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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
1.1 COMPOSITES
A composite material is a combination of two or more materials (mixed and
bonded) on a macroscopic scale. There are two constituents of composite materials:
Matrix
Reinforcement
Generally, a composite material is composed of reinforcement (fibers, particles, flaes,
and!or fillers) embedded in a matrix (polymers, metals, or ceramics). The matrix holds
the reinforcement to form the desired shape while the reinforcement impro"es the o"erall
mechanical properties of the matrix.
1.2 METAL MATRIX COMPOSITE
Metal matrix composites in #eneral, consist of at least two components, one is the
metal matrix and the second component is reinforcement. The matrix is defined as a
metal in all cases, but a pure metal is rarely used as the matrix. The reinforcement
material may be a different metal or another material, such as a ceramic or or#anic
compound. $hen at least three materials are present, it is called a hybrid composite.
MM%s are made by dispersin# a reinforcin# material into a metal matrix. Metal Matrix
%omposite materials are ad"anced materials, tou#h metallic material with a hard ceramic
or soft reinforcement &'. (ahin , ()**+), ,brahim (-..-)/.
1.3 CLASSIFICATION OF MMC

Metal matrix composites material can be classified in "arious ways. 0ne of the
classifications is type and contribution of reinforcement components.
-
%lassification of the composites material with metal matrix is shown in the fi#ure -.-

Figure 1.1 Classifia!i"# $ase% "# !&'e a#% "#!ri$u!i"# "f rei#f"re(e#!
0ther ways of classification is
A. )ase% "# !*e f"r( "f rei#f"re(e#!
-. 1articulate composites: 1articulates composites consist of a matrix
reinforced by a dispersed phase in form of particles.
). 2iber composites
(hort3fiber reinforced composites: ,t consists of a matrix
reinforced by a dispersed phase in form of discontinuous fiber
(len#th4--**xdiameter)
%omposites with random orientation of fibers.
%omposites with preferred orientation of the fibers.
5on#3fiber reinforced composites: ,t consist of a matrix
reinforced by a dispersed phase in the form of continuous fibers.
%omposites with metal phase
2iber
composites
,nfiltration

composites
5ayer
composites
(laminates)
6ispersion
hardened and
particles
composite
)
7nidirectional orientation of fibers.
8idirectional orientation of fibers (wo"en).
5aminates composites: $hen a fiber reinforced composites
consist of se"eral layer with different fiber orientations, it is
called multilayer (an#le3ply) composites.
). )ase% "# !*e !&'e "f (a!ri+
Alu(i#u( Ma!ri+ C"('"si!es ,AMC-. This is the widest #roup of Metal
Matrix %omposites. Matrices of Aluminum Matrix %omposites are usually based
on aluminum3silicon (Al3(i) alloys and on the alloy of )9 9 9 and : 9 9 9 series.

An Aluminum Matrix %omposite (AM%) is #enerally reinforced by:
Alumina (Al
)
0
;
) or silicon carbide ((i%) particles (particulate
composites) in amount -<3=* "ol>.
%ontinuous fibers of alumina, silicon carbide, #raphite (lon#3
fiber reinforced composites)
6iscontinuous fiber of alumina (short3fiber reinforced
composites).

The followin# properties are typical for Aluminum Matrix %omposites.
?i#h stren#th e"en at ele"ated temperatures
?i#h stiffness (modulus of elasticity)
5ow density
?i#h thermal conducti"ity
@xcellent abrasion resistance.
Aluminum Matrix %omposites (AM%) are used for manufacturin# automoti"e parts
;
( 1istons, 1ushrods, 8rae components), 8rae rotors for hi#h speed trains, 8icycles,
Golf clubs, @lectronics substrates, cores for hi#h "olta#e @lectrical cables.
Mag#esiu( Ma!ri+ C"('"si!es. Ma#nesium is reinforced mainly by silicon
carbide ((i%) particles (particulates composites).

