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AL 6061-T6 - Elastomer Impact Simulations

PI: J acob Fish


Research Associate: Coglar Oskay
PhD student: Rong Fan

Program Monitor: Roshdy Barsoum

J une 21, 2005

Abstract

The behavior of the layered AL 6061-T6 - Elastomer (ERC) structure is investigated
using 3D numerical simulations on different configurations shown in Fig. 4. The AL
6061-T6 is modeled as an elastic-plastic material using the J ohnson Cook plasticity
model; the ERC is modeled as a hyperelastic-viscoelastic material using the pressure and
temperature dependent constitutive law (Nemat-Nasser, 2004). The two material models
were incorporated into ABAQUS and validated against experimental data. Numerical
simulations confirmed the stiffening behavior of the ERC at high strain rates. The
pressure transmitted at the interface between the AL 6061-T6 and ERC has been found to
be governed by the ratio of specific acoustic resistance of the two materials. Numerical
simulations have been found to be in good agreement with theoretical estimates.

Material Properties

The AL 6061-T6 is modeled as an elastic-plastic material with Von-Mises type yield
function using the J ohnson Cook plasticity model:

( ) ( )
0

1 ln 1
pl
n
pl m
A B C



= + +




where is the yield stress,
pl
and
pl

are the equivalent plastic strain and plastic strain


rate, respectively; A, B, n, m and
0

are material parameters measured at or below the


transition temperature;

is a nondimensional temperature, defined as:


( ) ( )
0

1
transition
transition melt transition transition melt
melt
for
for
for



<

>


where is the current temperature;
melt
the melting temperature, and
transition
the
transition temperature. The transition temperature is defined as the temperature at which
the transition from ductile to brittle fracture takes place. The J ohnson Cook coefficients
are summarized in Table 1. The model is incorporated into ABAQUS and validated
against the experimental data. Figure 1 shows the experimental and numerically
simulated isothermal uniaxial true-stress true-strain curves at
0
71 F for the strain rates of
2500/s and 0.001/s.
Table 1: Johnson Cook Coefficients
A B C n M
0

melt

transition

289.6MPa 203.4MPa 0.011 0.35 1.34
1.0
1
s


925.37K 294.26K

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
x 10
4
True Strain
T
r
u
e

S
t
r
e
s
s
(
p
s
i
)
T=71
0
F experiment Rate 2500.0/s
T=71
0
F experiment Rate 0.001/s
T=71
0
F simulation Rate 2500.0/s
T=71
0
F simulation Rate 0.001/s

Figure 1: Isothermal stress-strain curves at the strain rates of 2500/s and 0.001/s

The elastomer (ERC) is modeled using the pressure and temperature dependent
hyperelastic-viscoelastic constitutive law (Nemat-Nasser (2004)
1
). The Mooney-Rivlin
potential is assumed and viscous effects were modeled using an exponential series
representation. The relaxation curve is given by:

( )
( ) ( )
6
1
0
, 1 exp
n
n
n
t
T
G t G p
q T


=

= +




where,
( )
( )
0
t
d ii
d
t
a T C



in which,
ii
is the hydrostatic strain. The shift function is given by

1
Nemat-Nasser, S., (2004). Experimental characterization of polyurea with constitutive modeling and
simulations, presentation at ERC ACTD Workshop, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

( )
( )
0
0
log
A T T
a T
B T T

=

+


The material parameters are summarized in Table 2.
Table 2: Polyurea material parameters
n
p : 397.7 0.496 4.804e-3 8.856e-5 3.342e-6 1.671e-7
n
q : 0.291 0.326 0.491 0.86 1.136 1.712

G : 66 MPa A: -10 B: 107.54 K


d
C : 265 K Poisson :
1
0.484

The model is incorporated into ABAQUS and validated against the experimental data
provided by Knauss (2004)
2
and Nemat-Nasser (2004)
3
. Figure 2 shows the experimental
and numerically simulated master relaxation curves for the elastomer. Figure 3 shows the
experimental and numerically simulated confined stress-strain curves at the 273 K with a
strain rate of 2100/s. The Poisson ratio used in the simulation was 0.48993, so that the
stiffening factor due to confinement is 17.
8 6 4 2 0 2 4
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
log(time)(s)
E
(
M
P
a
)
experiment data
simulation data

