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Canada

Canada
"Dominion of Canada" redirects here. For the steam locomotive, see LNER Class A4 4489 Dominion of Canada.
For other uses, see Canada (disambiguation).

Canada

Flag

Motto:"A Mari Usque Ad Mare"(Latin)


"From Sea to Sea"
Anthem:"O Canada"
Royal anthem:"God Save the Queen"

Capital

Largest city
Official languages
Ethnicgroups

Demonym
Government

Ottawa
[1]
4524N 7540W
Toronto

English
French

76.7% European
14.2% Asian
4.3% Aboriginal
2.9% Black
1.2% Latin American
0.5% Multiracial
0.3% Other

Canadian
Federal parliamentary
constitutional monarchy

- Monarch

Elizabeth II

- Governor General

David Johnston

Canada

2
- Prime Minister

Stephen Harper

- Chief Justice

Beverley McLachlin

Legislature

Parliament

- Upper house

Senate

- Lower house

House of Commons

Establishmentfrom the United Kingdom


- Constitution Act

July 1, 1867

- Statute of Westminster December 11, 1931


- Canada Act

April 17, 1982


Area

- Total

9,984,670km (2nd)
3,854,085sqmi

- Water(%)

8.92 (891,163km / 344,080mi )

Population
- 2014estimate

35,344,962 (37th)

- 2011census

33,476,688

- Density

3.41/km (228th)
8.3/sqmi

GDP(PPP)

2013estimate

- Total

$1.518 trillion (13th)

- Per capita

$43,146 (9th)

GDP(nominal)

2013estimate

- Total

$1.825 trillion (10th)

- Per capita

$51,871 (10th)

Gini(2005)

32.1
medium 103rd

HDI (2013)

0.911
very high 11th

Currency

Canadian dollar ($) (CAD)

Time zone

(UTC3.5 to 8)

- Summer(DST)

(UTC2.5 to 7)

Date format

dd-mm-yyyy
mm-dd-yyyy
yyyy-mm-dd (CE)

Drives on the

right

Calling code

+1

ISO 3166 code

CA

Internet TLD

.ca

Canada i/knd/ is a country in North America consisting of 10 provinces and 3 territories. Located in the
northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean. At
9.98 million square kilometres in total, Canada is the world's second-largest country by total area, and its common

Canada
border with the United States is the world's longest land border shared by the same two countries.
The land that is now Canada has been inhabited for millennia by various Aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the late
15th century, British and French colonies were established on the region's Atlantic coast. As a consequence of
various conflicts, the United Kingdom gained and lost North American territories until left in the late 18th century
with what mostly comprises Canada today. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1, 1867 three colonies
joined to form the autonomous federal dominion of Canada. This began an accretion of provinces and territories to
the new self-governing dominion. In 1931 Britain granted Canada full independence in most matters with the Statute
of Westminster 1931. The last ties were dissolved in 1982 with the Canada Act 1982.
Canada is a federal parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of
state. Canada is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level. It
is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from
many countries, with a population of approximately 35 million as of December 2012. Its advanced economy is one
of the largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed trade networks.
Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and
culture.
Canada is a developed country and one of the wealthiest in the world, with the eighth highest per capita income
globally, and the eleventh highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in
international measurements of education, government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, and economic
freedom. Canada's participation in economic international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings includes
the G8 (Group of Eight); the Group of Ten (economic); the Group of Twenty (G-20 major economies); the North
American Free Trade Agreement; and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. Canada's alliances include the
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

Etymology
Main article: Name of Canada
The name Canada comes from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement". In 1535,
indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques
Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier later used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village, but
the entire area subject to Donnacona (the chief at Stadacona); by 1545, European books and maps had begun
referring to this region as Canada.
In the 17th and early 18th centuries, "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence
River. To punish the resistance of the Thirteen Colonies, Canada's territory was vastly expanded by the British in the
1774 Quebec Act to include unsettled territory in the Great Lakes region down to the Ohio river. Part of this
arbitrarily added territory was turned over to the new United States in 1783, but all land north of the Great Lakes
(making up much of modern Ontario) was retained by British Canada. In 1791 the British designated this region
Upper Canada and the traditional French-speaking portion Lower Canada, they were reunified as the Province of
Canada in 1841.
Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country, and the word Dominion
was conferred as the country's title. However, as Canada asserted its political autonomy from the United Kingdom,
the federal government increasingly used simply Canada on state documents and treaties, a change that was reflected
in the renaming of the national holiday from Dominion Day to Canada Day in 1982.

Canada

History
Main article: History of Canada
Further information: List of years in Canada

Aboriginal peoples
Archaeological studies and genetic analyses have indicated a human presence in the northern Yukon region from
24,500 BC, and in southern Ontario from 7500 BC. These first settlers entered Canada through Beringia by way of
the Bering land bridge.[2] The Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the
oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian Aboriginal societies included permanent
settlements, agriculture, complex societal hierarchies, and trading networks. Some of these cultures had collapsed by
the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, and have only been discovered through
archeological investigations.
The aboriginal population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
and two million, with a figure of 500,000 accepted by Canada's Royal Commission on Aboriginal Health. As a
consequence of the European colonization, Canada's aboriginal peoples suffered from repeated outbreaks of newly
introduced infectious diseases such as influenza, measles, and smallpox (to which they had no natural immunity),
resulting in a forty- to eighty-percent population decrease in the centuries after the European arrival. Aboriginal
peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Inuit, and Mtis. The Mtis are a mixed-blood people who
originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers. In general, the
Inuit had more limited interaction with European settlers during the colonization period.