The followin# properties are typical for Ma#nesium Matrix %omposites:
5ow density
?i#h stiffness(modulus of elasticity)
?i#h wear resistance
Good stren#th e"en at ele"ated temperature
Good creep resistance
Mag#esiu( Ma!ri+ C"('"si!es are used for manufacturin# components for
Racin# car, 5i#htwei#ht Automoti"e brae system, Aircraft parts for: Gearboxes,
Transmissions, %ompressors and @n#ine.
Ti!a#iu( Ma!ri+ C"('"si!es are reinforced mainly by %ontinuous
monofilament silicon carbide fiber (lon#3fiber reinforced composites), Titanium boride
(Ti8)) and Titanium %arbide (Ti%) particles (particulates composites). 1ower metallur#y
(sinterin#) is used for fabrication of Titanium Matrix %omposites.
The followin# properties are typical for Titanium Matrix %omposites:
?i#h stiffness(modulus of elasticity)
?i#h wear resistance
?i#h creep resistance
?i#h stren#th
?i#h thermal stability
Titanium Matrix %omposites are used for manufacturin# structural
components of the 23AetBs landin# #ear. Turbine en#ine components (2an 8lades,
Actuator pistons, (ynchroniCation Rin#s, %onnectin# 5ins, (hafts, and 6iscs).
Automoti"e en#ine components, 6ri"e train parts, General machine components.
+
C"''er Ma!ri+ C"('"si!es. %opper Matrix %omposites are reinforced by
continuous fiber of carbon (%), (ilicon carbon ((i%), tun#sten($), stainless steel ;*+
(lon#3fiber reinforced composites), (ilicon carbide particles (particulates composites).
1ower metallur#y (sinterin#) and infiltration techniDue are used for fabrication %opper
Matrix %omposites.
The followin# properties are typical for %opper Matrix %omposites:
?i#h stiffness(modulus of elasticity)
Good wear resistance
5ow coefficient of thermal expansion
?i#h thermal conducti"ity
Good electrical conducti"ity.
%opper Matrix %omposites are used for manufacturin# ?ybrid modules, @lectronic relay,
electrically conductin# sprin# and other @lectrical and @lectronic components.
1./ FA)RICATION METHODS OF MMCs.
,n recent years the potential of metal3matrix composite (MM%) materials
for si#nificant impro"ement in performance o"er con"entional alloys has been reco#niCed
widely. ?owe"er, their manufacturin# costs are still relati"ely hi#h. There are se"eral
fabrication techniDues a"ailable to manufacture the MM% materials. There is no uniDue
route in this respect. 6ue to the choice of material and reinforcement and of the types of
reinforcement, the fabrication techniDues can "ary considerably. The processin# methods
used to manufacture particulate reinforced MM%s can be #rouped as follows.
E S"li%0'*ase fa$ria!i"# (e!*"%s: diffusion bondin#, hot rollin#, extrusion, drawin#,
explosi"e weldin#, 1M route, pneumatic impaction, etc.
E Li1ui%0'*ase fa$ria!i"# (e!*"%s: liDuid3metal infiltration sDueeCes castin#, compo
castin#, pressure castin#, spray deposition, stir castin# etc.
E T2" '*ase ,s"li%3li1ui%- 'r"esses. $hich include Rheocastin# and (pray
atomiCation.
<
Formally the liDuid3phase fabrication method is more efficient than the solid3
phase fabrication method because solid3phase processin# reDuires a lon#er time.
1./.1 Li1ui% '*ase fa$ria!i"# !e*#i1ues
Most of the MM%s are produced by this techniDue. ,n this techniDue, the ceramic
particles are incorporated into liDuid metal usin# "arious processes. The liDuid composite
slurry is subseDuently cast into "arious shapes by con"entional castin# techniDues or cast
into in#ots for secondary processin#. The process has maAor ad"anta#e that the
production costs of MM%s are "ery low. The maAor difficulty in such processes is the
non3wettability of the particles by liDuid aluminium and the conseDuent reAection of the
particles from the melt, non3uniform distribution of particles due to their preferential
se#re#ation and extensi"e interfacial reaction.
1./.1.1S!ir as!i#g
(tir3castin# techniDue is the simplest and most commercial method of
production of MM%s. This approach in"ol"es mechanical mixin# of the reinforcement
particulate into a molten metal bath and transferred the mixture directly to a shaped
mould prior to complete solidification. ,n this process, the crucial thin# is to create #ood
wettin# between the particulate reinforcement and the molten metal.
,nhomo#eneity in reinforcement distribution in these cast composites
could also be a problem as a result of interaction between suspended ceramic particles
and mo"in# solid3liDuid interface durin# solidification. This process has maAor ad"anta#e
that the production costs of MM%s are "ery low. (tirrin# is continued until interface
interactions between the particulates and the matrix promote wettin#. A con"entional stir
castin# set3up with a top3enterin# stirrer is shown in the fi#ure -.).
:

