Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 36

APPLICATION AND INSTALLATION

GUIDE

ENGINE ROOM
VENTILATION
Contents
Engine Room Ventilation ................................................................. 1
Sizing Considerations .................................................................... 2
Cooling Air................................................................................. 2
Combustion Air.......................................................................... 2
Ventilation Airflow...................................................................... 2
Calculating Required Ventilation Airflow............................... 3
Engine Room Temperature .................................................. 4
Atmospheric Heat Rejection Correction Factor .................... 4
Radiant Heat......................................................................... 5
Ventilation Fans ............................................................................. 7
Fan Types ................................................................................. 7
Fan Location ............................................................................. 7
Fan Sizing ................................................................................. 7
Exhaust Fans ............................................................................ 7
Two Speed Fan Motors............................................................. 8
Routing Considerations ................................................................. 9
General Routing Principles........................................................ 9
Single & Dual Engine Applications ..................................... 10
Multiple Engine Applications............................................... 14
Special Application Routing ................................................ 17
Marine Exhaust Ejector – Automatic Ventilation
System................................................................................ 24
Additional Considerations ....................................................... 24
Radiator Sizing ................................................................... 24
Radiator Fan Sizing ............................................................ 24
Moveable Louvers .............................................................. 25
Refrigeration Equipment..................................................... 25
Exhaust Pipe Insulation ...................................................... 25
Test With Doors and Windows Closed ............................... 25
Ducting Considerations ...................................................... 25
Cold Weather Considerations ................................................. 26
Air Cleaner Icing ................................................................. 26
Extreme Cold...................................................................... 27
Boost Control...................................................................... 27
Foreword
This section of the Application and Installation Guide generally describes Engine
Room Ventilation for Caterpillar® engines listed on the cover of this section.
Additional engine systems, components and dynamics are addressed in other
sections of this Application and Installation Guide.
Engine-specific information and data is available from a variety of sources. Refer
to the Introduction section of this guide for additional references.
Systems and components described in this guide may not be available or
applicable for every engine.

Information contained in this publication may be considered confidential.


Discretion is recommended when distributing. Materials and specifications are
subject to change without notice.

CAT, CATERPILLAR, their respective logos, “Caterpillar Yellow” and the


POWER EDGE trade dress, as well as corporate and product identity used
herein, are trademarks of Caterpillar and may not be used without permission.

©2008 Caterpillar®
All rights reserved.
Application and Installation Guide Engine Room Ventilation

Engine Room Ventilation


This guide addresses engine room ventilation considerations that apply to
the successful installation, operation and maintenance of Caterpillar engines,
generator sets, compressor units, and other packaged units.
The primary aspects of a properly designed engine room ventilation system are
cooling air and combustion air. Cooling air refers to the flow of air that removes
radiant heat from the engine, generator, other driven equipment and other engine
room components. Combustion air describes the air the engine requires to burn
fuel.
Cooling and combustion air directly impact engine and package unit performance
and dependable service life; these must be considered in the design of an engine
room ventilation system. It is also important to consider all engine room
equipment in the design of a ventilation system and provide a comfortable
environment for service personnel to perform maintenance.
Some driven equipment, such as a generator in a large engine installation, may
require a dedicated ventilation source.

SECTION CONTENTS

Sizing Considerations ................. 2 Additional Considerations.........24


• Cooling Air • Radiator Sizing
• Combustion Air • Louvers
• Ventilation Airflow • Refrigeration Equipment
Ventilation Fans ........................... 7 • Exhaust Pipe Insulation
• Fan Types • Ducting
• Fan Location Cold Weather
• Fan Sizing Considerations ...........................26
Routing Considerations .............. 9 • Air Cleaner Icing
• General Routing Principles • Extreme Cold
• Boost Control

©2008 Caterpillar®
All rights reserved. Page 1
Engine Room Ventilation Application and Installation Guide