Figure 2: Master relaxation curve

1
Rod Clifton and Tonia J iao, (2004). High strain rate response of elastomers, presentation at ERC ACTD
Workshop, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
2
W.G. Knauss, (2004). Separate and combined time-temperature and time-pressure interactions.
presentation at ERC ACTD Workshop, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
3
Nemat-Nasser, S., (2004). Experimental characterization of polyurea with constitutive modeling and
simulations, presentation at ERC ACTD Workshop, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s
(
M
P
a
)
experiment data
simulation data

Figure 3: Confined stress-strain curve at a strain rate of 2100/s

Numerical Simulation Setup
Several simulations were performed for the AL 6061-T6 - ERC specimens with different
configurations shown Fig.4. The thickness of the specimens is 101.6mm (4in), and the
diameter is 127mm (5in). By exploiting the symmetry of geometry, loading and boundary
condition, the 4-node bilinear axisymmetric quadrilateral elements with reduced
integration and hourglass control was used in these simulations.


Figure 4: Specimens Configurations

The specimens were subjected to two impact velocities of 50 and 500 m/s (average
velocity) as shown in Fig. 5. The assumed boundary conditions are also illustrated in Fig.
5. Fig. 6 shows the variation of the applied velocity profiles with time.

For the above applied velocities, the maximum strain rates in the ERC for the
Configuration 1 were 772/s and 7754/s, respectively.

All analyses were conducted under isothermal conditions with a temperature of 294.82K.





2-in ERC, 2-in AL
Configuration 2
1-in ERC, 1-in AL
1-in ERC, 1-in AL
Configuration 4
1-in AL, 1-in ERC
1-in AL, 1-in ERC
Configuration 5
1-in ERC, 3-in AL
Configuration 6
3-in AL, 1-in ERC
Configuration 7
2-in AL, 2-in ERC
Configuration 3
4-in ERC
Configuration 1
4-in AL
Configuration 8


Results and Discussion

The primary objective of the numerical simulations is to investigate the effect of different
configurations on the pressure at the elastomer aluminum interface. For the impact
velocity of 50m/s, Figs.7a7c show the axial pressure distribution at the top of the
specimen at different time instances, before the pressure reaches its peak at the top (Fig.
7a), when the pressure reaches the peak value at the top (Fig. 7b), and after the wave
reaches the highest value at the top (Fig. 7c). Similarly, Figs. 7d7f correspond to the
time instances, before the wave peak reaches the bottom, when the wave peak reaches the
bottom, and after the wave peak reaches the bottom, respectively. Figs. 8a8f display
the axial pressure distribution at the top and bottom for the impact velocity of 500m/s.
The pressure distribution along the radial direction is quite uniform at the beginning of
impact. However, as the wave travels deep into the specimen, the pressure looses its
uniformity due to three-dimensional effects. The wave propagating from the free surface
interacts with the axial compressive wave, which destroys the pressure uniformity along
the radial direction. This is illustrated in the snapshot of the pressure contours for the
Configuration 1 with the impact velocity of 50m/s (Fig. 9).

0 0.5 1 1.5 2
x 10
6
80
60
40
20
0
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
(
m
/
s
)
Time(s)
2 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
x 10
6
800
600
400
200
0
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
(
m
/
s
)
Time(s)
symmetric axis
Figure 5: FE mesh with B.C. and loading Figure 6: Applied impact velocity
Average velocity 50m/s
Average velocity 500m/s
For the Configuration 1 with applied impact average velocities 50m/s and 500m/s, Figs.
10 and 11 display the pressure distributions along the central axis at five different time
instances when the pressure reaches the highest value: at the top, 1/4 the length from the
top, 1/2 the length from the top, 3/4 the length from the top and at the bottom. The
maximum pressures at these time instances are given in Tables 3a and 3b for the applied
impact average velocities of 50m/s and 500m/s, respectively. It can be seen from Table
3a that the pressure drops significantly in the first 1/4 of the length. Also from Table 3a
we may notice that the time intervals for the wave traveling between the four stations
along the centerline are increasing. This means that the wave velocity is decreasing with
time, due to viscous effects in ERC. The average longitudinal wave velocity is 1311m/s
for the impact average velocity of 50m/s. Moreover, the viscosity of ERC is in part
responsible for the change in the shape of the compressive wave, as it can be seen from
Fig. 10. On the other hand, for the impact velocity of 500m/s, the compressive wave
maintains the same shape (see Fig. 11) as it travels at a constant velocity of 1798m/s! The
pressure loss is only 30% for the impact velocity of 500m/s as opposed to 90% loss for
the impact velocity of 50m/s. We believe that this is a direct consequence of the shift
function in the ERC model provided by Nemat-Nasser (2004). For the impact velocity of
500m/s, the hydrostatic strain
ii
in ERC is greater than 0.3 as the wave reaches its peak.
The magnitude of the shift function ( ) log
d ii
a T C

is greater than 10. This means that
for impact velocity of 500m/s, when the peak of the compressive wave reaches the ERC,
there is no relaxation of bulk modulus or shear modulus, due to the pressure effect in
ERC.

