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crushing of ice

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crushing of ice

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VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland,

Lauttasaarentie 31,

00200 Helsinki,

Finland

e-mail: tuomo.karna@gmail.com

Yan Qu

Xiangjun Bi

Qianjin Yue

Dalian University of Technology

Walter Kuehnlein

Hamburg Ship Model Basin

A Spectral Model for Forces Due

to Ice Crushing

This paper presents a model of dynamic ice forces on vertical offshore structures. The

model concerns a loading scenario where a competent ice sheet is drifting and crushing

against the structure. Full scale data obtained on two offshore structures were used in the

derivation of a method that applies both to narrow and wide structures. A large amount

of events with directly measured local forces was used to derive formulas for spectral

density functions of the local ice forces. A nondimensional formula that was derived for

the autospectral density is independent of ice thickness. Coherence functions were used to

dene cross-spectral density functions of the local ice forces. The two kind of spectral

density functions were used to obtain the spectral density of the total ice force. The

method takes into account both the spatial and time correlation between the local forces.

Accordingly, the model provides a tool to consider the nonsimultaneous characteristics of

the local ice pressures while assessing the total ice force. DOI: 10.1115/1.2426997

Keywords: ice forces, ice crushing, vibrations, spectral model

Background

Numerous researchers have studied dynamic ice forces since

Peyton 1 published his test results. The importance of the dy-

namic icestructure interaction has recently become evident due

to the full-scale measurements reported by Yue et al. 2,3. The

merits and drawbacks of different kinds of methods to evaluate

the dynamic ice actions can be described as follows.

Reddy et al. 4,5 studied how the response spectrum method

could be applied in the analysis of ice forces. This method con-

siders the main dynamic features of the excitation and the re-

sponse. The method is simpler than a direct frequency domain

analysis or the time integration technique. The method can be

dened both for a stationary and nonstationary excitation process.

Therefore, the response spectrum method is widely used in the

seismic analysis of structures.

Sundarajan and Reddy 6 initiated the application of a fre-

quency domain analysis and the theory of stochastic processes in

the analysis of dynamic ice actions. Mttnen et al. 7 applied

both the response spectrum method and the stochastic approach to

study the performance of the Kemi I lighthouse, located in the

Gulf of Bothnia. Subsequently, Reddy et al. 8 assumed that the

ice force is a nonstationary process. Kajaste-Rudnitski 9 studied

how the theory on stationary stochastic processes could be used in

connection with previous direct force measurements. Duan and

Liu 10 discussed the basic equations that would be needed while

applying this theory. Ou and Duan 11 used eld data and pro-

posed an equation for the autospectral density of the total ice

force.

A stochastic analysis in the frequency domain is a useful tool in

conditions where the design should be made against several limit

states. The method can be derived making a direct use of eld

data. On the other hand, the frequency domain method is appro-

priate only for linear systems. This limitation has retarded the use

of this method for ice problems. It is known that a feedback effect

associated to the structural displacements can enhance the total ice

force and also cause severe steady-state vibrations. This is perhaps

the main reason why the initial work described above did not nd

general acceptance.

Mttnen 12 developed a time-integration method to simu-

late the self-excited vibrations caused by sea ice. This phenomo-

logical model makes use of the concept of negative damping,

which was derived using results from uniaxial compression tests.

Subsequently, Eranti 13 and Krn et al. 1416 proposed a few

variants of a timeintegration method where several physical phe-

nomena that are relevant for the ice crushing process and for the

ice-structure interaction were modeled in some detail.

The methods mentioned above omit several concepts of the

modern material research on ice. These include the crack propa-

gation, pressure melting, stickslip phenomenon, and the failure

envelopes. Therefore, Shkhinek et al. 17 initiated a new devel-

opment of phenomenological models where the icestructure con-

tact processes and the three-dimensional constitutive and failure

characteristics of the ice material are considered. Kolari et al. 18

are making further progress by paying special attention to the

unloading features and the three-dimensional failure envelopes.

