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Chapter1.

Introduction
Air conditioning systems are available in the range from 2kW to 33 MW
!."ton to #"!! tons$. Most of the air conditioners are operating on standard vapor
compression refrigeration cycle. C%C chlorofluorocarbon$ and &C%C hydro
chlorofluorocarbon$ refrigerants 'hich have been used as refrigerants in vapor
compression refrigeration systems 'ere kno'n to be the principal cause to o(one layer
depletion and global Warming.
&C%C)22 is one of the important refrigerants used in air)conditioning all over
the 'orld.&C%C)22 is a controlled substance under the Montreal protocol. *he +yoto
,rotocol 'as initially adopted on -ecember 1##. and entered in to force on %ebruary
2!!".
*his protocol intends a reduction of four greenhouse gases Carbon dio/ide0
methane0 nitrous o/ide0 1ulphur he/afluoride$ and t'o groups of gases
hydroflurocarbons and per fluorocarbons$. It has to be phased out by 2!3! in developed
countries and 2!2! in developing countries.
*he gro'ing a'areness of the need to sustain the ecology of the planet has resulted in
the phase out of the harmful refrigerants containing chlorine atoms0 such as
chlorofluorocarbons C%Cs$ and hydro chlorofluorocarbons &C%Cs$. Although a
replacement for C%Cs has been found0 the search for good alternatives for &C%Cs
especially 3)22 is still on.
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1.1 Project Definition
*he basic purpose of this pro4ect is to do Comparative 1tudy of 5co)friendly
3efrigerants in a 6o'er Capacity Air)Conditioning 1ystem. And increase efficiency of
air)condition system 'ith these refrigerant7s.
1.2 Project Scheduled
Figure 1: Project Schedule
2
Literature review
Ma4or investigations in the area of alternate refrigerants are revie'ed belo' from
the point of vie' of their ability to match the performance of the 'idely used 322
refrigerant. 8aghdoudi et all have 1imulated the performance of ten alternate refrigerants
such as 93132a0 32#!0 3:!!0 32!2A0 32!.A0 32!.C0 32!.-0 321!A0 321!; and
321.A< to replace 322 in Air conditioner of #!!!;*=>hr !.."*3$ capacity by using
?I1* Cycled. *he simulation results are tabulated in *able 2 of the present paper.
-evotta et.al assessed the suitability of various alternative refrigerants to 3)22 for air
conditioning applications.
*hey have selected only (ero o(one depleting potential refrigerants. ?I1*
Cycle@- has been used for the comparative thermodynamic analysis. *he ob4ective of the
analysis is to identify fluids that are likely to be close to &C%C)22 operating conditions.
Among the refrigerants studied are &%C)132a0 &C2#!0 32!.C0 321!A0 and three blends
of &%C)320 &%C132a and &%C)12".*hey have concluded that ,ressure ratios for 321!A
are slightly lo'er than that of 3)22 but operating pressures are fairly large compared to
3)22 at evaporator temperature of ..2AC and condenser temperature of ""AC.Masanobu
et.al have conducted performance tests 'ith &%C32>&%C)132a 3!>.! by 'tB$. &%C)
32>&%C)132a 2">." by 't B$ and &%C)32>&%C)12" "!>"! by 't B$ i.e. 3)21!A. -ue
to large mass flo' rate of 321!A the cooling capacity 'as greater than other mi/tures by
more than "!Band due to higher compressor po'er reCuired for 321!A the energy
efficiency ratio 'as lesser than other refrigerants mi/ture by 1)"B.-evotta.et al 9"0 :<
have tested the 'indo' air conditioner of 1." *3 capacity for the e/perimental
performance analysis 'ith &C%C)22 and 3)2!.C in the psychometric lab. *hey have
retrofitted the 'indo' air conditioner by replacing &C%C)22 'ith 3)2!.C and mineral
oil 'ith polyoesteroil and concluded that cooling capacity of 3)2!.C is lo'er in the range
2.1)..#B0 ,o'er consumption is higher in the range :).B0 CD, of 3) 2!.C is lo'er in
the range of E.2)13.:B0 discharge pressures of 3)2!.C are higher in the range of 11)13B
and it is also observed that the pressure drops of 3)2!.C are al'ays lo'er. *hese authors
also tested the 'indo' air conditioner of 1." *3 capacity for the e/perimental
performance analysis 'ith &C%C)22 and 3)2#! in the psychometric lab0 *hey have tested
the 'indo' air conditioner by replacing &C%C) 22 'ith 3)2#! and mineral oil 'ith poly
ester oil ,D5$ and concluded that cooling capacity of 3)3)2#! is lo'er in the range :.:)
#..B0 ,o'er consumption of air conditioner 'ith 3)2#! is lo'er in the range 12.2)13."B0
3
CD, of 3)2#! is higher in the range of 2.E)..#B0 discharge pressures of 3)2#! are lo'er
in the range of 13..) 1E.2B. -omanski and -idion evaluated the performance of nine 3)
22 alternatives.
*he study is conducted using a semi theoretical cycle@11$ model. *hey
havetested 322 1!!B$0 332>12" :!B>2!B$0 332>12">>132a>2#! 2!B>""B>2!B>"B$0
332>12">132a 1!B>.!B>2!B$0 32#! 1!!B$0 332>12">>132a 3!B>1!B>:!B$0
332>22.ca 3"B>:"B$0 332>132a 3!B>.!B$0 3)32>3132a 2"B>."B$0 3)132a 1!!B$.
CD, of none of the selected refrigerant e/ceeded the CD, of 3)22. It is suggested that
utili(ation of the liCuid line) suction line heat e/changer may be 'arranted for some of
the alternative refrigerants. Fod'in presented the results from some of the compressor
calorimeter and system drop in tests conducted as part of alternative refrigerants
evaluation program A35,$.
*he blend 3)22>3)12">3)132a 3!B>:!B>1!B$ sho'ed a performance Cuite
similar to that of 3)22. It is also found that 3)32>3)132a :!B>2!B$ had poor efficiency.
-rop in test using 3)32>3)12">3)132a 3!B>1!B>:!B$ for a unit sho'ed that cooling
capacity decreased by ") 1!B.Chen et al 9#< investigated the feasibility of using
hydrocarbon refrigerant mi/tures in residential air conditioners and heat pumps. *he
mi/ture of &C)2#! and &C):!! gave the highest CD,. It is considered to represent the
best balance bet'een CD, and volumetric capacity for hydrocarbons. Also concluded
that this mi/ture has lo' volumetric capacity and hence it reCuires larger compressor. In
the present 'ork the performance of seven alternative refrigerants proposed as an
alternative to the traditionally used 322 and is simulated using the analysis soft'are
CDD6 ,AC+. A comprehensive study of the performance of these refrigerants is made
based on the results of the analysis.
2
Introduction to Air-Conditioning
In this Chapter 'e understand the basic concepts of air)conditioning system.
,rinciples uses in air)conditioning system. -ifferent components and problem and its
troubleshooting of these component.
2.1 hat i! Air Conditioning"
Air conditioning often referred to as aircon0 AC or A#C$ is the process of altering
the properties of air primarily temperature and humidity$ to more favorable conditions0
typically 'ith the aim of distributing the conditioned air to an occupied space to improve
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comfort. More generally0 air conditioning can refer to any form of technology0 heating0
cooling0 de)humidification0 humidification0 cleaning0 ventilation0 or air movement that
modifies the condition of air.
If 'e look for air conditioning in Collins 5nglish -ictionary it statesG
A system for controlling the temperature and humidity of the air in a building.
Controlling the temperature is being able to heat and cool. ?ot only cool.
*he air that 'e breathe is made up of 3 ma4or components all capable of carrying energy
heat$G
1. $he co%&onent %olecular con!tituent! of air: D/ygen 23B$0 ?itrogen .:B$0
Carbon -io/ide 1B$ and Inert Fases 1B$
2. 'oi!ture or ater (a&our: Water vapour is present in the air at all times0 the
Cuantity present being dependent upon the air temperature. *he higher the air temperature
the higher the 'ater vapour Cuantity$.
). Air*orne Particulate: *hese are the suspended impurities 'ithin the air from either
industrial or natural pollution such as pollen0 dust0 smoke0 germs etc.
As air is the only media that encompasses the 'hole of our body0 'e need to
condition this air to provide comfort. *he action 'e need to take isG
1. Control $e%&erature +heating , cooling- 'hich entails adding energy heating$ or
removing un'anted energy cooling$. Feneral comfort conditions range bet'een 2! )
2" in the =+.
2. Control .u%idit/ moisture content in the air$0 either humidify add moisture$ 'hen
dry0 'hich can result in dryness of skin0 dry throat and encourages static build)up$ or de)
humidify remove moisture$ 'hen the amount of moisture in the air is high0 'hich can
result in breathing discomfort. Comfort humidity is generally bet'een 3!).! B 3&
3elative &umidity$ for the =+.
1. Provide (entilation to provide the necessary o/ygen for breathing and dispelling
carbon dio/ide0 odour0 dust0 smoke etc. Feneral ventilation reCuirement ranges bet'een "
) 1E liters per second per person.
2. Provide Filtration to clean outside and inside air by removing dust0 pollen0 etc. -ust
in dry air combined 'ith dryness lack of moisture in the air$ is the main cause of static
shocks. 6ack of ventilation and filtration combined 'ith the lack of maintenance is the
main causes of 1ick ;uilding 1yndrome 1;1$.
*herefore air conditioning encompassesG
&eating0 Cooling0 &umidity Control0 Hentilation0 %iltration
:
2.2 Factor! hich Con!ideration hen Choo!ing a Suita*le S/!te%
*here are many types of air conditioning systems available and therefore there
are factors to take into consideration 'hen choosing a suitable systemG
Ca&ital Co!t: Includes not only the cost of eCuipment and its installation0 but also
all ancillary reCuirements such as build 'ork0 plant location and si(e0 electrical
'ork0 progress time0 administration0 etc. Whole life costs also consist of
maintenance0 energy efficiency and life e/pectancy.
0nerg/ 0fficienc/ +1unning Co!t-: 5nergy efficiency of air conditioning
systems is becoming increasingly important as it can account for the largest single
element of the energy reCuirement of a building. Also0 in the near future0 energy
ta/ might be introduced. It may be more cost effective to install a system 'ith
higher initial cost but 'hich provides greater energy efficiency.
'aintenance Co!t: Maintenance cost is often over looked in any calculation and
can be very costly dependent on the comple/ity of the system and the availability
of professional service companies.
Fle2i*ilit/: %le/ibility of the system should be assessed in terms of installation0
operation0 future e/pansion and changes0 operation0 maintenance and controls.
3!er Friendline!!: *his needs to be assessed in relation to the occupier or user0
the operator and>or the maintenance personnel. Many systems have standard
controls0 'hich are simple in concept yet sophisticated in nature and can combine
user friendliness 'ith full technical diagnostics.
0nviron%ental I!!ue!: *hese need to be checked0 such as eCuipment compliance
'ith current and future legislation in terms of CD2 emissions0 D(one -epletion
and &ealth I 1afety.
2.) hat and here
*he demand for air conditioning continues to gro'. We all demand higher levels
of comfort in our 'ork places0 hotels0 restaurants and other public places. Air
conditioning in cars has become a standard feature ) no longer restricted to lu/ury
models. -espite our unpredictable climate the =+ en4oys 5uropeJs 2th largest market for
air conditioning and yet only some 1"B of commercial buildings are air conditioned and
the residential market is only 4ust beginning to develop.