Table 3a: Pressure amplitude for Configuration 1 with impact V=50m/s
t(s) 1.5 20.0 39.0 58.5 79.0
Pressure(MPa) 109.26 28.96 15.28 9.38 13.26
Normalized Pressure 1.0 0.27 0.14 0.09 0.12

Table 3b: Pressure amplitude for Configuration 1 with impact V=500m/s
t(s) 1.5 15.5 29.5 43.5 58
Pressure(MPa) 1570.68 1099.57 1102.91 1062.5 2106.41
Normalized Pressure 1.0 0.70 0.70 0.68 1.34

When the wave peak reaches the bottom, the magnitude of the pressure doubles and the
reflecting wave has equal amplitude and the same sign as the incident wave.

Figs. 12 to 23 depict the pressure distributions at the AL-ERC interfaces for the
Configurations 2 to 7 at three different time instances: before, at and after the peak
pressure at the center reaches the corresponding interface. For the above configurations,
ERC responds differently at different impact velocities. The higher the impact velocity is,
the stiffer it behaves. The pressure distribution at the top of the ERC layer for the
Configurations 2, 4 and 6 is identical to the pressure distribution for the Configuration 1.

The pressure distribution for the Configuration 8 is displayed in Figs. 24 to 27 for the
applied velocities of 50m/s and 500m/s. Figs. 24 and 25 show the pressure distribution
along the radial direction for the five different sections: at the top, 25.4mm from the top,
50.8mm from the top, 76.2mm from the top and at the bottom. The time instances are
chosen to be the time at which the pressures reach its highest value at the centers of these
sections. The pressure amplitudes corresponding to Figs. 26 and 27 are summarized in
Table 4a and 4b, respectively. The pressure decreases rather slowly in the aluminum as
the compressive wave propagates, but the rate of decrease is more pronounced for the
lower impact velocity.

Table 4a: Pressure amplitude for Configuration 8 with impact V=50m/s
t(s) 1.0 5.5 9.5 13.5 18.0
Pressure(MPa) 1168.89 832.18 683.29 646.08 1150.66
Normalized presssure 1.0 0.71 0.58 0.55 0.98

Table 4b: Pressure amplitude for Configuration 8 with impact V=500m/s
t(s) 1.0 5.5 10.5 15.5 20.5
Pressure(MPa) 10967.6 9712.8 8132.7 6482.4 9998.3
Normalized presssure 1.0 0.89 0.74 0.59 0.91

It is instructive to comment on how the pressures change at the interface for the
Configurations 2 to 7. For example, for the Configuration 4 with the applied impact
velocity of 50m/s, the maximum reflected pressure in the ERC at the center of the first
interface is 54.63MPa, and the pressure transmitted to the aluminum is 55.07MPa. After
the pressure wave passes the aluminum layer and is transmitted to the second layer of
ERC, the pressure further decreased to 8.29MPa. This phenomenon has a theoretical
explanation given below.

The longitudinal elastic wave velocity is
4
( )/
3
K G +
where K is the bulk modulus, G the shear modulus, and the mass density. For the AL
6061-T6, the longitudinal elastic wave velocity is 6149m/s. For the impact average
velocity of 50m/s, the average longitudinal wave velocity calculated from the numerical
simulation is 5976m/s, which is a bit lower than the elastic wave velocity. This is
expected due to some minor plastic deformation taking place in the aluminum. For the
impact velocity of 500m/s, the plastic deformation is more pronounced, and the average
longitudinal wave velocity drops to 5210m/s.

