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Why should every manager study the discipline of OB?

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The challenge of managing people and organization lead to the origin of study of Organizational Behavior. The study of Organizational Behavior is a combination of how people behave in organizations and how organizations use human resources to achieve goals. The study of organizational behavior combines planning with the maximum utilization of human resources through the development of people.

The field of organizational behavior is about understanding people and managing them to work effectively. The field of organizational behavior is concerned with how organizations can survive and adapt to change.

Certain behaviors are necessary for survival and adaptation. People have to:

Be motivated to join and remain in the organization.

Carry out their basic work reliably.

Be flexible and innovative.

The accomplishment of the organizational goals depends on the interaction and coordination among people to accomplish their goals. The field of organizational behavior is concerned with how to get people to practice effective teamwork.

Organizational Behavior refers to the attitudes and behaviors of individuals and groups in organizations.

Study of Organizational Behavior is important because it is about people and human nature. Includes interesting examples of success and failure. Provides tools to find out why people behave the way they do.

It is important to managers, employees and consumers. Understanding organizational behavior makes more effective managers, employees and consumers. Organizational behavior has a powerful influence on the attitudes and behaviors of individuals in organizations. Organizational behavior can impact financial performance.

Goals of Organizational Behavior:

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Predicting Organizational behavior

Explaining Organizational behavior

Managing Organizational behavior

Managerial roles include:

Interpersonal roles

Informational roles

Decision making roles

Managerial Activities includes:

Routine communication

Traditional management


Human resource management

Elements of Organizational Behavior:

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The organization's base rests on management's philosophy, values, vision and goals. This

in turn drives the organizational culture which is composed of the formal organization,

informal organization, and the social environment. The culture determines the type of

leadership, communication, and group dynamics within the organization. The workers

perceive this as the quality of work life which directs their degree of motivation. The final

outcome are performance, individual satisfaction, and personal growth and development.

All these elements combine to build the model or framework that the organization operates


Fundamental concept of Organizational behavior :

Fundamental Concepts relating to the nature of human being are four. They are individual

differences, whole person, caused behavior i.e, motivation and dignity.

The concept of individual differences tells us that when it comes to understanding and

solving the behavioral problems there can not be a standard solution.

The concept of whole person tells that the happenings in the life beyond the organizational

life affect the work behavior of an employee.

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The concept of caused behavior tells that a manager makes employees behave in a particular way by his own behavior. A manager should, there fore, be a role model. The concepts relating to the nature of the organization are two. They are organization in a social system and mutuality of interests. The concept relating to the organization being social system tells us that no organization can have a value system, which is inconsistent with the social values in which it is operating. The concept of relating mutuality on interest tells us that basically the interests of the employees and the organizations are such that if employees interests suffer the organization’s interests too suffer and vice-versa. Manager should have all these qualities to be successful his career. So it is very important for a manager to study Organizational behavior.


‘Organizational Behavior’ and ‘Human Relations are these two terms complementary or contradictory.

“If you dig deeply into any problem, you will get to people.” —J. Watson Wilson

“The manager's role is that of facilitating goal accomplishment by removing the barriers limiting the group's performance.” — Raymond E. Miles

Organizational Behavior and Human Relations are two complementary terms. We can support this statement with the following explanation

Organizations are social systems. If one wishes either to work in them or to manage them, it is necessary to understand how they operate. Organizations combine science and people- technology and humanity. Technology is difficult enough by itself, but when you add people you get an immensely complex social system that almost defies understanding. However, society must understand organizations and use them well because they are necessary to reap the cornucopia of goods and services which technology makes possible. And they are necessary for world peace, good school systems and other desirable goals which mankind seeks.

Human behavior in organizations is rather unpredictable as we now see it. It is unpredictable because it arises from deep-seated needs and nebulous value systems of

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individually different people. However, it can be partially understood in terms of the frameworks of behavioral science, management, and other disciplines. There are no simple cookbook formulas for working with people. There is no idealistic panacea for organizational problems. All that can be done at present is to increase understanding and skills so that human relationships at work can be upgraded. The goals are modest. We can work effectively with people if we are prepared to think about them in human terms.

Understanding Human Relations

The term “human relations” applies broadly to the interaction of people in all types of endeavor — in business, government, social clubs, schools, homes. Much of this interaction is in work organizations, where people have banded together in some sort of formal structure to achieve an objective. The human interactions that develop are called employee human relations or organizational human relations. Employee human relations, therefore, is the study of human behavior at work and an effort to take action in operating situations in order to produce better results. Another way to say this is “organizational behavior.” Organizational behavior is an academic discipline concerned with understanding and describing human behavior in an organizational environment. it seeks to shed light on the whole, complex human factor in organizations by identifying causes and effects of that behavior. Don't get the term “human factor” in this instance confused with the term as used in ergonomic discussions. The human factor we are talking about now deals with the “human being in relation to other human beings” in the work environment, not “man, machine interface.” Human relations goes one step further and applies behavioral knowledge in operating organizations to build human cooperation toward organizational ends. It is action-oriented, and goal-oriented. While organizational behavior seeks to gain understanding, human relations seeks to use it in operational situations. The difference in emphasis between the two terms is similar to the difference between a pathologist and a physician. The pathologist seeks to understand certain human ills, and the physician uses that knowledge to achieve results.

