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# EE1401 - POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL

## KINGS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, - PUNALKULAM

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KINGS
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
ACADEMIC YEAR 2011- 2012 / ODD SEMESTER

QUESTION BANK

SUBJECT CODE/NAME: EE 1401 - POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL
YEAR/SEM : IV / VII

UNIT I - GENERAL BACKGROUND AND SPEED GOVERNORS

PART A (2 Marks)
1. What is the objective of power system control?
2. Why the frequency and voltage are to be regulated in power system?
3. What happens to frequency if the load on the generator increases?
4. Define per unit droop.
5. State the difference between P-f, and Q-lVl.
7. What is the duty of the power system operator?
8. What are the problems associated with the interconnected power system?

PART B

1. Explain the need for voltage and frequency regulation in power system. (16)
2. What are the components of speed governor system of an alternator? Derive a transfer
function and sketch a block diagram. (16)
3. Draw and explain the basic P-f and Q-V control loops. (16)
4. Briefly explain about the plant level and the system level controls. (16)
5. Briefly discuss the classification of loads and list out the important characteristics of
6. i) Briefly explain the overview of system operation. (8)

UNIT II - FREQUENCY CONTROL AND AUTOMATIC GENERATION CONTROL
PART A

1. What is the function of Load Frequency Control?
2. Explain the Principle of Tie-line Bias control.
3. What is the purpose pf primary ALFC?
4. How is the real power in a power system controlled?
5. What is meant by control area?
EE1401 - POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL
KINGS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, - PUNALKULAM
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6. Define area control error.
7. Write the tie line power deviation equation in terms of frequency?
8. List the advantage of multi area operation.
9. List out the various needs for frequency regulation in power system.
10. What is the purpose of a speed changer?

PART B

1. Discuss in detail the dynamic response of a single area system, without integral
control, following a step load disturbance. (16)
2. Derive the transfer function of an uncontrolled load frequency control of a single area
system and derive the expression for static error following a step load change. (16)
3. Draw the transfer function block diagram for a two area system provided with
governor control and obtain the steady state frequency error following a step load
change in both the areas. (16)
4. A 210 MVA, 50 Hz Turbo Alternator operates at no load at 3000 rpm. A load of 75
MW is suddenly applied to the machine and the steam valves to the turbine commence
to open after 1 sec due to the time lag in the governor system. Assuming Inertia
Constant H of 5Kw-sec per kVA of generator capacity. Calculate the frequency to which
the generated voltage drops before the steam flow commences to increase to meet the
5. The data pertaining to a single area power system with linear load-frequency
characteristics are as follows:
Rated Capacity = 2000 MW System Load = 1000 MW
Inertia Constant = 5 sec Speed regulation = 0.03 pu
Load damping factor = 1 pu Nominal Frequency = 50 Hz
Governor Time constant = 0 sec Turbine time constant = 0 sec
For a sudden change in load of 20 MW, determine the steady state frequency deviation
and the change in generation in MW and reduction in original load in MW (16)
6. The data pertaining to a single area power system with linear load-frequency
characteristics are as follows:
Rated Capacity = 1200 MW System Load = 600 MW
Inertia Constant = 4 sec Speed regulation = 4%
Load damping factor = 0.85 pu Nominal Frequency = 50 Hz
Governor Time constant = 0 sec Turbine time constant = 0 sec
For a sudden change in load of 40 MW, determine the steady state frequency deviation
(16)
7. A two area power system has two identical areas with parameters are given below:
Rated Capacity of the area = 3000 MW Nominal Operating load = 1500 MW
Inertia Constant = 4 sec Speed regulation = 4%
Load damping factor = 1 pu Nominal Frequency = 50 Hz
Governor Time constant = 0.06 sec Turbine time constant = 0.3 sec
A load increase M2 = 30 MW, occurs in area 2 Determine i) the steady state frequency
deviation ii) P
12s
(16)

EE1401 - POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL
KINGS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, - PUNALKULAM
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8. A two area system connected by a tie-line has the following parameters:

AREA 1 2
Turbine output Power (MW)
Nominal Frequency (Hz)
Inertia Constant speed regulation
Power system Gain ( k
p
)
Governor Time Constant
Turbine Time Constant
4000
50
4%
50
0.2
0.3
2000
50
5%
125
0.1
0.25

A load change of 80 MW occurs in area 1. Determine the steady state frequency and
the change in the tie-line flow.

UNIT III REACTIVE POWER AND VOLTAGE CONTROL
PART A

1. What are the methods of Voltage control?
2. List the various components in AVR loop.
3. Where are synchronous condensers installed?
4. What are the methods of increasing response in AVR?
5. What are the different types of static VAR compensators?
7. Compare series and shunt capacitors
8. How is voltage control obtained by using tap changing transformer?
9. What is booster transformer? Where it is used?
10. What is SVC?
PART B