Sizing Considerations
A system for exhausting ventilation air
Cooling Air from the engine room must be
A portion of fuel consumed by an included in the ventilation system
engine is lost to the environment in the design.
form of heat radiated to the
surrounding air. In addition, heat from Combustion Air
generator inefficiencies and exhaust Combustion air is discussed in detail in
piping can easily equal engine- the Air Intake Systems section
radiated heat. Any resulting elevated of the Application and Installation
temperatures in the engine room may Guide. Some aspects of the intake air
adversely affect maintenance, system are discussed in this guide
personnel, switchgear, and engine or because they significantly impact the
generator set performance. engine room ventilation system
design.
Engine room ventilation air (cooling
air) has two basic purposes. In many installations, combustion
air is drawn from outside the engine
• To provide an environment that
room via ductwork that is designed to
permits the machinery and
move a large amount of air with very
equipment to function properly with
little restriction. These installations
dependable service life.
have very little impact on engine room
• To provide an environment in ventilation design. Other installations,
which personnel can work however, require that combustion air
comfortably and effectively. be drawn directly from the engine
It is important to note that cooling air is room. In these installations,
needed for more than just the engine; combustion air requirements become
the generator intake also requires cool a significant ventilation system design
clean air. The most effective way to do parameter. Approximate consumption
this is to provide a ventilation air of combustion air for a diesel engine is
source low to the ground at the rear of 0.1 m3 of air/min/brake kW (2.5 ft3 of
the package. air/min/bhp) produced. Engine-specific
combustion air requirements can be
The use of insulation on exhaust found using the resources mentioned
pipes, silencers, and jacket water in the foreword of this guide.
pipes will reduce the amount of heat
radiated by auxiliary sources. Ventilation Airflow
Radiated heat from the engines Required ventilation airflow depends
and other machinery in the engine on the desired engine room air
room is absorbed by engine room temperature as well as the cooling air
surfaces. Some of the heat is and combustion air requirements
transferred to atmosphere or, on outlined above. While it is understood
marine installations, to the sea through that total engine room ventilation
the ship’s hull. The remaining radiated airflow must take all equipment and
heat must be carried away by the machinery into account, the following
ventilation system. sections provide a means for

©2008 Caterpillar®
Page 2 All rights reserved.
Application and Installation Guide Engine Room Ventilation

estimating the airflow required for the permissible rise in engine room
successful operation of Caterpillar temperature of 11°C (20°F).
engines and packages.
Solution:
Calculating Required Ventilation The estimated engine room ventilation
Airflow required for this arrangement:
Engine room ventilation air required for 659
Caterpillar engines and packages can V= +0 x1
1.099 x 0.017 x 11
be estimated by the following formula.
V = 3206.61 m3/min
H
V= + Combustion Air xF
D x CP x ∆T
37478
V= +0 x1
0.071 x 0.24 x 20
Where:
V = 109970.7 cfm
V = Ventilating Air (m3/min), (cfm)
H = Heat Radiation i.e. engine, Proper ventilation is heavily dependent
generator, aux (kW), (Btu/min) on the path of the ventilation air.
D = Density of Air at air temperature Applications involving high load factors
38°C (100°F). The density is and continuous full power operation
equal to require a rigorous approach based on
1.099 kg/m3 (0.071 lb/ft3) classical heat transfer calculations
accounting for radiant heat and
CP = Specific Heat of Air
allowable room temperature rise and
(0.017 kW x min/kg x °C), (0.24
adjusting with a ventilation routing
Btu/LBS/°F)
factor.
∆T = Permissible temperature rise in
engine room (°C), (°F)
(Note: Max engine room temperature
is 120°F)
F = Routing factor based on the
ventilation type discussed in the
Routing Considerations section
of this guide.
Note: If combustion air is supplied
to the engine through dedicated duct
work, “Combustion Air” should be
omitted from the formula.
Example:
The engine room for a 3412 DITA
genset has a Type 1 ventilation routing
configuration and a dedicated duct for
combustion air.
It has a heat rejection value of
659 kW (37,478 Btu/min) and a

©2008 Caterpillar®
All rights reserved. Page 3
Engine Room Ventilation Application and Installation Guide

In larger multiple engine sites, the


Engine Room Temperature
normal 8.5 to 12.5°C (15 to 22.5°F)
The primary reason for maintaining
engine room temperature at an temperature rise guidelines for engine
rooms may require unobtainable or
appropriate level is to protect various
components from excessive uncomfortable air velocities. For these
larger sites, a ventilation system that
temperatures. Items that require cool
air are: gives priority to the five items listed
above and provides a bottom to top
• Electrical and electronic airflow similar to that shown in Figure
components. 8
• Cool air to the air cleaner inlet. and Figure 9 can be designed for a
temperature rise of 17°C (30°F).
• Cool air to the torsional vibration
damper. Atmospheric Heat Rejection
Correction Factor
• Habitable temperatures for the
Atmospheric heat rejection values
engine operator or service
published in TMI are based on
personnel.
ambient cell conditions between
• Cooling air for the generator or 25C and 29C. Engine rooms can be
other driven equipment. designed at much higher ambient
A properly designed engine room conditions; therefore a correction
ventilation system will maintain engine factor can be utilized to define the
room air temperatures within 8.5 to atmospheric heat rejection at the
12.5°C (15 to 22.5°F) higher ambient condition.
above the ambient air temperature. The correction factors defined
For example, if the engine room below have been developed using
temperature is 24°C (75°F) without the fundamentals of heat transfer and can
engine running, the ventilation system be applied to any object under the
should maintain the room temperature same conditions.
between 32.5°C (90°F) and 36.5°C
(97.5°F) while the engine is in There are two distinct correction
operation. factors, one is used with wet exhaust
and turbo manifolds,
Maximum engine room temperature the other is used with dry exhaust and
should not exceed 49°C (120°F). If the turbo manifolds. The skin temperature
engine room temperature cannot be utilized in the dry manifold calculation
maintained below 49°C (120°F), is 200C, approx value of the wrapped,
outside air should be ducted directly to or insulated manifold.
the engine air cleaners.
Temperature limits of the driven
equipment must also be considered. If
the engine room temperature exceeds
40°C (104°F), the generator must be
derated per the generator derate
schedule and cool outside air must be
ducted directly to the generator air
intake.