European colonization

Benjamin West's The Death of General Wolfe


(1771) dramatizes James Wolfe's death during the
Battle of the Plains of Abraham at Quebec in
1759.

The first known attempt at European colonization began when


Norsemen settled briefly at L'Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland
around 1000 AD. No further European exploration occurred until 1497,
when Italian seafarer John Cabot explored Canada's Atlantic coast for
England. Basque and Portuguese mariners established seasonal
whaling and fishing outposts along the Atlantic coast in the early 16th
century. In 1534, French explorer Jacques Cartier explored the St.
Lawrence River, where on July 24 he planted a 10-metre (33ft) cross
bearing the words "Long Live the King of France", and took
possession of the territory in the name of King Francis I.

In 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert claimed St. John's, Newfoundland, as


the first North American English colony by the royal prerogative of
Queen Elizabeth I. French explorer Samuel de Champlain arrived in 1603, and established the first permanent
European settlements at Port Royal in 1605 and Quebec City in 1608. Among the French colonists of New France,
Canadiens extensively settled the St. Lawrence River valley and Acadians settled the present-day Maritimes, while
fur traders and Catholic missionaries explored the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and the Mississippi watershed to
Louisiana. The Beaver Wars broke out in the mid-17th century over control of the North American fur trade.

Canada

The English established additional


colonies in Cupids and Ferryland,
Newfoundland, beginning in 1610. The
Thirteen Colonies to the south were
founded soon after. A series of four
wars erupted in colonial North
America between 1689 and 1763; the
later wars of the period constituted the
North American theatre of the Seven
Years' War. Mainland Nova Scotia
came under British rule with the 1713
Treaty of Utrecht; the Treaty of Paris
(1763) ceded Canada and most of New
France to Britain after the Seven Years'
War.

Map of British America showing original boundaries of Quebec/Canada and its


annexation of territories, including modern Ontario, following the Quebec Act of 1774.

The Royal Proclamation of 1763 created the Province of Quebec out of New France, and annexed Cape Breton
Island to Nova Scotia. St. John's Island (now Prince Edward Island) became a separate colony in 1769. To avert
conflict in Quebec, the British passed the Quebec Act of 1774, expanding Quebec's territory to the Great Lakes and
Ohio Valley. It re-established the French language, Catholic faith, and French civil law there. This angered many
residents of the Thirteen Colonies, fuelling anti-British sentiment in the years prior to the 1775 outbreak of the
American Revolution.
The 1783 Treaty of Paris recognized American independence and ceded the newly added territories south (but not
north) of the Great Lakes to the new United States. New Brunswick was split from Nova Scotia as part of a
reorganization of Loyalist settlements in the Maritimes. To accommodate English-speaking Loyalists in Quebec, the
Constitutional Act of 1791 divided the province into French-speaking Lower Canada (later Quebec) and
English-speaking Upper Canada (later Ontario), granting each its own elected legislative assembly.
The Canadas were the main front in the War of 1812 between the
United States and Britain. Following the war, large-scale immigration
to Canada from Britain and Ireland began in 1815. Between 1825 and
1846, 626,628 European immigrants reportedly landed at Canadian
ports. These included Irish immigrants escaping the Great Irish Famine
as well as Gaelic-speaking Scots displaced by the Highland
Clearances. Between one-quarter and one-third of all Europeans who
immigrated to Canada before 1891 died of infectious diseases.

Robert Harris's Fathers of Confederation (1884),


an amalgamation of the Charlottetown and
[3]
Quebec conferences of 1864.

The desire for responsible government resulted in the abortive


Rebellions of 1837. The Durham Report subsequently recommended
responsible government and the assimilation of French Canadians into English culture. The Act of Union 1840
merged the Canadas into a united Province of Canada. Responsible government was established for all British North
American provinces by 1849. The signing of the Oregon Treaty by Britain and the United States in 1846 ended the
Oregon boundary dispute, extending the border westward along the 49th parallel. This paved the way for British
colonies on Vancouver Island (1849) and in British Columbia (1858).

Canada

Confederation and expansion


Following
several
constitutional
conferences, the 1867 Constitution Act
officially
proclaimed
Canadian
Confederation on July 1, 1867, initially with
four provinces Ontario, Quebec, Nova
Scotia, and New Brunswick. Canada
assumed control of Rupert's Land and the
North-Western Territory to form the
Northwest Territories, where the Mtis'
grievances ignited the Red River Rebellion
and the creation of the province of Manitoba
in July 1870. British Columbia and
Vancouver Island (which had been united in
1866) joined the Confederation in 1871,
while Prince Edward Island joined in 1873.
Prime Minister John A. Macdonald and his
Conservative government established a
National Policy of tariffs to protect the
nascent Canadian manufacturing industries. To open the West, the government sponsored the construction of three
transcontinental railways (including the Canadian Pacific Railway), opened the prairies to settlement with the
Dominion Lands Act, and established the North-West Mounted Police to assert its authority over this territory. In
1898, during the Klondike Gold Rush in the Northwest Territories, the Canadian government created the Yukon
Territory. Under the Liberal Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier, continental European immigrants settled the prairies,
and Alberta and Saskatchewan became provinces in 1905.
An animated map showing the growth and change of Canada's provinces and
territories since Confederation in 1867