1. i) Discuss generation and absorption of Reactive Power (8)
ii) Explain how voltage control can be effected by injection of Reactive Power (8)
2. i) Draw the composite SVS power system characteristics (8)
ii) What are the applications of SVS (8)
3. Explain different types of static VAR compensators with a phasor diagram (16)
4. A 3, 230 kV transmission line having the following parameters operates at no-load.
R=20, X= 80 , B= 4x10
-4
mho. If the receiving end voltage is 210kV find the sending
end voltage representing the transmission line as model. (16)
5. The load at receiving end of a 3 overhead line is 30 MW, 0.8 pf lag at the line voltage
of 66kV. A synchronous compensator is situated at sending end and the voltage at both
ends of the line is maintained at 66kV. Calculate the MVAR of compensator. The line has a
resistance and reactance of 6/ph, 24 /ph, respectively. (16)
6. A 415 kV line is fed through an 132/415kVtransformer from a constant 132kV supply. At
the load end of the line, the voltage is reduced by another transformer of ratio 415/132kV.
The total impedance of the line is (30+j60). Both transformers are equipped with tap-
changing, the product of the two off-nominal setting is unity. If the load on the system is
EE1401 - POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL
KINGS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, - PUNALKULAM
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200 MW at 0.8of lagging. Calculate the settings of the tap-changer required to maintain the
voltage at 132kV. (16)

7. Two sub-station are connected by two lines in parallel with negligible impedance, but
each containing a tap-changing transformer of reactance 0.22pu on the basis of its rating
of 200 MVA. Find the net absorption of reactive power when the transformer, taps are set
to 1:1.08, and 1:0.95 respectively. Assume pu voltages to be equal at the two ends. (16)

UNIT IV - ECONOMIC OPERATION OF POWER SYSTEMS
PART - A

2. What are the needs for load forecasting?
3. What is daily, Weekly, Annual load curve?
5. Define diversity factor.
6. What is demand factor?
7. What is meant by incremental cost curve?
8. Define spinning reserve.
9. What are cold reserves and hot reserves?
10. When do discontinuities occur in the fuel cost curve and the incremental cot curve?
11. What is plant use factor?
12. What is the purpose of economic dispatch?
13. What is meant by unit Commitment?
14. Compare unit commitment and economic dispatch
15. What do you mean by priority list method?
16. What are all the points to be noted for a economic load dispatch including
transmission losses?
PART B

1. i) Explain briefly the constraints on unit commitment problem. (8)
ii) What is spinning reserve and does this reserve help in operating a power system
efficiently? (8)
2. Explain Priority list method using full load average production cost. State the merits
and demerits. (16)
3. Explain with a neat flowchart the procedure for finding the solution for unit commitment
problems using forward DP method. (16)
4. There are three thermal generating units which can be committed to take the system
load. The fuel cost data and generation operating unit data are given below:

F1 = 392.7 + 5.544 P
1
+ 0.001093 P
1
2

F2 = 217 + 5.495 P
2
+ 0.001358 P
2
2

F3 = 65.5 + 6.695 P
3
+ 0.004049 P
3
2
, P
1
, P
2
, P
3
in MW

Generation limits : 150 P
1
600 MW
100 P
2
400 MW
50 P
3
200 MW
EE1401 - POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL
KINGS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, - PUNALKULAM
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There are no other constraints on system operation. Obtain an optimum unit commitment
table. Adopt Brute force enumeration technique. Show the details of economic schedule
and the component and total costs of operation for each feasible combination of units for
the load level of 900 MW.
5. The input output curve characteristics of three units are:

F1=750+6.49 P
G1
+0.0035P
2
G1

F2=870+5.75 P
G2
+0.
0015P
2
G2

F3=620+8.56 P
G3
+0.
001P
2
G3

The fuel cost of unit 1, 2, 3 is 1.0 Rs / Mbtu. Total load is 800 MW. Use participation
factor method to calculate the dispatch for a load is increased to 880 MW? (16)

6. Obtain the priority list of unit commitment using full load average production cost for the
given data for the load level of 900 MW.
F1 = 392.7 + 5.544 P
1
+ 0.001093 P
1
2

F2 = 217 + 5.495 P
2
+ 0.001358 P
2
2

F3 = 65.5 + 6.695 P
3
+ 0.004049 P
3
2
, P
1
, P
2
, P
3
in MW

Generation limits : 150 P
1
600 MW
100 P
2
400 MW
50 P
3
200 MW
There are no other constraints on system operation. Obtain an optimum unit commitment
table. (16)

7. Derive the expression for base point and participation method. (16)

8. Give iteration algorithm for solving economic scheduling problem, without transmission
loss. (16)

9. Derive coordination equation for economic dispatch including losses, in the power
system. Give steps for economic dispatch calculation. Neglecting losses (16)

10. Consider the following three units:

I
C1
= 7.92 + 0.003124 P
G1

I
C2
= 7.85 + 0.00388 P
G2

I
C3
= 7.97 + 0.00964 P
G3

P
D
= 850 MW
P
G1
= 392.2 MW, P
G2
= 334.6 MW, P
G3
= 122.2 MW

Determine the optimum schedule if the load is increased to 900 MW by using Participation
Factor method. (16)

EE1401 - POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL
KINGS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, - PUNALKULAM
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UNIT V - CONTROL CENTERS AND POWER SYSTEM SECURITY
PART A

1. What are the major functions that are carried out in an operations control center?
2. What are the EMS functions?
3. Define Energy control centre.
4. What is contingency analysis program?
6. What are the functions of SCADA?
7. What are the different operating states of a power system?
8. What is emergency state?
9. Write importance of state estimation in power system.
10. What is security monitoring and control?
11. List the factors that affect the power system security.
12. What are the important types of relays used for protection?
13. What do you understand power system stability?
14. Distinguish between reliability and security of a power system.

PART B

1. Explain the different system operating states . (16)