©2008 Caterpillar®
Page 4 All rights reserved.
Application and Installation Guide Engine Room Ventilation

Wet exhaust and turbo manifold Engine


correction factor. Engine generated radiant heat (heat
rejection to atmosphere) is routinely
WCF = -.0156 * TER + 1.4505
provided with published engine
Where: technical data. Values are typically
WCF = Wet Correction Factor nominal with their tolerance noted.
Tolerance should always be added
TER = Ambient Engine Room before using published data in
Ambient (°C) calculations.
Dry exhaust and turbo manifold Generator
correction factor. For generator set installations, the
DCF = -.011* TER +1.3187 heat radiated by the generator can be
estimated by the following formulas.
Where:
1
DCF = Dry Correction Factor HRG (kW) = P x
EFF-1
TER = Ambient Engine Room
Temperature (°C) 1
HRG (Btu/min) = P x x 56.9
To obtain the corrected atmospheric EFF-1
heat rejection value, multiply the TMI
value by the WCF or DCF. Where:
Radiant Heat HRG = Heat Radiated by the
Radiant heat values for the engine and Generator (kW), (Btu/min)
driven equipment is needed to
P= Generator Output at Maximum
calculate the required ventilation
Engine Rating (ekW)
airflow.
Eff = Generator Efficiency % / 100%
Note: For the packaged generator
sets, ensure that there is adequate
airflow near the engine torsional
damper. Excessive piping and cooling
system structures may prohibit proper
airflow near the torsional damper.
Monitor
damper temperatures per the
recommendations found in the
Operation and Maintenance
Service Manual.
This data is available in the TMI for
Caterpillar products. It is located in the
Performance Data section.

©2008 Caterpillar®
All rights reserved. Page 5
Engine Room Ventilation Application and Installation Guide

Example: Note: This data is available in the TMI


A 3512B, 975 ekW standby generator for Caterpillar generators. It is located
set has a generator efficiency of 92%. in the Performance Data section.
The generator radiant heat for this
genset can be calculated as follows.
Solution:
P = 975 ekW
Efficiency = 92% / 100% = 0.92
HRG = 975 x (0.92 – 1)
HRG = 84.78 kW
HRG = 975 x (0.92 – 1) x 56.9
HRG = 4824 Btu/min

©2008 Caterpillar®
Page 6 All rights reserved.
Application and Installation Guide Engine Room Ventilation

Ventilation Fans
Except for special applications, natural Fan Sizing
draft ventilation is too bulky for Fan sizing involves much more than
practical consideration. Adequate just selecting a fan that will deliver the
quantities of fresh air are best supplied airflow volume needed to meet the
by powered (fan-assisted) ventilation cooling air and combustion air
systems. requirements. It requires a basic
Fan Types understanding of fan performance
The following types of ventilation fans characteristics and ventilation system
are typically used. design parameters.
Similar to a centrifugal pump, a fan
• Vane-axial
operates along a specific fan curve
• Tube-axial that relates a fan’s volume flow rate
• Propeller (m3/min or cfm) to pressure rise
(mm H2O or in. H2O) at a constant fan
• Centrifugal
speed. Therefore, fan selection not
(squirrel cage blowers)
only requires that the volume flow rate
The selection of fan type is usually be known, but also that the ventilation
determined by ventilation air volume, distribution system
pressure requirements and space be known in order to estimate
limitations within the engine room. The the system pressure rise. This
fans have various qualities that make information allows the optimum
them better suited to certain fan to be selected from a set of
applications. manufacturers’ fan curves or tables.
Fan Location Exhaust Fans
Fans are most effective when they Ventilation air exhaust systems should
withdraw ventilation air from the be designed to maintain a slight
engine room and exhaust the hot air to positive or negative pressure in the
the atmosphere. However, ideal engine room, depending on the
engine room ventilation systems will specific application.
utilize both supply and exhaust fans.
This will allow the system designer the Positive pressure should normally not
maximum amount of control over exceed .050 kPa or (0.2 in. H2O). This
ventilation air distribution. positive pressure provides the
following advantages.
The fan motors should be mounted
outside the direct flow of hot ventilating
air for longest motor life. The design of
centrifugal fans (squirrel cage blowers)
is ideal in this regard, but their size,
relative to the vane-axial or tube-axial
fans, sometimes puts them at a
disadvantage.