This development is leading to an increase in the accuracy and

sophistication of the models for ice actions.

Objectives

As discussed above, a simulation of the dynamic icestructure

interaction process is very complex if the feedback effects due to

the structural displacements need to be considered. Direct force

measurements made recently on two offshore structures show that

this feedback effect can be neglected if the ice velocity is moder-

ate to high and if the structures displacements at the waterline are

only a small fraction of the ice thickness. Many offshore struc-

tures are operating under these conditions. Therefore, it is useful

to develop a method that ignores the feedback effects but is oth-

erwise appropriate for a full dynamic analysis of multidegree-of-

freedom offshore structures. The aim of this paper is to develop

such a method by considering ice crushing as a stochastic process.

Ice Excitation as a Stochastic Process

This paper addresses dynamic ice actions in conditions where a

sheet of level ice is drifting against a vertical offshore structure

and is failing by a failure mode known as continuous crushing.

Figure 1 shows the main phenomena that have frequently been

observed in conditions where continuous ice crushing dominates

Contributed by the Ocean Offshore and Article Engineering Division of ASME

for publication in the JOURNAL OF OFFSHORE MECHANICS AND ARTIC ENGINEERING.

Manuscript received March 20, 2006; nal manuscript received September 14, 2006.

Assoc. Editor: Stephen J. Jones. Paper presented at the 23rd International Conference

on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering OMAE2004, Vancouver, British

Columbia, Canada, June 2025, 2004.

138 / Vol. 129, MAY 2007 Copyright 2007 by ASME Transactions of the ASME

the interaction. The rubble pile that evolves in front of the struc-

ture contains ice fragments of variable size. In the case of very

intensive crushing, pulverized ice particles with diameters from

1 mm to 5 mm extrude from the icestructure contact area. They

are mixed with larger ice fragments. Overall, the diameters of the

ice fragments range from about 1 mm to a value that is approxi-

mately the same as the ice thickness.

Force measurements show that all values of the total ice force

are higher than zero all the time when continuous crushing pre-

vails. This feature can be seen in Fig. 2 where the force signal

concerns a local ice force. The signal was measured in 2001 at the

mooring pole MDP2 that is located at the oil eld JZ9-3 MDP2, in

the Bohai Sea.

Studies of several force records measured at the lighthouse Nor-

strmsgrund in winters 1999 and 2000 and at the mooring pole

JZ9-3 MDP2 in the winter of 2001 show that in this kind of

conditions the local forces may intermittently go to zero. How-

ever, the summation associated with the total force yields a record

where the lowest values are signicantly above the zero level.

Some ice force records, similar to the one shown in Fig. 2 have a

mean level that remains almost constant for a period of about

15 min. Therefore, the ice action can in such cases be considered

as a stationary process.

Figure 2b shows a typical one-sided autospectral density func-

tion of the local ice force. This function has its largest values at a

low frequency and decays smoothly as the frequency increases.

No peaks can be seen at the natural frequencies. This feature is

common in all force signals related to continuous crushing that

did not lead to self-excited vibration. This characteristic of the

excitation provides an important basis for the model that is devel-

oped in this paper.

Use of Experimental Data

The results of this paper are largely based on the full-scale data

that were measured in the winters of 1999 and 2000 at the light-

house Norstrmsgrund. Data obtained on the mooring pole JZ9-3

MDP2 in the Bohai Bai are also used. The lighthouse Fig. 3 is

located in the Northern part of the Gulf of Bothnia. The arrange-

ments of the full-scale tests have been described by Schwarz and

Jochmann 20,21.

