, flexibility, joint reliability and service life.
H.4.1.6.2 All moveable cover accessories (hatches, manways, pressure relief devices
and other openings) on the internal floating roof shall be bonded to the
internal floating roof to prevent static electricity sparking when they are
opened. The cable shall be minimum 3.2 mm (1/8) in diameter of stranded
stainless steel, with a length at least twice the normal travel of these device
covers. Design of the cables shall take into account strength, flexibility,
joint reliability and service life.
H.4.1.8 (Exceptions)
All closed floating compartments shall be seal welded to prevent liquid or
vapor entry.
Delete reference to floating roof type H.2.2.g.
H.4.1.9 Delete this paragraph.
H.4.1.10 (Exception) Drains for decks surfaces above the liquid level shall be
designed to return any spillage or condensate to the product. Such drains
shall close automatically or extended at least 100 mm (4 in.) into the
product to minimize vapor loss.
H.4.2 INTERNAL FLOATING ROOF DESIGN
H.4.2.4 Delete reference to floating roof type H.2.2.g.
H.4.3 J OINT DESIGN
H.4.3.3 (Exception) Pivot joints that allow flexure between adjacent floats shall be
provided on internal floating roof designs that employ a metallic roof on
tubular floats.
H.4.3.3.1 (Exception) Only austenitic type stainless steel SS 304 hardware shall be
used to join aluminum and/or stainless components to each other or to
carbon steel.
H.4.4 PERIPHERAL SEALS
H.4.4.2 The peripheral seal type and material shall selected by the Design
Engineer.
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H4.4.5 Seal Types
(Exceptions):
Any fabric or non-metallic materials used as a seal or seal component
shall be selected based on the design temperature, permeability,
abrasion resistance, aging, flammability, resistance to aromatics, and
chemical resistance, and selected from the table in paragraph C3.13.2
of this specification.
Only resilient foam-filled liquid-mounted and vapor-mounted rim seals
shall be used.
Circumferential joints in envelope fabric seals shall overlap by at least
150 mm (6 in.).
Galvanized steel components are prohibited.
All fabric or non-metallic materials used as a seal or seal component
shall have a flammability spread index not exceeding 25 established
per NFPA 255.
H4.4.6 Fabric or non-metallic materials used as a seal or seal component shall be
tested for their compatibility with the intended service by an independent
laboratory.
H.4.5 ROOF PENETRATIONS
(Exception) All roof penetrations shall be surrounded by a well that
extends at least 100 mm (4 in.) into the stored liquid.
H.4.6 Roof Supports
H.4.6.1 (Exception) The floating roof shall be provided with fixed or adjustable
supports.
H4.6.2 (Exception) The height of the floating roof shall be adjustable to two
positions with the tank out of service. The design of the supports shall
prevent damage to the fixed roof and floating roof at the tank maximum
design liquid level.
H.4.6.3 (Exception) The high (maintenance) of adjustable roof supports position
shall provide a 2 m (79 foot) clearance between the lowest portion of the
roof and the tank floor.
H.4.6.4 (Exception) Delete reference to floating roof types H.2.2.a, b and g.
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H.4.6.5 (Exception) Drainable pipe supports shall be used.
H.4.6.6 (Exception) Steel bearing plates shall be provided under all support legs so
as to distribute the weight of the internal floating roof on the tank bottom
plates and to avoid damage to internal tank coatings. The bearing plates
shall be twice the diameter of the support section, 12.7 mm ( inch) thick,
and shall be attached to the bottom by 4.8 mm (3/16 inch) continuous fillet
welds.
H.4.6.9 Where propeller-type mixers are used, the support legs shall provide a
minimum clearance of 300 mm (12 inch) from the underside of the internal
floating roof to the top of the mixer paddle(s).
H.4.6.10 J et-nozzle mixers are not permitted.
H.5 OPENINGS AND APPURTENANCES
H.5.2 Vents
H.5.2.1 Pressure-Vacuum (Bleeder) Vents
(Exception) As a minimum, two overpressure/vacuum bleeder type vents
shall be installed in the internal floating roof. Vents shall be sized to
handle a total of 125% of the maximum filling/withdrawal rates that are
specified on the Storage Tank Data Sheet.