©2008 Caterpillar®
All rights reserved. Page 7
Engine Room Ventilation Application and Installation Guide

• It prevents the ingress of dust and excess exhaust ventilation provides


dirt, which is especially beneficial the following advantages.
for those applications involving • It compensates for the thermal
engines that draw their combustion expansion of incoming air.
air from the engine room. • It creates an in draft to confine heat
• It creates an out draft to expel heat and odor to the engine room.
and odor from the engine room.
Some applications, such as a marine
Two Speed Fan Motors
Operation in extreme cold weather
application where the engine room
may require reducing ventilation
is adjacent to living quarters, require
airflow to avoid uncomfortably cold
that a slight negative pressure be
working conditions in the engine room.
maintained in the engine room. This
This can be easily done by providing
negative pressure should not normally
ventilation fans with two speed (100%
exceed 0.1275 kPa (0.5 in. H2O). The
and 50% or 67% speeds) motors.

©2008 Caterpillar®
Page 8 All rights reserved.
Application and Installation Guide Engine Room Ventilation

Routing Considerations
the hottest air in the engine room
General Routing Principles with incoming cool air, raising the
Correct ventilation air routing is vital average engine room temperature.
for proper operation of Caterpillar This also leaves areas of the
engines and packaged units. engine room with no appreciable
Maintaining recommended air ventilation.
temperatures in the engine room is
• For installations where
impossible without proper routing
engines draw combustion air from
of the ventilation air. The following
inside the engine room, the routing
principles should be considered when
should provide the coolest
designing an engine room ventilation
possible combustion air to the
system.
turbocharger inlets.
• Fresh air inlets should be located • For marine and offshore
as far from the sources of heat as applications, the potential exists for
practical and as low as possible. seawater to be drawn into the
• Ventilation air should be exhausted ventilation air supply; systems
from the engine room at the highest for these applications must be
point possible, preferably directly designed to prevent seawater from
over the engine. being drawn into the air intake
• Ventilation air inlets and outlets filters and ingested by
should be positioned to prevent the turbocharger. Generator
exhaust air from being drawn into cooling air must also be filtered to
the ventilation inlets (recirculation). minimize the ingestion of salt.
• Ventilation air inlets and outlets These general routing principles, while
should be positioned to prevent driven by the same basic principles of
pockets of stagnant or recirculating heat transfer, will
air, especially in the vicinity of the vary with the specific application. This
generator air inlet. section discusses the general
considerations relating to single and
• Where possible, individual exhaust dual engine applications, multiple
suction points should be located engine (3+) applications, and several
directly above the primary heat special applications.
sources. This will remove heat
before it has a chance to mix with
engine room air and raise the
average temperature. It must be
noted that this practice will also
require that ventilation supply air be
properly distributed around the
primary heat sources.
• Avoid ventilation air supply ducts
that blow cool air directly toward
hot engine components. This mixes

©2008 Caterpillar®
All rights reserved. Page 9
Engine Room Ventilation Application and Installation Guide

Single & Dual Engine Applications Outside air is brought into the engine
Single and dual engine applications room through a system of ducts.
are arguably the most common These ducts should be routed between
applications encountered, regardless engines, at floor level, and discharge
of engine market. air near the bottom of the engine and
generator as shown in Figure 1.
These applications will generally
require smaller engine rooms, which Ventilation air exhaust fans should be
are especially challenging in regard to mounted or ducted at the highest point
the use of good routing practices. in the engine room. They should be
directly over heat sources.
Recommended ventilation systems for
these applications, presented in order This system provides the best
of preference, are Type 1, Type 2, ventilation with the least amount of air
Type 3 and Type 4. required. In addition, the upward flow
of air around the engine serves as a
Ventilation Type 1 (Preferred
shield which minimizes the amount of
Design)
heat released into the engine room. Air
Note: In ventilation airflow
temperature in the exhaust air duct will
calculations, Type 1 systems have
be higher than engine room air
a Routing Factor of 1.
temperature.

Ventilation Type 1

Figure 1

Ventilation Type 2 (Skid Design) to the Type 1 system, Type 2


Note: In ventilation airflow brings outside air into the engine room
calculations, Type 2 systems through a system of ducts
have a Routing Factor of 1. and routes it between engines.
Type 2, however, directs airflow under
A skid design may be preferred
the engine and generator so the air is
in petroleum applications. Similar
discharged upward at the engines and