It is essential to recognize that organizational behavior and human relations are not two schools of thought in opposition to each other. They are complementary, essentially covering the same subject and having the same goals of improved behavior, but human relations is more directed toward application.

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In summary, its distinguishing features are that it is action oriented, and operational. Rather than merely studying human behavior, human relations seek to do something constructive about it. That “something” is to develop more productive and humanly rewarding results. Human relations therefore, are an applied art and science. It is concerned with getting things done. Ultimately it always involves the basic proposition of applied art and science. It cannot be merely descriptive of what DOES happen; rather it seeks to influence what WILL happen. It assumes some choices are better than others and attempts to achieve those better choices.

Organizational behavior aims at understanding where as human relations aims its application in work settings. According to Keith Devis the difference between the two terms, is that of between a pathologist and physician. While the pathologist attempts to understand illness the physician tends to employ that knowledge to gain results. Organizational behavior and human relations are not two schools of thought opposed to same general objectives of modified human behavior, How ever the human relations goes one step further towards application. The characteristic feature of human approach, instead of merely studying human behavior it tries to provide more efficient results. Thus it is an applied science and art related to the primary objective of getting things done. Organizational behavior is a study of the intra organizational behavior and attitudes of people in an organizational setting; the organization's effect on perceptions, feelings, and actions; and the consequences of behavior on the organization, particularly how it affects the achievement of the organization's purposes.


The informal groups operating within the work settings exert strong social controls over the work habits and performance of individual works-Appraise.


a. Why it is easy to motivate employees?

It is easy to motivate employees because employees want to be motivated. Unlike teachers and parents, who also have a motivation challenge, managers do not have to work with whoever who shows up. Employees are carefully screened before hiring to have relevant skills and to be compatible with the organization. And they can be fired if there is a well documented pattern of failing to perform according to clear instructions and

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policies. So managers have the luxury of a special selection of people to work with, people who are reasonably well suited to their work, chose to apply for the work, and are therefore ready



willing to get motivated. Therefore it should be easy to motivate employees. And it is, in theory at least. However,



does not mean quick or simple. It is a full-time job to create and maintain an environment in which employees are inspired to perform well. To do so, you need to think about motivation regularly. And you need to think about the linkages between a wide variety of factors and the motivation levels of your employees. For example, the way in which you share information


employees can have a profound impact on motivation levels. And the way in which you structure their tasks and give them feedback about how they perform those tasks also drives motivation levels. The attempt to explain the human behavior can be traced to the writings of the Greek Philosopher. They presented the hedonistic concept as the explanation of the human behavior. Hedonistic concept postulates that human beings avoid pain and/or discomfort and engage in the activity that gives comfort and pleasure. This concept held away over thinking of the philosopher and the writers alike for along time. Springing from this thinking is the concept of “economic man” who is rational and tries to maximize his economic gains. It is therefore, very easy to motivate employees. Whenever the management wishes to encourage a certain behavior recommended of that behavior would fetch reward for the person. On the other hand certain behavior can be discouraged by punishment. This is the essence of the theory of “reward and punishment” which is also known as the “connect and stick” theory. However experience tells that adhesive to reward/punishment does not cause the continuance of desired and sustained behavior over a longer time. Not all can be motivated by reward and or punishment for all the time.

b. Explain “Primary” and “Secondary” motive with few examples of each.

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Psychologists generally acknowledge that some of the motives are unlearned and are physiological based. There are the primary motives. Although, the procedure of primary needs is employed in some motivation theories there are some situations when their needs are pushed into background. Thus fasting for a religion or social or political cause or celibacy among priests are the examples. Defined this way the most commonly recognized primary motives include hunger, thirst, sleep avoidance of pain, sex etc

Secondary motives are the results of the increasing social complexity and economic and social developments. These motives are learned and psychologically based. Important among the secondary motives are the motives for power achievements and affiliation. Few egs. For secondary motives are:

doing better than competitors

Having a secure job

Influencing people to change their attitude or behavior

The examples of secondary motives are needs of power, need for affiliation, need for a

chievement, need for security and need for status etc.

c. What is Coping behavior? Some times need fulfillment is blocked. A human being may try to overcome the blockage by trial and error method. This is a rational way of behavior. This is known as coping behavior.


What are interpersonal conflicts? Define and discuss some of the common defense mechanisms with illustration.