Commentary Note:
Bleeder vents shall be designed to open and close automatically when the
roof is 75 mm (3 inch) above its low support legs position upon emptying
and filling the tank, respectively.
H.5.2.2 Tank Circulation Vents
H5.2.2.1 (Exception) Peripheral circulation vents shall be located at the top of the
shell with an outward projecting cover. Air intake shall be from the cover
bottom side to minimize dust ingress.
H.5.2.2.4 Circulation venting and venting devices shall provide protection against
overpressure/vacuum for normal conditions (resulting from operational
requirements and atmospheric changes) and emergency conditions
(resulting from exposure to an external fire) according to API STD 2000.
H5.2.3 Vents for protection against overpressure/vacuum, while the roof is
floating, shall be provided as follows:
1) Vents shall be sized according to API STD 2000 requirements,
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considering 25% of the filling/emptying rates and 100% of thermal
breathing.
2) Vents shall be evenly distributed and close to the roof edge with
enough vents shall be provided close to the inlet diffuser in services
where gas slugs are expected.
3) Vents shall be designed so as not to allow any carry over of stored
liquid onto the floating roof.
Commentary Note:
Anticipated operation upset conditions such as an increase in temperature
of the input stream to a tank or chemical injection that will result in
vaporization beyond that associated with the product true vapor pressure
design limit of 90 kPa absolute (13 psia) or gas purges shall be also
considered in determining the required venting capacity.
H.5.5.3 Inspection Hatches
(Exception) Inspection hatches shall be located on the fixed roof to permit
visual inspection of the seal region.
H.5.6 Inlet Diffuser
(Exception) Inlet diffuser shall be specified according to paragraph 3.8.12
of this specification.
H5.7 Gauging and Sampling Devices
(Exception) Internal floating roofs shall be provided with gauging and
sampling devices when specified by the Design Engineer.
H.6 Fabrication, Erection, Welding, Inspection, and Testing
H.6.4 (Exception) Floatation test and initial fill inspection shall be performed by
the erector and witnessed by the purchaser.
H.6.4.1 (Exception) delete reference to floating roof types H.2.2.a, b, g and f.
H.6.4.3 (Exception) Potable water having less than 500 ppm chlorides shall be
used for testing when the internal floating roof is constructed of aluminum
or stainless steel.
H.6.5 Internal floating roof components that are fabricated or attached by
welding, such as clips, gusset plates, etc., shall be completely seal-welded.
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H.6.6 Shop Fabrication
H.6.6.1 Straightening of material shall be done by pressing or other non-injurious
methods before the material is laid out or worked on in any way. Materials
shall not be hammered.
H.6.6.2 When the edges of plates are cut with a torch, the resulting surface shall be
uniform, smooth, and free from scale and slag before performing any
welding.
H.6.7 Shop Inspection and Testing
H.6.7.1 Internal floating roofs manufactured in accordance with this specification
are subject to verification by the Saudi Aramco Inspector in accordance
with Saudi Aramco Inspection Requirements Form 175-324900.
H.6.7.2 Inspection at the mill, shop, or fabrication yard shall not release the
manufacturer of the internal floating roof from responsibility for repairing
or replacing any defective material or workmanship that may be
subsequently discovered in the field.
H.6.7.3 All support brackets that are welded to tubular pontoons shall be dye-
penetrant inspected.
H.6.7.4 Welded tubular pontoons shall be pneumatically pressure tested with air at
35 kPa (5 psig) and the welds visually inspected by using a soapy water
solution or by immersing the pontoons under water. All defective welds
shall be repaired and the pontoons re-tested prior to shipment.
H.7 Installation
H.7.1 Internal floating roofs shall be installed by contractors who have been
approved by the manufacturer of the internal floating roofs.
H.7.2 Internal floating roofs shall be installed in accordance with the procedures
specified by the internal floating roof manufacturer.
H.8 Drawings and Calculations
The internal floating roof manufacturer shall prepare drawings,
calculations, and data in accordance with Form NMR-7918-2, Nonmaterial
Requirements. Drawings and calculations that are approved by the Design
Engineer shall not relieve the internal floating roof manufacturer of the
responsibility to comply with API STD 650 and this specification.