Figure 1.2. C"#4e#!i"#al S!ir0Cas!i#g se!0u'
1.5 THEOR6 OF 7EAR
$ear occurs as a natural conseDuence when two surfaces with a relati"e motion
interact with each other. $ear may be defined as the pro#ressi"e loss of material from
contactin# surfaces in relati"e motion. (cientists ha"e de"eloped "arious wear theories in
which the 1hysico3Mechanical characteristics of the materials and the physical conditions
(e.#. the resistance of the rubbin# body and the stress state at the contact area) are taen
in to consideration. The type of wear in ,ndustry Approximate percenta#e in"ol"ed is
shown in table -.-.
Ta$le 1.1 T&'e "f 2ear
Type of wear in ,ndustry Approximate percenta#e in"ol"ed
Abrasi"e <*
Adhesi"e -<
@rosion G
2rettin# G
%hemical <
1.5.1 T6PES OF 7EAR
=
,n most basic wear studies ha"e been in"esti#ated on dry friction condition due to
wide ran#e of application in machine parts. 6ry friction is under not intentionally
lubricated conditions but it is well nown that it is friction under lubrication by
atmospheric #ases. The classification of wear include fi"e distinct types, namely (-)
Abrasi"e ()) Adhesi"e (;) @rosi"e (+) (urface fati#ue (<) %orrosi"e.
1.5.1.1 A$rasi4e 2ear
Abrasi"e wear can be defined as wear that occurs when a hard surface slides
a#ainst and cuts #roo"e from a softer surface. ,t can be account for most failures in
practice. ?ard particles or asperities that cut or #roo"e one of the rubbin# surfaces
produce abrasi"e wear. The abrasi"e wear beha"iour of the composites also depends on
se"eral factors such as siCe, shape of abrasi"e, content, hardness of the counterface,
loadin# conditions and en"ironment. &'. 5ee ()**)). (uch hard particles may ha"e been
introduced between the two softer surfaces as a contaminant from the en"ironment or in
the form of reinforcement in composites. A typical abrasi"e wear is shown in the fi#ure
-.;
Figure 1.3 (chematic representations of the abrasion wear mechanism
1.5.1.2 A%*esi4e 2ear
Adhesi"e wear is occurred due to localiCed bondin# between contactin# solid
surfaces leadin# to material transfer between the two surfaces or the loss from either
surface. 2or adhesi"e wear to occur it is necessary for the surfaces to be in intimate
contact with each other. (urfaces, which are held apart by lubricatin# films, oxide films
etc. reduce the tendency for adhesion to occur. An example for adhesi"e wear is shown in
the fi#ure -.+
G
Figure 1./ (chematic representations of the adhesi"e wear mechanism
1.5.1.3 Er"si4e 2ear
@rosi"e wear is the process of metal remo"al due to impin#ement of solid
particles on a surface. @rosion is caused by a #as or a liDuid, which may or may not carry,
entrained solid particles, impin#in# on a surface. $hen the an#le of impin#ement is
small, the wear produced is closely analo#ous to abrasion. $hen the an#le of
impin#ement is normal to the surface, material is displaced by plastic flow or is dislod#ed
by brittle failure. An example for erosi"e wear is shown in the fi#ure -.<.
Figure 1.5 (chematic representations of the erosi"e wear mechanism
1.5.1./ Surfae fa!igue 2ear
$ear of a solid surface caused by fracture arisin# from material fati#ue. The term
Hfati#ueB is broadly applied to the failure phenomenon where a solid is subAected to cyclic
loadin# in"ol"in# tension and compression abo"e a certain critical stress. Repeated
loadin# causes the #eneration of micro cracs, usually below the surface, at the site of a
pre3existin# point of weaness. 0n subseDuent loadin# and unloadin#, the micro crac
propa#ates. 0nce the crac reaches the critical siCe, it chan#es its direction to emer#e at
the surface, and thus flat sheet lie particles is detached durin# wearin#. The number of
stress cycles reDuired to cause such failure decreases as the correspondin# ma#nitude of
.
stress increases. Iibration is a common cause of fati#ue wear. The examples are shown
in the fi#ure -.:
Figure 1.8 (chematic representations of the surface fati#ue wear mechanism
1.5.1.5 C"rr"si4e 2ear
Most metals are thermodynamically unstable in air and react with oxy#en to form
an oxide, which usually de"elop layer or scales on the surface of metal or alloys when
their interfacial bonds are poor. %orrosion wear is the #radual eatin# away or
deterioration of unprotected metal surfaces by the effects of the atmosphere, acids, #ases,
alalis, etc. This type of wear creates pits and perforations and may e"entually dissol"e
metal parts.
1.8 S6MPTOMS OF 7EAR
The symptom of different wear mechanism is indicated in Table -.) and the same
is a systematic approach to dia#nose the wear mechanisms.
Ta$le 9 1.2 S&('!"(s a#% a''eara#e "f %iffere#! !&'es "f 2ear
Types of wear (ymptoms Appearance of the worn3out
surface
Abrasi"e 1resence of clean furrows cut out by
abrasi"e particles
Groo"es
Adhesi"e Metal transfer is the prime symptoms (eiCure, caterin# rou#h and
turnout surfaces
@rosion 1resence of abrasi"es in the fast mo"in#
fluid and short abrasion furrows
$a"es and trou#hs.
%orrosion 1resence of metal corrosion products Rou#h pits or depressions.
2ati#ue 1resence of surface or subsurface cracs
accompanied by pits and spalls
(harp and an#ular ed#es
around pits.
,mpacts (urface fati#ue, small sub micron
particles or formation of spalls
2ra#mentation, peelin# and
pittin#.
-*
6elamination 1resence of subsurface cracs parallel to
the surface with semi3dislod#ed or loose
flaes
5oose, lon# and thin sheet
lie particles
2rettin# 1roduction of "oluminous amount of
loose debris