Conflict is an expressed struggle between at least two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce rewards, and interference from the other party in achieving their goals. A conflict can exist only when both parties are aware of a disagreement. As long a people perceive their goals to be mutually exclusive, a conflict exists. Conflicts also exist when people believe there isn't enough of something to go around. Money and time often fit into this category. Conflict between two individuals is known as interpersonal conflicts.

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Interpersonally, different individual’s maps of reality are sometimes so diverse that

“bumps” arise when they attempt to communicate or interact together. Basic assumptions,

beliefs, values and presuppositions about the world become clustered together to create

different models of reality. When these models or maps don’t contain mechanisms for

responding creatively to “bumps” with other maps, energy is released in the form of

disagreement, dispute, fighting, or other forms of conflict. Negotiation, mediation and

arbitration are all various forms of managing interpersonal conflicts.

When need fulfillment is continually blocked a person gets frustrated. At the same time a

person’s self image is also threatened by the activities from the world. In order to protect

his self image a human indulges in certain behaviors which are known as “defense

mechanisms”. Defense mechanisms are the behaviors, which are logical and automatic for

the person frustrated.

They serve an important purpose of keeping the personality integrated. The following are

the some of the common defense mechanism we come across in our work life.

a. Rationalization

This is sliding back in terms of mental age certain patterns of behavior are learnt

during the childhood, which is subsequently replaced by the behavior acceptable to

the society. At an unguarded moment, however in the adult age in the flush of

emotions an adult takes recourse to the childhood behavior. A superior getting

angry with his subordinate and throwing files at him or throwing a pen because the

ink not flowing are the most common example of this behavior.

b. Aggression:

This is also known as emotional displacement. This insists of giving vent to the tension by offensive behavior towards an object or an individual unconnected with the source of frustration. A superior getting angry on his subordinates because of something happening at his home could be cited as an example of this behavior.

c. Fantasy:

This is building castles in the air in order to escape the pinching situations. Fantasy

is temporarily removing oneself from reality and losing oneself the imaginary

happy world. The frequency of fantasizing signals needs consultation of a


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d. Resignation:

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This is accepting the situation and ceasing any efforts to dial with the problem when this occurs the personality stunts

e. Flight or withdrawal

This is a complete surrender to the problematic situation and complete withdrawal away from the situation.


“Human needs that spark off on activity can be arranged in hierarchy of prepotency and probability of occurrence”. – Discuss

This was thought of by Abraham Maslow based his model on the theory that deprived need dominates the behavior sparking off an activity for its satisfaction. This need, when satisfied in its turn activates the higher need. This sequence can be denoted as: - Deprivation – Domination – Gratification - Activation As a theory of motivation, Maslow reasoned that needs can be structured in a hierarchy


reasoned that needs can be structured in a hierarchy Self Self Esteem (self worth needs) Social

Self Esteem (self worth needs)

in a hierarchy Self Self Esteem (self worth needs) Social i.e. belonging needs Security needs Physiological

Social i.e. belonging needs

Security needs
Security needs

Physiological Needs

Physiological needs:- The fulfillment of physiological needs, such as thirst, sleep et. takes precedence over all other needs. Physiological needs have a tendency of recurrence.

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Money represents the best means to satisfy physiological. Money is valued not for it’s over sake of what it can buy for us. This is one of the dimensions of money motive.

Safety Needs:

Once physiological needs are satisfied ' Safety needs become important. While physiological needs have a reference to the present, the safety needs lead to the future. This is to satisfy the future needs. A man so long as he is young and working and earning is able to satisfy the physiological needs as and when they occur. But he needs to think about the same comfort when he is old, not earning. Implicit is the fulfillment of these safety needs is the origin of many labor enactments in India today. The pension plans, the payment of gratuity Act, Provident Fund etc and other retrial benefits go basically to ensure security for the man in his old age.

Too much security makes a man reckless and careless or lazy disobedient and under

productive. At the same time c

enough is enough security is as ever present dilemma before the management providing security of jobs to their employees.

also makes a man under productive. How much

Social and belonging needs:

The needs for social belongings have their origin in the gregarines nature of the human being. Since man is a social being, he has a need to belong and to be accepted by various groups. When social needs become dominant, a person will strive for meaningful relation with others. People interact simply because they enjoy it. Even such interactions which give no apparent tangible rewards are entered into simply because they reasonably assure one that one is a part of the society is accepted by the society.

Esteem Needs:

It is not only sufficient for a human being to "belong" what he cares for and strives towards is that others should recognize his worth. An employee stays in an organization not merely because he gets his salary and other material rewards but he is there because others recognize that he is worthy of the job and other material benefits that he gets. This need manifests itself in 3 forms a) the need for status b) the need for power c) need for recognition.