The ratio of pressures between the transmitted and the incident waves may be
approximated using the following relation:
2
T T T
I T T I I
P V
P V V


=
+

where
T
P and
I
P are the transmitted pressure and the incident pressure, respectively;
T

and
I
are the corresponding mass densities;
T
V and
I
V are the longitudinal wave
velocities. Obviously, the above is a rough estimate since it corresponds to one-
dimensional wave propagation and thus ignores three-dimensional effects. The product of
the wave velocity and density is commonly known as the specific acoustic resistance. As
the wave traveling in ERC arrives at the ERC-aluminum interface, the ratio of the
pressure transmitted to aluminum to the incident pressure in ERC is 1.84, as computed
using the above formula provided that the aluminum remains elastic and the velocity in
the ERC is 1310m/s. As the wave traveling in the aluminum arrives at the aluminum-
ERC interface, the ratio of the pressure transmitted to ERC to the incident pressure in the
aluminum is 0.24, if the wave velocity is 5210 m/s in the aluminum. These theoretical
values are in good agreement with those computed using numerical simulations. For
example, when the Configuration 2 is subjected to the impact velocity of 50m/s, the
pressure transmitted to the aluminum is 28.77MPa, and the incident pressure is
15.28MPa, so the ratio is 1.88. For the Configuration 3 with the impact velocity of
500m/s, the pressure transmitted to the ERC is 1846.0MPa, and the incident pressure is
7671.2MPa, so the ratio is 0.24.

In conclusion, for different impact velocities, ERC responds differently. Numerical
simulations for different configurations show that ERC becomes stiffer at higher impact
velocities (or impact pressures). The ratio of /
AL AL ERC ERC
V V determines the pressure
transmitted at the boundary between the aluminum and ERC. When compressive wave
from ERC hits the aluminum layer, the wave reflects back to the ERC as a compressive
wave. On the other hand, when the compressive wave from the aluminum hits the ERC,
the wave reflects back to aluminum as a tensile wave.








0 20 40 60
30
28
26
24
22
20
Distance from center(mm)
A
x
i
a
l

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
M
P
a
)

a
t

t
o
p
t=0.5s
0 20 40 60
110
100
90
80
70
60
Distance from center(mm)
t=1.5s
0 20 40 60
20
10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Distance from center(mm)
t=2.5s
0 20 40 60
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Distance from center(mm)
A
x
i
a
l

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
M
P
a
)

a
t

b
o
t
t
o
m
t=78.0s
0 20 40 60
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=79.0s
0 20 40 60
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=80.0s

Figure 7: Pressure for Configuration 1 with applied average velocity V=50m/s
0 20 40 60
335
330
325
320
315
Distance from center(mm)
A
x
i
a
l

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
M
P
a
)

a
t

t
o
p
t=0.5s
0 20 40 60
1600
1500
1400
1300
1200
1100
1000
Distance from center(mm)
t=1.5s
0 20 40 60
100
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
Distance from center(mm)
t=2.5s
0 20 40 60
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
Distance from center(mm)
A
x
i
a
l

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
M
P
a
)

a
t

b
o
t
t
o
m
t=57.0s
0 20 40 60
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=58.0s
0 20 40 60
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=59.0s

Figure 8: Pressure for Configuration 1 with applied average velocity V=500m/s


(a) (b) (c)
(d) (e) (f)
(a) (b) (c)
(d) (e) (f)

Figure. 9: Snapshot of wave propagation for Configuration 1

t= 1.5us
t=20.0us
t=39.0us
t=58.5us
t=79.0us

Figure 10: Pressure along the central axis for applied average velocity V=50m/s


Compressive wave
traveling from the
top to the bottom

Pressure (MPa)

tensile wave
propagated from
the free surface
t= 1.5us
t=15.5us
t=29.5us
t=43.5us
t=58.0us

Figure 11: Pressure along the central axis for applied average velocity V=500m/s

0 20 40 60
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Distance from center(mm)
A
x
i
a
l

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
M
P
a
)

a
t

i
n
t
e
r
f
a
c
e
t=38s
0 20 40 60
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=39s
0 20 40 60
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=40s


Figure 12: Pressure for Configuration 2 with applied average velocity V=50m/s
0 20 40 60
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
Distance from center(mm)
A
x
i
a
l

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
M
P
a
)

a
t

i
n
t
e
r
f
a
c
e
t=28.5s
0 20 40 60
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=29.5s
0 20 40 60
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
Distance from center(mm)
t=30.5s


Figure 13: Pressure for Configuration 2 with applied average velocity V=500m/s

(a) (b) (c)
(a) (b) (c)
0 20 40 60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
Distance from center(mm)
A
x
i
a
l

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
M
P
a
)

a
t

i
n
t
e
r
f
a
c
e
t=9.0s
0 20 40 60
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
Distance from center(mm)
t=10.0s
0 20 40 60
40
30
20
10
0
10
20
30
40
Distance from center(mm)
t=11.0s
0 20 40 60
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
A
x
i
a
l

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
M
P
a
)

a
t

b
o
t
t
o
m
Distance from center(mm)
t=45.5s
0 20 40 60
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=46.5s
0 20 40 60
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=47.5s