.
2.).1 h/ do we need air conditioning"
*o offset un'anted energy heat$ in an occupied space due to lighting0
computers0 people0 heat gains from outside etc.$.
*o offset cold conditions due to 'inter climate$ i.e. to add heat.
*o provide clean0 healthy conditions.
*o improve productivity by providing comfortable conditions.
*o improve living conditions comfort$.
*o increase the value of property.
2.).2 here do we need air conditioning"
Air conditioning is used in virtually all 'alks of life0 as it is no longer considered a
lu/ury0 especially 'ith the lifestyle 'e have today and the amount of pollution that e/ists.
Also0 'ith the advancement of electronics and manufacturing processes0 manufacturers
are capable of producing highly fle/ible0 simple0 energy efficient and lo' cost eCuipment
compared to our present standards of living. It is used in the follo'ing applicationsG
&ealth Clubs0 ,etrol 1tations0 -ental 1urgeries0 Industrial ,rocesses0 1uper Markets0
-octorJs 1urgeries and many specialist applications such as computer rooms0 C-
manufacturing etc.
2.4 $he &roce!! of Air-conditioning
*here are many different methods of achieving comfort conditions &eating0
Cooling0 &umidity Control0 and Hentilation I %iltration$G
1. .eating and Cooling:
&eating and cooling 'hich should be treated as one entity$ are the most important parts
of the Air Conditioning system.
.eating adding energy$G Is achieved through electrical energy input0 ?atural Fas
;oilers0 Dil ;oilers and 3everse Cycle 3efrigerant &eat ,ump. *ransfer of this energy
from source to the air)conditioned space can be via air circulation Air systems$0 via
'ater circulation Water systems$ or via refrigerant 5/tended -irect 5/pansion
systems$.
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Cooling absorbing>removing heat$G *his is the reverse of heating i.e. transferring
un'anted energy>heat generated by lights0 computers0 people0 solar heat gains through
glass0 structure heat gains0 ventilation heat gains0 etc.$ from inside to outside. *he transfer
method is via the same media as heating transferG Air systems0 Water systems or
5/tended -irect e/pansion systems.
State%ent: #"B of cooling systems air0 'ater or 5/tended -irect 5/pansion 5-K$$ use
3efrigerant vapour compression cycle or HCC$ in the heat re4ection process0 as
3efrigerant is the most efficient media and has the advantage of having a boiling
temperature of )2!LC 'ater MN1!!LC$ and an energy carrying capacity 1! times more
efficient than 'ater and "! times more efficient than air.
2. (entilation
Hentilation can be a part of the 'hole air conditioning system in the case of Air
1ystems$0 'here Air is also used to transfer energy0 or an independent system mainly to
provide ventilation in the case of Water 1ystems and 5-K$. &o'ever0 outside air needs
to be treated heated and>or cooled and filtered$ to meet indoor temperature conditions0
especially in e/treme 'inter conditions and not so e/treme summer conditions.
State%ent: =tili(ing ventilation in mid)season to control temperature can also provide an
acceptable energy efficient solution. *his is more the case in outer city areas and areas of
lo' level0 internal energy gain. Hentilation can represent high percentage of building
energy consumption0 especially in centrali(ed systems. Modular systems are more
controllable0 run only 'here needed and easily added to 'hen reCuirements change.
). Filtration
%iltration is an integral part of any air movement deviceO the level of it depends on the
type of eCuipment selected to provide the other parts of the air conditioning system. It can
also be added to an e/isting system or stand)alone e.g. electrostatic$ -ependent on the
application ,ublic &ouses0 etc.$ and special reCuirements &ospitals0 etc.$.
State%ent: *here may be applications 'here due to capital cost implication0 e/cessive
ventilation oversi(ed$ is applied to overcome the above special reCuirements at the
e/pense of running cost. 6ocali(ed filtration is more possible these days at lo' cost rather
than over si(ing the ventilation system.
2.5 1efrigeration C/cle
#
In the refrigeration cycle0 a heat pump transfers heat from a lo'er)
temperature heat source into a higher)temperature heat sink. &eat 'ould naturally flo' in
the opposite direction. *his is the most common type of air conditioning.
A refrigerator 'orks in much the same 'ay0 as it pumps the heat out of the interior and
into the room in 'hich it stands.
*his cycle takes advantage of the 'ay phase changes 'ork0 'here latent heat is released
at a constant temperature during a liCuid>gas phase change0 and 'here varying
the pressure of a pure substance also varies its condensation>boiling point.

Figure 2: A !i%&le !t/li6ed diagra% of the refrigeration c/cle: 1- conden!ing coil7 2- e2&an!ion valve7
)- eva&orator coil7 4- co%&re!!or
*he most common refrigeration cycle uses an electric motor to drive
a compressor. In an automobile0 the compressor is driven by a belt over a pulley0 the belt
being driven by the engineJs crankshaft similar to the driving of the pulleys for
the alternator0 po'er steering0 etc.. Whether in a car or building0 both use electric fan
motors for air circulation. 1ince evaporation occurs 'hen heat is absorbed0 and
condensation occurs 'hen heat is released0 air conditioners use a compressor to
cause pressure changes bet'een t'o compartments0 and actively condense and pump
a refrigerant around. A refrigerant is pumped into the evaporator coil0 located in the
compartment to be cooled0 'here the lo' pressure causes the refrigerant to evaporate into
a vapor0 taking heat 'ith it. At the opposite side of the cycle is the condenser0 'hich is
located outside of the cooled compartment0 'here the refrigerant vapor is compressed and
forced through another heat e/change coil0 condensing the refrigerant into a liCuid0 thus
releasing the heat previously absorbed from the cooled space.
;y placing the condenser 'here the heat is re4ected$ inside a compartment0 and
the evaporator 'hich absorbs heat$ in the ambient environment such as outside$0 or
merely running a normal air conditionerJs refrigerant in the opposite direction0 the overall
effect is the opposite0 and the compartment is heated. *his is usually called a heat pump0
1!
and is capable of heating a home to comfortable temperatures 2" LCO .. L%$0 even 'hen
the outside air is belo' the free(ing point of 'ater ! LCO 32 L%$.Cylinder unloaders are a
method of load control used mainly in commercial air conditioning systems. Dn a semi)
hermetic or open$ compressor0 the heads can be fitted 'ith unloaders 'hich remove a
portion of the load from the compressor so that it can run better 'hen full cooling is not
needed. =nloaders can be electrical or mechanical.
2.5.1 (a&our Co%&re!!ion C/cle
*he basis of most more than #"B$ air conditioning systems is the Pvapour
compression cycleQ. *he media vapour$ is 3efrigerant hydro chlorofluorocarbons )
&C%C$ 'hich is non)to/ic0 non)e/plosive and non)corrosive. *hese 3efrigerants have a
boiling point of appro/. Minus "3 'hich means that even if the air outside or inside$
temperature is as lo' as minus "! it still has heat to be absorbed by refrigerants.
Figure ): A !ingle-!tage ideal va&or co%&re!!ion refrigeration c/cle: +a- !che%atic diagra%7 +*- p-h
diagra%
*he vapour compression cycle reCuires four componentsG
1. $he Co%&re!!or: *o raise the pressure of lo')pressure lo' temperature gas to high)
pressure high temperature gas.
2. $he Conden!er: *o change the state of high)pressure0 high temperature gas to high)
pressure0 high temperature 6IR=I-. *his is achieved by passing ambient air kno'n as
air)cooled$ or 'ater kno'n as 'ater)cooled$ over the condenser tubes.
). $he 02&an!ion Device: *he purpose of the device is to change the state of the
refrigerant from high)pressure0 high temperature liCuid to lo' pressure lo' temperature
saturated liCuid. *his is achieved by passing the liCuid through an orifice.
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4. $he 0va&orator: *o absorb the heat from room air or 'ater0 'hich in the case of a
chiller is circulated around the evaporator coil. *his 'ill change the state of lo')pressure0
lo' temperature saturated liCuid to lo' pressure0 lo'>medium temperature gas.
*hese components are common to the vast ma4ority of domestic refrigerators.
*his vapour compression cycle if reversed condenser becomes evaporator and visa
versa$ can no' absorb heat from outside and transfer it to inside0 hence saving energy.
*his is called 3everse Cycle &eat ,ump. 5nergy savings can be as high as 2 to 1 for
every kW input 'e get 2 kW output$.
2.5.2 Detail of Co%&onent of !i%&le va&our co%&re!!ion c/cle
1. Co%&re!!or
*he most common compressors used in chillers are reciprocating0 rotary
scre'0 centrifugal0 and scroll compressors. 5ach application prefers one or another due to
si(e0 noise0 efficiency and pressure issues. Compressors are often described as being
either open0 hermetic0 or semi)hermetic0 to describe ho' the compressor and>or motor is
situated in relation to the refrigerant being compressed. Hariations of motor>compressor
types can lead to the follo'ing configurationsG
&ermetic motor0 hermetic compressor
&ermetic motor0 semi)hermetic compressor
Dpen motor belt driven or close coupled$0 hermetic compressor
Dpen motor belt driven or close coupled$0 semi)hermetic compressor
*ypically in hermetic0 and most semi)hermetic compressors sometimes kno'n
as accessible hermetic compressors$0 the compressor and motor driving the compressor
are integrated0 and operate 'ithin the refrigerant system. *he motor is hermetic and is
designed to operate0 and be cooled by0 the refrigerant being compressed. *he obvious
disadvantage of hermetic motor compressors is that the motor drive cannot be maintained
in situ0 and the entire compressor must be removed if a motor fails. A further
disadvantage is that burnt out 'indings can contaminate 'hole refrigeration systems
reCuiring the system to be entirely pumped do'n and the refrigerant replaced.
An open compressor has a motor drive 'hich is outside of the refrigeration
system0 and provides drive to the compressor by means of an input shaft 'ith suitable
gland seals. Dpen compressor motors are typically air)cooled and can be fairly easily
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e/changed or repaired 'ithout degassing of the refrigeration system. *he disadvantage of
this type of compressor is a failure of the shaft seals0 leading to loss of refrigerant.
Dpen motor compressors are generally easier to cool using ambient air$ and
therefore tend to be simpler in design and more reliable0 especially in high pressure
applications 'here compressed gas temperatures can be very high. &o'ever the use of
liCuid in4ection for additional cooling can generally overcome this issue in most hermetic
motor compressors.
1. 1eci&rocating co%&re!!or!
3eciprocating compressors are piston)style0 positive displacement compressors.
3eciprocating Fas Compressors *he single stage0 reciprocating compressors create a lo')
pressure area in the pumping chamber 'hen the piston moves from the highest point of
the stroke to the lo'est point. Faseous product at a higher pressure in the tank$ moves
into the pumping chamber. *his volume of gas is then displaced 'hen the piston moves to
the top of the stroke. 5Cuipped 'ith high efficiency valves0 ductile iron pistons0 self)
ad4usting piston rod seals and other robust features0 these compressors are designed to
provide ma/imum performance and reliability under the most severe service conditions.
Figure4: 1eci&rocating Co%&re!!or
2. 1otar/ Screw Co%&re!!or
A rotar/ !crew co%&re!!or is a type of gas compressor 'hich uses a rotary type
positive displacement mechanism. *hey are commonly used to replace piston
compressors 'here large volumes of high pressure air are needed0 either for large
industrial applications or to operate high)po'er air tools such as 4ackhammers.