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Self Actualization Needs:

In the words of Maslow these needs denote "what a man can be should be" A self actualized person has a cause an ideology to fight for the goal set for himself. He concentrates on the feedback which is task oriented and is not taken in by the personal criticism on praise criticism. In a very rough manner, Maslow's theory can be converted into a content model of work situation. Part of the appeal of Maslow's theory is that it provides both a theory of human motives reg. classifying basic human needs in a hierarchy and the theory of human motivations that relates these needs to general behavior. Maslow's major contribution lies in the hierarchical concept. He was the first to recognize that a need once satisfied is a spent free and cause to be a motivator.


Discuss critically Fredric Herzberg’s Theory of job loading. What do you understand by “Job Content” and “Job Context” factors?

Hygiene factors (job context) or dissatisfies are necessary for the performance but what is required of the Manager is to provide these factors to the required level and focus his attention to provide more and more on the motivators. Motivators cater to the higher order needs of the human being and, therefore, they are more important. In order to build these factors into the job design a manager should load the job with motivators. This is the “Fredric Herzberg’s Theory of job loading”. Job loading can be done bye either by horizontally loading or by vertically loading the job. The horizontal job loading is known as “job enlargement” while vertical job loading is known as “job enrichment”. Even though Herzberg model of job enrichment or vertical job loading was employed in some companies, the results were not uniform. One of the main criticisms against the theory is that it is not corroborated by subsequent research. Many critics do not agree to the straight jacketing of certain items in to hygiene factors and motivators. Depending on the environment and perception what a hygiene factor is to one may be a motivator to others. Herzberg implies building challenges and freedom into the jobs. However, some may perceive what a challenge is to one as a threat. More over all jobs cannot be re-designed and enriched. E.g. routine programmed jobs cannot be enriched.

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In spite of the seemingly legitimate criticism, Herzberg has to be given credit for contributing substantially to the study of work motivation. He extended Maslow concept and made it more applicable to the work motivation. Herzberg added much to the better understanding of the job content factors and employee satisfaction, but fell short of comprehensive theory of work motivation.

Job Content :

Job content factors are those which by absence does not inhibit performance, but any addition in them increases efficiency. These factors make the job itself a tool for motivation. These factors are called “satisfies”. Job Content is the "relative" component in the Overall Relative Contribution score. Managers determine the job content score by using a scale from 1 to 5 to compare the difficulty and impact of an employee's job against other jobs in their peer group. Some jobs are markedly more demanding and more complex than others. Managers may choose to refine scores to tenths. Managers evaluate tasks and assignments based upon the employee's current position and responsibilities. It may be helpful to use categories (like those listed in the following section) when going through the evaluation process for determining job content. A Group, Division, or Directorate may have different interpretations of these categories and descriptions. The list is not exhaustive and managers may chose to consider using other categories. Managers should evaluate what was to be done during the review period and break down the overall activity into component tasks, if necessary. They will determine the importance of each activity in relation to the total job (from normal to significant, for example). Do not rate or consider categories that do not apply to the position. Consider the ways in which the current job can be expanded subject to developmental progress and accomplishments.

Job context:

Job Context factors that occur at the time of doing the job. These factors by their presence inhibit performance but any addition in them does not increase efficiency or productivity. These factors are call “dissatisfies”. What an employee comes to at the office every day is job context. Job context includes a wide range of issues. The daily routine, the day-to-day tasks employees carry out each day on the job are important. So are goals and how they are set. Employees want to be

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involved in the process. They look for communication and feedback. How does management supervise? For example, we often pay attention to our own management style and that of our lawyers, but what about the mid-level managers we appoint? These are the many “assistants” we hire to help us. They may be damaging employee morale without our knowing it. What are the working conditions? Crowded? Cold or hot? Safe part of town? Available parking or bus


What do you understand by Personality? Discuss in a nutshell some theories of personality. The word personality comes from the Latin root persona, meaning "mask." According to this root, personality is the impression we make on others; the mask we present to the world. Personality refers to an individual's pattern of behavior and traits that are long-standing and present since adolescence or early adulthood. Some aspects of personality include:

the way people tend to think about themselves (e.g., self-confident or lacking confidence),

how they relate to people (e.g., shy vs. friendly),

how they interpret and deal with events in the environment (e.g., paranoid people believe that others are out to get them and may try to attack first before being attacked), and

how they react emotionally to all of this.

Personality can be defined as the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others. Personality Theories Personality theories can be grouped as follows :

1. Intra psychic theory

2. Type theories

3. Trait theories

4. social learning theory

5. Self-theory

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These theories differ in the constructs they propose as forming the structure of the

personality, and also the way they relate these constructs to behavior. They also differ in the methods they use to assess or measure an individual’s personality.