On the lighthouse Norstrmsgrund, local ice forces were mea-

sured on nine force panels that covered an area of 144 deg of the

cylindrical waterline area. The waterline diameter of the basic

structure is 7.2 m and about 7.5 m with the additional force pan-

els. The load area of the panels was 1.2 m by 1.6 m. Each panel

had a load capacity of 3000 kN. The force resolution of these

panels was 10 N. The sampling rate was usually set at 30 Hz if

the ice was failing by crushing. Therefore, panel forces can be

studied in a frequency range that has a theoretical upper limit at

15 Hz.

The structure JZ9-3 MDP2 Fig. 4 is used as a mooring pole

and is connected to an oil platform with a 40 m long trestle

bridge. The diameter of the pole is 1.5 m. The overall height is

18 m including a 8 m high underwater part. A total of 12 load

panels were installed on the MDP2 to measure forces exerted by

sheet ice. The panels, which are 0.260.62 m in area, were ar-

ranged in two rows as shown in Fig. 5 to cover the range of the

tide. The load panels cover an area of 120 deg of the cylindrical

waterline area. The signals from the load panels were saved into

les for every 10 min at a sampling frequency of 128 Hz through-

out the winter.

Data on the ice thickness and the ice velocity were needed in

the present analysis. Three concurrent methods were applied to

obtain data on the ice thickness 21. Ice velocities were measured

using a video camera that was calibrated for this purpose.

A total of 72 stationary subevents of continuous crushing at

lighthouse Norstrmsgrund and 7 from JZ9-3 MDP2 were se-

lected for the present data analysis. These events were classied

Fig. 1 Illustration of observed phenomena during continuous

ice crushing 19

Fig. 2 A typical time signal of the local ice force due to continuous crushing of level ice:

a and the corresponding autospectral density function b

Fig. 3 Norstrmsgrund lighthouse

Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering MAY 2007, Vol. 129 / 139

into 11 groups to study how the ice thickness and the ice velocity

inuence the spectral characteristics of the ice force. An ensemble

averaging procedure was used while estimating the spectral den-

sity functions. The detailed signal analysis was done using Matlab

and state-of-the-art methods recommended by Bendat and Piersol

22 and Stearns 23.

Long-term visual observations that were made on the light-

house Norstrmsgrund show that more than 60% of all loading

events occurred in the crushing failure mode if the ice was thicker

then 0.20 m and if the diameter of sheet ice was at least 50 times

the structure diameter. Flexural and mixed failure modes were

common for thin ice h0.30 m and small ice oes usually

failed by splitting. Dynamic buckling and creep buckling were

also seen occasionally. A variety of ice failure modes were ob-

served when ice ridges were encountered.

Data were collected on the lighthouse in each winter for 3

months, which covers almost the entire ice season. The occurrence

of the events of ice crushing did not show any preference with

regard to the time or environmental conditions within the winter

season. On the other hand, characteristics of the ice crushing pro-

cess changed if the ice was very warm or inhomogeneous. Data

from such events were not used for the present investigation.

The highest static forces on the lighthouse Norstrmsgrund are

expected to arise due to actions of ice ridges. The events of ice

crushing are also severe conditions as they occasionally create

self-exited vibrations. Ordinary events of ice crushing experienced

by the two structures illustrated in Figs. 3 and 4 were used in this

investigation to increase understanding of the effects of ice ac-

tions.

Response Analysis in Frequency Domain

Consider a general case where a multi-degree of freedom struc-

ture is exited on several nodal points. The Fourier transforms Ff

and Uf of the excitation and the response are dened in matrix

notation as column vectors Ff =F

1

, F

2

, . . . , F

N

T

and Uf

=U

1

, U

2

, . . . , U

N

T

where N is the number of the nodal points

dened for the structural model. The complex conjugates of these

vectors are denoted as F

*

and U

*

. The transpose operation on a

general vector or matrix A is denoted as A

T

. The mean levels of

the dynamic component F

n

t of the ice force are assumed to be

zero. Therefore, a separate static analysis needs to be done to

consider the stresses arising due to the average level of the ice

forces.