*he gas compression process of a rotary scre' is a continuous s'eeping motion0 so
there is very little pulsation or surging of flo'0 as occurs 'ith piston compressors.
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3otary scre' compressors use t'o meshing helical scre's0 kno'n as rotors0 to
compress the gas. In a dry running rotary scre' compressor0 timing gears ensure that the
male and female rotors maintain precise alignment. In an oil)flooded rotary scre'
compressor0 lubricating oil bridges the space bet'een the rotors0 both providing a
hydraulic seal and transferring mechanical energy bet'een the driving and driven rotor.
Fas enters at the suction side and moves through the threads as the scre's rotate. *he
meshing rotors force the gas through the compressor0 and the gas e/its at the end of the
scre's.
*he effectiveness of this mechanism is dependent on precisely fitting clearances
bet'een the helical rotors0 and bet'een the rotors and the chamber for sealing of the
compression cavities.
Figure 5: 1otar/ Screw Co%&re!!or
). Centrifugal Co%&re!!or
Centrifugal compressors are dynamic compressors. *hese compressors raise the
pressure of the refrigerant by imparting velocity or dynamic energy0 using a rotating
impeller0 and converting it to pressure energy.
Centrifugal compressors0 sometimes termed radial compressors0 are a sub)class
of dynamic a/isymmetric 'ork)absorbing turbo machinery.
*he ideali(ed compressive dynamic turbo)machine achieves a pressure rise by
adding kinetic energy>velocity to a continuous flo' of fluid through the rotor or impeller.
*his kinetic energy is then converted to an increase in potential energy>static pressure by
slo'ing the flo' through a diffuser. *he pressure rise in impeller is in most cases almost
eCual to the rise in the diffuser section.
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Figure 8: Centrifugal Co%&re!!or
2.Condencer
A refrigerator condenser is one of the main operating components that make up
the cooling system on a standard refrigerator. It consists of a series of copper tubes that
overlap in a grid or coiling pattern. Dn most models0 the condenser is located at the back
of the unit0 though some may be installed on the bottom or along one side of the unit.
While its si(e can vary0 it often covers at least half of the area of the refrigerator 'all0 and
some even cover the entire 'all of the unit.
Combined 'ith the evaporator unit 'ithin the fridge0 the condenser removes heat
from inside the refrigerator and transfers it to the outside of the unit. A series of copper
tubes or pipes connect the t'o devices0 and liCuid refrigerant passes through these tubes
to travel from one to the other. As the refrigerant passes through the evaporator0 it collects
heat energy from 'ithin the refrigerator or free(er0 leaving the inside of the unit cold
enough for food storage. *he e/tra heat energy 'arms the refrigerant0 causing it to
transform into a gaseous material. *his gaseous refrigerant then travels do'n to the
condenser.
As the refrigerant passes into the condenser0 a fan blo's air onto the copper tubes. *his
cools the refrigerant inside0 and the e/cess heat energy is e/hausted into the room. Dnce
the heat leaves the refrigerant0 it transforms back into a liCuid0 then travels back into the
evaporator to repeat this cooling cycle.
1"
Figure 9: refrigerator conden!er
*here are three types of condensersG air cooled0 'ater cooled and evaporative.

1$ Air cooled conden!er!G Air cooled condensers are used in small units like household
refrigerators0 deep free(ers0 'ater coolers0 'indo' air)conditioners0 split air)conditioners0
small packaged air)conditioners etc. *hese are used in plants 'here the cooling load is
small and the total Cuantity of the refrigerant in the refrigeration cycle is small. Air cooled
condensers are also called coil condensers as they are usually made of copper or
aluminum coil. Air cooled condensers occupy a comparatively larger space than 'ater
cooled condensers.
Air cooled condensers are of t'o typesG natural convection and forced convection.
In the natural convection type0 the air flo's over it in natural a 'ay depending upon the
temperature of the condenser coil. In the forced air type0 a fan operated by a motor blo's
air over the condenser coil.
2$ ater cooled conden!er!G Water cooled condensers are used for large refrigerating
plants0 big packaged air)conditioners0 central air)conditioning plants0 etc. *hese are used
in plants 'here cooling loads are e/cessively high and a large Cuantity of refrigerant
flo's condenser.
*here are three types of 'ater cooled condensersG tube)in)tube or double pipe type0 shell
and coil type and shell and tube type. In all these condensers the refrigerant flo's through
one side of the piping 'hile the 'ater flo's through the other piping0 cooling the
refrigerant and condensing it.
1:
3$ 0va&orative conden!er!G 5vaporative condensers are usually used in ice plants. *hey
are a combination of 'ater cooled and air cooled condensers. In these condensers the hot
refrigerant flo's through the coils. Water is sprayed over these coils. At the same time
the fan dra's air from the bottom side of the condenser and discharges it from the top
side of the condenser. *he spray 'ater that comes in contact 'ith the condenser coil gets
evaporated in the air and it absorbs the heat from the condenser0 cools the refrigerant and
condenses it.
5vaporative condensers have the benefits of 'ater cooled as 'ell as air cooled condenser0
hence it occupies less space. &o'ever0 keeping the evaporative condenser clean and free
of scale is very difficult and reCuires lots of maintenance. &ence they are not favored
by &HAC designers.
). $hrottling or e2&an!ion device!
In the throttling valve the pressure of the refrigerant reduces suddenly and
e/cessively. With this the temperature of the refrigerant also reduces drastically. *his lo'
pressure and lo' temperature liCuid refrigerant then enters the evaporator and absorbs
heat from the substance or the space to be cooled.
*he throttling valve is fitted bet'een the condenser and the evaporator. *he
throttling or e/pansion device is in the form of a small orifice. When refrigerant passes
through this small orifice its pressure reduces suddenly due to the friction. *he rate of the
flo' of refrigerant through the throttling device depends on the si(e and opening of the
orifice. It also depends on the difference in pressure on the evaporator and the condenser
sides.
*here are different types of throttling devices0 but in refrigerating and air)
conditioning systems0 the t'o most commonly used types areG capillary tube and
thermostatic e/pansion valve. *hese have been described belo'G
1$ Ca&illar/ tu*eG Instead of the orifice0 the capillary is small diameter tubing that offers
the restricted flo' of the refrigerant. Its internal diameter ranges from !.!2! to !.!#!
inches depending upon the capacity of the refrigerating or air)conditioning system. *he
pressure drop attained through the capillary depends upon its diameter and length.
1.
Capillary tubing made of copper is most commonly used.
Capillary tubing is used for small refrigerating and air)conditioning systems like
household refrigerators0 'ater coolers0 deep free(ers0 'indo' air)conditioners0 split air)
conditioners0 small packaged air)conditioners etc. %or systems in 'hich capillary tubing
is fitted0 technicians have to be very careful of refrigerant charging as the overcharging
can lead e/cessive high discharge pressures from the compressor0 'hich leads to over
loading of the compressor and the chances of refrigerant leakages from the system are
also increased.
Figure: : 02&an!ion valve
2- $her%o!tatic e2&an!ion valve!G *he thermostatic e/pansion valve is not controlled
by the temperature. It 'orks automatically maintaining proper flo' of the refrigerant
depending upon the heat load in the evaporator. Apart from reducing the pressure of the
refrigerant0 the thermostatic e/pansion valve also keeps the evaporator active. *hese days
thermostatic e/pansion valves used 'ith solenoid valves are more common.
*hermostatic e/pansion valves are used e/tensively in medium and large si(ed
refrigerating and air)conditioning systems. *hey can be used for large 'ater chilling
plants0 brine chilling plants0 large packaged air)conditioners0 central air)conditioning
plants etc.
1E
4. 0va&orator
It is in the evaporators 'here the actual cooling effect takes place in the
refrigeration and the air conditioning systems. %or many people the evaporator is the main
part of the refrigeration system and they consider other parts as less useful.
*he evaporators are heat e/changer surfaces that transfer the heat from the
substance to be cooled to the refrigerant0 thus removing the heat from the substance. *he
evaporators are used for 'ide variety of diverse applications in refrigeration and air
conditioning processes and hence they are available in 'ide variety of shapes0 si(es and
designs. *hey are also classified in different manner depending on the method of feeding
the refrigerant0 construction of the evaporator0 direction of air circulation around the
evaporator0 application and also the refrigerant control.
In the domestic refrigerators the evaporators are commonly kno'n as the free(ers
since the ice is made in these compartments. In case of the 'indo' and split air
conditioners and other air conditioning systems 'here the evaporator is directly used for
cooling the room air0 it is called as the cooling coil. In case of large refrigeration plants
and central air conditioning plants the evaporator is also kno'n as the chiller since these
systems are first used to chill the 'ater0 'hich then produces the cooling effect.
In the evaporator the refrigerant enters at very lo' pressure and temperature after
passing through the e/pansion valve. *his refrigerant absorbs the heat from the substance
that is to be cooled so the refrigerant gets heated 'hile the substance gets cooled. 5ven
after cooling the substance the temperature of the refrigerant leaving the evaporator is less
the than the substance. *he refrigerant leaves the evaporator in vapor state0 mostly
superheated and is absorbed by the compressor.
$/&e! of 0va&orator! or Cla!!ification of the 0va&orator!
In the large refrigeration and air conditioning plants the evaporator is used for
chilling the 'ater. In such cases shell and tube type of heat e/changers are used as the
evaporators. In such plants the evaporators or the chillers are classified asG
1$ -ry e/pansion type of evaporators
2$ %looded type of the evaporators
In case of the dry e/pansion type of chillers or evaporators the flo' of the
refrigerant to the evaporators is controlled by the e/pansion valve. *he e/pansion valve
allo's the flo' of the refrigerant depending on the refrigeration load. In case of the shell
and tube type of evaporators the refrigerant flo's along the tube side0 'hile the substance
to be chilled usually 'ater or brine$ flo's long the shell side. In case of the flooded the
1#
evaporator is filled 'ith the refrigerant and constant level of the refrigerant is maintained
inside it. In these evaporators or the chillers the refrigerant is along shell side 'hile the
substance to be chilled or free(er flo's along the tube side of the heat e/changer.
*hough this classification is also applicable to the domestic refrigerators and the
air conditioners0 the evaporators used in these systems are classified based on their
construction. *he evaporators are classified based on the construction asG
1$ ;are tube evaporators
2$ ,late surface evaporators
3$ %inned evaporators
*he bare tube evaporators are the simple copper coil evaporators over 'hich the
substance to be cooled flo's. *he plate surface evaporators are commonly used in the
household refrigerators. *hese evaporators are also in the form of coil 'hich is attached
to the plate. *he finned evaporators are also made of copper coil 'ith fins on the e/ternal
surface as 'ell on the internal surface. In the ne/t articles 'e shall see all these
evaporators in greater details.
Figure; : 0va&orator in refrigeration
5. Dr/er:
A compressed air dryer is a device for removing 'ater vapor from compressed
air. Compressed air dryers are commonly found in a 'ide range of industrial and
commercial facilities.
*he process of air compression concentrates atmospheric contaminants0
including 'ater vapor. *his raises the de' point of the compressed air relative to free
atmospheric air and leads to condensation 'ithin pipes as the compressed air cools
2!
do'nstream of the compressor. 5/cessive 'ater in compressed air0 in either the liCuid or
vapor phase0 can cause a variety of operational problems for users of compressed air.