Early 20th century


Because Britain still maintained control of Canada's foreign affairs
under the Confederation Act, its declaration of war in 1914
automatically brought Canada into World War I. Volunteers sent to the
Western Front later became part of the Canadian Corps. The Corps
played a substantial role in the Battle of Vimy Ridge and other major
engagements of the war. Out of approximately 625,000 Canadians who
served in World War I, around 60,000 were killed and another 173,000
were wounded. The Conscription Crisis of 1917 erupted when
conservative Prime Minister Robert Borden brought in compulsory
military service over the vehement objections of French-speaking
Canadian soldiers and a Mark II tank at the Battle
of Vimy Ridge in 1917
Quebecers. The Conscription Crisis, coupled with disputes over French
language schools outside Quebec, deeply alienated Francophone
Canadians and temporarily split the Liberal Party. Bordon's Unionist government included many Anglophone
Liberals, and it swept to a landslide victory in the 1917 elections. In 1919, Canada joined the League of Nations
independently of Britain, the 1931 Statute of Westminster affirmed Canada's independence.
The great depression in Canada during the early 1930s saw an economic downturn, leading to hardship across the
country. In response to the downturn, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) in Saskatchewan
introduced many elements of a welfare state (as pioneered by Tommy Douglas) in the 1940s and 1950s. Canada

Canada

declared war on Germany independently during World War II under Liberal Prime Minister William Lyon
Mackenzie King, three days after Britain. The first Canadian Army units arrived in Britain in December 1939.
Canadian troops played important roles in many key battles of the war, including the failed 1942 Dieppe Raid, the
Allied invasion of Italy, the Normandy landings, the Battle of Normandy, and the Battle of the Scheldt in 1944.
Canada provided asylum for the Dutch monarchy while that country was occupied, and is credited by the
Netherlands for major contributions to its liberation from Nazi Germany. The Canadian economy boomed during the
war as its industries manufactured military materiel for Canada, Britain, China, and the Soviet Union. Despite
another Conscription Crisis in Quebec in 1944, Canada finished the war with a large army and strong economy.

Modern times
The financial crisis of the great depression had led the Dominion of
Newfoundland to relinquish responsible government in 1934 and
become a crown colony ruled by a British governor. After two bitter
referendums, Newfoundlanders voted to join Canada in 1949 as a
province.
Canada's post-war economic growth, combined with the policies of
successive Liberal governments, led to the emergence of a new
Canadian identity, marked by the adoption of the current Maple Leaf
Flag in 1965, the implementation of official bilingualism (English and
French) in 1969, and the institution of official multiculturalism in
1971. Socially democratic programs were also instituted, such as
Medicare, the Canada Pension Plan, and Canada Student Loans,
though provincial governments, particularly Quebec and Alberta,
opposed many of these as incursions into their jurisdictions.

At Rideau Hall, Governor General the Viscount


Alexander of Tunis (centre) receives the bill
finalizing the union of Newfoundland and Canada
on March 31, 1949

Finally, another series of constitutional conferences resulted in the 1982 patriation of Canada's constitution from the
United Kingdom, concurrent with the creation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. In 1999, Nunavut
became Canada's third territory after a series of negotiations with the federal government.
At the same time, Quebec underwent profound social and economic changes through the Quiet Revolution of the
1960s, giving birth to a modern nationalist movement. The radical Front de libration du Qubec (FLQ) ignited the
October Crisis with a series of bombings and kidnappings in 1970, and the sovereignist Parti Qubcois was elected
in 1976, organizing an unsuccessful referendum on sovereignty-association in 1980. Attempts to accommodate
Quebec nationalism constitutionally through the Meech Lake Accord failed in 1990. This led to the formation of the
Bloc Qubcois in Quebec and the invigoration of the Reform Party of Canada in the West. A second referendum
followed in 1995, in which sovereignty was rejected by a slimmer margin of 50.6 to 49.4 percent. In 1997, the
Supreme Court ruled that unilateral secession by a province would be unconstitutional, and the Clarity Act was
passed by parliament, outlining the terms of a negotiated departure from Confederation.
In addition to the issues of Quebec sovereignty, a number of crises shook Canadian society in the late 1980s and
early 1990s. These included the explosion of Air India Flight 182 in 1985, the largest mass murder in Canadian
history; the cole Polytechnique massacre in 1989, a university shooting targeting female students; and the Oka
Crisis of 1990, the first of a number of violent confrontations between the government and Aboriginal groups.
Canada also joined the Gulf War in 1990 as part of a US-led coalition force, and was active in several peacekeeping
missions in the 1990s, including the UNPROFOR mission in the former Yugoslavia. Canada sent troops to
Afghanistan in 2001, but declined to join the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003. In 2009, Canada's economy suffered in
the worldwide Great Recession, but it has since rebounded modestly. In 2011, Canadian forces participated in the
NATO-led intervention into the Libyan civil war.