It can be shown 24,25,22 that the structural response to the

dynamic excitation can be obtained from the equation

G

uu

f = HfG

FF

fH

*T

f 1

This equation shows how the spectral density matrix G

uu

f of

the response is obtained using the spectral density matrix G

FF

f

of the excitation and the frequency response matrix Hf of the

structure. The frequency response matrix as well as numerical

computations implied by this equation can be performed using an

appropriate nite element FE program. Therefore, the main task

here is to dene the matrix G

FF

f of the dynamic excitation. The

spectral matrix G

FF

f shall be derived rst for a set of local

forces acting at the icestructure interface. A transformation will

then be made to obtain the corresponding spectral representation

for the total ice force.

Model of Continuous Crushing

Static and Dynamic Force Components. Figure 6 illustrates

the local ice forces acting on a structure. The icestructure contact

area is divided into a set of local contact points C

n

n=1, . . . , q.

We use an axis system where the ice velocity vector is directed to

the negative x direction. This is then also the direction of the total

ice force. In a dynamic situation the total force has an additional

component in the y direction. Due to this component the dynamic

response of the structure always has a two-dimensional character

in each level of the structure. However, in order to retain clarity in

the derivations, the main focus is on the total force component

Fig. 4 The mooring pole MDP2 at the JZ9-3 oil eld

Fig. 5 Ice load panels on the JZ9-3 mooring pole: a general location of the

load panels; and b detailed arrangement of the 12 ice load panels

140 / Vol. 129, MAY 2007 Transactions of the ASME

acting in the x direction.

Figure 6 indicates that the local forces have two lateral compo-

nents. It was not possible to measure tangential forces on all load

panels in the eld tests. Therefore, only data on the compressive

component F

n

c

t are used in the present data analysis. Each local

force varies about a positive mean level. The local compressive

ice forces are composed as

F

n

c

t = F

n

mean

+ F

n

t 2

where F

n

t is the time-varying component that uctuates about

the mean level. Both the mean level and the dynamic component

depend on the angle of incidence which is denoted as

n

.

The ice forces have traditionally been studied with a main em-

phasis on the maximum peak values that can be identied from

the force records. The maximum values can be obtained by using

statistical estimates

F

n

max

= F

n

mean

+ k

n

3

where k corresponds to a selected probability of exceedence and

n

is the standard deviation of the uctuating force component

F

n

t.

The spectral model to be developed needs as an input the stan-

dard deviation

n

and the mean value of the local ice force, rather

than the maximum value. In order to establish a connection be-

tween the maximum pressure and the two parameters requested,

an intensity parameter is dened to characterize the ice crushing

process. This parameter is expressed as

I

n

=

n

F

n

mean

4

The crushing intensity is obtained from experiments. It varies

typically in the range from 0.2 to 0.5 as shown in Fig. 7. Care was

taken to achieve a sufcient accuracy in predicting the standard

deviation. Figure 2b shows that the main uctuations of the

force signals occur in a period range around 10 s. Therefore, the

minimum length of the time series that was used in the analysis

was selected as 50 s. The minimum sampling rate of the present

data set is 30 Hz. This provides useful information up to the the-

oretical upper limit of 15 Hz. Figure 2b indicates that the sam-

pling rates lower than about 15 Hz would have adverse effects on

the accuracy of the data analysis.

Inserting Eq. 4 into Eq. 3 yields

n

=

I

n

1 + kI

n

F

n

max

5

This equation can be used to dene the standard deviation of

the local forces, assuming that the maximum values of the local

ice force are known. The mean level of the time-varying force is

obtained from Eqs. 3 and 4 as

F

n

mean

=

F

n

max

1 + kI

n

6

Equation 1 was written for a general condition where the

structure is excited on several points. The force and displacement

vectors Ff and Uf of Eq. 1 have the same number of com-

ponents, which provide the exciting forces and the displacement

response at the same physical points and directions. Equation 1

can, therefore, be used directly in the analysis of a wide offshore

structure, which has a exible ice wall. In such a case a subset of

the nodal points of the structural model is dened at the water

level. The spectral matrix G

FF

f will then indicate zero-level

excitations at points that are outside the water level. These zero

values of the full matrix G

FF

f are ignored herein for brevity.