*hese include free(ing of outdoor air lines0 corrosion in piping and eCuipment0
malfunctioning of pneumatic process control instruments0 fouling of processes and
products0 and more.
*here are various types of compressed air dryers. *heir performance
characteristics are typically defined by the de' point. 3efrigerated Air -ryers can help us
solve the problem of harmful moisture in our compressed air system. 5/cess moisture in
our system can harm eCuipment and ruin processes or product0 costing our time and
money. *his method of drying is very popular as it produces de' points0 'hich are
adeCuate for most applications using 'ell proven technologies that encounter fe'
problems if properly si(ed0 installed and maintained.
Figure1<: Dr/er in refrigeration c/cle
8. Filter:
Almost every air conditioning system has a filter upstream of the evaporator coil.
*his can be in the return grille or in special slots in the duct system and can be a fu((y)
looking or a folded paper filter. *his filter removes particles from the air stream to both
keep the air conditioning system clean and to remove particles from the air. As the filter
does its 4ob0 it gets loaded 'ith more and more particles. *his actually has the effect of
making it more efficient0 but it also increases resistance and reducing airflo'. When this
happens0 it is time to change the filter. &o' long it 'ill take to happen depend on ho'
dirty the air is and ho' big the filter is.If you don7t change the filter0 the air flo' 'ill go
do'n0 and the system 'ill not perform 'ell. ?ot only that0 but if the filter is too dirty0 it
starts to become a source or air pollution itself. If you take the filter out completely0 you
'ould solve the lo' air flo' problem0 but this victory 'ould be short lived. *he particles
21
that the filter 'ould have taken out 'ill no' build up on your evaporator coil and
eventually cause it to fail. A ne' filter is a lot cheaper. When you do buy a ne' filter0
A1&3A5 recommends getting one 'ith a Minimum 5fficiency 3ating Halue of M53H :
or higher.
Figure11 : Filter in air-conditioning !/!te%
2.8 $/&e of Air-conditioning !/!te%
1. indow and through-wall
3oom air conditioners come in t'o formsG unitary and packaged terminal ,*AC$
systems. =nitary systems0 the common one room air conditioners0 sit in a 'indo' or 'all
opening0 'ith interior controls. Interior air is cooled as a fan blo's it over the evaporator.
Dn the e/terior the air is heated as a second fan blo's it over the condenser. In this
process0 heat is dra'n from the room and discharged to the environment. A large house or
building may have several such units0 permitting each room to be cooled separately.
,*AC systems are also kno'n as 'all)split air conditioning systems or ductless
systems. *hese ,*AC systems 'hich are freCuently used in hotels have t'o separate
units terminal packages$0 the evaporative unit on the interior and the condensing unit on
the e/terior0 'ith tubing passing through the 'all and connecting them. *his minimi(es
the interior system footprint and allo's each room to be ad4usted independently. ,*AC
systems may be adapted to provide heating in cold 'eather0 either directly by using an
electric strip0 gas or other heater0 or by reversing the refrigerant flo' to heat the interior
and dra' heat from the e/terior air0 converting the air conditioner into a heat pump.
While room air conditioning provides ma/imum fle/ibility0 'hen used to cool many
rooms at a time it is generally more e/pensive than central air conditioning.
22
*he first practical through the 'all air conditioning unit 'as invented by engineers
at Chrysler Motors and offered for sale starting in 1#3".

Figure12: Actual window! air-conditioning !/!te% Figure1): !che%atic of window! A#C
2. S&lit S/!te%
1plit)system air conditioners come in t'o formsG central and mini)split. In both
types0 the inside)environment evaporative$ heat e/changer and fan is separated by some
distance from the outside)environment condensing unit$ heat e/changer and fan.
In central air conditioning0 the inside heat)e/changer is typically placed inside the
central furnace>AC unit of forced air heating system 'hich is then used in the summer to
distribute chilled air throughout a residence or commercial building. A mini)split system
typically supplied chilled air to only a single space0 and thus 'as sometimes referred to
as split)system single)(one air conditioning.
*oday0 ho'ever0 one split)system compressor can supply chilled air to up
to eight indoor units. If the split system contains a heat pump0 as is often the case0 the
system may be easily s'itched seasonally to supply heat instead of cold. Controls can be
'all)mounted or handheld the si(e of the remote control for a television$.
23

Figure14: Actual !&lit air-conditioning !/!te% Figur15: !che%atic of !&lit A#C
). Ductle!! +!&lit-!/!te%- air conditioning
Mini)split systems today usually called ductless air conditioners. *ypically produce
#0!!!S3:0!!! ;tu #0"!!S3E0!!! kT$ per hour of cooling. Most ductless systems are
similar to ,*AC air conditioners in that they are often designed to cool a single room or
space0 but ductless air conditioning allo's design and installation fle/ibility because the
inside 'all space reCuired is significantly reduced and the compressor and heat e/changer
can be located further a'ay from the inside space0 rather than merely on the other side of
the same unit as in a ,*AC or 'indo' air conditioner. In addition0 ductless systems 'ill
offer much higher efficiency. *oday7s brands include Aircon0 Carrier0 -aikin0
+limaire0 6F0 Mitsubishi0 1anyo0 %u4itsu and UMFI.
Most ductless split system$ air conditioners still typically provide cooling to a single
room or interior (one0 4ust like a 'indo' air conditioner. ;ut more po'erful outside units
are becoming more and more available0 supporting cooling of ever)more interior (ones.
Advantages of the ductless system include smaller si(e and fle/ibility for (oning or
heating and cooling individual rooms. %le/ible e/terior hoses lead from the outside unit to
the interior ones$O these are often enclosed 'ith metal to look like common drainpipes
from the roof. *hose enclosures can be painted to match the color of the house.
*he primary disadvantage of ductless air conditioners is their cost. 1uch systems cost
about V10"!! to V20!!! per ton 120!!! ;tu per hour$ of cooling capacity. *his is about
3!B more than central systems not including duct'ork$ and may cost more than t'ice as
much as 'indo' units of similar capacity.W
22
An additional possible disadvantage that may increase net cost is that ductless
systems may sometimes not be eligible for energy efficiency rebates offered by
many electric utility companies as part of an incentive program to reduce summer cooling
load on the electrical grid.

Figure18: Actual !&lit ductle!! air-conditioning !/!te% Figur19: !che%atic of !&lit A#C ductle!!
). Central Air-conditioning
Central air conditioners circulate cool air through a system of supply and return
ducts. 1upply ducts and registers i.e.0 openings in the 'alls0 floors0 or ceilings covered by
grills$ carry cooled air from the air conditioner to the home. *his cooled air becomes
'armer as it circulates through the homeO then it flo's back to the central air conditioner
through return ducts and registers.
Air conditioners help to dehumidify the incoming air0 but in e/tremely humid
climates or in cases 'here the air conditioner is oversi(ed0 it may not achieve a lo'
humidity. 3unning a dehumidifier in your air conditioned home 'ill increase your energy
use0 both for the dehumidifier itself and because the air conditioner 'ill reCuire more
energy to cool your house. A preferable alternative is a dehumidifying heat pipe0 'hich
can be added as a retrofit to most e/isting systems.
$/&e of central air-conditioner:
A central air conditioner is either a split)system unit or a packaged unit.
1. S&lit-!/!te% unit:
In a split)system central air conditioner0 an outdoor metal cabinet contains the
condenser and compressor0 and an indoor cabinet contains the evaporator. In many split)
system air conditioners0 this indoor cabinet also contains a furnace or the indoor part of a
heat pump. *he air conditionerJs evaporator coil is installed in the cabinet or main supply
2"
duct of this furnace or heat pump. If your home already has a furnace but no air
conditioner0 a split)system is the most economical central air conditioner to install.
2. Pac=aged unit.
In a packaged central air conditioner0 the evaporator0 condenser0 and compressor
are all located in one cabinet0 'hich usually is placed on a roof or on a concrete slab ne/t
to the houseJs foundation. *his type of air conditioner also is used in small commercial
buildings. Air supply and return ducts come from indoors through the homeJs e/terior
'all or roof to connect 'ith the packaged air conditioner0 'hich is usually located
outdoors. ,ackaged air conditioners often include electric heating coils or a natural gas
furnace. *his combination of air conditioner and central heater eliminates the need for a
separate furnace indoors.

Figure1:: !che%atic of Central A#C Figur1;: Actual Central air-conditioning !/!te%
4. 0va&orative Cooler!
In very dry climates0 evaporative coolers0 sometimes referred to as s'amp
coolers or desert coolers0 are popular for improving coolness during hot 'eather. An
evaporative cooler is a device that dra's outside air through a 'et pad0 such as a
large sponge soaked 'ith 'ater.
*he sensible heat of the incoming air0 as measured by a dry bulb thermometer0 is
reduced. *he total heat sensible heat plus latent heat$ of the entering air is unchanged.
1ome of the sensible heat of the entering air is converted to latent heat by the evaporation
of 'ater in the 'et cooler pads. If the entering air is dry enough0 the results can be Cuite
2:
coolingO evaporative coolers tend to feel as if they are not 'orking during times of high
humidity0 'hen there is not much dry air 'ith 'hich the coolers can 'ork to make the air
as cool as possible for d'elling occupants. =nlike other types of air conditioners0
evaporative coolers rely on the outside air to be channeled through cooler pads that cool
the air before it reaches the inside of a house through its air duct systemO this cooled
outside air must be allo'ed to push the 'armer air 'ithin the house out through an
e/haust opening such as an open door or 'indo'.
*hese coolers cost less and are mechanically simple to understand and maintain.
As 'ater is evaporated0 energy is lost from the air0 reducing the temperature. *'o
temperatures are important 'hen dealing 'ith evaporative cooling systems.
1. -ry ;ulb *emperature
*his is the temperature that 'e usually think of as air temperature0 measured by a
regular thermometer e/posed to the air stream.
2. Wet ;ulb *emperature
*his is the lo'est temperature that can be reached by the evaporation of 'ater only.

Figure2<: !che%atic of 0va&orative cooler Figur21: Actual 0va&orative cooler !/!te%
2.9. A&&lication of air-conditioning !/!te%
2.
Air)conditioning engineers broadly divide air)conditioning applications into
'hat they call comfort and process applications. Comfort applications aim to provide
a building indoor environment that remains relatively constant despite changes in e/ternal
'eather conditions or in internal heat loads.
Air conditioning makes deep plan buildings feasible0 for other'ise they 'ould
have to be built narro'er or 'ith light 'ells so that inner spaces received sufficient
outdoor air via natural ventilation. Air conditioning also allo's buildings to be taller0
since 'ind speed increases significantly 'ith altitude making natural ventilation
impractical for very tall build. Comfort applications are Cuite different for various
building types and may be categori(ed asG
Commercial buildings0 'hich are built for commerce0 including offices0 malls0
shopping centers0 restaurants0 etc.
&igh)rise residential buildings0 such as tall dormitories and apartment blocks
Industrial spaces 'here thermal comfort of 'orkers is desired
Institutional buildings0 'hich includes government buildings0 hospitals0 schools0
etc.
6o')rise residential buildings0 including single)family houses0 duple/es0 and
small apartment buildings
1ports stadiumsG recently0 stadiums have been built 'ith air conditioning
*he structural impact of an air conditioning unit 'ill depend on the type and si(e
of the unit.
In addition to buildings0 air conditioning can be used for many types of transportation0
including motor)cars0 buses and other land vehicles0 trains0 ships0 aircraft0 and spacecraft.