Rou#henin#, seiCure and
de"elopment of oxide rid#es
@lectric attac 1resence of micro craters or a trac with
e"idence of smooth molten metal
(mooth holes
1.: NEED FOR THE PRO;ECT
5iterature a"ailable on the wear mechanism of MM%s confirmed that it may
chan#e suddenly from one another at certain slidin# "elocities, contact loads and slidin#
distance resultin# in rapid increases in wear rates. The conflictin# results in the wear
literature arise partially because of the differences in testin# conditions, but they also
mae clear that a deeper understandin# of the wear mechanism is reDuired if an
impro"ement in the wear resistances of the metal matrix composites is to be achie"ed.
,t is #enerally reco#niCed that wear is a characteristic of a system and influenced
by many parameters. @xperimental plan if desi#ned properly the wear beha"iour of
MM%s can be determined with different controllable factors. The data #enerated throu#h
such in"esti#ation under controlled conditions may help in correct interpretation of the
results.
1.< SCOPE OF THE PRO;ECT
,n the present wor the scope is to e"aluate the wear beha"iour of Al!Jirconia
composite under laboratory condition usin# pin3on3disc machine. The reinforcin#
materials are #enerally (i%, Al
)
0
;
, Ti8
)
etc and are costly. The present research wor has
been undertaen with an obAecti"e to explore the use of Circonia (Jr0
)
) as a reinforcin#
material. This leads to create awareness and impartment of Circonia in the field of metal
matrix composites for practical applications.
1.= O);ECTI>E
--
The obAecti"e of this proAect is to brin# out the importance of Jirconia in
Aluminium Metal Matrix composite by studyin# the wear beha"iour of MM%s usin# 1in3
on3disc machine.
1.1? OR@ANIAATION OF THE PRO;ECT
This proAect consists of fi"e chapters. A brief introduction about the
proAect is discussed in the first chapter. 5iteratures re"iew which ser"es as the base for
this proAect is mentioned in the second chapter. The experimental methodolo#y adopted
to perform the tests on pin3on3disc machine at room temperature as per A(TM G..
standards is explained in the third chapter. Results obtained from the "arious experiments
and discussions about it are dealt in the fourth chapter. The conclusions deri"ed for the
proAect is enumerated in the fifth chapter.
1.11 Li!era!ure Re4ie2
?aw (-..G) was obser"ed that the influence of Circonia tou#henin#
on the abrasi"e wear beha"ior. 6epended upon the nature of the tou#henin#
mechanisms acti"ated by the Circonia addition. ,n this study, the hardness,
fracture tou#hness, and abrasi"e wear beha"ior of three Circonia3tou#hened
Mo(i
)
composites and a Circonia3tou#hened Al
)
0
;
were examined and compared
with similar materials containin# no Circonia . @ach of the composites contained
)* "ol.> Jr0
)
howe"er, the polymorph of the added Circonia particles was "aried
to #i"e composites with unstabiliCed, partially stabiliCed, and fully
stabiliCed Circonia reinforcement.
(anyu3don#, 8u3#u, ()**=) performed a wear test by three different
structural ceramic balls (Jr0
)
, Al
)
0
;
, and (i%) slidin# a#ainst the Jr0
)
dis. The
coefficient of friction of the structural ceramics was nearly constant re#ardless of
normal loads. ,t was relati"ely lower with (i% ball than the other cases. The
specific wear rate of Jr0
)
ball and (i% ball was the hi#hest and the lowest in all
cases. The couple with Jr0
)
K(i% showed the best operatin# conditions for
friction and wear resistance. The results showed that the properties of the counter
materials cause a difference in wear beha"ior.
-)
Jirconium alloys are hi#hly desirable in nuclear applications due to their
transparency to thermal ener#y neutrons and for their hi#h corrosion resistance.
Helmi Attia (2006) obser"ed that the frettin# wear mechanism is initially
dominated by adhesion and abrasion actions and then by delamination and surface
fati#ue. The "olumetric wear losses were found to decrease monotonically with
the number of cycles.
8as LerwiA et. al. ()**;) obser"ed that if the solid lubricants %u0, Jn0, M#0,
Mn0) and 8
)
0
;
were added in sufficiently small Duantities (- or < wt.>) to
preser"e the mechanical properties of the matrix phase without increasin# the
specific wear rate. The additi"es selected were an attempt to pro"ide the materials
with a self3lubricatin# mechanism and therefore decrease the coefficient of dry3
friction.
8asa"araAappa, %handramohan, 1aulo 6a"im ()**:) conducted a dry wear test to
in"esti#ate the influence of wear parameters lie as normal load, slidin# speed
and slidin# distance. They obser"ed that usin# of ta#uchi techniDue was pro"ed
effecti"e to acDuire the data in a controlled way.
?uan# %hen et. al ()**<) conducted a test in nanostructured and con"entional
Circonia coatin#s. The wear properties were e"aluated comparati"ely by a slidin#,
reciprocatin# and "ibratin# ((RI) tester under dry conditions. They obser"ed that
the wear properties of Circonia coatin#s can be increased by the presence of water
durin# the (RI testin#.
Tucci and @sposito(-..;) conducted wear test at three different slidin# "elocities
(*.;, *.=, -.* m!s). They obser"ed that at (*.; and *.= m !s), the Circonia discs
showed #reater wear resistance.
-;
8ased on the literature re"iew it is found that the Jirconia shows the #reater
wear resistance. Jirconium alloys has its applications in the nuclear field due to
its corrosion resistance. 6iscs made by Jirconia showed #reater wear resistance.