Canada

Geography
Main article: Geography of Canada
Canada occupies a major northern portion of North America, sharing land borders with the contiguous United States
to the south (the longest border between two countries in the world) and the US state of Alaska to the northwest.
Canada stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west; to the north lies the Arctic
Ocean. Greenland is to the northeast, while Saint Pierre and Miquelon is south of Newfoundland. By total area
(including its waters), Canada is the second-largest country in the world, after Russia. By land area alone, Canada
ranks fourth. The country lies between latitudes 41 and 84N, and longitudes 52 and 141W.
Since 1925, Canada has claimed the portion of the
Arctic between 60 and 141W longitude, but this
claim is not universally recognized. Canada is home to
the world's northernmost settlement, Canadian Forces
Station Alert, on the northern tip of Ellesmere Island
latitude 82.5N which lies 817 kilometres (508mi)
from the North Pole. Much of the Canadian Arctic is
covered by ice and permafrost. Canada has the longest
coastline in the world, with a total length of 202,080
kilometres (125,570mi); additionally, its border with
the United States is the world's longest land border,
stretching 8,891 kilometres (5,525mi).

A satellite composite image of Canada. Boreal forests prevail on the


rocky Canadian Shield, while ice and tundra are prominent in the
Arctic. Glaciers are visible in the Canadian Rockies and Coast
Mountains. The flat and fertile prairies facilitate agriculture. The
Great Lakes feed the St. Lawrence River in the southeast, where
lowlands host much of Canada's population.

Since the end of the last glacial period, Canada has


consisted of eight distinct forest regions, including
extensive boreal forest on the Canadian Shield. Canada
has around 31,700 large lakes,[4] more than any other
country, containing much of the world's fresh water. There are also fresh-water glaciers in the Canadian Rockies and
the Coast Mountains. Canada is geologically active, having many earthquakes and potentially active volcanoes,
notably Mount Meager, Mount Garibaldi, Mount Cayley, and the Mount Edziza volcanic complex. The volcanic
eruption of the Tseax Cone in 1775 was among Canada's worst natural disasters, killing 2,000 Nisga'a people and
destroying their village in the Nass River valley of northern British Columbia. The eruption produced a
22.5-kilometre (14.0mi) lava flow, and, according to Nisga'a legend, blocked the flow of the Nass River. Canada's
population density, at 3.3 inhabitants per square kilometre (8.5/sqmi), is among the lowest in the world. The most
densely populated part of the country is the Quebec City Windsor Corridor, situated in Southern Quebec and
Southern Ontario along the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River.
Average winter and summer high temperatures across Canada vary from region to region. Winters can be harsh in
many parts of the country, particularly in the interior and Prairie provinces, which experience a continental climate,
where daily average temperatures are near 15C (5F), but can drop below 40C (40F) with severe wind
chills. In noncoastal regions, snow can cover the ground for almost six months of the year, while in parts of the north
snow can persist year-round. Coastal British Columbia has a temperate climate, with a mild and rainy winter. On the
east and west coasts, average high temperatures are generally in the low 20s C (70s F), while between the coasts,
the average summer high temperature ranges from 25 to 30C (77 to 86F), with temperatures in some interior
locations occasionally exceeding 40C (104F).

Canada

Government and politics


Main articles: Government of Canada and Politics of Canada
Canada has a parliamentary system within the context of a
constitutional monarchy, the monarchy of Canada being the foundation
of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The sovereign is
Queen Elizabeth II, who also serves as head of state of 15 other
Commonwealth countries and each of Canada's ten provinces. As such,
the Queen's representative, the Governor General of Canada (at present
David Lloyd Johnston), carries out most of the federal royal duties in
Canada.
The direct participation of the royal and viceroyal figures in areas of
Parliament Hill in Canada's capital city, Ottawa
governance is limited. In practice, their use of the executive powers is
directed by the Cabinet, a committee of ministers of the Crown responsible to the elected House of Commons and
chosen and headed by the Prime Minister of Canada (at present Stephen Harper), the head of government. The
governor general or monarch may, though, in certain crisis situations exercise their power without ministerial advice.
To ensure the stability of government, the governor general will usually appoint as prime minister the person who is
the current leader of the political party that can obtain the confidence of a plurality in the House of Commons. The
Prime Minister's Office (PMO) is thus one of the most powerful institutions in government, initiating most
legislation for parliamentary approval and selecting for appointment by the Crown, besides the aforementioned, the
governor general, lieutenant governors, senators, federal court judges, and heads of Crown corporations and
government agencies. The leader of the party with the second-most seats usually becomes the Leader of Her
Majesty's Loyal Opposition (presently Thomas Mulcair) and is part of an adversarial parliamentary system intended
to keep the government in check.

The Senate chamber within the Centre Block on


Parliament Hill

Each of the 308 members of parliament in the House of Commons is


elected by simple plurality in an electoral district or riding. General
elections must be called by the governor general, either on the advice
of the prime minister, within four years of the previous election, or if
the government loses a confidence vote in the House. The 105
members of the Senate, whose seats are apportioned on a regional
basis, serve until age 75. Five parties had representatives elected to the
federal parliament in the 2011 elections: the Conservative Party of
Canada (governing party), the New Democratic Party (the Official
Opposition), the Liberal Party of Canada, the Bloc Qubcois, and the
Green Party of Canada. The list of historical parties with elected

representation is substantial.
Canada's federal structure divides government responsibilities between the federal government and the ten provinces.
Provincial legislatures are unicameral and operate in parliamentary fashion similar to the House of Commons.
Canada's three territories also have legislatures, but these are not sovereign and have fewer constitutional
responsibilities than the provinces. The territorial legislatures also differ structurally from their provincial
counterparts.