Figure 14: Pressure for Configuration 3 with applied average velocity V=50m/s

0 20 40 60
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
Distance from center(mm)
A
x
i
a
l

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
M
P
a
)

a
t

i
n
t
e
r
f
a
c
e
t=10.0s
0 20 40 60
2000
1500
1000
500
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=11.0s
0 20 40 60
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
200
Distance from center(mm)
t=12.0s
0 20 40 60
2000
1500
1000
500
0
A
x
i
a
l

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
M
P
a
)

a
t

b
o
t
t
o
m
Distance from center(mm)
t=37.5s
0 20 40 60
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=38.5s
0 20 40 60
2000
1500
1000
500
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=395s

Figure 15: Pressure for Configuration 3 with applied average velocity V=500m/s

0 20 40 60
60
40
20
0
Distance from center(mm)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
M
P
a
)

a
t

1
s
t

i
n
t
e
r
f
a
c
e
t=19.0s
0 20 40 60
60
40
20
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=20.0s
0 20 40 60
60
40
20
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=21.0s
0 20 40 60
8
6
4
2
Distance from center(mm)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
M
P
a
)

a
t

2
n
d

i
n
t
e
r
f
a
c
e
t=23.5s
0 20 40 60
10
8
6
4
2
Distance from center(mm)
t=24.5s
0 20 40 60
8
6
4
2
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=25.5s
0 20 40 60
8
6
4
2
0
Distance from center(mm)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
M
P
a
)

a
t

3
r
d

i
n
t
e
r
f
a
c
e
t=42.0s
0 20 40 60
8
6
4
2
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=43.0s
0 20 40 60
8
6
4
2
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=44.0s

Figure 16: Pressure for Configuration 4 with applied average velocity V=50m/s

0 20 40 60
600
400
200
0
Distance from center(mm)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
M
P
a
)

a
t

1
s
t

i
n
t
e
r
f
a
c
e
t=14.0s
0 20 40 60
3000
2000
1000
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=15.0s
0 20 40 60
1500
1000
500
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=16.0s
0 20 40 60
200
150
100
50
Distance from center(mm)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
M
P
a
)

a
t

2
n
d

i
n
t
e
r
f
a
c
e
t=19.5s
0 20 40 60
300
200
100
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=20.5s
0 20 40 60
150
100
50
0
50
Distance from center(mm)
t=21.5s
0 20 40 60
250
200
150
100
50
0
Distance from center(mm)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
M
P
a
)

a
t

3
r
d

i
n
t
e
r
f
a
c
e
t=35.5s
0 20 40 60
400
300
200
100
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=36.5s
0 20 40 60
250
200
150
100
50
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=37.5s

Figure 17: Pressure for Configuration 4 with applied average velocity V=500m/s

0 20 40 60
80
60
40
Distance from center(mm)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

a
t

1
s
t

i
n
t
e
r
f
a
c
e
t=5s
0 20 40 60
150
100
50
Distance from center(mm)
t=6s
0 20 40 60
50
0
50
Distance from center(mm)
t=7s
0 20 40 60
100
50
0
Distance from center(mm)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

a
t

2
n
d

i
n
t
e
r
f
a
c
e
t=23.0s
0 20 40 60
100
50
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=24.0s
0 20 40 60
60
40
20
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=25.0s
0 20 40 60
15
10
5
0
Distance from center(mm)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

a
t

3
r
d

i
n
t
e
r
f
a
c
e
t=27.5s
0 20 40 60
15
10
5
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=28.5s
0 20 40 60
10
5
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=29.5s
0 20 40 60
10
5
0
Distance from center(mm)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

a
t

b
o
t
t
o
m
t=46.0s
0 20 40 60
15
10
5
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=47.0s
0 20 40 60
10
5
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=48.0s

Figure 18: Pressure for Configuration 5 with applied average velocity V=50m/s

0 20 40 60
1000
500
0
Distance from center(mm)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

a
t

1
s
t

i
n
t
e
r
f
a
c
e
t=5.5s
0 20 40 60
3000
2000
1000
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=6.5s
0 20 40 60
500
0
500
Distance from center(mm)
t=7.5s
0 20 40 60
1500
1000
500
0
Distance from center(mm)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

a
t

2
n
d

i
n
t
e
r
f
a
c
e
t=18.5s
0 20 40 60
6000
4000
2000
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=19.5s
0 20 40 60
1500
1000
500
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=20.5s
0 20 40 60
200
100
0
Distance from center(mm)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

a
t

3
r
d

i
n
t
e
r
f
a
c
e
t=23.5s
0 20 40 60
1000
500
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=24.5s
0 20 40 60
600
400
200
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=25.5s
0 20 40 60
400
200
0
Distance from center(mm)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

a
t

b
o
t
t
o
m
t=38.0s
0 20 40 60
1500
1000
500
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=39.0s
0 20 40 60
1000
500
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=40.0s