,rocess applications aim to provide a suitable environment for a process being carried
out0 regardless of internal heat and humidity loads and e/ternal 'eather conditions. It is
the needs of the process that determine conditions0 not human preference. ,rocess
applications include theseG
Chemical and biological laboratories
Cleanrooms for the production of integrated circuits0 pharmaceuticals0 and the
like0 in 'hich very high levels of air cleanliness and control of temperature and
humidity are reCuired for the success of the process.
5nvironmental control of data centers
2E
%acilities for breeding laboratory animals. 1ince many animals normally
reproduce only in spring0 holding them in rooms in 'hich conditions mirror those
of spring all year can cause them to reproduce year)round.
%ood cooking and processing areas
&ospital operating theatres0 in 'hich air is filtered to high levels to
reduce infection risk and the humidity controlled to limit patient dehydration.
Although temperatures are often in the comfort range0 some specialist procedures0
such as open heart surgery0 reCuire lo' temperatures about 1E LC0 :2 L%$ and
others0 such as neonatal0 relatively high temperatures about 2E LC0 E2 L%$.
Industrial environments
Mining
?uclear po'er facilities
,hysical testing facilities
,lants and farm gro'ing areas
*e/tile manufacturing
In both comfort and process applications0 the ob4ective may humidity0 air Cuality0 and air
movement from space to space.
2.:. Different Load on air conditioning
1. S&ace Load!
S&ace7 1oo%7 and >one
1pace indicates a volume or a site 'ithout partitions0 or a partitioned room or a
group of rooms. A room is an enclosed or partitioned space that is considered as a single
load. An air)conditioned room does not al'ays have an individual (one control system. A
(one is a space of a single room or group of rooms having similar loads and operating
characteristics. An air)conditioned (one is al'ays installed 'ith an individual control
system. A typical floor in a building may be treated as a single (one space0 or a multi(one
space of perimeter0 interior0 east0 'est0 south0 and north ... (ones.
1pace and eCuipment loads can be classified asG
1. 1pace heat gain Ce0 in ;tu>hr.0 is the rate of heat transfer entering a conditioned space
from an e/ternal heat source or heat releases to the conditioned space from an internal
source. *he rate of sensible heat entering the space is called sensible heat gain Ces0
2#
'hereas the rate of latent heat entering the space is called latent heat gain C
el
. In most load
calculations0 the time interval is often 1 hr0 and therefore C
e
0 C
es
0 and C
el
are all e/pressed
in ;tu>hr.
2. 1pace cooling load or simply cooling load C
rc
0 also in ;tu>hr0 is the rate at 'hich heat
must be removed from a conditioned space to maintain a constant space temperature and
an acceptable relative humidity. *he sensible heat removed is called sensible cooling load
C
rs0
and the latent heat removed is called latent cooling load C
rl
0 both in ;tu>hr.
3. 1pace heat e/traction rate C
e/
0 in ;tu>hr0 is the rate at 'hich heat is removed from the
conditioned space. When the space air temperature is constant0 C
e/
M C
rc.
2. 1pace heating load C
rh
0 in ;tu>hr0 is the rate at 'hich heat must be added to the
conditioned space to maintain a constant temperature.
". Coil load C
c
0 in ;tu>hr0 is the rate of heat transfer at the coil. *he cooling coil load Ccc
is the rate of heat removal from the conditioned air by the chilled 'ater or refrigerant
inside the coil. *he heating coil load C
ch
is the rate of heat energy addition to the
conditioned air by the hot 'ater0 steam0 or electric elements inside the coil.
:. 3efrigeration load Crl0 in ;tu>hr0 is the rate at 'hich heat is e/tracted by the evaporated
refrigerant at the evaporator. %or packaged systems using a -K coil0 C
rl
M C
cc
. %or central
systemsG
Where C
pi
M chilled 'ater piping heat gain0 ;tu>hr
C
pu
M pump po'er heat gain0 ;tu>hr
C
s.t
M storage tank heat gain0 if any0 ;tu>hr
&eat gains C
pi
and C
pu
are usually about " to 1!B of the cooling coil load C
cc
.
2. Convective .eat and 1adiative .eat
&eat enters a space and transfer to the space air from either an e/ternal source or
an internal source is mainly in the form of convective heat and radiative heat transfer.
Consider radiative heat transfer0 such as solar radiation striking the outer surface
of a concrete slab. Most of the radiative heat is absorbed by the slab. Dnly a small
fraction is reflected. After the heat is absorbed0 the outer surface temperature of the slab
rises. If the slab and space air are in thermal eCuilibrium before the absorption of radiative
heat0 heat is convected from the outer surface of the slab to the space air as 'ell as
3!
radiated to other surfaces. At the same time0 heat is conducted from the outer surface to
the inner part of the slab and stored there 'hen the temperature of the inner part of the
slab is lo'er than that of its outer surface. &eat convected from the outer surface of the
concrete slab to the space air 'ithin a time interval forms the sensible cooling load.
). 'oi!ture $ran!fer in ?uilding 0nvelo&e
Moisture transfer takes place along t'o pathsG
1. Moisture migrates in the building envelope in both liCuid and vapor form. It is mainly
liCuid if the relative humidity of the ambient air e/ceeds "!B. 6iCuid flo' is induced by
capillary flo' and moisture content gradient. Hapor diffusion is induced by vapor
pressure gradients. Moisture content is defined as the ratio of the mass of moisture
contained in a solid to the mass of bonedry solid. -uring the migration0 the moisture
content and the vapor pressure are in eCuilibrium at a specific temperature and location.
2. Air leakage and its associated 'ater vapor infiltrate or e/filtrate through the cracks0
holes0 and gaps bet'een 4oints because of poor construction of the building envelope. *he
driving potential of this air leakage and associated 'ater vapor is the pressure differential
across the building envelope. If the insulating material is of open)cell structure0 air
leakage and associated 'ater vapor may penetrate the perforated insulating board through
cracks and gaps. Condensation0 even free(ing0 'ill occur inside the perforated insulation
board if the temperature of the board is lo'er than the de' point of the leaked air or the
free(ing point of the 'ater.
In most comfort air)conditioning systems0 usually only the space temperature is
controlled 'ithin limits. A slight variation of the space relative humidity during the
operation of the air system is often acceptable. *herefore0 the store effect of moisture is
ignored e/cept in conditioned spaces 'here both temperature and relative humidity need
to be controlled or in a hot and humid area 'here the air system is operated at night
shutdo'n mode. In most cases0 latent heat gain is considered eCual to latent cooling load
instantaneously.
31
Chapter 3G 1efrigerant! u!e in air-conditioning
).1 Introduction of 1efrigerant
3efrigeration is a process of maintaining the system at temperature belo' than
the surroundings i.e. nothing but the heat removal from a space at a temperature lo'er
than the surrounding temperature. *his rushes the heat into the replace but insulation
reduces the in)rush of heat. Whatever heat enters through the insulation into the
refrigerated space has to be removed 'ith the help of 'orking media of refrigerator.
*hese are called as refrigerants. 3efrigerant is most important substance in the
refrigeration. *he present refrigerants used are chlorofluorocarbons C%Cs$ and
&ydrochloroflurocarbons &C%Cs$
3efrigeration applications at the domestic0 commercial and industrial levels
becoming an integral part of present day living. *he demand of refrigeration is increasing
day by day. 1o use of C%Cs and &C%Cs is increasing. ;ut these refrigerants have a
problem of o(one depleting potential D-,$ and global 'arming potential FW,$. Also it
is very ha(ardous to human being. 1o it becomes very necessary to find the refrigerants
'hich have no effect on the environments. *hese refrigerants have almost (ero o(one
depleting potential and negligible FW,. &Cs0 &%Cs and natural fluids etc. are the 'ell)
kno'n eco)friendly refrigerants. *hese refrigerants are described in detail belo'.
32
).2 @ece!!it/ of 0co-friendl/ 1efrigerant!:-
Current refrigerants C%Cs and &C%Cs$ have t'o ma4or dra'backs.
1. D(one depletion.
2. Freen house effect.
*he stratospheric o(one D
3
$ layer plays a beneficial role by absorbing most of the
biological damaging ultraviolet sunlight called =H radiation0 coming to'ards earth.
*hus D
3
layer protects the human life food crops and natural eco)system.
;ut the leakages of C%Cs are causing D
3
layer destruction and put a challenging
problem before the scientists during the last t'o decades. C%Cs0 &C%Cs contain reactive
gaseous atoms of chlorine and bromine. Current levels of atmospheric chlorine are 3."
parts per billion by volume ppb$ compare 'ith naturally occurring levels of !.. ppb.
*hese large chlorine levels are the product of the breakdo'n of C%Cs in the upper
atmosphere. *hese C%Cs remain largely intact until they reach the stratosphere 1" to "!
km above earth7s surface$ finally breakdo'n by =H radiations and releases chlorine. *he
released chlorine catalysis D
3
decomposition in the presence of =H rays
CCl
3
% N =H Cl N CCl
2
%
Cl N D
3
ClD N D
2
ClD N D Cl N D
2
1o that a long chain process in involved 'hich conserves Cl atoms. 5ach Cl atom
can destroy up to 10 !!0!!! D
3
molecules before it 'ashed out from the atmosphere. *he
destruction of D
3
is faster than its formation0 therefore the net effect is reduction of D
3
layer or formation of D
3
hole like over Antarctica.
1econd is the green house effect. 1uppose this earth is the green house'here the
vegetables are cultivated$.*he solar energy at short 'ave radiation enters inside earth
surrounding atmosphere 'hich contains CD
2
0 C&
2
0 ?
2
D etc. green house gases. *hese
gases are transparent to short 'ave radiations. *his short 'ave radiations 'hen strikes
the earth7s surface0 converts into heat)long 'ave radiation. *his long 'ave radiation is
again reflected to'ards atmosphere but it cannot go out as the gases restricts the long
'ave radiations going out and traps the heat. *his trapped heat contributes to the
'arming of earth7s surface. *his is called green house effect.
*his C%Cs and &C%Cs are also an opaCue to the heat long 'ave radiations and
thus increases temp. Df earth7s surface. And global 'arming takes place. *he percentage
33
of C%Cs in atmosphere compared to CD
2
is negligible but its earth damaging effect is
1!!)1!!! times more than CD
2
.
*his indicates that C%Cs and &C%Cs must be replaced 'ithin coming years
throughout the 'orld.
).2.1 0nviron%ental driver!
*here are t'o factors important to the discussion of the environmental impact of
refrigerantsG o(one depletion and global 'arming.
A6one de&letion
*he o(one layer surrounding the 5arth is a reactive form of o/ygen 2" miles above the
surface. It is essential for planetary life0 as it filters out dangerous ultraviolet light rays
from the sun. -epleted o(one allo's higher levels of ultraviolet light to reach the
surface0 negatively affecting the Cuality of human0 plant0 animal and marine life. 5nough
scientific data have been collected to clearly verify that there has been depletion of the
5arth7s o(one layer. *he data also verify that a ma4or contribution to o(one depletion is
chlorine0 much of 'hich has come from the C%Cs used in refrigerants and cleaning
agents. 3esearch has sho'n that even the chlorine found in 3)22 refrigerants can be
harmful to the o(one layer.
*he need to protect the 5arth7s o(one has resulted in ne' government regulations and the
creation of &%C refrigerants. 1ince &%Cs are chlorine free0 they 'ill not damage the
o(one layer.