Canada

10

Law
Main article: Law of Canada
The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law of the country, and consists of written text and unwritten
conventions. The Constitution Act, 1867 (known as the British North America Act prior to 1982), affirmed
governance based on parliamentary precedent and divided powers between the federal and provincial governments.
The Statute of Westminster 1931 granted full autonomy and the Constitution Act, 1982, ended all legislative ties to
the UK, as well as adding a constitutional amending formula and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The
Charter guarantees basic rights and freedoms that usually cannot be over-ridden by any governmentthough a
notwithstanding clause allows the federal parliament and provincial legislatures to override certain sections of the
Charter for a period of five years.
Although not without conflict, European Canadians' early interactions
with First Nations and Inuit populations were relatively peaceful. The
Crown and Aboriginal peoples began interactions during the European
colonialization period. The Indian Act, various treaties and case laws
were established to mediate relations between Europeans and native
peoples. Most notably, a series of eleven treaties known as the
Numbered Treaties were signed between Aboriginals in Canada and
the reigning Monarch of Canada between 1871 and 1921. These
The Indian Chiefs Medal, presented to
commemorate the Numbered Treaties of
treaties are agreements with the Canadian Crown-in-Council,
18711921
administered by Canadian Aboriginal law, and overseen by the
Minister of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development. The role of
the treaties and the rights they support were reaffirmed by Section Thirty-five of the Constitution Act, 1982. These
rights may include provision of services such as health care, and exemption from taxation. The legal and policy
framework within which Canada and First Nations operate was further formalized in 2005, through the First
NationsFederal Crown Political Accord.

The Supreme Court of Canada in Ottawa, west of


Parliament Hill

Canada's judiciary plays an important role in interpreting laws and has


the power to strike down Acts of Parliament that violate the
constitution. The Supreme Court of Canada is the highest court and
final arbiter and has been led since 2000 by the Chief Justice Beverley
McLachlin (the first female Chief Justice). Its nine members are
appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
and minister of justice. All judges at the superior and appellate levels
are appointed after consultation with nongovernmental legal bodies.
The federal Cabinet also appoints justices to superior courts in the
provincial and territorial jurisdictions.

Common law prevails everywhere except in Quebec, where civil law predominates. Criminal law is solely a federal
responsibility and is uniform throughout Canada. Law enforcement, including criminal courts, is officially a
provincial responsibility, conducted by provincial and municipal police forces. However, in most rural areas and
some urban areas, policing responsibilities are contracted to the federal Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

Canada

11

Foreign relations and military


Main articles: Foreign relations of Canada and Military history of Canada
Canada currently employs a professional, volunteer military force of
68,250 active personnel and approximately 47,081 reserve personnel.
The unified Canadian Forces (CF) comprise the Canadian Army, Royal
Canadian Navy, and Royal Canadian Air Force. In 2011, Canada's
military expenditure totalled approximately C$24.5 billion.
Canada and the United States share the world's longest undefended
border, co-operate on military campaigns and exercises, and are each
Prime Minister Stephen Harper meeting President
other's largest trading partner. Canada nevertheless has an independent
of the United States Barack Obama in 2009
foreign policy, most notably maintaining full relations with Cuba and
declining to officially participate in the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Canada also maintains historic ties to the United
Kingdom and France and to other former British and French colonies through Canada's membership in the
Commonwealth of Nations and the Francophonie. Canada is noted for having a positive relationship with the
Netherlands, owing, in part, to its contribution to the Dutch liberation during World War II.
Canada's strong attachment to the British Empire and Commonwealth led to major participation in British military
efforts in the Second Boer War, World War I and World War II. Since then, Canada has been an advocate for
multilateralism, making efforts to resolve global issues in collaboration with other nations. Canada was a founding
member of the United Nations in 1945 and of NATO in 1949. During the Cold War, Canada was a major contributor
to UN forces in the Korean War and founded the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) in
co-operation with the United States to defend against potential aerial attacks from the Soviet Union.

Canadian Army soldiers from the Royal 22nd


Regiment deploying during UNITAS exercises in
April 2009

During the Suez Crisis of 1956, future Prime Minister Lester B.


Pearson eased tensions by proposing the inception of the United
Nations Peacekeeping Force, for which he was awarded the 1957
Nobel Peace Prize. As this was the first UN peacekeeping mission,
Pearson is often credited as the inventor of the concept. Canada has
since served in 50 peacekeeping missions, including every UN
peacekeeping effort until 1989, and has since maintained forces in
international missions in Rwanda, the former Yugoslavia, and
elsewhere; Canada has sometimes faced controversy over its
involvement in foreign countries, notably in the 1993 Somalia Affair.

Canada joined the Organization of American States (OAS) in 1990 and


hosted the OAS General Assembly in Windsor, Ontario, in June 2000 and the third Summit of the Americas in
Quebec City in April 2001. Canada seeks to expand its ties to Pacific Rim economies through membership in the
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC).

Canada

In 2001, Canada deployed troops to Afghanistan as part of the US


stabilization force and the UN-authorized, NATO-led International
Security Assistance Force. In all, Canada lost 158 soldiers, one
diplomat, two aid workers, and one journalist during the ten year
mission, which cost approximately C$11.3billion.
In February 2007, Canada, Italy, the United Kingdom, Norway, and
Russia announced their joint commitment to a $1.5-billion project to
help develop vaccines for developing nations, and called on other
The Halifax-class frigate HMCS Regina, a
countries to join them. In August 2007, Canada's territorial claims in
warship of the Royal Canadian Navy, near
the Arctic were challenged after a Russian underwater expedition to
Hawaii during the 2004 RIMPAC exercises
the North Pole; Canada has considered that area to be sovereign
territory since 1925. Between March and October 2011, Canadian forces participated in a UN-mandated NATO
intervention into the 2011 Libyan civil war.