©2008 Caterpillar®
Page 10 All rights reserved.
Application and Installation Guide Engine Room Ventilation

generators as shown This system provides the best


in Figure 2. ventilation with the least amount of air
required. In addition, the upward flow
The most economical method to
of air around the engine serves as a
achieve this design is to use a service
shield which minimizes the amount of
platform. The platform is built up
heat released into the engine room. Air
around the engines and serves as the
temperature in
top of the duct. This requires the
the exhaust air duct will be higher than
service platform to be constructed of
engine room air temperature.
solid, nonskid plate rather than
perforated or expanded grating. The Although the Type 1 system provides
duct outlet will be the clearance effective ventilation for the engine,
between the decking and oilfield base. it does not consider the special
Regular care must be used to ensure ventilation needs of the driven
grating remains clean and the airflow equipment. Large generators,
unrestricted. configured with an air inlet positioned
high on the generator,
Ventilation air exhaust fans should be
will require an additional source of
mounted or ducted at the highest point
ventilation air.
in the engine room. They should be
directly over heat sources.

Ventilation Type 2

Figure 2
Ventilation Type 3 (Alternate Note: In ventilation airflow
Design) calculations, Type 3 systems have
If Ventilation Type 1 or Type 2 a Routing Factor of 1.5.
is not feasible, an alternative As shown in Figure 3, outside air
is Type 3; however, this routing is brought into the engine room
configuration will require utilizing fans or large intake ducts. The
approximately 50% more airflow than inlet is placed as far away as practical
Type 1.

©2008 Caterpillar®
All rights reserved. Page 11
Engine Room Ventilation Application and Installation Guide

from heat sources and discharged into Engine heat will be dissipated with this
the engine room as low as possible. system, but a certain amount of heat
The air them flows across the engine will still radiate and heat up all
room from the cool air entry point(s) adjacent engine room surfaces.
toward the sources of engine and If the air is not properly routed, it will
equipment heat; these include the rise to the ceiling before it gets to the
engine, exposed exhaust components, engines.
generators, or other large sources
of heat. This system will work only where the
air inlets circulate the air between the
Ventilation air exhaust fans should be
engines, for dual engine applications.
mounted or ducted at the highest point
Air inlets located at
in the engine room. Preferably, they
the end of the engine room will provide
should be directly over heat sources.
adequate ventilation to only the engine
closest to the inlet.

Ventilation Type 3

Figure 3

©2008 Caterpillar®
Page 12 All rights reserved.
Application and Installation Guide Engine Room Ventilation

Ventilation Type 4 This system mixes the hottest air in


(Less Effective Design) the engine room with the incoming
If Ventilation Type 1, Type 2 cool air, raising the temperature of all
and Type 3 are not feasible, the air in the engine room. It also interferes
following method can be used; with the natural convection flow of hot air
however, it provides the least efficient rising to exhaust fans. Engine rooms
ventilation and requires approximately can be ventilated this way, but it
two and a half times the airflow of requires extra large capacity
Ventilation Type 1. ventilating fans.
Note: In ventilation airflow Incorrect Airflow
calculations, Type 4 systems have Figure 5 illustrates an incorrect
a Routing Factor of 2.5. method to vent engine room heat.
Although the inlet duct has louvers to
As shown in Figure 4, outside air is
direct airflow toward the engine, rising
brought into the engine room using
heat will warm the cool air before it
supply fans, and discharged toward
can reach the engine.
the turbocharger air inlets on the
engines.
Ventilation exhaust fans should be
mounted or ducted from the corners of
the engine room.

Ventilation Type 4

Figure 4

©2008 Caterpillar®
All rights reserved. Page 13
Engine Room Ventilation Application and Installation Guide

Incorrect Airflow

Figure 5

Multiple Engine Applications Large multiple engine sites will


The ventilation systems recommended generally utilize multiple ventilation
for single and dual engine applications fans. These sites often use one or two
also apply to multiple engine fans for each engine and an additional
applications. However, there are fan to direct air to the inlet of the
additional considerations that are generator or other driven equipment.
specific to multiple engines. This practice allows for
As previously mentioned, using normal a very simple arrangement requiring
temperature rise guidelines will likely minimal ductwork.
result in the requirement for extremely The use of multiple ventilation fans, for
large volumes of air either supply or exhaust, will require
on multiple engine installations. that airflow between the engines be
Although the guidelines for these sites arranged, either by fan placement or
may be more generous by distribution ductwork.
in regard to temperature rise Figure 6 and Figure 7 show examples
allowance, the ventilation system must of correct and incorrect airflow
be designed to provide sufficiently cool patterns for multiple engine sites.
air in the immediate vicinity of the (Note: generator ends would be
engine and driven equipment to meet on right side of diagrams)
their ventilation requirements.

©2008 Caterpillar®
Page 14 All rights reserved.
Application and Installation Guide Engine Room Ventilation

Correct Airflow

Figure 6

Incorrect Airflow

Figure 7

©2008 Caterpillar®
All rights reserved. Page 15
Engine Room Ventilation Application and Installation Guide

Figure 8 and Figure 9 show examples


of the bottom-to-top airflow pattern
generally used in large power plant
applications.

