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group of particles, subsequent to Some initial states of affairs. Such an approach gives
insight into the details of heat conduction; however, as one would predict, it would be
too cumbersome for most situations arising in engineering.
Inmost engineering problems, primary interest lies not in the molecular behavior
of asubstance, but rather inhow the substance behaves as acontinuous medium. InOUr
study of heat conduction, we will therefore ignore the molecular structure of the sub-
stance and consider it to be a continuous medium, or continuum, which is fortunately
a valid approach to many practical problems where only macroscopic infonnation is
of interest. Such a model may be used provided that the size and the mean free path
of molecules are small compared with other dimensions existing in the medium, so
that a statistical average is meaningful. This approach, which is also known as the
phenomenological approach in the study of heat conduction, is simpler than micro-
scopic approaches and usually gives the answers required in engineering. Onthe other
hand, to make up for the information lost by the neglect of the molecular structure,
certain parameters, such as thermodynamic state (i.e., thermophysical) and transport
properties, have to be introduced empirically. Parallel to the study of heat conduction
by the continuum approach, molecular considerations can also be used to obtain in-
formation on thermodynamic and transport properties. In this book, we restrict our
discussions to the phenomenological heat conduction theory.
Inthis section, we review some definitions and concepts of thennodynamics needed
for the study of heat conduction. The reader, however, is advised torefer to textbooks
on thermodynamics, such as References [4,18], for an in-depth discussion of these
definitions and concepts, as well as the laws of thermodynamics.
In thermodynamics, a system is defined as an arbitrary collection of matter of
fixed identity bounded by a closed surface, which can be a real or an imaginary one.
AH other systems that interact with the system under consideration are known as its
surroundings. In the absence of any mass--energy conversion, not only does the mass
of a system remain constant, but the system must be made up of exactly the same
submolecular particles. The four general laws listed in Section 1.1 are always stated
in terms of a system. In fact, One cannot meaningfully appJ y a general law until a
definite system is identified.
A control volume is any defined region in space, across the boundaries of which
matter, energy and momentum may flow, within which matter, energy and momentum
storage may take place, and on which external forces may act. Its position and/or size
may change with time. However, most often we deal with control volumes that are
fixed in space and of fixed size and shape.
The dimensions of a system or a control volume may be finite or they may even
be infinitesimal. The complete definition of asystem or acontrol volume must include
at least the implicit definition of a coordinate system, since the system or the control
volume can bestationary or may even bemoving with respect to thecoordinate system.
The characteristic of asystem weare most interested inis its thermodynamic state,
which is described by a jist of the values of all its properties. A property of a system
is either a directly or an indirectly observable characteristic of that system which call,
in principle, be quantitatively evaJuated. Volume, mass, pressure, temperature, etc. are
all properties. If all the properties of a system remain unchanged, then the system is
said to be in an equilibrium state. A process is a change of state and is described in
part by the series of states passed through by the system. A cycle is aprocess wherein
the initial and final states of a system are the same.
If no energy transfer as heat takes place between any two systems when they are
placed in contact with each other, they are said to be in thermal equilibrium. Any two
systems are said to have the same temperature if they are in tbermal equilibrium with
each other. Two systems not in thermal equilibrium would havedifferent temperatures,
and energy transfer as heat would take place from one system to theother. Temperature
is, therefore, the property of a system that measures its "thermaJlevel."
The laws of thermodynamjcs deal with interac60ns between a system and its
surroundings as they pass through equilibrium states. These interactions may be
divided into two as (I) work or (2) heat interactions. Heat has already been defined as
the form of energy that is transferred across a system boundary owing to a tempera-
ture difference existing between the system and its surroundings. Work, on the other
hand, is a form of energy that is characterized as follows. When an energy form of one
system (such as kinetic, potential, or internal energy) is transformed into an energy
form of another system or surroundings without the transfer of mass from the
system and not by means of a temperature difference, the energy is said to have been
transferred through the performance of work.
The amount of change inthe temperature of asubstance with theamount of energy
stored within that substance is expressed in terms of specific heat. Because of the
different ways in which energy can be stored in a substance, the definition of specific
heat depends on the nature of energy addition, The specific heat at constant volume
is the change in internal energy (see Section 1.6) of a unit mass per degree change of
temperature between two equilibrium states of the same volume. The speqlic heat at
constant pressure is the change in enthalpy (see Section 1.6) of a unit mass between
two equilibrium states at the same pressure per degree change of temperature.
The law of conservation of mass, when referred to a system, simply states that, ill
the absence 0/ allY mass-energy conversion, the mass ofthe system remains constant.
Thus, for a system,
m =constant
Wherem is the mass of the system.