Therefore, the spectral matrix will be treated in this paper in the

form where the diagonal terms G

nn

f are the autospectral density

functions of the local forces F

n

t. Each off-diagonal term

G

nm

fnm provides a cross-spectral density function between

a pair of local forces F

n

t and F

m

t. These functions show how

the local ice forces correlate with each other in terms of the spatial

distance and the frequency.

Autospectral Density Functions. The autospectral density

functions are the main components of the matrix G

FF

f. Figure 2

shows the one-sided autopectral density function of a local force

for a typical condition of continuous ice crushing. The relation-

ship between the autospectral density functions and the variance

of a local force is given by

n

2

=

G

nn

fdf 7

This leads to a nondimensional spectrum dened by

G

nn

f =

fG

nn

f

n

2

8

This transformation is commonly used in wind engineering to

obtain nondimensional spectra for the time-varying components

of a gusty wind. It will be subsequently shown that this nondi-

mensional representation leads to a very simple and unied for-

mula for the autospectral density function of the local ice forces.

Figure 8 shows the ensemble averaged autospectral density

functions for a subevent that lasted for about 20 min. Results are

shown for nine force panels that were measuring forces during the

event concerned. It can be seen that there are only small differ-

ences between the individual functions. This difference can be

neglected. Accordingly, the mean of the nondimensionalized au-

tospectral density functions is shown in Fig. 9.

The characteristics of the nondimensional autospectral density

functions of the local forces were studied in 72 subevents where a

competent level ice was acting on the structure. The results

showed that the ice thickness does not inuence the shape of the

nondimensional spectrum. Signicant differences were seen only

in cases where a thick and nonuniform ice was acting on the

structure. This result can be used to express the autospectral den-

sity function by a simple expression, which does not depend on

Fig. 6 Local forces acting on an offshore structure

Fig. 7 Intensity of the time-varying ice force due to ice crush-

ing. Data from the Bohai Bay

Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering MAY 2007, Vol. 129 / 141

the ice thickness.

The inuence of the ice velocity was also studied. A detailed

study showed that the ice velocity has practically no effect on the

general shape of the spectral function. However, the position of

the peak of the autospectral function varies in the frequency axis

as the ice velocity varies.

A curve-tting routine of Matlab was used to t ensemble av-

eraged nondimensional autospectral functions with several trial

formulas. Ice conditions with the thickness h varied from 0.20 m

to 0.45 m and the ice velocities from 0.04 m/ s to 0.35 m/ s were

considered. As a result, it was found that the nondimensional au-

tospectral function can be approximated by the formula

G

nn

f =

af

1 + k

s

a

1.5

f

2

9a

a = b

0.6

9b

where k

s

and b are experimental parameters and the dimension of

the velocity is m/s. The values of the parameters k

s

and a were

obtained by the curve-tting routine. The analysis of the ice force

data of the structure JZ9-3 MDP2 shows that the mean value of

the parameter k

s

is 3.24 and mean value of the parameter b is 1.34.

Substituting Eq. 9 into Eq. 8 yields the actual autospectral

function. Figure 10 shows a comparison between the Eq. 9 and

the nondimensional autospectral function that was obtained from

the experiments.

Cross-Spectral Density Functions. Besides the diagonal

terms, off-diagonal terms are needed while compiling the matrix

G

FF

f of ice excitation. These cross-spectral density functions

are obtained by using coherence functions

nm

, which are dened

by

nm

2

f =

G

nm

f

2

G

nn

fG

mm

f

10

The coherence function is useful for the present model because

it explicitly includes both the autospectral density functions and

cross-spectral density functions. Assume that the coherence func-

tion has rst been evaluated for any combinations of two local

forces that are located at a distance r

nm

from each other. The

autospectral density functions can be obtained using Eqs. 8 and

9. Substituting these two results into Eq. 10 yields the magni-

tude of the cross-spectral function. These magnitudes are used to

represent the complex valued cross spectra.