International organizations
Canada is recognized as a middle power for its role in international affairs with a tendency to pursue multilateral
solutions. As well as its membership of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Canada is a member of regional and other international
organizations and forums for economic and cultural affairs. Canada acceded to the International Covenant on Civil
and Political Rights in 1976.

Provinces and territories


Main article: Provinces and territories of Canada
See also: Canadian federalism
Canada is a federation composed of ten provinces and three territories. In turn, these may be grouped into four main
regions: Western Canada, Central Canada, Atlantic Canada, and Northern Canada ("Eastern Canada" refers to
Central Canada and Atlantic Canada together). Provinces have more autonomy than territories, having responsibility
for social programs such as health care, education, and welfare. Together, the provinces collect more revenue than
the federal government, an almost unique structure among federations in the world. Using its spending powers, the
federal government can initiate national policies in provincial areas, such as the Canada Health Act; the provinces
can opt out of these, but rarely do so in practice. Equalization payments are made by the federal government to
ensure that reasonably uniform standards of services and taxation are kept between the richer and poorer provinces.
A clickable map of Canada exhibiting its ten provinces and three territories, and their capitals.

12

Canada

Economy
Main article: Economy of Canada
The Bank of Canada is the central bank
of the country and governed by
Stephen Poloz. In addition, the
Minister of Finance and Ministry of
Industry utilize the Statistics Canada
system for financial planning. The
Toronto Stock Exchange is the seventh
largest exchange in the world having
1,577 companies listed in 2012.
Canada is the world's eleventh-largest
Nations that have Free Trade Agreements with Canada as of 2009 are in dark blue, while
nations in negotiations are in cyan. Canada is green.
economy, with a 2012 nominal GDP of
approximately US$1.82 trillion. It is a
member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the Group of Eight (G8),
and is one of the world's top ten trading nations, with a highly globalized economy. Canada is a mixed economy,
ranking above the US and most western European nations on the Heritage Foundation's index of economic freedom,
and experiencing a relatively low level of income disparity. In 2008, Canada's imported goods were worth over
$442.9billion, of which $280.8billion originated from the United States, $11.7billion from Japan, and $11.3billion
from the United Kingdom. The country's 2009 trade deficit totalled C$4.8billion, compared with a C$46.9billion
surplus in 2008.

13

Canada
Since the early 20th century, the growth of Canada's manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the
nation from a largely rural economy to an urbanized, industrial one. Like many other developed nations, the
Canadian economy is dominated by the service industry, which employs about three-quarters of the country's
workforce. However, Canada is unusual among developed countries in the importance of its primary sector, in which
the logging and petroleum industries are two of the most prominent components.
Canada is one of the few developed nations that are net exporters of energy. Atlantic Canada possesses vast offshore
deposits of natural gas, and Alberta also hosts large oil and gas resources. The vastness of the Athabasca oil sands
and other assets results in Canada having 13% of the global oil reserves, the world's third-largest, after Venezuela
and Saudi Arabia. Canada is additionally one of the world's largest suppliers of agricultural products; the Canadian
Prairies are one of the most important global producers of wheat, canola, and other grains. The Ministry of Natural
Resources in Canada provides statistics regarding their major exports, zinc and uranium, and is a leading exporter of
many other minerals, such as gold, nickel, aluminum, steel, iron ore, Coking Coal, and lead.[5] Many towns in
northern Canada, where agriculture is difficult, are sustainable because of nearby mines or sources of timber. Canada
also has a sizeable manufacturing sector centred in southern Ontario and Quebec, with automobiles and aeronautics
representing particularly important industries.
Canada's economic integration with the United States has increased
significantly since World War II. The Automotive Products Trade
Agreement of 1965 opened Canada's borders to trade in the automobile
manufacturing industry. In the 1970s, concerns over energy
self-sufficiency and foreign ownership in the manufacturing sectors
prompted Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau's Liberal government to enact
the National Energy Program (NEP) and the Foreign Investment
Review Agency (FIRA). In the 1980s, Prime Minister Brian
Representatives of the governments of Canada,
Mulroney's Progressive Conservatives abolished the NEP and changed
Mexico, and the United States sign the North
the name of FIRA to "Investment Canada", to encourage foreign
American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in
investment.
The Canada United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA)
1992.
of 1988 eliminated tariffs between the two countries, while the North
American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) expanded the free-trade zone to include Mexico in 1994. In the
mid-1990s, Jean Chrtien's Liberal government began to post annual budgetary surpluses, and steadily paid down the
national debt.
The global financial crisis of 2008 caused a major recession, which led to a significant rise in unemployment in
Canada. By October 2009, Canada's national unemployment rate had reached 8.6 percent, with provincial
unemployment rates varying from a low of 5.8 percent in Manitoba to a high of 17 percent in Newfoundland and
Labrador. Between October 2008 and October 2010, the Canadian labour market lost 162,000 full-time jobs and a
total of 224,000 permanent jobs. Canada's federal debt was estimated to total $566.7billion for the fiscal year
201011, up from $463.7billion in 200809. In addition, Canada's net foreign debt rose by $41 billion to $194
billion in the first quarter of 2010. However, Canada's regulated banking sector (comparatively conservative among
G8 nations), the federal government's pre-crisis budgetary surpluses, and its long-term policies of lowering the
national debt, resulted in a less severe recession compared to other G8 nations. As of 2013, the majority of the
Canadian economy has stabilized, although the country remains troubled by slow growth, sensitivity to the Eurozone
crisis and higher-than-normal unemployment rates. The federal government and many Canadian industries have also
started to expand trade with emerging Asian markets, in an attempt to diversify exports; in 2011, Asia was Canada's
second-largest export market, after the United States. Widely debated oil pipeline proposals, in particular, are hoped
to increase exports of Canadian oil reserves to China.