Bottom-to-Top Airflow

Figure 8

Bottom-to-Top Airflow

Figure 9

©2008 Caterpillar®
Page 16 All rights reserved.
Application and Installation Guide Engine Room Ventilation

Special Application Routing Two methods can be used to


overcome this problem.
Engine Mounted Radiators
Applications with engine-mounted • Remote mounted and specially
radiators using engine room air ducted engine-mounted radiators
for cooling generally provide do not require engine room air for
more airflow than is necessary cooling; refer to Figure 11. One
for adequate ventilation; refer advantage of such a system is that
to Figure 10. The high airflow the air used to cool the radiator is
combined with low ambient not pre-heated by the engine, thus
temperatures, below 21°C (70°F), can increasing the ambient capability (or
cause water to condense inside reducing the size) of the unit. The
exposed engine components, such as disadvantage is that motor-driven
valve covers. This can result fans must be installed to provide
in oil and maintenance problems. ventilation for the engine which
Therefore, special installation increase the overall cost
considerations must be made in of the system.
cold climates.

Engine-Driven Fan Arrangement

Figure 10

©2008 Caterpillar®
All rights reserved. Page 17
Engine Room Ventilation Application and Installation Guide

Engine-Driven Fan Arrangement

Figure 11

Radiator with Thermostatically Controlled Louvers

Figure 12

• Thermostatically controlled louvers must be exercised so that the


can be installed to recirculate some recirculated air is reintroduced
of the radiator exhaust in order to upstream of the engine and is well
maintain a warm airflow across the mixed by the time it reaches the
engine. Refer to Figure 12. This radiator.
also maintains a comfortable
working environment for
maintenance personnel. Caution

©2008 Caterpillar®
Page 18 All rights reserved.
Application and Installation Guide Engine Room Ventilation

For any arrangement where a radiator Air Curtains


fan is used to ventilate an engine
room, the vacuum created in the
engine room must not exceed 0.1275
kPa (0.5 in. H2O). Any restriction
above this limit could reduce airflow
through the radiator and overheat the
engine.
Air Curtains
Air curtains, totally enveloping the
generator set, provide ventilation
without exposing the equipment room Figure 13
to high air velocities. Refer to Figure It is important to stretch the air curtain
13. Radiated heat is removed with inlet the full length of generator set.
approximately half the airflow of a Special care must be used to ensure
horizontal flow system. adequate cool airflow at the generator air
intake and at the generator coupling.
Air curtains present ducting challenges
when local fan radiators are used.

©2008 Caterpillar®
All rights reserved. Page 19
Engine Room Ventilation Application and Installation Guide

Power Modules open, radiators can derate 5 to 7°C (9 to


Power modules generally utilize 13°F) when enclosed. Refer to the
radiator cooled diesel generator sets. Enclosure Installation section of the
The power module enclosures trap the Application & Installation Guide for
radiated heat from the engine and spacing recommendations for power
generator, and direct it through the modules. Figure 14 and Figure 15
radiator, decreasing cooling capabilities show examples of typical Caterpillar
8 to 10°C (14 to 18°F). Even with doors containerized power modules.

40’ Containerized Power Module

Figure 14
1. Caterpillar D/G Set 5. Fuel/Water Separator
2. Radiator 6. Fuel Tank
3. Switchgear 7. Vertical Discharge Chute
4. Silencer

40’ Containerized Power Module

Figure 15
1. Caterpillar D/G Set 5. Fuel/Water Separator
2. Radiator 6. Fuel Tank
3. Switchgear 7. Partition Wall
4. Silencer

©2008 Caterpillar®
Page 20 All rights reserved.
Application and Installation Guide Engine Room Ventilation

Drop-Over Enclosures system that is subject to the same


Drop-over enclosures are utilized requirements as previously outlined for
for applications requiring some degree single and dual engine applications.
of weather protection or noise Figure 16 illustrates a typical diesel
attenuation, when a standard building generator set with a drop-over
is not available for housing. If the enclosure. While this example uses
enclosed package is cooled by an exhaust fans for ventilation, the
engine-mounted radiator, then the use of supply or exhaust fans
power module requirements outlined on a particular application will be
above apply. If the enclosed package determined by the need to maintain
is cooled by a remote radiator or other either a slight positive or negative
means, then the enclosure must be pressure inside the enclosure.
provided with a fixed ventilation

Drop-Over Enclosure Example

Figure 16

©2008 Caterpillar®
All rights reserved. Page 21
Engine Room Ventilation Application and Installation Guide