Blo*al war%ing
According to the ?ational Academy of 1cientists0 the temperature of the 5arth7s
surface has risen by about one degree %ahrenheit !." +elvin$ in the past century.
*here is evidence that suggests that much of the 'arming during the last "! years is
due to greenhouse gases0 many of 'hich are the byproduct of human activities.
Freenhouse gases include 'ater vapor0 carbon dio/ide0 methane and nitrous o/ide0 as
'ell assume refrigerants. When these gases build up in the atmosphere0 they trap heat.
*he natural greenhouse effect is necessary for life on 5arth0 but scientists believe that too
much greenhouse effect 'ill lead to global 'arming. %igure 1 sho's the mechanism of
this global 'arming process.
).) Different &ro&ert/ of refrigerant!
).).1 A6one De&letion Potential +ADP-
32
*he o(one depletion potential D-,$ of a chemical compound is the relative
amount of degradation to the o(one layer it can cause0 'ith trichlorofluoromethane 3)11
or C%C)11$ being fi/ed at an D-, of 1.!. Chlorodifluoromethane 3)22$0 for e/ample0
has an D-, of !.!"". C%C 110 or 3)11 has the ma/imum potential amongst
chlorocarbons because of the presence of three chlorine atoms in the molecule.
*he first proposal of D-, came from Wuebbles in 1#E3. It 'as defined as a
measure of destructive effects of a substance compared to a reference substance.
,recisely0 D-, of a given substance is defined as the ratio of global loss of
o(one due to given substance over the global loss of o(one due to C%C)11 of the same
mass.
D-, can be estimated from the structure of a given
substance. Chlorofluorocarbons have D-,s roughly eCual to 1. ;rominated substances
have usually higher D-,s in range " ) 1"0 because of more aggressive bromine reaction
'ith o(one. &ydrochlorofluorocarbons have D-,s mostly in range !.!!" ) !.2 due to the
presence of the hydrogen 'hich causes them to react readily in the troposphere0 therefore
reducing their chance to reach the stratosphere. &ydrofluorocarbons &%C$ have no
chlorine content0 so their D-, is essentially (ero.
D-, is often used in con4unction 'ith a compoundJs global 'arming potential FW,$ as
a measure of ho' environmentally detrimental it can be. FW, represents the potential of
a substance to contribute to global 'arming.
In a broad sense0 haloalkanes that contain no hydrogen are stable in the
troposphere and decompose only in the stratosphere. *hose compounds that contain
hydrogen also react 'ith D& radicals and can therefore be decomposed in the
troposphere0 as 'ell. *he o(one depletion potential increases 'ith the heavier halogens
since the C)X bond strength is lo'er.
).).2 Blo*al-ar%ing Potential FW,$
Flobal)'arming potential FW,$ is a relative measure of ho' much heat
a greenhouse gas traps in the atmosphere. It compares the amount of heat trapped by a
certain mass of the gas in Cuestion to the amount of heat trapped by a similar mass
of carbon dio/ide. A FW, is calculated over a specific time interval0 commonly 2!0 1!!
or "!! years. FW, is e/pressed as a factor of carbon dio/ide 'hose FW, is
standardi(ed to 1$. %or e/ample0 the 2! year FW, of methane is E:0 'hich means that if
3"
the same mass of methane and carbon dio/ide 'ere introduced into the atmosphere0 that
methane 'ill trap E: times more heat than the carbon dio/ide over the ne/t 2! years.
91<
*he substances sub4ect to restrictions under the +yoto protocol either are rapidly
increasing their concentrations in 5arthJs atmosphere or have a large FW,.
*he FW, depends on the follo'ing factorsG
the absorption of infrared radiation by a given species
the spectral location of its absorbing 'avelengths
the atmospheric lifetime of the species
*hus0 a high FW, correlates 'ith a large infrared absorption and a long atmospheric
lifetime. *he dependence of FW, on the 'avelength of absorption is more complicated.
5ven if a gas absorbs radiation efficiently at a certain 'avelength0 this may not affect its
FW, much if the atmosphere already absorbs most radiation at that 'avelength. A gas
has the most effect if it absorbs in a W'indo'W of 'avelengths 'here the atmosphere is
fairly transparent. *he dependence of FW, as a function of 'avelength has been found
empirically and published as a graph.
;ecause the FW, of a greenhouse gas depends directly on its infrared spectrum0 the use
of infrared spectroscopy to study greenhouse gases is centrally important in the effort to
understand the impact of human activities on global climate change.
$a*le no. 1 A6one de&leting and Blo*al war%ing &otential!
C&5MICA6 %D3M=6A D-, FW,
51*IMA*5-
A*MD1,&53IC
6I%5 U31$
C%Cs
3)11 CCl
3
% 1.!! 13!! "#
3)12 CCl
2
%
2
!.#3 3.!! 122
3)113 CCl
2
%CCl%
2
!.E3 1#!! #E
3)112 CCl
2
%
2
CCl%
2
!..1 :2!! 222
3)11" CCl%
2
C%
3
!.3: 13E!! "3#
&C%Cs
%)22 C&Cl%
2
!.!" "1! 1E
%123 C&C6
2
C%
3
!.!2 2E 2
&%Cs
%)132a C%
3
C&
2
% ! 2!! 1E
%)1"2a C&
3
C&%
2
! 2: 2
D*&53 35%3IF53A?*1G)
Water)6i;r .B&
2
o/ 6i;r ! ! )
Ammonia ?&3 ! ! )
Carbon dio/ides CD
2
! 1.! 23!

3:
).4 De!ira*le &ro&ertie! of an ideal refrigerant:-
*hese are divided into four main groupsG
1. *hermodynamic properties
2. 1afe 'orking properties
3. ,hysical properties
2. Dther properties
1< *hermodynamic propertiesG
a< ;oiling pointG
6o' boiling temperature at atmospheric pressure of the refrigerant is reCuired for
an efficient refrigerant. &igh boiling point of refrigerant at atmospheric pressure reduces
the capacity of the system.
b< %ree(ing pointG
6o' free(ing point of refrigerant is necessary because the refrigerant should not
free(e under reCuired evaporator temp. *he refrigerant must have a free(ing point 'ell
belo' the operating evaporator temp.
c< 5vaporator and Condenser pressuresG
It is al'ays desirable to have positive pressures in evaporator and condenser for
the reCuired temp. but the pressure should not be too high above atmosphere. *oo high
pressures reCuires the robust construction of the refrigeration system 'hich reCuires high
initial cost and high operating cost also.
d< Critical temperature and pressuresG
Critical temperature of vapour is defined as a temp above 'hich the vapour cannot
be condensed irrespective of any high pressure. *he critical temp of the refrigerant used
should be higher than the temperature occurring 'ithin the condenser for easy
condensation of refrigerant vapour and critical pressure should not above the reCuired
condenser pressure of normally operated system.
e< 6atent heat of refrigerantG
&igh latent heat of refrigerant at evaporator temperature is desirable because the
refrigerating effect per kg of refrigerant 'ill be high. Also high latent heat of refrigerant
reduces 'eight of refrigerant reCuired to be circulated in the system per ton of
refrigeration and initial cost of refrigerant used in the system.
2< 1afe 'orking propertiesG
*he safe properties of refrigerant include follo'ingG
3.
a< It should be chemically inert.
b< It should be non)flammable non)to/ic and non e/plosive both in pure state and
'hen mi/ed 'ith air in any proportion.
c< It should react 'ith lubricating oil and 'ith the materials used in construction
of refrigeration system.
d< It should not have bad effect on the stored material 'hen the leak develops in
the system.
3< ,hysical propertiesG
a< 1pecific volumeG 6o' specific volume of the refrigerant at the suction into the
compressor is al'ays desirable0 because it reduces the si(e of the compressors
for the refrigeration capacity.
b< 1pecific heat of liCuid and vapourG 6o' specific heat of the refrigerant and high
specific heat of vapour refrigerant are desirable because both tend to increase
the refrigerating effect per kg of refrigerant. 6o' specific heat helps in
increasing the sub)cooling of liCuid and high specific heat of vapour helps in
decreasing the superheating of vapour.
c< HiscosityG 6o' viscosities of refrigerants in both states are desirable for better
heat transfer and lo' pumping po'er.
$a*le2: Pro&ertie! of different refrigerant!
3E
2< Dther propertiesG
a< DdourG Ddour may be an advantage or a disadvantage to a refrigerant. -istinct
odour of the refrigerant helps in detecting the leaking of the refrigerant but it
becomes irritating 'ith an increase in concentration.
b< 6eak tendencyG *he leakage of the refrigerant outside the system or leakage of
the air inside the system is due to the opening the 4oist or fla's in material
used for construction. A dense fluid has fe'er tendencies to leak than lo'er
density fluid. *he possibility of leakage is more 'ith high discharge pressure
and lo' density refrigerant.
c< 3efrigerant and oil relationshipG *he miscibility of the oil and refrigerant is an
important characteristic in the selection of the refrigerant. *he refrigerant
should not act 'ith lubricating oil as the refrigerant and lubricating oil 'ill
come in contact in compressor.
d< CD, and po'er reCuirementG 6o' po'er consumption per ton of refrigeration
is al'ays desirable.
e< Cost and availabilityG *he refrigerant must be available readily and 'ith lesser
price.
).5 $/&e! of eco-friendl/ refrigerant!:
a$ &ydrocarbons
b$ &ydroflurocarbons
c$ ?atural fluids
).5.1 ./drocar*on refrigerant!:
;ackgroundG
,rior to the discovery of C%Cs0 &Cs 'ere 'idely used as refrigerants in domestic
and commercial refrigerators. *hey 'ere gradually replaced 'ith C%Cs due to its non)
flammable nature.
;ut in the early 1##!7s it 'as discovered that C%Cs are very harmful and its ma4or
disadvantage is high FW,. 1o these 'ere converted into &%C1132a and then into
&C:!!a. *hus second conversion of C%C is very useful as it has higher energy efficiency
and lo'er noise. *he first &C compressors freely available in the market 'ere &C:!!a
compressors produced by -anfoos.
Advantage! of .C-technolog/:
&C technology offers advantages on all three levelsG
3#
1. Flobal
2. ?ational
3. 5nterprise
Blo*al level: *he starting point in 1##!$ for the development of &C technology 'as in
Fermany and 5urope. Many industries thought that only the most environment friendly
technology &Cs)should be used0 since the &%C132a still has a factor of 12!! over CD
2
emission sources. *hus it is a better ecological solution available as 'ith &Cs. Although
Montreal protocol is bound to only the o(one protection0 the &C advantages are 'ell
recogni(ed in all bodies0 the multilateral fund and they started to think globally.
@ational level:
In the past0 this technology started 'ith the ecological merits no global 'arming$
that help to make greens every'here. *his &C technology offers the chance to adopt
national Xnatural7 solutions.
0nter&ri!e level:
*he most promising facts about &C technology are on the enterprise level. *he
technical advantages 'ill be the main driving force to the &C technology. *oday every
industry is interested in the &C technology because of the other advantages 'ith the
production and daily use. *hese facts 'ill be the future driving force for &C technology
'orld'ide.
*echnical advantages of &C technologyG
1. @o o6one de&letion: ) ?o o(one depleting effect is the prereCuisite of all other
C%C$ substitutes.
2. @o glo*al war%ing: ) It is the starting point of &C movement.
3. @o !econd conver!ion: ) ?o second conversion such as the one hanging overall
halogen compounds e.g. &C%132a$ is reCuired in the long run.