14

Canada

15

Science and technology


Main articles: Science and technology in Canada and Telecommunications in Canada
In 2011, Canada spent approximately C$29.9 billion on domestic
research and development. As of 2012, the country has produced
fourteen Nobel laureates in physics, chemistry and medicine, and was
ranked fourth worldwide for scientific research quality in a major 2012
survey of international scientists. It is additionally home to a number of
global technology firms. Canada ranks seventeenth in the world for
Internet users as a proportion of the population, with over 28.4million
users, equivalent to around 83 percent of its total 2012 population.
The Canadarm robotic manipulator in action on

The Canadian Space Agency operates a highly active space program,


Space Shuttle Discovery during the STS-116
mission in 2006.
conducting deep-space, planetary, and aviation research, and
developing rockets and satellites. Canada was the third country to
launch a satellite into space after the USSR and the United States, with the 1962 Alouette 1 launch. In 1984, Marc
Garneau became Canada's first astronaut. As of 2013, nine Canadians have flown into space, over the course of
fifteen manned missions.
Canada is a participant in the International Space Station (ISS), and is a pioneer in space robotics, having constructed
the Canadarm, Canadarm2 and Dextre robotic manipulators for the ISS and NASA's Space Shuttle. Since the 1960s,
Canada's aerospace industry has designed and built numerous marques of satellite, including Radarsat-1 and 2, ISIS
and MOST. Canada has also produced a successful and widely used sounding rocket, the Black Brant; over 1,000
Black Brants have been launched since the rocket's introduction in 1961.

Demographics
Main articles: Canadians and Demographics of Canada

Ethnic origins of people in Canada (self-reported 2011 Census)[6]


European (76.7%)
Asian (14.2%)
Aboriginal (4.3%)
Black (2.9%)
Latin American (1.2%)
Multiracial (0.5%)
Other (0.3%)
The 2011 Canadian census counted a total population of 33,476,688, an increase of around 5.9 percent over the 2006
figure. By December 2012, Statistics Canada reported a population of over 35 million, signifying the fastest growth

Canada
rate of any G8 nation. Between 1990 and 2008, the population increased by 5.6 million, equivalent to 20.4 percent
overall growth. The main drivers of population growth are immigration and, to a lesser extent, natural growth.
About four-fifths of the population lives within 150 kilometres (93mi) of the United States border. Approximately
80 percent of Canadians live in urban areas concentrated in the Quebec CityWindsor Corridor, the British
Columbia Lower Mainland, and the CalgaryEdmonton Corridor in Alberta. Canada spans latitudinally from the
83rd parallel north to the 41st parallel north, and approximately 95% of the population is found below the 55th
parallel north. In common with many other developed countries, Canada is experiencing a demographic shift towards
an older population, with more retirees and fewer people of working age. In 2006, the average age was 39.5 years; by
2011, it had risen to approximately 39.9 years. As of 2013, the average life expectancy for Canadians is 81 years.
According to the 2006 census, the country's largest self-reported ethnic origin is Canadian (accounting for 32% of
the population), followed by English (21%), French (15.8%), Scottish (15.1%), Irish (13.9%), German (10.2%),
Italian (4.6%), Chinese (4.3%), First Nations (4.0%), Ukrainian (3.9%), and Dutch (3.3%). There are 600 recognized
First Nations governments or bands, encompassing a total of 1,172,790 people.
Canada's aboriginal population is growing at almost twice the national rate, and four percent of Canada's population
claimed aboriginal identity in 2006. Another 16.2 percent of the population belonged to a non-aboriginal visible
minority. In 2006, the largest visible minority groups were South Asian (4.0%), Chinese (3.9%) and Black (2.5%).
Between 2001 and 2006, the visible minority population rose by 27.2 percent. In 1961, less than two percent of
Canada's population (about 300,000 people) could be classified as belonging to a visible minority group, and less
than one percent as aboriginal. By 2007, almost one in five (19.8%) were foreign-born, with nearly 60 percent of
new immigrants coming from Asia (including the Middle East). The leading sources of immigrants to Canada were
China, the Philippines and India. According to Statistics Canada, visible minority groups could account for a third of
the Canadian population by 2031.
Canada has one of the highest per-capita immigration rates in the world, driven by economic policy and family
reunification. In 2010, a record 280,636 people immigrated to Canada. The Canadian government anticipated
between 240,000 and 265,000 new permanent residents in 2013, a similar number of immigrants as in recent years.
New immigrants settle mostly in major urban areas like Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. Canada also accepts
large numbers of refugees, accounting for over 10 percent of annual global refugee resettlements.
Canada is religiously diverse, encompassing a wide range of beliefs and customs. According to the 2011 census, 67.3
percent of Canadians identify as Christian; of these, Catholics make up the largest group, accounting for 38.7 percent
of the population. The largest Protestant denomination is the United Church of Canada (accounting for 6.1% of
Canadians), followed by Anglicans (5.0%), and Baptists (1.9%). In 2011, about 23.9 percent declared no religious
affiliation, compared to 16.5% in 2001. The remaining 8.8 percent are affiliated with non-Christian religions, the
largest of which are Islam (3.2%) and Hinduism (1.5%).
Canadian provinces and territories are responsible for education. The mandatory school age ranges between 57 to
1618 years, contributing to an adult literacy rate of 99 percent. As of 2011, 88 percent of adults aged 25 to 64 have
earned the equivalent of a high-school degree, compared to an OECD average of 74 percent.[7] In 2002, 43 percent of
Canadians aged 25 to 64 possessed a post-secondary education; for those aged 25 to 34, the rate of post-secondary
education reached 51 percent. According to a 2012 NBC report, Canada is the most educated country in the world.
The Programme for International Student Assessment indicates that Canadian students perform well above the
OECD average, particularly in mathematics, science, and reading.