CHAPTER 2
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
2.1 E+'eri(e#!al Me!*"%"l"g&
The experimental methodolo#y shows the "arious sta#es of this proAect. The
experimental methodolo#y is explained in the fi#ure ).-.
-+
@xperimental in"esti#ation on wear rate of
Aluminium Metal Matrix %omposites
Aluminium
5M)< (.<>)
Jirconia(<>)
(tir castin#
Machinin#
Aluminium
5M)<
%astin#
Test 2inal
wei#ht
,nitial
$ei#ht
$ear rate
0ptimisation usin# 6o@
techniDue
-<
(chematic of the experimental desi#n ).-
2.2 Ma!ri+ (a!erials
Aluminium 5M)<: A #eneral purpose hi#h stren#th castin# alloy
used mainly where #ood mechanical properties are reDuired combined with
resistance to corrosion. Typically used in the food, chemical, marine, electrical
and automoti"e industries and commonly used for cylinder blocs and heads.
2.3 C*e(ial C"('"si!i"# "f Alu(i#iu( LM25B
The chemical composition of the Aluminium 5M)< is shown in the table ).-.
Table ).-.%hemical %omposition of Aluminium 5M)<.
%opper *.)* max
Ma#nesium *.)*3*.:
(ilicon :.<3=.<
,ron *.< max
Man#anese *.;Max
Ficel *.- max
Jinc *.- max
5ead *.- max
Tin *.*< max
Titanium *.) Max
Aluminium Remainder
2./ Me*a#ial Pr"'er!ies "f Alu(i#iu( LM25
The mechanical properties of the Matrix material are explained in the table ).).
Table ).) Mechanical properties of 5M)<.
Tensile (tress (F!mm
)
) -+.
8rinell ?ardness (8?F) <=
6ensity (#! cm
;
) ).:G
%rystal structure 2ace centered cubic
2.5. Rei#f"re(e#!
%onclusions
-:
Jirconia is an extremely refractory material. ,t offers chemical and corrosion
inertness to temperatures well abo"e the meltin# point of alumina. The material has
low thermal conducti"ity. ,t is electrically conducti"e abo"e :**M% and is used in
oxy#en sensor cells and as the susceptor (heater) in hi#h temperature induction
furnaces.
1ure Circonia exists in three crystal phases at different temperatures. At "ery hi#h
temperatures (N);=*M%) the material has a cubic structure. At intermediate
temperatures (--=* to );=*M%) it has a tetra#onal structure. At low temperatures
(below --=*M%) the material transforms to the monoclinic structure.
The transformation from tetra#onal to monoclinic is rapid and is accompanied by
a ; to < percent "olume increase that causes extensi"e cracin# in the material. This
beha"ior destroys the mechanical properties of fabricated components durin# coolin#
and maes pure Circonia useless for any structural or mechanical application. (e"eral
oxides which dissol"e in the Circonia crystal structure can slow down or eliminate
these crystal structure chan#es.
2.8 Air"#ia 'r"'er!ies
The Circonia properties are explained in the followin# table ).;.
Table ).; properties of Circonia
6ensity (#!cm
;
) :
@lastic Modulus G1a (lb!in
)
x-*
:
) )**
?ardness (8?F)