Figure 19: Pressure for Configuration 5 with applied average velocity V=500m/s

0 20 40 60
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Distance from center(mm)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
M
P
a
)

a
t

i
n
t
e
r
f
a
c
e
t=19.0s
0 20 40 60
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=20.0s
0 20 40 60
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=21.0s

Figure 20: Pressure for Configuration 6 with applied average velocity V=50m/s

0 20 40 60
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
Distance from center(mm)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
M
P
a
)

a
t

i
n
t
e
r
f
a
c
e
t=14.0s
0 20 40 60
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=15.0s
0 20 40 60
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=16.0s

Figure 21: Pressure for Configuration 6 with applied average velocity V=500m/s


0 20 40 60
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
Distance from center(mm)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
M
P
a
)

a
t

i
n
t
e
r
f
a
c
e
t=13s
0 20 40 60
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
Distance from center(mm)
t=14s
0 20 40 60
50
40
30
20
10
0
10
20
Distance from center(mm)
t=15s
0 20 40 60
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Distance from center(mm)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
M
P
a
)

a
t

b
o
t
t
o
m
t=31.0s
0 20 40 60
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=32.0s
0 20 40 60
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=33.0s

Figure 22: Pressure for Configuration 7 with applied average velocity V=50m/s
0 20 40 60
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
Distance from center(mm)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
M
P
a
)

a
t

i
n
t
e
r
f
a
c
e
t=15.0s
0 20 40 60
2000
1500
1000
500
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=16.0s
0 20 40 60
1000
800
600
400
200
0
200
Distance from center(mm)
t=17.0mus
0 20 40 60
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
Distance from center(mm)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
M
P
a
)

a
t

b
o
t
t
o
m
t=28.5s
0 20 40 60
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=29.5s
0 20 40 60
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
Distance from center(mm)
t=30.5s

Figure 23: Pressure for Configuration 7 with applied average velocity V=500m/s

0 20 40 60
1200
1100
1000
900
800
700
600
500
Distance from center(mm)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
M
P
a
)

a
t

t
o
p
t=1.0s
0 20 40 60
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
Distance from center(mm)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
M
P
a
)

a
t

2
5
.
4
m
m

f
r
o
m

t
o
p
t=5.5s
0 20 40 60
700
650
600
550
500
450
400
350
300
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
M
P
a
)

a
t

5
0
.
8
m
m

f
r
o
m

t
o
p
Distance from center(mm)
t=9.5s
0 20 40 60
650
600
550
500
450
400
350
300
Distance from center(mm)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
M
P
a
)

a
t

7
6
.
2
m
m

f
r
o
m

t
o
p
t=13.5s
0 20 40 60
1200
1100
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
Distance from center(mm)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
M
P
a
)

a
t

b
o
t
t
o
m
t=18s

Figure 24: Pressure for Configuration 8 with applied average velocity V=50m/s

0 20 40 60
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
Distance from center(mm)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
M
P
a
)

a
t

t
o
p
t=1.0s
0 20 40 60
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
Distance from center(mm)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
M
P
a
)

a
t

2
5
.
4
m
m

f
r
o
m

t
o
p
t=5.5s
0 20 40 60
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
M
P
a
)

a
t

5
0
.
8
m
m

f
r
o
m

t
o
p
Distance from center(mm)
t=10.5s
0 20 40 60
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
Distance from center(mm)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
M
P
a
)

a
t

7
6
.
2
m
m

f
r
o
m

t
o
p
t=15.5s
0 20 40 60
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
Distance from center(mm)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
(
M
P
a
)

a
t

b
o
t
t
o
m
t=20.5s

Figure 25: Pressure for Configuration 8 with applied average velocity V=500m/s





t= 1.0us
t= 5.5us
t= 9.5us
t=13.5us
t=18.0us

Figure 26: Pressure along the central axis for applied average velocity V=50m/s

t= 1.0us
t= 5.5us
t=10.5us
t=15.5us
t=20.5us
Figure 27: Pressure along the central axis for applied average velocity V=500m/s