1. Intra psychic Theory of Sigmund Freud :

According to Freud human mind is composed of three elements i) preconscious, ii) the conscious iii) the unconscious. The items in the mind that can be recognized only through Freud’s association method are “preconscious”. The conscious element is concerned with thoughts, feelings, beliefs and desires that we probe during introspection. The final componenet ‘unconscious’ is basically concerned with ideas and wishes that can not be learned through introspection but can be determined by hypnotism, analysis of dreams, and Freudian therapeutic techniques. According to Freud the ‘Conscious ‘ is guided by a ‘reasoned reality’ principle and ‘unconscious’ is guided by the famous ‘hedonistic principle’ of pleasure. Freud developed

an organization of personality consisting of three structures within the human mind the id, the ego and the superego. These parts of the mind are primarily responsible for originating human actions and reactions and modifications.

2. Type Theories :

The type theories represent an attempt to scientifically describe personalities by classifying individuals into convenient categories. Sheldon’s physiognomy theory; Carl Jung’s “extravert” and “introvert” theories are some examples of type theories. Sheldon’s Physiognomy theory William Sheldon has presented a unique body-type-temperamental model that represents a link between anatomic and psychological traits and characteristics of an individual with his behavior. Sheldon identifies some relationship between the physique types of individuals and their personality temperaments. He identifies three body types – emorphic, mesomorphic and ectomorphic. Carl Jung’s Extrovert-introvert Theory Carl jung proposed two-part theory of personality. Jung’s approach is also termed as analytical psychology. Extroverts are optimistic, outgoing, gregarious and sociable. Extrovert is basically objective, a reality oriented individual who is much more than a thinker. Extroverts are friendly, enjoy interaction with others, crave excitement and dislike solitude. Introverts, however, are quite, retiring, enjoying solitude etc. These two types i.e. extroverts and introverts thus represent extreme situations. Introverts are more inward

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directed people. They are not so sociable, are withdrawn and absorbed in inner life; their own ideals and philosophy guide them. They are rigid and less flexible and subjective- oriented. Normally he is person who has few friends, avoids social contacts, and rarely speaks to others unless they speak. Few people are completely introverts or extroverts. But the mixture of these two ingredients determines the kind of overall personality on an individual.

3. Trait Theories :

Trait theory is realistic and give recognition to continuity of personalities. Trait theorists view personality from the standpoint of understanding traits. Among trait

theorist are included Allport, Cattell and Sheldon. Allport is of the opinion that each individual possesses a set of traits that are not shared by any other individuals. He emphasizes the uniqueness of personality. Catell has extensively worked on traits in various work settings employing a number of psychological measures. On the basis of factor analysis he developed factor concepts such as tender-mindedness, somatic anxiety, dominance etc. Sheldon extended physical structuring by asserting that physique consists of three components endomorphs, mesomorph and ectomorph. The relative existence of these three physical elements indicates specific personality patterns. Corresponding to these three physical aspects, he assumed three aspects of temperament; viscerotonia, somatotonia and cerebrotonia. Although he assumed a close relationship between respective aspects of structure and personality, there is no evidence to support this view.

4. Social learning theory :

Social learning theory considers the situation as an important determinant of behavior. An individuals actions in a given situation depend on the specific characteristics of the situation, individual’s appraisal of the situation, and post reinforcement to behavior in somewhat similar situations. When the situations they encounter are relatively stable, individual’s behavior will be more or less consistent. The main focus of social learning approach is on the patterns of behavior individuals learn in coping with environment. Some behavior patters are learned or acquired through direct experience. Responses can also be acquired or learned without direct reinforcement. For instance, learning by observing the actions of others and by noting the consequence of these actions. Thus, social learning theorists believe that reinforcement facilitates learning by focusing attention. According to social learning school, much of human learning is vicarious or observational.

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The reinforcement that controls the expression of learned behavior may be –

i) direct ii) vicarious iii) self-administered.

5. Self Theory:

The intra psychic, physiognomy and trait theories represent the traditional approaches to

understanding the complex human personality. Self-theory rejects both psychoanalytic and

behaviorist conception of human nature as too mechanistic portraying people as creatures

helplessly tossed about by internal instincts or external stimuli. Carl Rogers and his

associates have developed the self-theory that places emphasis on the individuals as an

initiating, creating, influential determinant of behavior within the environmental



What is perception? Discuss factors influencing Perception

Perception can be defined as a process by which individuals organize and interpret their

sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. However, as we have

noted, what one perceives can be substantially different from objective reality. It need not

be, but there is often disagreement.

Perception is important because people´s behavior is based on their perception of what

reality is, not on reality itself. The factors influencing perception are:




A. Factors in the Perceiver

When an individual looks at a target and attempts to interpret what he or she sees, that interpretation is heavily influenced by personal characteristics of the individual perceiver.

The more relevant personal characteristics affecting perception are attitudes, motives, interests, past experiences, and expectations.


Attitude :


Example, Terri likes small classes because she enjoys asking a lot of questions to her teachers. Scott, on the other hand, prefers the anonymity of large lectures. In their introductory course in psychology, they will be among some 800 students.