-;**
%rystal structure Monoclinic
2.: S!ir0Cas!i#g Pr"ess
-=
,nitially, the aluminium bar is cut to the reDuired amount, i.e., +<* #,
wei#hed and is heated to =<*M%, alon# with flux in the muffle furnace. There are
"arious parameters in stir castin# called stirrer speed, stirrin# time
&(.8alasi"anda 1rabhu )**;/ which influences the particle distribution. The
flux is used to remo"e the impurities such as entrapped dust and suspended
particles in molten aluminium. (imultaneously, a nown Duantity of Circonia
particles (Jr0
)
), of < > wei#ht is heated :**M% in the pre3heatin# furnace. $hen
aluminium in the main furnace melts completely, the sla# is remo"ed, and the
de#asser is added to remo"e the entrapped #ases such as ?ydro#en. 2irst, molten
aluminium is stirred for a sufficient time till "ortex is formed and ma#nesium
powder is added for increasin# wettebility of particles. The "ortex re#ion
indicates the area of maximum rotational "elocity of aluminium caused by the
rotation of the stirrer. The formation of "ortex is essential for the efficient mixin#
of particles. Fow, the Jr0
)
is added continuously to the molten aluminium
crucible so that the stirrin# operation can be carried out efficiently. After
sufficient stirrin# time, the molten metal is poured in a die and it is allowed to
solidify for a sufficient time. The composite is finally remo"ed from the die and it
can be used to preparin# specimen for wear test.
).< HEAT TREATMENT
8efore testin# of wear rate of aluminium alloy and Al!Jr0
)
composite, it has
been subAected to heat treatment at T: condition. ,nitially the specimens are pre
heated at the temperature le"el of <+* de#rees for < hours. After pre heatin# the
specimens are subAected to the Duenchin# process. $ater has been taen as the
media for Duenchin#. After solution treatment the a#e hardenin# process has been
carried out. The a#in# process carried out at -<< de#ree for = hours.
2.=. 7EAR TEST PROCEDURE
-G
2.=.1 Pi# "# Dis (a*i#e
A pin on disc type of apparatus was employed to e"aluate the wear
characteristics of MM%s. is the standard eDuipment used to determine the
slidin# coefficient and wear resistance of surfaces. The tester consists of a
stationary OpinO under an applied load in contact with a rotatin# disc. Formal
load, rotational speed, and wear trac diameter can be "aried.
2.1?. STANDARD TEST METHODS FOR THE PIN ON DISC
TESTER AS PER THE ASTM STANDARDS
Specifications
%onform to the specifications of : A(TM G..
(lidin# (peed Ran#e: *.):3-* m!sec
6isc Rotation (peed: -**3)*** rpm
Maximum Formal 5oad: )** F
2rictional 2orce: *3)** F
$ear Measurement Ran#e: + mm
1in (iCe: ;3-) mm dia#onal!diameter
6isc (iCe: -:* mm x G mm thic
$ear Trac 6iameter: -*3-+* mm
-.
2i#ure ).) 1in on 6isc Machine
The 1in30n36isc machine is a "ersatile unit desi#ned to e"aluate the wear
and friction characteristics on a "ariety of materials exposed to slidin# contacts in
dry or lubricated en"ironments. The slidin# friction test occurs between a
stationary pin stylus and a rotatin# dis. The rotatin# steel discs surface rou#hness
found was found to be Ra P -.*-:: microns with the hardness "alue of :* ?R%.
2.= EXPERIMENTAL DESI@N
The experiments were carried out to analyse the influence of testin# parameters
on wei#ht loss of MM% worpieces. The code and le"els of control parameters
were shown in Table -. This table shows that the experimental plan had two
le"els. A standard Ta#uchi experimental plan with notation 5
-:
()
-<
) was chosen.
,n the Ta#uchi method, &'.(. $on#, ?.T,(-..;)/ the experimental results are
transformed into a si#nal3to3noise ((!F) ratio.Three cate#ories of Duality
characteristic in the analysis of the (!F ratio, i.e. the3lower3the3better, the hi#her3
the3better, and the3nominal3the3better. To obtain optimal testin# parameters, the3
lower3the3better Duality characteristic for wei#ht loss was taen. The (!F ratio for
each le"el of testin# parameters was computed based on the (!F analysis.
Moreo"er, a statistical analysis of "ariance (AF0IA) was performed to see
)*
which test parameters are statistically si#nificant. $ith (!F ratio and AF0IA
analyses, the optimal combination of the testin# parameters could be predicted for
a .<> confidence le"el.
2.1? S!a#%ar% L
18
,2
15
- "r!*"g"#al arra&
The ortho#onal array of L
18
,2
15
- is shown in the table ).+
Table ).+ : 0rtho#onal array
@xperiment
Fumber
- ) ; + < : = G . -* -- -) -+ -<
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
) - - - - - - - ) ) ) ) ) ) )
; - - - ) ) ) ) - - - - ) ) )
+ - - - ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) - - -
< - ) ) - - ) - - - ) ) - ) )
: - ) ) - - ) - ) ) - - ) - -
= - ) ) ) ) - ) - - ) ) ) - -
G - ) ) ) ) - ) ) ) - - - ) )
. ) - ) - ) - ) - ) - ) - - )
-* ) - ) - ) - ) ) - ) - ) ) -
-- ) - ) ) - ) - - ) - ) ) ) -
-) ) - ) ) - ) - ) - ) - - - )
-; ) ) - - ) ) - - ) ) - - ) -
-+ ) ) - - ) ) - ) - - ) ) - )
-< ) ) - ) - - ) - ) ) - ) - )
-: ) ) - ) - - ) ) - - ) - ) -
)-
2.11 >ari"us 'ara(e!ers a#% le4els
Ta#uchi parameter desi#n can optimiCe the performance characteristics throu#h
the settin# of desi#n parameters and reduce the sensiti"ity of the system performance to
source of "ariation. The "arious parameters and le"els which are taen for the wear test
mentioned in the table ).<.
Table ).< shows the parameters and le"els.
1arameters %ode 5e"el - 5e"el )
Type of
material
A Aluminium 5M)< Aluminium
5M)<!<>Jr0
)
Applied
load(F)
8 ..G- ;..)
(lidin#
Ielocity(m!s)
% - ;
(lidin#
6istance(m)
6 <** -***
2.12. 7EAR TEST
The wear test was performed in a pin on disc confi#uration with the pin
siCe of -) mm len#th and G mm diameter on a rotatin# disc. The disc is of the siCe
-:* mm diameter and G mm thic. The pin was then mounted in a steel holder in
the wear machine so that it was held firmly perpendicular to that of the flat
surface of the rotatin# counter disc when tested. The initial wei#ht of the
specimen was measured in a sin#le pan electronic wei#hin# machine with least
count of *.***-#. 6urin# the test the pin was pressed a#ainst the steel disc with
the surface rou#hness of -micron. After runnin# throu#h a fixed slidin# distance,
the specimens were and cleaned to determine the wei#ht loss due to wear.
))
2.13. Resul!s f"r 2ear !es!.
The results of the wear test are tabulated in the table ).:.
Table ).: shows the results of wear test.
);
3.1HARDNESS TEST.