We now proceed to develop tbe form of this law as it applies to a control vol-
ume. Consider an arbitrary control volume fixed ill space and of fixed shape and size,
as illustrated in Fig. 1.1. Malter flows across the boundaries of this control volume.
. 1I/J (I+Il.I)-m\(I) ( a m ) a 1
lim =- =- pdV
A I - - - r O ~t a t cv a t cv
( 1.4)
Syst em boundary
at t i me t
Cont rol surf ace, CS
Figur e 1.1 Flow of mutter thr ough a fixed contr ol volume.
Define a system whose boundary at some time Ihappens to correspond exactly to that
of the control volume. By definition, the control volume remains fixed in space, but
t he syst em moves and at some l at er t i me I + 6.t occupi es di f f erent vol ume i n space.
The two positions of the system are shown in Fig. 1.1by dashed lines. Since the mass
of t he syst em i s conserved, we can wri t e
where mi. 1112. and 1n3 represent t he i nst ant aneous val ues of mass cont ai ned i n t he
three regions of space shown inFig. 1.1. Dividing Eq. (I .2) by Il.t and rearranging we
/11\(1 +1l.1) - "/J (I)
As Il.I ->0, the left-hand side of Eq. (1.3) reduces to
where dV is an element of the control volume and p is the local density of that
element. In addition, "cv" designates the control volume bounded by the control
surface, "cs." Equation (1.4) represents the time rate of change of the mass within
the control volume. Furthermore,
. /113(1 + Il.t). 1 .
11m =Jt 1i n=- pV.ndAi n
8/-)00 6.1 A m
( 1.5)
. m2(t +61) . 1 .
1 1 m =m
= pV.ndA
~t--+O 6.r A
Ot J l
where 'ilin and J i lou 1 are t he m ass fl ow rat es int o and out of t he cont rol vol um e,
V denotes the velocity vector, and n is the outward-pointing unit vector normal to
thecontrol surface. Thus, as 61 .... 0, Eq. (1.3) becomes
: 1 1 pdV =- r pVn dA;" - r pV'n dA
cv J Am J A
(1 .70)
which can be rewrit t en as
~! PdV=-!PV.i1dA
a t cv cs
where dA is an element of the control surface. Eguation(1.7b) states that the lime
ra re of increa se of m a ss wit hin a cont rol volume is equa l t o t he net ra t e of m a ss flow
int o t he cont rol volum e. Since t he cont rol vol um e is fixed in l ocat ion, size and shape,
Eq, (I.7b) can also be written as
ap dv=-l pVndA
cv a t cs
( I.7c)
The surface integral on the right-hand side of Eq. (1 .7c) can be transformed into a
volume integral by the divergence theorem [6]; that is,
pv.ndA=l V.(pV)dV
cs cv
Hence, Eq. (1 .7c) can also be written as
ap dV =-1v.(pV) dV
cv a t cv
(1 .9a)
ap +v'(PV)]dV=O
cv a t
(1 .9b)
Since this result would be valid for all arbitrary control volumes. the integrand must
bezero everywhere, thus yielding
This equat ion is referred t o as t he cont inuit y equa t ion.
( 1.6)
When a system undergoes a cyclic process, the first law of thermodynamics can be
ex pressed as
where the cyclic integral 0 Q represents the net heat transferred to the system, and
the cyclic integral oW is the net work done by the system during the cyclic process.
Both heat and work are path functions; that is, the net amount of heat transferred
to, and the net amount of work done by, asystem when the system undergoes achange
of state depend on the path that the system follows during the change of state. This is
why the differentials of heat and work in Eq. (J .11) are inexact differentials, denoted
by the symbols 0 Q and 0 W, respectively.
For a process that involves an infinitesimal change of state during a time interval
dt, the first law of thermodynamics is given by
dE =oQ -oW (1.12)
where 0 Q and 8Ware the differential amounts of heat added to the system and the
work done by the system, respectively, and dE is the corresponding increase in
the energy of the system during the time interval dt. The energy E is a property
of the system and, like all other properties, is apoint function. That is, dE depends on
the initial and final states only, and not on the path followed between the two states.
For a more complete discussion of point and path functions, see References [4, 18].
The property E represents the total energy contained within the system and, in the ab-
sence of any mass-energy conversion and chemical reactions, is customarily separated
i nt o t hr ee par t s as bulk kinetic energy, bulk potential energy, and internal energy; t hat
E=KE+PE+U (1.J 3)
The i nt er nal ener gy, U, r epr esent s t he ener gy associ at ed wi t h molecular and at omi c
behavior of the system.
Equation (1.J 2) can also be written as a rate equation:
oQ sw
dt dt
dE .
where q=oQ/dt represents the rate of heat transferto the system and IV =0 W[dt
is the rate of work done (power) by the system.