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b) Teri sulks, while Scott smile does little to hide his relief in being able to blend unnoticed into the large crowd. They both see the same thing, but they interpret it differently.

2. Motive :

Unsatisfied needs or motives stimulate individuals and may exert a strong influence on their perceptions.

a. Dramatically demonstrated in research on hunger

b. A plastic surgeon is more likely to notice an imperfect nose than a plumber is.

c. The supervisor who has just been reprimanded by her boss for the high level of lateness among her staff is more likely to notice lateness by an employee tomorrow than she was last week.

3. Interest :

As interests narrow ones focus, so do ones past experiences.

a. You perceive those things to which you can relate.

4. Experience :

Objects or events that have never been experienced before are more noticeable than those that have been experienced in the past.

a. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, women and minorities in managerial positions were highly visible because, historically, those positions were the province of white males.

5. Expectations :

Expectations can distort your perceptions in that you will see what you expect to see.

A. Factors in the Target

2. Characteristics of the target that is being observed can affect what is perceived.

a) Motion, sounds, size, and other attributes of a target shape the way we see it.

3. Because targets are not looked at in isolation, the relationship of a target to its background influences perception, as does our tendency to group close things and similar things together.

a) What we see is dependent on how we separate a figure from its general background.

b) Exhibit 5-1 dramatizes this effect.

4. Objects that are close to each other will tend to be perceived together rather

than separately.

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a) As a result of physical or time proximity, we often put together objects or events that are unrelated.

5. Persons, objects, or events that are similar to each other also tend to be grouped together.

a) The greater the similarity, the greater the probability that we will perceive them as a common group.

B. Factors in the Situation

6. The context in which we see objects or events is important.

7. Elements in the surrounding environment influence our perceptions.

8. The time at which an object or event is seen can influence attention, as can location, light, heat, or any number of situational factors.

The factors influencing perception can be classified in as:

External Attention factors & Internal set factors.

External attention factors:

a. Intensity :

The intensity of stimulus implies that the more intense the stimulus audio or visual, the

more is the likelihood it will be perceived. A loud noise, strong odour or bright colours will

be more readily perceived than soft sound, weak odour or dim light. It is because of this

advantage that advertisers employ intensity to draw the consumers attention.

b. Size :

As regards the size of the stimulus, any odd size attracts attention. A Great Den dog which

is tall attracts the attention. At the same time a pocket dog also attracts attention because of

its size. However, generally the larger the object the more likely it will be perceived. The

amount of attention enhances with the size of the newspaper advertisement exposed to the

individuals, although the increase in attention may not be directly proportional to the

increase in size.

c. Contrast :

The contrast principle states that external stimuli, which stand out against the background

or which are not what the people expect will receive attention. Plant safety signs, which

have black lettering on a yellow background or white lettering on a red background, are

attentions getting.

d. Repetition :

The factor of repetition implies that a repeated external stimulus attracts more attention

than the one that occurs at one time alone. Perhaps, it is because of this that supervisors

tend to repeat directions regarding job instructions several times for even simple tasks to

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hold the attention of their workers. Advertisers while putting T.V or Radio advertisements repeat the brand name they are advertising.

e. Motion :

The factor of motion implies the individual attend to changing objects in their field of

vision than to static objects. It is because of this advantage that advertisers involve signs, which include moving objects in their campaigns. At an unconscious level the animals in the jungles make use of this principle. A tiger lying in wait is motionless until his prey is nearer him and then jumps at an appropriate moment.

f. Novelty and familiarity :

A novel object in the familiar situation or a familiar object in a novel situation tends to

attract attention. Thus a white person or black person in India catches attention faster.

Job rotation is an example of this principle. Recent research indicates that job rotation not only increased attention but also employees acquisition of new skills. Internal set factors:

a. Habit :

A hindu will bow and do namaskar when he sees a temple while walking on road, because

of his well-established habit. The motor set may cause the likelihood of inappropriate

responses. These are several instances in life settings where individuals tend to react with the right response to the wrong signals. Thus a retired soldier may throw himself on the ground when he hears a sudden burst of car tyre.

b. Motivation and Interest :

Two examples of motivational factors are hunger and thirst. Motivational factors increase

the individual’s sensitivity to those stimuli which he considers as relevant to the satisfaction of his needs in view of his past experience with them.

A thirsty individual has a perceptual set to seek a water fountain or a hotel to quench his

thirst, which increases for him the likelihood of perceiving restaurant signs and decreases the likelihood of visualizing other objects at that moment in time.

