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Relations

Dr. Khair Eddin Sabri

Relations

Dr. Khair Eddin Sabri

Department of Computer Science, University of Jordan Dr. Khair Eddin Sabri
Relations

(Introduction)

Relations

Dr. Khair Eddin Sabri

Let A and B be sets. A binary relation from A to B is a subset of A × B.

Relations are a generalization of functions.

A relation on the set A is a relation from A to A.

Example, Let A be the set {1, 2, 3, 4}. Which ordered pairs are in the relation R = {(a, b)|a divides b}? Dr. Khair Eddin Sabri
Relations

(Properties of relations)

Reﬂexive: A relation R on a set A is called reﬂexive if (a, a) R for every element a A.

Relations

Dr. Khair Eddin Sabri

Symmetric: A relation R on a set A is called symmetric if (b, a) R whenever (a, b) R, for all a, b A.

Antisymmetric: A relation R on a set A such that for all a, b A, if (a, b) R and (b, a) R, then a = b is called antisymmetric.

Transitive: A relation R on a set A is called transitive if whenever (a, b) R and (b, c) R, then (a, c) R, for all a, b, c A. Dr. Khair Eddin Sabri
Relations

(Operations on relations)

Identity relation

Complement of a relation

R 1

R 1 R 2 Dr. Khair Eddin Sabri
Relations

Relations

Dr. Khair Eddin Sabri

(Operations on relations)

R

R

1 R 2

1 R 2

R

1 R 2

n , note a relation is transitive if R n R for

R

n = 1, 2, 3 ··· Dr. Khair Eddin Sabri
Relations

Relations

Dr. Khair Eddin Sabri

(n-ary relations)

Let A 1 , A 2 , · · · , An be sets. An n-ary relation on these

sets

is a subset of A 1 × A 2 × ··· × A n .

Relations

Dr. Khair Eddin Sabri

The sets A 1 , A 2 , ··· , A n are called the domains of the relation

n is called its degree Dr. Khair Eddin Sabri
Relations

(Representation of relations)

Zero-one matrix

Directed graph Dr. Khair Eddin Sabri
Relations

Relations

Dr. Khair Eddin Sabri

(Closure of a relation)

Reﬂexive closure

Symmetric closure

Transitive closure Dr. Khair Eddin Sabri
Relations

Relations

Dr. Khair Eddin Sabri

(Equivalence Relations)

Relations

Dr. Khair Eddin Sabri

 A relation on a set A is called equivalence relation if it is reﬂexive, symmetric, and transitive.

Example: Let R be the relation on the set of integers such that a R b if and only if a = b or a = b. Dr. Khair Eddin Sabri
Relations