Coherence functions were evaluated for a large number of sub-

events and for all combinations of local forces. Then, a few simple

mathematical functions were studied to nd an expression, which

would have the basic characteristics of the coherence function. As

a result, it was found that the coherence function can be estimated

by

nm

=

1

1 + +

nm

+ e

nm

f

11a

nm

=

r

nm

h

11b

where r

nm

is the distance between two local contact points con-

sidered;

nm

is a dimensionless distance; and the parameters , ,

and are experimental coefcients. The parameter r

nm

is dened

as a distance that is measured along the surface of the structure.

Equation 11 was used to study the basic features of the coher-

ence function. The three-dimensional plot of Fig. 11 shows how

the coherence function varies with the distance and frequency. It

can be seen that the correlation between local forces assumes high

values only at small values of the distance r

nm

. A similar feature

can be seen when the coherence function is studied as a function

of the frequency. The two-dimensional plot of Fig. 12 illustrates

more exactly how the distance and the frequency inuence the

coherence function.

The calibration of Eq. 11 was done in this investigation using

panel data on continuous, brittle crushing where ice failure pro-

cess is nonsimultaneous across the width of the structure. An in-

Fig. 8 One-sided autospectral density functions PSD of local

forces measured on all force panels.

Fig. 9 Mean of the nondimensional autospectral densities

shown in Fig. 8

Fig. 10 Nondimensional autospectral density based on mea-

surement and using the best t expressed by Eq. 9

Fig. 11 Coherence as a function of distance and frequency

142 / Vol. 129, MAY 2007 Transactions of the ASME

crease in the spatial and time correlation of local forces can be

considered by using appropriate parameters in Eq. 11.

Characteristics of the Total Ice Force

Figure 6 depicts that the ice crushing process creates both nor-

mal forces and shear forces on the local contact areas. Consider-

ing Eq. 2, the total ice force F

C

t acting on the structure can be

expressed in matrix notation as

F

C

t = F

CM

+ F

CD

t 12a

where

F

CM

= C +

k

B

T

F

mean

12b

and

F

CD

t = C +

k

B

T

Ft 12c

In these equations, the mean level components of the local nor-

mal forces are included in the column vector F

mean

and the time

varying components F

n

t in the column vector Ft. The column

vector C=cos

n

T

considers the angles of incidences of the local

forces Fig. 6, whereas the column vector B=sin

n

T

is used

to consider the contributions of the local shear forces. This equa-

tion is obtained by assuming that local shear forces arise as fric-

tional forces, which are represented by the kinetic friction coef-

cient

k

.

When the dynamic characteristics of the local forces are repre-

sented by the spectral matrix G

FF

f, the autospectral density

function of the time varying component F

CD

t of the total force is

obtained 24,25,22 by the expression

G

FCD

f = C +

k

B

T

G

FF

fC +

k

B 13

The standard deviation of the time-varying component of the total

force is obtained as

FCD

=

G

FCD

fdf

1/2

14

An estimate of the maximum peak value of the total force is

then given by

F

C

max

= F

CM

+ k

FCD

15

where the coefcient k depends on the time of exposure. Data

analysis made by Krn and Qu 26 shows that in typical short

term events the value of k varies from 3.2 to 5.0. For the aims of

the present paper it is sufcient to assume that k=4.0.

It should be appreciated that the parameter k that is used in Eqs.

3 and 15 is used to obtain an estimate of the maximum peak

force while the structure is exposed to the random excitation due

to ice crushing. Krn and Qu 26 show that the value of k

increases while the time of exposure of an individual loading

event increases. Field data shows that ice crushing is not an er-

godic process in natural conditions. Hence, Eq. 15 cannot be

used to estimate extreme forces such as annual maxima or forces

corresponding a return period of 100 years. The reason for this

statement is that the strength of different ice sheets encountered

by the structure is variable. Forces created by different ice sheets

vary randomly. A separate extreme value analysis is, therefore,

needed to predict long-term maxima. A method of this kind of

analysis is described in Krn and Qu 26,27.