A worker who has a strong need for affiliation, when walks into the lunchroom, the table

where several coworkers are sitting tends to be perceived and the empty table or the table where only one person is sitting will attract no attention.

c. Learning and Perception :

The process of learning plays a crucial role even in primitive organization. However, it should be recognized that the role of learning is more pronounced in respect of complex forms of perception where the symbolic content creeps into the process. Although

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interrelated with motivation and personality, learning may play the single biggest role in developing perceptual set.

d. Organizational role or specialization

The modern organizations value specialization. Consequently the speciality of a person that casts him in a particular organizational role predisposes him to select certain stimuli and to disregard others. Thus in a lengthy report a departmental head will first notice the text relating to his department.


“Leadership is practiced by the Leadership style” – Elaborate Leadership is a challenge! However, it is an exciting challenge, one that can be met effectively with the development and refinement of certain characteristics or style. Leadership is an exciting professional experience of leading people and organizations to accomplish positive goals in providing services and/or products for society. The greatness of leadership in a society and in a free enterprise system has been demonstrated over and over again. Leadership is the telescope through which people and organizations focus their origins, their challenges, and their futures. All leaders and organizations experience good times, times of question and uncertainty, and even tough times. The degree to which leadership is practiced and demonstrated will determine how well the people and organizations face each of these challenging situations. Max DePree suggests, “The measure of leadership is not the quality of the head, but the tone of the body. The signs of outstanding leadership appear primarily among the followers.” It is important to assess the style and personality of both the leaders around you and yourself to increase your understanding of the different leadership styles. The following leadership styles and personalities are the most common and well-known. They may be typified by individuals who are providing leadership, or they may be encountered by individuals who are developing their leadership skills. • Autocratic: This type of leadership style is also known as classical or traditional leadership. The leader usually enjoys the role of being the person in charge, and authority resides with the leader. The old saying “The buck stops here” captures the essence of this type of leader. The autocratic leader is a top-centered leader who retains most of the power for decision-making. The autocratic leader depends upon the people in levels below to help implement decisions; however, most of the decision-making falls to the leader. Autocratic leaders are viewed as task-oriented people with a total focus on the outcome rather than the

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processes. One advantage of an autocratic leadership style includes a clear identity of who makes the decisions. Decision-making is usually a quick process. There is also a high level of confidentiality in an autocratic environment since few people are involved in the decision-making. Conversely, some disadvantages include little input from others in the decision-making process, limiting the viewpoints of a diverse group of people. Also, the perception may exist that the opinions and knowledge of others are not valued. This can lead to low morale or the lack of input from subordinates.

• Participative: This type of leadership style is also known as consultative or consensus

leadership. The leader values the input of others and usually brings people together to make decisions. The opinions and insights of others are important in the decision-making process. Decision making is a shared process that can be complex and time-consuming. However, the consensus of all participants usually contributes significantly to everyone feeling a part of the decision-making process and therefore supportive of the decisions. “All for one, and one for all” is a statement that characterizes participative leadership. Participative leadership has several advantages. Since this style involves others, people

believe their input is valued. More information is usually provided for consideration in the decision-making process. The spirit of consensus is usually present with a participative leadership style. Disadvantages may include very little confidentiality about decisions and a lack of focus on who is responsible for the implementation of a decision. Two types of leadership personalities can be identified:

• Charismatic: This type of personality is focused on the excitement of leadership and on

providing inspiration and motivation. Charisma is considered a positive characteristic and

one that most people wish to possess. Leaders with charisma are very convincing and

almost intoxicating to those with whom they interact. Charisma is an important aspect of leadership for those who are visionary but perhaps lack the skills to implement. Usually, an effective charismatic leader has many efficient people working for him or her to implement the dreams and ideas of the leader.

• Transformational: This type of personality is focused on being a change factor in the

world of leadership. The leader is many times identified with an invention or event that brought about significant change. These leaders are known for what they have accomplished rather than their leadership style. Transformational leaders are often selected to address a certain situation and bring about changes for improvement in a negative situation. Transformational leaders are sometimes known as “visionaries.” Transformational leaders and charismatic leaders have many common qualities, and both

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are usually inspirational in their relationships with others. Most effective leaders are a combination of autocratic and participative leadership styles and charismatic and transformational personality styles. In addition, their own unique characteristics contribute to the total approach of the individual. One may wonder which leadership style is best. In most leadership situations, some things work better than others at different times. You will develop a sense of when to use which leadership style and when to call upon certain personality characteristics to enact a desired outcome. The ability to determine how to handle different situations is very important in the development of a leader; it is known as situational leadership. Most effective leaders are aware of the importance of assessing a situation and applying the style of leadership needed to accomplish the objective while maintaining the integrity of the process and people involved.

The task of management in modern organizations is to get the best out of people so that organizational objectives can be achieved. Many organizations are developing new cultures with flatter, responsive team structures, empowered to take action to meet goals and targets. There is less emphasis on the classical command and control role of multi-layered management hierarchies.

To meet this revolution leadership and attendant behaviors and approaches to team building has changed. Today leadership and team building endeavors provides a consistent, flexible approach to management across an organizations functions

Leadership is practiced by leadership step, which is the total pattern of leaders action in relation to followers. It represents this philosophy discussed are used in combination, not separately, but they are discussed separately, to clarify difference among them.

