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ME 1303 GAS DYNAMICS

AND JET PROPULSION

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1-D Flow: Revisited
Stagnation Quantities
U 2
T0 γ −1 2
C PT + = C pT0 or = 1+ ( )M
2 T 2
Furthermore for Isentropic process
γ 1
P0  γ −1 2  γ −1 ρ0  γ −1 2  γ −1
= 1 + ( )M  = 1 + ( )M 
P  2  ρ  2 
Relationship with Critical quantities
γRT U 2 γRT * U *2 a 2 U 2 a *2 a *2 γ + 1 *2
+ = + + = + = a
γ −1 2 γ −1 2 γ −1 2 γ −1 2 2(γ − 1)
γ
P  2 
* γ −1
=  
2
 a*  T * P0  γ + 1 
  = =
2 a02 γ + 1 *2
1 = a
 a0  T0 γ + 1 ρ *
 2  γ −1 γ − 1 2(γ − 1)
=  
ρ 0  γ + 1 

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Relationship between T0,T & M
The acoustic speed & Mach number
For a compressible flow, the speed of propagation of
small disturbances, called the acoustic speed and the ratio
of the flow velocity to the acoustic speed, called the Mach
number .

The magnitude of K will depend on the process in which the


compression is executed. For isentropic flow process,

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Cont..
Mach number

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Cont..

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Basic characteristics of air

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Why is the speed of sound so important??

n Fluid particles send signals in form of acoustic


(pressure) waves.
n If signals reach faster than the object itself, fluid
particles will “hear” and “clear out” (Subsonic
case)
n If the object is traveling faster than these
acoustic waves (speed given by speed of
sound), then there is “shock”. (Supersonic case)

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1 2

a a + da A sound wave, by definition,


p p + dp ie: weak wave
ρ ρ + dρ ( Implies that the irreversible,
T T + dT dissipative conduction are negligible)

Wave front

uContinuity equation
ρa = ( ρ + dρ )( a + da ) = ρa + adρ + ρda + dρda
da
a = −ρ

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Speed of Sound in different medium
For Liquids For Solids

B,E- Bulk modulus and


Young’s modulus

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Effect of Mach number on Compressibility
From Bernoulli eqn w.k.t, compressibility factor is unity
for incompressible fluid.

For compressible flow this value deviates from unity; the


magnitude of this deviation increases with the mach
number of the flow.

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Compressibility Factor Comparison

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Wave Propagation
Q. An airplane is traveling while you are observing from the
ground. How will you know whether it is subsonic or
supersonic?
Point disturbance is at rest Moving disturbance
M=0 ( M = u/a = 0.5)

Always stays inside the family of circular


sound waves
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Wave fronts from Sonic disturbance
Ø All the wave fronts coalesce on the left side and move along with the
disturbance.
Ø No region upstream is forewarned of the disturbance as the
disturbance arrives at the same time as the wave front.

Zone of Silence Zone of action


Zone of Silence

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Wave fronts from Supersonic disturbance
n The wave fronts have coalesced to form a cone with the disturbance at
the apex.
n The half angle at the apex is called Mach angle ( µ )

Always stays outside the family of circular sound waves

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Disturbance Propagation
n In Subsonic flow, both
Raj and Lisa can hear
Joy talking, since sound
waves travel from Joy’s
mouth in all directions.

n In Supersonic flow, sound


waves (and other
disturbances in the flow)
travel only in the
downstream direction;
thus, while Lisa can hear
Joy talking, Raj can’t.
Disturbances can not
travel upstream in a
supersonic flow

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Problems

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Cont..

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Isentropic flow with variable
area passages

a) Nozzle
b) Diffuser

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OBJECTIVES OF THIS LECTURE
1. To examine different scenarios of nozzle
& diffuser flows

2. Investigate the relation of flow velocity & pressure in


subsonic & supersonic flow regimes

3. To understand how mass flow rate through a nozzle


will change with the exit pressure

4. Determine the implications of choking

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Distinction Between True 1-D Flow and Quasi 1-D Flow

• In“true” 1-D flow Cross sectional


area is strictly constant
• In quasi-1-D flow, cross section
varies as a Function of the
longitudinal coordinate, x
• Flow Properties are assumed
constant across any cross-section
• Analytical simplification very
useful for evaluating Flow properties
in Nozzles, tubes, ducts, and diffusers
Where the cross sectional area is
large when compared to length

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Nozzle - Function
ü From an energy view point : Nozzle is a device
that converts static enthalpy into kinetic energy

Expansion Process
in nozzle

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Diffuser - Function
ü From an energy view point : Diffuser is a device
that converts kinetic energy into static enthalpy

Compression Process
in diffuser

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One--Dimensional Isentropic
One
Flow

n For flow through


nozzles, diffusers, and
turbine blade passages,
flow quantities vary
primarily in the flow
direction
n Can be approximated as
1D isentropic flow

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Applications

Ram-jet engine

Diffuser(compressor) nozzle
combustion chamber

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Applications – Cont..

Space Shuttle

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One-Dimensional Isentropic Flow
One-
Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area

n Relationship between V , ρ, and A are complex


n Derive relationship using continuity, energy,
speed of sound equations
n Continuity

n (ρAV)
Differentiate and divide by mass flow rate (ρ

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One--Dimensional Isentropic Flow
One
Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area
n Derived relation (on
image at left) is the
differential form of
Bernoulli’s equation.
n Combining this with result
from continuity gives

n Using thermodynamic
relations and rearranging

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One--Dimensional Isentropic Flow
One
Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area

n This is an important relationship


n For Ma < 1, (1 - Ma2) is positive ⇒ dA and dP have
the same sign.
n Pressure of fluid must increase as the flow area of the duct
increases, and must decrease as the flow area decreases
n For Ma > 1, (1 - Ma2) is negative ⇒ dA and dP have
opposite signs.
n Pressure must increase as the flow area decreases, and must
decrease as the area increases

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Cont..

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One--Dimensional Isentropic Flow
One
Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area
Comparison of flow properties in subsonic and supersonic nozzles and diffusers

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Subsonic Vs Supersonic flow

Nozzle Diffuser Diffuser Nozzle

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Property variation with area change

At low Mach no. density variations is


less and the velocity changes
compensate for area changes.

At M = 1.0 , we reach a situation


where density changes and velocity
changes compensate for one
another and thus dA = 0

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Sonic Properties
Ø Let [ * ] denote a property at the sonic state M = 1
Ø Then giving M =1 in stagnation state set eqns,
@ γ = 1.4

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Sonic properties – Cont..

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Remarks on Isentropic Nozzle Design
n Length of the nozzle is immaterial for an
isentropic nozzle.
n Strength requirements of nozzle material
may decide the nozzle length.
n Either Mach number variation or Area
variation or Pressure variation is specified
as a function or arbitrary length unit.
n Nozzle design attains maximum capacity
when the exit Mach number is unity.

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