The main result of the theory described in Eqs. 215 is the

external global pressure. This is obtained from Eq. 15 as

p

G

=

F

C

max

wh

16

where w is the width of the structure and h is the ice thickness.

Applications

The theory derived above was used to study characteristics of

the global pressure. A at structure was taken as an example case.

The ice thickness was assumed as h=1.0 m and the ice structure

interface having a width of w was divided to local areas that had

a width of w

L

=1.0 m. The maximum peak pressures F

n

max

/ hw

L

on the local areas were assumed as 1.0 MPa. The crushing inten-

sity parameter of the local forces was assumed as I

n

=0.40 and the

coefcient k of Eqs. 3 and 15 was set to k=4.0. Therefore, the

mean level of the time-varying local pressures is obtained as

0.385 MPa from Eq. 6. A phenomenon known as the edge effect

26 was ignored here. A computer program was used to consider

Eqs. 215 while calculating the global pressure dened by Eq.

16. Calculations were repeated for a large set of structures by

varying the width w of the structure. The results of this example

calculation are shown in Fig. 13 as a function of the aspect ratio

w/ h.

Figure 13 reveals two interesting characteristics of the global

ice pressure. First, the global pressure decreases as the width of

the structure increases. This is an inherent feature of the ice crush-

ing process. The mean level of the global pressure does not

change when the width of the structure increases. However, the

intensity of the time-varying total force decreases with an increase

of the width. Therefore, the global pressure of a wide structure

approaches the mean level of the local pressure, as depicted in

Fig. 13.

This phenomenon is one of the reasons for a size effect that

should be considered in the design of offshore structures. The

theory presented in this paper was used by Krn and Qu 26,27

in a detailed study of the size effect.

The second feature of the results shown in Fig. 13 relates to the

dynamic action effects due to ice crushing. A decrease in the

crushing intensity leads to a reduction in the dynamic response of

the structure. Krn and Qu 28 used the present theory to inves-

tigate how the dynamic magnication varies with the aspect ratio

and the dynamic properties of the structure. In addition, a criterion

Fig. 12 Coherence function

Fig. 13 Application of the present theory for the determination

of the global ice pressure as a function of the aspect ratio w/ h

Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering MAY 2007, Vol. 129 / 143

was proposed to assess in structural design the conditions where a

conventional static approach should be replaced by an advanced

dynamic analysis.

Discussion

The present understanding of ice crushing as a process creating

forces on vertical offshore structures is based on several series of

laboratory tests. Sodhi et al. 3032 provide a detailed explana-

tion of the physical phenomena involved. The medium scale tests

described by Takeuchi et al. 33,30 have conrmed and further

claried an understanding of this process.

Two pieces of new information on the crushing process arise

from the full-scale data used for this paper. First, forces due to

continuous crushing that were measured in the eld exhibit slowly

varying uctuations at frequencies around 0.1 Hz and lower. Such

force variations are usually not seen in laboratory tests. This dif-

ference has consequences in the prediction of the global pressure

as a function of the aspect ratio as described below.

Second, in contrast to the expectations that were based on ear-

lier research results, local and global ice pressures did not show

any signicant increase at a range of low ice velocities. Associ-

ated with this experience, the phenomenon of alternating ductile-

brittle crushing described by Sodhi 30,31 was absent in ordinary

conditions where steady-state vibrations did not arise. An expla-

nation for this experience is proposed by noting that the light-

house Norstrmsgund is very stiff at the waterline. Kamesaki

et al. 34 indirectly made the same kind of observation in a study

which showed that the global ice pressure increases with the com-

pliance of the structure.