The way in which a leader uses power also establishes a type of style. Each style has its benefits and limitations. Leaders behavior is the mixture of all these styles over a period of time, but one style tends to be the dominant one. Automatic leaders:

Centralize the power and decision orderly in them. They structure the complete work situation for these employees, who are supposed to do what they are told. The leader takes full authority and assumes full responsibility. Leadership behavior typically is negative based on treats and punishment but it can be positive because an automatic leader can choose to give rewards to employees in which the style "benevolent -automatic”

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Participative Leaders:

Style is expression of leaders' trust in the abilities of his subordinate. The leader believes that his people are as devious of contributing to the organizational efforts as well as they have requisite capacities. Participative leader decentralize the authority. Free rein leaders:

On the continuation of leadership style free rein style is the extreme. Free rein leaders avoid powers or responsibility. They depend largely upon the group to establish its aim goods and work out its own problems.


As a Manager, What steps would you take to reduce the stress on your



“Organizational change is a complex phenomenon involving considerable


diligence on the part of Management – To deal with Resistance to change as well as to Introduce the change” – Discuss. Define “Work”. What are basic concepts involved in the work performance?


Write Short Notes on (Any two)

a. Content and Process Theory of Motivation

b. Attitudes and Values

Value is defined as a “concept of the desirable, an internalized criterion or standard of evaluation a person possesses”. Such concepts and standards are relatively few and determine our guide an individual’s evaluations of the many objects encountered in everyday life.

Values are tinged with moral flavor, involving an individual’s judgment of what is right, good or desirable. Thus values –

a. Provide standards of competence and morality

b. Are fewer in number than attitudes

c. Transcend specific objects, situations or persons

d. Are relatively permanent and resistant to change

e. Are most central to the core of a person.

There are differences between values and attitudes. Attitudes essentially represent predisposition to respond. Values focus on the judgment of what ought to be. This judgment can represent the specific manifestation of a determining tendency below the surface of the behavior. Attitudes represent several beliefs focused on specific object or situation. Value, on the other hand, represents a single belief that transcendentally guides

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actions and judgments across objects and situations. Finally, a value stands in relation to some social or cultural standards or norms while attitudes are mostly personal experiences. There are similarities between values and attitudes. Both are powerful instruments influencing cognitive process and behavior of people. Both are learned and acquired from the same source – experiences with people and objects. Values and attitudes are relatively permanent and resistant to change. Finally, values and attitudes influence each other and are more often than not, used interchangeable.

c. Perception

d. The Id and Ego

The Id : It is the original and the most basic system of human personality. At the base of the Freudian theory lies the id that is primitive, instinctual and governed by the principles of greed and pleasure. Id represents a storehouse of all instincts, containing in its dark depths all wishes, and desires that unconsciously direct and determines our behavior. Id is largely childish, irrational, never satisfied, demanding and destructive of others. But id is the foundation upon which all other parts of personality are erected. Like a newly born baby id has no perception of reality. It is primitive, immoral, insistent and rash. Id is the reservoir of the “psychic energy” which Freud calls “Libido”. According to Freud id is totally oriented towards increasing pleasure and avoiding pain, and it strives for immediate satisfaction of desires. One notable characteristic of id is that it cannot tolerate uncomfortable levels of tension within it and seeks to release the tension as soon as it develops. The methods of dealing with tension by id are primary processes and reflex actions. The former attempts to discharge a tension by forming mental image of desirable means of releasing the tension. But this kind of tension release is temporary and mental, and would not satisfy the real need. For instance, if a person is hungry the id deals with the situation by creating a mental image of desirable and good food that is palatable. The later method (reflex action) of tension release is reflected in the behavior of individuals such as blinking of eyes, raising eyebrows, rubbing the cheeks etc. Id, in fact, is capable of resolving the tension in reality. Id basically represents an individual’s natural urges and feelings. The Ego: As an individual learns to separate the unreality from reality in childhood, the ego develops. The ego is reality oriented part of thinking; it is largely practical and works in an executive capacity. Ego is rational and logical, and in essence, it is the conscious mediator between the realities of world and the id’s demands. It constantly works to keep a healthy psychological balance between id’s impulsive demands and superego’s restrictive guidance.

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Ego is rational master. The ego is said to be the executive part of the personality because it controls the gateway to action, selects the features of the environment to which it will respond, and decides what instincts will be satisfied. The most important characteristic of ego is that it has the ability to distinguish between mental images and actual sources of tension release, and it responds to the real sources of tension reduction. The ego performs task by :

a. Observing accurately what exists in the outside world (perceiving)

b. Recording these experiences carefully (remembering)

c. Modifying the external world in such a way as to satisfy the instinctual wishes(acting)

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