Following the approach used in the previous section, we now proceed to develop
the control-volume form of the first law of thermodynamics. Referring to Fig. 1.J , the
first law for the system under consideration can be written as
t>.E =IlQ - IlW (1.15)
where VQ is the amount of heat transferred to the system, VW is the work done by
t he syst em, and 6 i s t he correspondi ng i ncrease i n t he energy of t he syst em duri ng
thetime interval zxr. Dividing Eq. (1.15) by /),1 we get
/),t /),1
The left-hand side of this equal ion can be written as
, (I +/),t) +2(t +/),1)- 3(t +/),1) - 1(I)
where E I, E2, and 3 are t he i nst ant aneous val ues of energy cont ai ned i n t he t hree
regions of space shown in Fig. l.l.
As /),t ---> 0, the first term on the right-hand side of Eq, (1.17b) becomes
. I(I+/),t)-I(t) ( a ) a 1
lim =- =- epdV
. 6. 1 - - - ,l > 0 /).,t a t cv a t cv
where e is the loca l specific energy (i.e., energy per unit mass). Equation (1.18) repre-
sent st he t i me rat e of change of energy wi t hi n t he cont rol vol ume. Furt hermore,
. 2(t +/),1) /, ,
lim = epV.o dA
.6.1-+0 6 ..1 A
3(t +/),1) /, ,
lim =- epV.n dAio
.6 ./ ......, .0 6 .( A in
whi ch represent , respect i vel y, t he rat es of energy l eavi ng and ent eri ng t he cont rol
volume attune I. Thus, as /),t ---> 0, Eq. (J.J7b) becomes
d /),
- =lim ~
dt 81 -+0!'!.t
=: 11epdV +/, epV.n dAou, +! epV.n dAio
cv A
0 IJ1
A m
which can also be written as
d a ll '
- =~ epdV + epV.o dA
dt a t cv cs
The first term on the right-hand side of Eq. (1.16) is the rate of heat transferto the
system, which is also the rate of heat transfer across the control surface as !; ; ..t - - + 0 ;
that is,
lim VQ =( 8
) =qcs
6 (--+0 fj.t dt cs
( 1.16)
( 1.18)
( 1.19)
( l.22)
( 1.23)
As 1',.1 --+ 0, the second term on the right-hand side of Eg. (l.16) becomes
VW o W .
lim - - = - = W
t ..(--" f O /: ).t dt
which is the rate of work done (power) by the matter in the control volume (i.e., the
system) on its surroundings at time I. Hence, as I',.t --+ 0, Eg. (1.16) becomes
a l l ' .
~ epdV + epV,n dA =qcs - W
a t cv cs
Tbe surface integral on the left-hand side of Eg. (1.25) can be transformed into a
volume integral by the divergence theorem [6] to yield
epV,n dA =1V,(epV)dV
cs cv
= 1 [eV.(pV)+pV.Ve]dV
Substituting this result into Eg. (1.25) and then rearranging the tenms on the left-hand
side we obtain [
p [ a e +v. ve] dV =qcs - I V
cv a t
where we have made use of the continuity relation (1.10).
Equation (1.25), or Eg. (1.27), is the control-volume form of the first law of
thermodynamics. However, a final form can be obtained after further consideration
of the power term I V .
Work can be done by the system in a variety of ways. In this analysis we consider
the work done against normal stresses (pressure) and tangential stresses (shea r), the
work done by the system that could cause a shaft to rotate (sha ft work), and the work
done on the system due to power drawn from an external electric circuit. We neglect
capillary and magnetic effects.
Consider now the work done by the system against pressure, which is also called
flow work. The work done against the pressure p acting at a surface element dA
during the time interval M is pdAoull',.n. where I',.n =(V.n) 1',.1 is the distance
moved normal to dA
. Hence, the ra t e a /work done by the system against pressure
at dAout is P dAoutV.n. The ra t e of work done a ga inst pressure over A
is, then,
IEquation ( J .27) can also be written as
D, .
p-dV =qcs - W
cv Dt
where the derivative
De 8e
Dr a t
i s commonl y ref erred to as the substa ntia ! deriva t ive or the ma t eria l deriva t ive.
given by fAoul pv.n dA
. Similarly, rate of work done on the system by pressure
acting on Ai" would be given by - fA pV fi d Ai"' Thus, the net rate of work done
by the system against pressure will be m
Wnormal =[ pV.n dA
+( pVn dAin
which can also berewritten as
W"orrnal =[ pV.ii dA
Let Wshaft represent the rate at which the system does shaft work, and Mishear be
the rate at which the system does work against shear stresses. The rate of work done
on the system due to power drawn from an external electric circuit, on the other hand,
can be written as fev qe dV, where qe is the rate of internal energy generation per unit
volume due to the power drawn to the system from the external circuit.