2. 0nerg/ !aving!: ) *here is energy saving effect 'ith an optimi(ed refrigeration
system of up to 1!B over C%C and &%c132a.
". Cuite refrigerator!: ) *he physical properties of isobutane &C:!!a$
refrigerators make for Cuiet refrigerators. It is an additional marketing aspect.
:. 1eadil/ availa*ilit/: ) *he &Cs cyclopentane)isobutane 'ill probably be readily
available most developing countries. *hey involve no synthetic chemistry0 4ust
purification.
2!
.. @ew co%&re!!or! !elf-%ade:) %or companies having o'n line of compressors
manufacturing0 it is a real chance for developing ne' compressors for
&C :!!a and &C2#! at least cost.
E. 02tra ordinar/ relia*ilit/: With &C technology there are fe'er compressors
failures and no corrosion sooner or later because no chemical interaction bet'een
isobutene and mineral oil 'hereas C%C etc. leads to corrosion mostly due to
moisture from high humidity. ;ut &C compressors run forever E!!!!hours0 1"
years$ under standard test.
#. (irtuall/ no refrigerant! lo!!e!: Dnly disadvantage of &Cs is their
flammability. *his reCuires careful design and thorough employee and service
training. -ue to danger of flammability0 these substances are naturally handled
'ith the almost care. *his has the effect that there is virtually no refrigerant losses
in the manufacturing process.
1!. @o-e2tra !ervicing eDui&%ent: It is another economical benefit. *here is no
e/tra servicing eCuipment necessary for isobutene over C%C 'hereas &%C132a
reCuires completely ne' system additionally. &Cs can be as safe as C%Cs.
11. $echnicall/ !i%&le to ado&t: &C technology is simple to adopt in comparison to
synthetic chemicals. 1ince the oils and compressors type are used0 there is less
strain and stress on management and 'ork floor.92<
./drocar*on 1efrigerant!:
1. 18<<a: It is pure isobutene also kno'n by Care 1!$ and is primarily used in ne'
domestic type eCuipment. It operates at significantly lo'er pressures than 312 or
3132a0 and hence its use reCuires modifications to components. it is not designed
for e/isting 312 or 3132a system.
2. 12;<#18<<a: Care 3! is purified blend of propane 32#!$ and isobutene
3:!!a$ 'ith boiling point of )31."! C at atmospheric pressure. *he blend has
been developed to produce a refrigerant 'ith capacity to 312. Its ma4or use 'ill
be in domestic refrigerators small commercial system and transport refrigeration
and air conditioning appliances. *hough Care 3! has been formulated as
replacement for 3120 it can also be used in 3132a system.
*he advantages of Care 3! are
1. It has superior efficiency.
2. It has capacity similar to 312.
21
3. It is compatible 'ith 312 system components including oil.
2. ?o system modifications are reCuired that is no change of compressor0
evaporator0 condensers0 thermostatic e/pansion value etc.
3 12;<: It is pure propane Also kno'n care 2!$ and is primarily used in ne'
eCuipment7s 'hich 'ould traditionally have used 322 or 3"!2 systems0 it may
not give same performance as 322 or 3"!2 and modifications may be reCuired.
0ffect of h/drocar*on refrigerant! on the environ%ent:-
&ydrocarbon refrigerants are natural substances 'ith very short life)times)'eeks
and months rather than 1!!N years for C%Cs.Dnce in the atmosphere0 they break do'n to
CD
2
and &
2
D. Although CD
2
is a greenhouse gas F&F$0 it is a very 'eak one. *he
significant effect of CD
2
on global 'arming is due to the very large Cuantities released
through burning fossils fuel for po'er generation. *he amount released by the use of &Cs
as refrigerants 'ould be an e/tremely lo' proportion of the total. &C refrigerants contain
no chlorine or bromine and0 therefore0 have no D-,. *here FW, are related to the CD
2
produced 'hen they break do'n in the atmosphere and are comparing to other
refrigerants.
$otal eDuivalent war%ing i%&act:
*he total eCuivalent 'arming impact *5WI$ is a measure of the total impact of a
refrigerant in the system on global 'arming. 3efrigeration can contribute t'ice to global
'arming.
-irectly through emission of those refrigerants 'hich are F&Fs.
Indirectly through the use of energy generated by burning fossil fuels 'hich
cause CD
2
emissions$.

$a*le ): Co%&ari!on of refrigerant! on the *a!i! of ADP and BP
3efrigerant FW, "!! years basis$ D-,
3:!!acare
1!$
Y2 !.!!
Care 3! Y2 !.!!
22
*5WI M direct effect N indirect effect
312 2"!! 1.!!
3132a 22! !.!!
32#!Care 2!$ Y3 !.!!
Care "! Y3 !.!!
322 "1! !.!"
3"!2 2!!! !.31
32!2A 12!! !.!!
?oteG FW, relative to CD
2
M1 and D-, relative to 312M1
).5.2 ./dro Fluorocar*on 1efrigerant! +.FC-:
*hese &%Cs are used as substitute7s refrigerants for C%Cs such as 3120 322 etc.
*he detail description of &%Cs is described belo'.
De!ign con!ideration:-
1uction pressureG )
1uction pressure is almost similar for 3120 3132a0 and 32#!>:!!a ;lendO it is much
belo' the atmospheric pressure for 3:!!a0 particaly for lo' evaporative pressures. *his
makes the gas leakage on the suction side of the circuit more critical air ingress is
possible0 and system pollution is a conseCuence.
-ischarge pressureG)
-ischarge pressure is also similar for the three above)mentioned refrigerants0 but
it is appro/imately half for 3:!!a. *his 'ill produce less stress and pulsations of the gas
in the discharge side 'ith the potentially lo'er noise.
1pecific volumetric capacityG)
1pecific volumetric capacity of 3C:!!a is only half 'hen compared to other
alternative as conseCuences0 keeping constant cooling po'er of the systemO the
displacement of the compressor must be increased.
Compressor manufacturers have been using all the design techniCues to reduce
this displacement increased as much as possible. Improved of the volumetric efficiency0
reduction of gas temperature to increase it7s density at the suction etc. have been applied
and in general the displacement increased have been limited top .!)E!B.
*heoretical efficiencyG)
*he theoretical efficiency of 3:!!a is higher than others and related impact on the
FW, is smaller. *he actual efficiency must be checked because the normal life cycle of a
refrigerator is determined by continues alter ?ance of the non steady situation and that is
significantly different from the theory.
Working parametersG)
Working parameters of the 32#!>:!!a "!G"!$ blend are similar to 312 or 3132a.
23
$a*le 4: Characteri!tic! of &otential !u*!tituteE! refrigerant! +.FC-
3efrigerant %ormula 6o'er flammable
limitBvolume$
*o/icity
ppm.vol.conc
in air$
D-,
3elative to
C%C11$
FW,3elative
to CD
2
$
&%C123 C&%
3
?on)flammable 1!!! ! ))
&%C)32 C&
2
%
2
.2.: )) )) ))
&%C)12" C&
3
C&%
2
?% 1!!! ! 2"!!
&%C)132 C&%
2
?% )) ! ))
&%C)132a C%
3
C&
2
% ?% 1!!! ! 12!!
&%C123a C%
3
C&
3
..1 )) ! 2#!!
&%C1"2a C&%
2
C&
3
3.. 1!!! ! 12!
).5.) @atural Fluid 1efrigerant!:
A%%onia:
Ammonia is a 'ell kno'n refrigerant used in large scale industrial application for
more than 12! years. *he kno') ho' concerning the technology is 'idely dispersed in
developed and developing countries. ?ever place it has not been used in air conditioning
appliances or small refrigeration plants0 despite the fact that Ammonia has e/cellent
thermo dynamics and thermo physical properties0 high efficiency in most temperature
ranges0 no D-,0 no FW,0 lo' refrigerant cost0 great tolerance to 'ater contamination.
-ue to its strong smell0 it is easily detected even at very lo' concentration.
*he reasons for not considering Ammonia for the systems mentioned above are as
given belo'G
*o/icity at lo' concentration in air
%lammability at high concentration in air
?o compatibility 'ith 8inc or Copper or copper containing alloys high
discharge temperatures.
*he to/icity of Ammonia is usually not a ma4or concernO the smell is noticed by a
man at concentrations as small as " ppm. At the same time threshold limit value0 'hich
should not be e/ceeded for every day e/posures is "! ppm.
Ammonia is unbearable for human being at "!!! ppm0 'hile its acute to/icity
starts at 2"!! ppm and the flammability at 1" vol. B.
Dbviously any ha(ard announces itself far in advance making ammonia actually
very safe refrigerant concerning direct ha(ards.
A&&lication!:
Air conditioning)
22
In air conditioning of large buildings centrali(ed AC$0 Ammonia can be
used as refrigerant as substitute for C%C110 &C%C123 and &%C132a.
1upermarketsG
,resently0 the use of Ammonia plants for cooling of medium and large
super markets is increasing. *his is due to introduction of secondary
refrigerants ;rine$ systems into the markets 'hich has several advantages.
Car*on Dio2ide +1944-:
It is one of the most promising environment friendly refrigerants i.e. (ero D-,
and nearly (eros FW,. It has no to/icity and is also nonflammable. It is cheap and also
no need for recovery. It is compatible 'ith normal lubricants and construction materials.
*he main problem 'ith this refrigerant is that it7s inherent high 'orking pressure so due
to this ne'ly designed components redesigned.
A,,6ICA*ID?1G
CD
2
is used in commercial refrigeration system.
It is also used in secondary refrigeration system.
It is used in ship refrigeration system.
Alternative refrigerant!:
1. 322
Chlorodifluoromethane or difluoromonochloromethane is a
hydrochlorofluorocarbon &C%C$. *his colorless gas is better kno'n as &C%C)220 or 3)
22. It is commonly used as a propellant and refrigerant. *hese applications are being
phased out in developed countries due to the compoundJs o(one depletion potential
D-,$ and high global 'arming potential FW,$0 although global use of 3)22 continues
to increase because of high demand in developing countries. 3)22 is a versatile
intermediate in industrial organ fluorine chemistry0 e.g. as a precursor to
tetrafluoroethylene. 3)22 cylinders are colored light green.
Pro&ertie!
Molecular
formula
C&Cl%
2
Molar mass E:.2. g>mol
Appearance Colorless gas
-ensity 3.:: kg>m
3
at 1"LC0 gas
2"
Melting point Z1.".22 LC Z2E3..: L%O
#...3 +$
;oiling point Z2!.. LC Z21.3 L%O 232." +$
1olubility in 'ater !...## vol>vol at 2" LCO 3.:2E
g>6
log , 1.!E
Hapor pressure #!E k,a at 2! LC
k
&
!.!33 mol.kg
)1
.bar
)1
2. 1)2
Difluoro%ethane0 also called .FC-)2 or 1-)20 is an organic compound of
the dihalogenoalkane variety. It is based on methane0 e/cept that t'o of the
four hydrogen atoms have been replaced by fluorine atoms. &ence the formula is
C&
2
%
2
instead of C&
2
for normal methane.
Pro&ertie!