The Iicers hardness test is conducted on the heat treated specimens. The "alues
are shown in the table +.-.
Table ;.- ?ardness "alues

(l.Fo. Aluminium(5M)<)
(?I)
Aluminium (5M)<
$,T? <> Jirconia)
(?I)
-. =+.*G --+
). -*=.= --<.G
;. G=.+ -*:.G
A"era#e .-.G*) ---..;
The incorporation of Circonia with Aluminium (5M)<) increases the hardness
"alue from .-.G*)?I to ---..;?I under the load of +..*;F.
3.2 SLIDIN@ 7EAR E>ALUATION
-. The mass loss in #rams of the pin can be obtained by findin# the difference
between the initial mass and the final mass.
). The slidin# distance in meter can be found usin# the formula #i"en below
(lidin# 6istance (m) P Q x 6 x n x t
$here, 6 is the trac diameter (mean diameter) in m
n is the speed in rpm
t is the test duration in min
;. The coefficient of friction can be obtained when tan#ential force or the
frictional force is di"ided by the normal load.
%oefficient of friction () P 2 ! F
$here,
2 is tan#ential force in #
F is the normal or applied load in #
)+
The slidin# wear e"aluation is used to find the mass loss, "olume loss, slidin#
distance, wear rate and coefficient of friction for the aluminium alloy and Al!Jr0
)
a#ainst
steel disc at room temperature are calculated. The coefficient of friction is obtained and
are tabulated and discussed in detail below. The coefficient of friction at the load of ..G-
is shown in the table ;.).
Table ;.) %oefficient of friction at load ..G- F.
Aluminium (5M)<) Aluminium!Jirconia
*.)= *.);
*.)< *.)+
*.)G *.))
*.)) *.)*
*.); *.):

C"effiie#! "f fri!i"# a! !*e l"a% "f 3=.3N.
The addition of Jirconia with the "olume of <> in Aluminium
(5M )<) decreases the coefficient of friction at both the loads. The coefficient of friction
at the load of ;..) is shown in the table ;.;.
Table ;.; %oefficient of friction at load ;..; F.
Aluminium (5M)<) Aluminium!Jirconia
*.). *.)+
*.)= *.):
*.;- *.))
*.)G *.)=
*.;* *.)-
The Circonia in metal matrix composites acts a protectin# layer between the pin
and the counter face enables in reducin# the wear "olume loss.
)<
C"effiie#! "f fri!i"#.
Model calculation for Aluminium 5M)< at load ..G-F:

The coefficient of friction can be calculated from the followin# eDuation
R P 2!$

R P ).<;! ..G-

R P *.)<
Model calculation for Aluminium 5M)< at load ;..;F:

R P --.+ ! ;..;

R P *.).
Model calculation for Aluminium with Jirconia <> at load ..G-F:
R P ).). ! ..G-

R P *.);
Model calculation for Aluminium with Jirconia <> at load ;..;F:

R P ..<. ! ;..;

R P *.)+
The remo"al of material from the surface of the pin increases with increase
in load. &(ahin.' )**;/. The decreasin# trend of the wear rate when slidin# speed is
increased is due to the formation of protecti"e Mechanically Mixed 5ayer (MM5)
between the pin and the counter face &Ienataraman 8, ()***)/.
):
3.3. S3N CALCULATIONS.

To determine the effect of each "ariable has on the output, the si#nal to noise ratio or the
(!F number needs to be calculated for each experiment conducted. The calculation of the
(!F for the first experiment in the array abo"e is shown below for the case of a specific
tar#et "alue of the performance characteristics.
(F
i
P -* lo#
'i
)

! (
i
)
where '
i
3 -!F
i
('i,u)
(
i
)
3 -!(F
i
3-) ('iu 3 '
i
)
i P @xperiment number
u P Trial number
F
i
P Fumber of trials for experiment i
2or the case of minimiCin# the performance characteristics, the followin# definition of
the (F ratio should be calculated.

(F
i
P 3-* lo# ('u
)
!F
i
) which is also called as the smaller the better.
,n the case of wear characteristic of wor piece the minimal is the best characteristic is
used.
3./. S3N Ra!i" res'"#se !a$le:
)=
The (!F Ratio response table is found out as per the "alues obtained throu#h the
wei#ht loss of the material. The response table is shown in the table ;.+
Table ;.+ (!F Ratio response table
5e"el A 8 AS8 % AS% 8S% 6 AS6 8S6 %S6
- ;).=- +<.=; ;=..G ;=.G+ ;G.G; ;:.G< +*.)+G +*.)+ ;..-- ;=.;<
) ;..G ;<.=. ;G.G< ;G..: ;G.*; ;.... ;:.<. ;..*- ;=.=) ;..+G
6iff =.*. ...+ *.G= -.-) *.G ;.-++ ;.:<) -.); -.;. ).-;
Ran ) - . G -* + ; = : <
3.5. A#al&sis "f 4aria#e.
The analysis of "ariance (AF0IA) was used to in"esti#ate which desi#n parameters
si#nificantly affect the Duality characteristic. 2ishers (2) "alue for each desi#n parameter
is simply the ratio of the mean of sDuared de"iations to the mean of sDuared error T-*U.
AF0IA results for the calculated "alues of the 2 for all control factors showed a "ery
hi#h influence of type of the applied load (A),hi#h influence of material (8), moderate
influence of slidin# "elocity (%), and low influence of the slidin# distance (6) on wear of
MM%s.. &1aulo 6a"im V.()**;)/ ,n addition, the interactions of A W 8 and A W 6 in the
ran#e #i"en in this table had a moderate si#nificant effect on the wear resistance. The last
column of the abo"e table also shows the percenta#e of each factor contribution (1) on
the total "ariation, thus exhibitin# the de#ree of influence on result. 2rom the analysis
Table (;.<) the applied load (1 X -;.=+>) had a si#nificant influence on the wei#ht loss
of MM%s while the type of material (1 X ..:>) and the slidin# "elocity (1 X <.=<>) had
moderate and the slidin# distance(1 X ).* >) had little effect on it. The calculated "alues
are shown in the AF0IA table ;.<.