Hence, the control-volume form of the first law thermodynamics, Eq. (1.25) or
Eq, (1.27), can also be written as
~1epdV +1epV.ii dA
a t cv C$
=qes -1pVn dA - ""shear - ""shaft +1qe
es ev
p[a e+V.veJ dv
cv a t
=qcs - { pv.n dA - Wshear - ""shaft + { qedV
hs hv
The specific energy is given by e =u +V
/2 +gz, where u is the internal
energy per unit mass, V
/2 is the bulk kinetic energy per unit mass, and gz is the bulk
potential energy per unit mass. Hence, Eq. (1.29) can also be written as
dv+1 (n+ ~V2+gZ)pV.ii dA
a t cv cs 2
=qes - Wshear - Wsha fl +1qe dV
c ,
Where n is the entha lpy per unit mass defined as
n= u+ E
Eguation(1.3I) is an alternative expression for the control-volume form of the first
law of thermodynamics.
The first law of thermodynamics, which embodies the idea of conservation of energy,
gives means for quantitative calculation of changes in the state of a system due to
interactions between the system and its surroundings, but it tells us nothing about
the direction a process might take. In other words, physical observations such as the
following cannot be explained by the first law:
A cup of hot coffee placed in a cool room will always tend to cool to the
temperature of the room, and once it is at room temperature it will never
return spontaneously to its original hot state.
Air will rush into a vacuum chamber spontaneously.
The conversion of heat into work cannot be carried out on a continuous basis
with aconversion efficiency of 100%.
Water and salt will mix to form a solution, but separation of such a solution
cannot be made without some external means.
A vibrating spring will eventually come to rest all by itself, etc.
These observations concerning unidirectionality of naturally occurring processes
have led to the formulation of the second law of thermodynamics. Over the years,
many statements of the second law have been made. Here we give the following
Clausius statement: It is impossible for a self-acting system unaided by an external
agency to move heat from one system to another at a higher temperature.
The second law leads to the thermodynamic property of entropy. For any
reversible process that a system undergoes during a time interval dt, the change in
the entropy S of the system is given by
T rev
For an irreversible process, the change, however, is
where 8Q is the small amount of heat transferred to the system during the time interval
dt, and T is the temperature of the system at the time of the heat transfer. Equations
(1.33a) and (1.33b) together may betaken as the mathematical statement of the second
law, and they can also be written in rate form as
dS 18Q
dt - T dt
The control-volume form of the second law can be developed also by following a
procedure similar to the one used in the previous section. Rather than going through
the entire development, here we give the result [16]:
all ' 1
- spdV+ spVndA", ---
at cv cs cs T dt
where s is the entropy per unit mass, and the equality applies to reversible processes
and the inequality to irreversible processes.
Since heat transfer takes place whenever there is atemperature gradient inamedium, a
knowledge of the values of temperature at all points of the medium is essential in heat
transfer studies. The instantaneous values of temperature at all points of the medium
of interest is called the temperature distribution or temperature field.
An unsteady (or transient) temperature distribution is one in which temperature
not only varies from point to point in the medium, but also with time. When the
temperature at various points in a medium changes, the internal energy also changes
accordingly at the same points. The following represents an unsteady temperature
T =T(r, t) (1.360)
where r =Ix +jy +k z, and i, I. and k are the unit vectors in the x, y, and Z
directions, respectively, in the rectangular coordinate system.
A steady temperature distribution is one in which the temperature at a given point
never varies with time; that is, it is afunction of space coordinates only. The following
represents a steady temperature distribution:
a T
T =T(r), (1.36b)
Since the temperature distributions governed by Eqs, (1.36a) and (1.36b) are func-
tions of three space coordinates (r =Ix +jY +k z), they are called three-dimensional.
When a temperature distribution is a function of two space coordinates, it is called
two-dimensional. For example, in the rectangular coordinate system,
a T
T =rex, y, t), (1.36c)
represents an unsteady two-dimensional temperature distribution.
When a temperature distribution is a function of one space coordinate only, it is
called one-dimensional. For example, in the rectangular coordinate system,
sr er
ay az
T =T(x, I),
represents an unsteady one-dimensional temperature distribution.
. If the points of a medium with equal temperatures are connected, then the result-
II1gsurfaces are caJ led isothermal surfaces. The intersection of isothermal surfaces
with a plane yields afamily of isotherms on the plane surface. Itis important to note
that two isothermal surfaces never cut each other, since no part of the medium can
have two different temperatures at the same time.