Land SCR Rig Ventilation Systems Figure 18 shows an engine room


Land SCR rig engines equipped with designed to provide a combination
suction or blower fan radiators have of ventilation and engine/generator air
airflow in excess of that required for inlet ducting.
recommended engine ventilation. Ventilation is provided by the air
As long as radiator airflow is not discharged from the generator. In
obstructed, no further ventilation warm weather, the air source valve is
requirements are needed. positioned to provide outside air
Land rig engine installations with to the generator ventilation air inlet.
remote radiators or vertical discharge Air discharged from the generator exits
radiators should be inspected to through the roof vent door and open
determine if sufficient engine rear of base, providing engine
ventilation is provided. ventilation as a secondary result.
Figure 17 illustrates a land rig In cold weather, the air source valve
installation where ventilation will be positioned to provide partial or
should be considered. Natural total generator ventilation air from
draft ventilation is almost completely within engine room.
blocked by roofs, SCR house, If doors are added to rear of base,
tool room, and vertical discharge make sure that total enclosure is not
radiators. Warm weather operation airtight. This prevents pressurizing
may result in unacceptable engine and engine room (reducing generator
generator temperatures. ventilation airflow) when doors
are closed and air source valve is
Land Rig Engines Requiring positioned to provide outside air
Ventilation to generator.
An air duct size of 2.0 sq. ft.
(0.19 m2) is adequate for 3508, 3512,
and 3516’s on up to 40 ft. (12.2 m)
bases. The ducting to the air cleaners
from air source valve can match the
sizes of the optional air cleaner inlet
rectangular adapters.

©2008 Caterpillar®
Page 22 All rights reserved.
Application and Installation Guide Engine Room Ventilation

Typical SCR Land Rig Ventilation

Figure 18

Marine Through-Hull Opening accommodation spaces can be


Design troublesome.
There must be openings for air to
enter the engine room and openings Features of Through-Hull
for air to leave the engine room. Ventilation Openings
There should be an inlet for cool air to
enter, and a discharge for hot air to
leave, on each side of the hull. If it is
impractical to have two separate
openings per side, then avoid having
hot discharged air mix with cool air
entering the engine room.
Features of the Marine Through-Hull
Opening are shown in Figure 19.
Opening ‘A’ should be sized to
maintain air velocity through the
openings below 610 m/min
(2000 ft/min).
Air Entering the Engine Room
The engine room must have openings Figure 19
for air to enter. The intake air opening
should be located forward of, and, If air is to enter the engine room from the
if convenient, at a lower elevation, accommodation spaces, good design
than the discharge. The air may practice will include sound deadening
also enter from the accommodation treatments for the opening(s) that
spaces, such as the galley and conduct air from
staterooms, or directly through the hull the accommodation spaces to the
or deck. Engine room air inlets through engine room. Heating and/or air

©2008 Caterpillar®
All rights reserved. Page 23
Engine Room Ventilation Application and Installation Guide

conditioning of accommodation spaces more detail in the Exhaust Systems


will be made much more complicated if section of the Application and
the engines must Installation Guide.
rely on that heated/cooled air for
combustion. Engine room air inlets Additional Considerations
through accommodation spaces Radiator Sizing
simplify the task of ensuring the The frontal area of a radiator core
engine room inlet air is kept clean and should be as large as possible to
free from rain or spray. minimize restriction of airflow. Low
Air Leaving the Engine Room radiator core restriction allows the use
The through-hull or through-deck of a larger slower turning fan.
openings for discharge of heated Radiators that are nearly square
ventilation air should be located aft of can provide the most effective fan
and higher than all intake openings to performance. They can be installed
minimize recirculation. with a minimum of unswept core area.
The ventilation air opening, As a rule, keep core thickness to a
discharging heated ventilation air, minimum, with a maximum
should be located aft of, and at a of 11 fins per 2.54 cm (1.0 in.).
higher elevation than the intake Increasing the number of fins per
air opening in order to minimize cm (in.) does increase the radiator
recirculation. Cross- and following- heat rejection for a given air velocity
winds make total elimination of through the core, but also increases
ventilation air recirculation nearly the resistance to airflow.
impossible. While the most economical initial cost
Marine Exhaust Ejector – Automatic will be maximum core thickness and
Ventilation System fins per cm (in.), this involves higher
A relatively simple system utilizing an fan horsepower with consequent
engine’s exhaust for ventilating an operating cost and noise penalties
engine room can be arranged with throughout the life of the installation. In
most dry exhaust systems. addition, a radiator with more fins per
cm (in.) is much more susceptible to
Ductwork can be installed around the plugging from insects and debris.
engine exhaust piping in such a way
that the exhaust flow creates Radiator Fan Sizing
a vacuum that is utilized to draw the As a rule, the most desirable fan is
hot air out of the upper part of the one having the largest diameter and
engine room. turning at the lowest speed to deliver the
required airflow. This also results in
An exhaust ejector system may lower fan noise and lowest fan
draw out a quantity of ventilating air horsepower draw from the engine.
approximately equal to the flow of
exhaust gas. This method has been Blade tip speed, while being only one
used successfully in marine of the elements of cooling fan design,
applications with small engine is an item easily changed
rooms and minimal ventilation by choosing an appropriate fan drive
requirements, and is discussed in ratio. An optimum fan tip velocity of