Molecular formula C&
2
%
2
Molar mass "2.!2 g mol
Z1
Appearance Colorless gas
-ensity 1.1 g cm
)3
Melting point Z13: LC Z213 L%O 13. +$
;oiling point Z"2 LC Z:2 L%O 221 +$
log , )!.:11
Hapor pressure 1"1E.#2 k,a at 21.1 LC$
). 11)4a
3132a is a haloalkane refrigerant 'ith thermodynamic properties similar to 3)12
dichlorodifluoromethane$ but 'ith less o(one depletion potential. It has the formula
C&2%C%3 and a boiling point of Z2:.3 LC Z1".32 L%$ at atmospheric pressure. 3)132a
cylinders are colored light blue.
Pro&ertie!
Molecular formula C&
2
%C%
3

Molar mass 1!2.!3 g>mol
Appearance Colorless gas
-ensity !.!!22" g>cm[0 gas
Melting point )1!3.3LC 1:#.E" +$
2:
;oiling point )2:.3LC 22:.E" +$
1olubility in 'ater !.1" 'tB
4. 14<)
3)2!.c is a mi/ture of hydrofluorocarbons used as a refrigerant. It is a (eotropic
blend of difluoromethane 3)32$0 pentafluoroethane 3)12"$0 and 1010102)
tetrafluoroethane 3)132a$. -ifluoromethane serves to provide the heat capacity0
pentafluoroethane decreases flammability0 tetrafluoroethane reduces pressure.91< 3)2!.c
cylinders are colored burnt orange.
5. .FA-12)4/f
&%D)1232yf is a hydrofluoroolefin 'ith the formula C&2MC%C%3. It has been
proposed as a replacement for 3)132a as a refrigerant in automobile air conditioners.
&%D)1232yf is the first in a ne' class of refrigerants acCuiring a global
'arming potential FW,$ rating 33" times less than that of 3)132a and only 2 times
higher than carbon dio/ide0 'hich can also be used as a refrigerant but has significantly
different properties to 3132A0 especially reCuiring operation at around " times higher
pressure$ and an atmospheric lifetime of about 2!! times shorter. It 'as developed to
meet the 5uropean directive 2!!:>2!>5C that 'ent into effect in 2!11 reCuiring that all
ne' car platforms for sale in 5urope use a refrigerant in its AC system 'ith a FW,
belo' 1"!.
Pro&ertie!
Molecular
formula
C
3
&
2
%
2
Molar mass 112 g>mol
Appearance colorless gas
-ensity 1.1 g>cm
3
at 2" LC liCuid$O 20 air
M 1 gas$
;oiling point )3! LC
1olubility in 'ater 1#E.2 mg>l at 22 LC0 #2>:#>55C0
A.:
log , 2.1"0 n)octanol>'ater0 #2>:#>55C0
A.E
Hapor pressure :0!:. h,a at 21.1 LCO 1202!3 h,a
at "2.2 LC
2.
4. .FA-12)46e
&%D)1232(e is a hydrofluoroolefin. It 'as developed as a Wfourth generationW refrigerant
to replace 3)132a and as a blo'ing agent for foam and aerosol applications. *he use of
3)132a is being phased out because of its high global)'arming potential. &%D)1232e(
has (ero o(one)depletion potential and a lo' global)'arming potential FW, M :$.
Pro&ertie!
Molecular formula C
3
&
2
%
2
Molar mass 112.!2 g mol
Z1
Appearance Colorless gas
;oiling point Z1# LC Z2 L%O 2"2 +$
1olubility in 'ater !.3.3 g>6

2E
Cha&ter 4: 'aintenance of Air-conditioning S/!te%
4.1Procedure! for Charging Air Conditioning S/!te%! with 1efrigerant
3efrigerant charging might be the least understood practice in the air conditioning
industry ne/t to setting airflo'. Although there are several methods0 typically there is only
one correct method for the type of unit you are 'orking on. Information contained here is
for formally trained 5,A 1ection :!E certified technicians.
Figure22 : Charging of !/!te%
Start with the *a!ic! for all !/!te%!:
1. Makes sure the system been &ro&erl/ in!talled and evacuated. A proper
evacuation is critical to proper performance. ?eed help 'ith this process go.
2. Clean the filters and the coils. Fou cannot charge or chec= the charge on a
!/!te% with dirt/ coil!7 filter!7 or *lower. *he condenser and the evaporator
must be clean. *he blo'er must be capable of moving the correct amount of air.
Hisual inspection of the evaporator can be aided 'ith the use of a video scope by
removing the high limit of most furnaces and fishing the shaft up through the
heat e/changer to the bottom side of the coil.
3. 1et the reCuired airflo'. Fou cannot charge a !/!te% without correct
airflow. After the system is confirmed clean0 the airflo' must be set to the
manufactures recommended settings. *ypically this is 2!! C%M>*on N>) 1!B
?eed additional help 'ith airflo'.
2#
2. Identif/ the t/&e of %etering device. Uou need to kno' 'hat type of metering
device the system has as this may determine ho' the system 'ill be charged.
1ee photo belo'.$
". ;efore installing your gauges0 vent the hoses and the manifold 'ith virgin
refrigerant *he same type as the system.$ to avoid the introduction of air into the
system.
:. ;lends like 321!a or 2!2a must be added to a system as a liCuid. ,ure
refrigerants like 322 can be added in liCuid or vapor states. If adding liCuid into
the suction like0 throttle it in slo'ly to avoid slugging the compressor or diluting
and 'ashing out the compressor oil.
.. After the charge has been set0 avoid installing the gauges as part of regular
service. *he system should be sealed. +eep it that 'ay\
Following 'ethod! that can *e u!ed to &ro&erl/ charge a !/!te% include:
1. *otal 1uperheat Method %i/ed Drifice > ,iston > Capillary *ube > ?on)*KH$
2. Condenser 1ub cooling Method *KH$
3. Weight or Weigh In Method
2. ,ressure and D-A *emp Method ManufacturerJs chart0 and eCuipped 'ith *KH or at
%i/ed near design conditions$
". Approach Method 6enno/$
:. Commission the 1ystem Herification of Capacity$
We discuss about only Weight and Weight method
eight and eight %ethod
"!
*his method can be done correctly under any ambient conditions.
Charging by 'eight is one of the most accurate and fastest methods of charging a
system that has a kno'n refrigerant charge. *ypically this method reCuires an
already evacuated system that is ready for charge0 or removal of the e/isting charge
so the proper charge can be 'eighed in. ;ecause e/act length of the line set is often
hard to determine 'ithin a fe' inches0 'e recommend the initial charge be
determined by either the *otal 1uperheat or the 1ub cooling method.
If the e/act charge is kno'n0 use a high accuracy high resolution digital to 'eigh
in the entire charge. If using the Accutools DS22<1 !cale0 a C'5<< charging
module 'ill allo' the user to program in the charge and automatically shut off the
refrigerant tank 'hen the proper amount of refrigerant has been dispensed.
Figure2): $hi! !/!te% *eing charged while it ha! no refrigerant in it. $he liDuid refrigerant
%ove! toward the eva&orator and the conden!er when doing thi!. @o liDuid refrigerant will
enter the co%&re!!or.

"1
4.2 $rou*le!hooting of 1efrigeration S/!te%
With any refrigeration system0 there are a sle' of miscellaneous problems that may
occur0 such as incorrect amperage0 noncondensables in the system0 oil problems0 restrictions0
and airflo' issues. *his table describes ho' to recogni(e and respond to some of the more
common issuesG
"2
"3
Cha&ter 5. Actual Setu& and 02&eri%ental 1e!ult
02&eri%ent on refrigerant 122
S0$ @A.1
,
1M
"!0 ,
2
M22!
$i%e $
9
$
;
$
11
$
12
$
1)
$
14
$
18
12.2! 1:.2 22.
#
1E.
.
2# "E.
.
)1.2 32..
12."! 1" 21.
2
1..
.
2E.
2
"E )23." 32.E
12.:! 1".3 2!.
3
1:.
E
2E.
:
"E.
2
)33.2 33.E
1.1! 1"." 21. 1". 2#. ":. )3#.3 32.2
"2
: E . .
1.2! 1:.# 21.
"
1".
"
2E.
.
":.
2
)22.. 32.:
S0$ @A.2
,
1M
"!0 ,
2
M22!
$i%e $
9
$
;
$
11
$
12
$
14
$
5
$
8
12.1! )1.. 21.. :.. 33.2 33 :2.3 :.1
12.2! )2.3 21.: ".E 32.E 33 :!.E 2.E
12.3! )2.2 21.E 1".2 32.2 33 "#.# ".2
12.2! )1." 23." :." 33.1 33 :!.: 2.#
12."! )2.: 22 :.2 33." 33 :! 2.E
1".!! )2.3 22.1 :.: 33.2 33 "#.. "
1".1! )1.# 22.E :.: 33.1 33 "#.: ".1
Fro% $he Set to 1e!ult Calculate Co& of 1efrigerant:
'0$.AD 1:
We have dataG
*
1M
)1.2 ,
1M
3..# h
1M
2!:
*
2M
E! ,
1M
1:."2 h
2M
22#
*
3M
"! h
3M
h
2
M3"3.:#2
*
2M
)2
CD,M h
1)
h
2
$ > h
2)
h
3
$
M 2!:)2"3.:#2 > 22#2!:
""
M3."2
CD5 M 3."2
'0$.AD 2:
3oom *emperature M )32 LC
Helocity M 3.2: m>s
AM#]"2 M !.!2": m
2
^ M 1.!!" kg>m
3
RM 3.2: ] !.!2E: M!.1:E2 m
3
>s
M M ^ ] R M !.1:E2 ] 1.!!" M !.1:E## kg
Compressor 'ork M 5
2
S 5
2
> time M !." > 2!>:!$
M 1." kW
3efrigeration Work M m] C
p
] _*
M !.1:E##]1.!!"]32)"$
M 2.2:2 +T>+g
CD, M 2.2:2$ > 1."$ CD, M 3.!"
M 3.!"
02&eri%ent on refrigerant 11)4a
S0$ @A.1
,
1M
1!0 ,
2
M13!
$i%e $
9
$
;
$
11
$
12
$
18
$
5
2.3! 1E.
E
3:.2 1:.3 32.# 3..
3
:1.2
2.2! 1..
:
3:." 12.. 3".2 3:.
.
:2."
2."! 1.. 3..2 12.2 3".2 3:. :#."
":
3 E
".!! 1:.
.
3. 13.2 3".2 3:.
#
:".1
".1! 1. 3.." 13.2 3".. 3..
1
::.1
".2! 1:.
2
3..1 12.: 3".. 3..
!
::.E
".3! 1:.
1
3..3 12.3 3".: 3..
!
:..1
'ethod @A. 1 to calculate CAP
Biven data:
,
1M
2!M2.1" bar ,
2M
1:!M11.3! bar
h
1M
3#!
h
2M
22" h
3
M2!"
CD,M h
1)
h
2
$ > h
2)
h
1
$
CD, M 3#!)2""$ > 22")3#!$
M3.2"
CAP G ).45
'ethod 2:
3oom *emperature M 3: LC
Helocity M 3.21 m>s
AM#]"2 M !.!2": m
2
^ M 1.!!" kg>m
3
RM 3.21 ] !.!2E: M!.1": m
3
>s
M M ^ ] R M !.1": ] 1.!!" M !.1":.E kg
".
Compressor 'ork M 5
2
S 5
2
> time M !.2" > 2!>:!$
M 1.3" kW
3efrigeration Work M m] C
p
] _*
M !.1":.E]1.!!"]3:).$
M 2.": +T>+g
CD, M 2.":$ > 1."$
M 3.3.
CAP G ).)9
"E