Measured full-scale data was used in the present research to

derive a spectral model of the global ice force and the global

pressure. Sodhi 31 used a slightly different approach to derive an

expression for the global pressure. In his work, local pressures

were used to obtain a negative exponential function, which takes

into account the spatial correlation of the local forces. In the

present investigation, correlation coefcients were replaced by a

coherence function, which considers both the spatial and the time

correlation of the local forces. Sodhis analysis 31, Fig. 14b

indicates that the global pressure due to continuous brittle crush-

ing becomes almost independent of the aspect ratio w/ h in the

range of w/ h8. The results obtained by the present model show

Fig. 13 that the global pressure continues decreasing with the

aspect ratio even at w/ h100. This difference between the two

models arises apparently due to the measured force variations that

have a signicant spatial correlation at a low frequency. This can

be seen in Figs. 11 and 12. Sodhi 31 proposes that a formula for

the total quasi-static force can be established by using the average

value of the time-varying local pressure as a main parameter. Ac-

cording to his results this parameter is the same as the global

pressure for wh. The present results do not support that pro-

posal, as the global pressure is also slightly variable for large

values of w/ h.

It should be noticed here that the application of the present

model is not limited to the evaluation of global pressures. The

autospectral function Eq. 13 of the global force can be used to

evaluate the dynamic response of a structure. Another application

in the derivation of magnication factors was described above.

Conclusions

A spectral model was derived for a dynamic analysis of vertical

offshore structures. The model concerns conditions where a com-

petent sheet of level ice acts on the structure and fails by continu-

ous, brittle crushing. In these conditions the ice failure process can

be considered as a stationary stochastic process. The model is

based on full-scale data that were obtained in the Baltic Sea and in

the Bohai Bay.

The main input parameters of the new model include the mean

value and the standard deviation of the local ice forces. These

parameters are obtained using information on maximum values of

the local pressures and an intensity parameter, which denes the

ratio between the standard deviation and the mean value of the

time-varying ice force. The standard deviation of the local ice

force is used to evaluate the autospectral density functions of the

normal components of the contact forces. These spectral functions

are obtained from an empirical nondimensional spectral function,

which depends slightly on the ice velocity but is otherwise inde-

pendent of ice parameters. Coherence functions were also derived

using the full-scale data on the local forces. The coherence func-

tions are used to dene the cross-spectral density functions be-

tween the local forces. They are needed to consider the correlation

of the local forces both in the space and in time.

Nonlinear effects of icestructure interaction were not consid-

ered in the new spectral model. Therefore, the model has two

limitations. First, the phenomenon of self-excited vibration is not

incorporated. Second, the model does not apply for conditions

where a compliant structure is interacting with the ice sheet and

creates an ice failure mode known as intermittent crushing or

alternating ductile-brittle crushing. This restriction should be no-

ticed because it is deemed that the ice force will increase if the

waterline displacement exceeds a level where the continuous

crushing mode changes into intermittent crushing.

The new model can be used in connection with FE programs to

perform a random vibration analysis for vertical faced structures.

On the other hand the model has also been used Krn and Qu

2629 to nd simplifying expressions of the global ice pres-

sure. In this case, both the width of the structure and the ice

thickness were considered. Dynamic magnication of the external

ice force was considered by dening an equivalent lateral ice

force for quasi-static design calculations.

Acknowledgment

This research was supported mainly by the European Commis-

sion. The main data analysis effort was done within the frame-

work of the FP5 EESD project STRICE Contract No. EVG1-CT-

2000-00024. Data that had been collected in the Baltic Sea

during an earlier European MAST-II project LOLEIF Contract

No. MAS3-CT-97-0098 were used. Conclusive analysis was

made within the EU funded project Standardization of Ice Forces

on Offshore Structures Design Contract No. TREN/04/FP6EN/

S07.31041/503721. The STRICE project was clustered with a

third European project NEST Contract No. ICA5-CT-2001-

50002. Due to this clustering activity, the second co-author had

an opportunity to make most of the data analysis for this paper. In

addition, the Chinese co-authors contributed to the analysis by

providing eld data that was collected in the Bohai Bay. This eld

research has been supported by the China National Offshore Oil

Corporation CNOOC. The support provided by the European

Commission and CNOOC is gratefully acknowledged.

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