©2008 Caterpillar®
Page 24 All rights reserved.
Application and Installation Guide Engine Room Ventilation

6096 cm/s (12,000 fpm) is a good to the engine which can cause
choice for meeting noise legislation shutdown.
requirements and cooling system
Refrigeration Equipment
performance requirements. The When refrigeration equipment is
maximum acceptable fan blade tip installed within the engine room space,
speed is 7620 cm/s (15,000 fpm) for ensure its location is such that any
Caterpillar fans. refrigerant leakage will not be drawn
Moveable Louvers into the engine’s combustion airflow.
If moveable louvers are used, specify Refrigerant chemicals, such as
those which open in a positive Freon® and ammonia, become highly
manner. Pneumatic and electric- corrosive acids in engine combustion
actuated louvers are satisfactory. chambers. This corrosion will cause
Refer to Figure 20. severe damage. Locating refrigerant
compressors near an engine room air
exhaust area is appropriate.
Exhaust Pipe Insulation
Long runs of hot, uninsulated exhaust
piping can dissipate more heat into the
engine room than all other machinery
surfaces combined.
Completely insulate all exhaust piping
within the engine room area. All hot
surfaces within the engine room
should be insulated if high air
Figure 20 temperatures are to be avoided. Do
Louver Operation not insulate engine turbochargers.
• Louvers which open from the Test With Doors and Windows
discharge pressure of the radiator Closed
fan are discouraged. Rain, ice and Ventilating systems must be designed to
snow can render them inoperative provide safe working temperatures and
within a short time and result in adequate airflow when windows, doors,
engine overheating and shutdown. and other normally closed ports are
• Do not wait to activate the louvers secured for bad weather conditions.
until the engine warms up. In an Test the ventilation system fully secured
emergency, the engine will be for bad weather. This condition will
loaded immediately and require full reflect the most severe test of the
airflow. Open the louvers as soon ventilation system. Remember that a
as the engine starts and install small room suction can exert a large
them to open fully in case of an pressure on an entrance door
emergency. or window.
• Heat sensors needlessly Ducting Considerations
complicate the system and their Design all ducting to withstand
malfunction can reduce airflow extremes of vacuum or pressure
and still maintain tight joints.

©2008 Caterpillar®
All rights reserved. Page 25
Engine Room Ventilation Application and Installation Guide

Provide inspection ports (or areas that Cold Weather Considerations


are easily disassembled) to allow
removal of foreign objects. Inspection Air Cleaner Icing
ports are especially important for Air cleaner icing can occur in saturated
standby applications. air environments when the dew point of
the ambient air is near freezing. Small
disturbances to the air such
as velocity and pressure changes
at the air cleaner inlet reduce the
moisture-holding capacity of the air.
This results in moisture condensation
and ice crystal formation. The ice
buildup reduces the airflow area and
increases the pressure differential
across the air cleaner. Eventually,
a plateau is reached where the pressure
differential remains
constant even though ice buildup may
continue. Power loss and increased
fuel consumption will result during
these periods.

Typical Air Plenum Arrangement

Figure 21

©2008 Caterpillar®
Page 26 All rights reserved.
Application and Installation Guide Engine Room Ventilation

Typical Warm Air Arrangement

Figure 22

Several techniques may be used building, and the engine is


to overcome air cleaner icing. One preconditioned with pre-heaters for
solution is to heat the intake air metal, water and oil temperatures
slightly. It is not necessary to heat the of 0°C (32°F). Admitting engine room
air above freezing. The air requires only air must be done without the possibility
enough heat to be above the dew of allowing dirt or debris into the air
point. Heat can be supplied to the air inlet system of the engine. Figure 12
cleaner housing by recirculating warm and Figure 22,
engine room air; Figure 12 shows how as indicated above, will also apply
this can be accomplished for a radiator here.
cooled application. Figure 21 shows a
Boost Control
typical air plenum arrangement for a A boost control valve is available for
marine application and Figure 22
the 3600 diesel engine family for use in
illustrates the how extremely cold ambient conditions, 0°C
a warm air arrangement may be
(32°F). The valve is used to limit the
configured. air inlet manifold pressure during low
Extreme Cold air temperature conditions to maintain
Heated engine room air may be acceptable cylinder pressure.
required (for starting purposes only) in
applications at very cold ambient
temperatures, -25°C (-13°F). This
assumes combustion air is being
drawn from outside the engine

©2008 Caterpillar®
All rights reserved. Page 27
LEBW4971-02 ©2008 Caterpillar Printed in U.S.A.
All rights reserved.