Table ;.< AF0IA table
)G
(ymbol
(um of
sDuares
(x -*
3<
)
6e#ree
of
freedom
Mean
sum of
sDuares
2(theoretical) %ontribution
A *..:< - *..:< *.*:<; ..:
8 -.;=+= - -.;=+= *..;- -;.=+
A Y 8 *.**. - *.**. *.**: *.*.
% *.<=< - *.<=< *.;G.< <.=<
A Y % *.***<< - *.***<< *.***;= *.**<
8 Y % *.))<< - *.))<< *.-<)= ).)<
6 *.)**< - *.)**< *.-;<G ).*
A Y 6 *.**. - *.**. *.**: *.*.
8 Y 6 *.*<)< - *.*<)< *.*;<< *.<)
% Y 6 *.=+.: - *.=+.: *.<*=G *.*=
@rror =.;=+- < -.+=:
Total .....) -<
Effe! "f rei#f"re(e#! "# 2ear ra!e

The effect of the reinforcement had si#nificant effect but less than the
applied load.

Effe! "f #"r(al l"a% "# 2ear ra!e
The effect of the load had si#nificant effect in the wei#ht loss
compared to all the parameters.
).
Effe! "f 4el"i!& "# 2ear ra!e

The effect of the slidin# "elocity had moderate effect on the wei#ht loss.
Effe! "f sli%i#g %is!a#e "# 2ear ra!e
The slidin# distance had little effect on the wei#ht loss.



CHAPTER /

CONCLUSION
;*
Metal Matrix %omposite has been fabricated by usin# liDuid stir castin# process
with <> of Circonia particles to enhance the properties of aluminium matrix material.
The hardness of pure aluminium increased from .) ?I to --) ?I with addition
of <> Circonia particles.
The tribolo#ical beha"iour of metal matrix composites was in"esti#ated under
"arious factors and conditions. The obtained results indicate that the both friction
coefficients and the wear rates decreased si#nificantly with the incorporation of Circonia
in aluminium matrix material. The Circonia in metal matrix composites acts a protectin#
layer between the pin and the counter face enables in reducin# the wear "olume loss.
The slidin# distance was found to ha"e a much lower effect. ,ncreasin# the
applied load led to #reater wear than that of slidin# distance.

FUTURE 7ORC:
The reinforcement percenta#e of Circonia added in the Metal Matrix %omposites
can be "aried. The parameter slidin# "elocity can be "aried with different le"els at
different slidin# distance.

REFERENCE
;-
-.) '. (ahin , ()**+)&The prediction of wear resistance model for the metal matrix
composites/ $ear, "olume3 )<G, pp. .<3-*;.
).) ,brahim A, Mohamed 2A, 5a"ernia @V (-..-). &Metal matrix composites/ Vournal of
Material (cience, Iolume 3):. pp.--;=K<=.
;.) (urappa ML ()**;) &Aluminium matrix composites/. Vournal of material science
Iolume3)G pp.;-.K;+.
+.) (.8alasi"anda 1rabhu, 5.Larunamoorthy, ()**:), &influence of stirrin# speed and
stirrin# time on distribution of particles in cast metal Matrix %omposites. Iolume3-=-,
pp3):G3)=;.
<.) M.(. %hua, M. Rahman, '.(. $on#, ?.T,(-..;) , ,ntenational Vournal, Machine
Tools Manufacturin# "olume3 ;) pp. ).=K;*<.
:.) (ahin .' ()**;). &$ear beha"ior of aluminium alloy and its composites reinforced by
(i% particles usin# statistical analysis/. Material 6esi#n "olume3 )+: pp..<K-*;.
=.) '. 5ee Gun, %.L.?. 6haran, R.0. Ritchie, ()**)) $ear "olume 3)<) pp.;))K;;-.
G.) 1aulo 6a"im V.()**;) &An experimental study of tribolo#ical beha"iour of the
brass!steel pair/ . Vournal of material science. "olume3-**: pp.)=;K..
..) 1aulo 6a"im V. ()**;)/6esi#n optimiCation of cuttin# parameters for turnin# metal
matrix composites based on the ortho#onal arrays/. Vournal of Material 1rocessin#
Technolo#y. "olume3-;) pp:;+*K+.
-*.) Ienataraman 8, (undararaAan G. ()***) &%orrelation between the characteristics of
the mechanically mixed layer and wear beha"iour of aluminium, A53=*=< alloy and Al3
MM%Bs/. $earZ "olume3 )+< pp:))K;G.

;)
;;
;+