16

Canada

17

Largest metropolitan areas in Canada by population (2011 Census)


view
talk
[8]
edit

Name

Province

Population Name

Province

Population

Toronto

Ontario

5,583,064

London

Ontario

474,786

Montreal

Quebec

3,824,221

St.
CatharinesNiagara

Ontario

392,184

British
Columbia

2,313,328

Halifax

Nova Scotia

390,328

OntarioQuebec

1,236,324

Oshawa

Ontario

356,177

Calgary

Alberta

1,214,839

Victoria

British Columbia

344,615

Edmonton

Alberta

1,159,869

Windsor

Ontario

319,246

Quebec

Quebec

765,706

Saskatoon

Saskatchewan

260,600

Winnipeg

Manitoba

730,018

Regina

Saskatchewan

210,556

Hamilton

Ontario

721,053

Sherbrooke

Quebec

201,890

KitchenerCambridgeWaterloo

Ontario

477,160

St. John's

Newfoundland and
Labrador

196,966

Vancouver
OttawaGatineau

Language
Main article: Languages of Canada
See also: List of endangered languages in Canada
Canada's two official languages are English and French, pursuant to Section 16 of the Canadian Charter of Rights
and Freedoms and the Federal Official Languages Act. Canada's federal government practices official bilingualism,
which is applied by the Commissioner of Official Languages. English and French have equal status in federal courts,
Parliament, and in all federal institutions. Citizens have the right, where there is sufficient demand, to receive federal
government services in either English or French, and official-language minorities are guaranteed their own schools
in all provinces and territories.

Canada

18
English and French are the first languages of 59.7 and
23.2 percent of the population respectively.
Approximately 98 percent of Canadians speak English
or French: 57.8 percent speak English only, 22.1
percent speak French only, and 17.4 percent speak
both. The English and French official-language
communities, defined by the first official language
spoken, constitute 73.0 and 23.6 percent of the
population respectively.

The 1977 Charter of the French Language established


French as the official language of Quebec. Although
more than 85 percent of French-speaking Canadians
live in Quebec, there are substantial Francophone
Approximately 98% of Canadians can speak English and/or
populations in Ontario, Alberta, and southern
French.English 56.9%English and French (Bilingual) 16.1%
Manitoba; Ontario has the largest French-speaking
French 21.3%Sparsely populated area ( < 0.4 persons per km2)
population outside Quebec. New Brunswick, the only
officially bilingual province, has a French-speaking
Acadian minority constituting 33 percent of the population. There are also clusters of Acadians in southwestern
Nova Scotia, on Cape Breton Island, and through central and western Prince Edward Island.
Other provinces have no official languages as such, but French is used as a language of instruction, in courts, and for
other government services, in addition to English. Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec allow for both English and French
to be spoken in the provincial legislatures, and laws are enacted in both languages. In Ontario, French has some legal
status, but is not fully co-official. There are 11 Aboriginal language groups, composed of more than 65 distinct
dialects. Of these, only the Cree, Inuktitut and Ojibway languages have a large enough population of fluent speakers
to be considered viable to survive in the long term. Several aboriginal languages have official status in the Northwest
Territories. Inuktitut is the majority language in Nunavut, and is one of three official languages in the territory.
In 2011, nearly 6.8 million Canadians listed a non-official language as their mother tongue. Some of the most
common non-official first languages include Chinese (mainly Cantonese; 1,072,555 first-language speakers), Punjabi
(430,705), Spanish (410,670), German (409,200), and Italian (407,490).

Culture
Main article: Culture of Canada
Canada's culture draws influences from its broad range of constituent
nationalities, and policies that promote multiculturalism are
constitutionally protected. In Quebec, cultural identity is strong, and
many French-speaking commentators speak of a culture of Quebec that
is distinct from English Canadian culture. However, as a whole,
Canada is in theory a cultural mosaic a collection of several regional,
aboriginal, and ethnic subcultures. Government policies such as
publicly funded health care, higher taxation to redistribute wealth, the
outlawing of capital punishment, strong efforts to eliminate poverty,
strict gun control, and the legalization of same-sex marriage are further
social indicators of Canada's political and cultural values.

Bill Reid's 1980 sculpture Raven and The First


Men. The Raven is a figure common to many of
Canada's Aboriginal mythologies.

Canada

19

Historically, Canada has been influenced by British, French, and aboriginal cultures and traditions. Through their
language, art and music, aboriginal peoples continue to influence the Canadian identity. Many Canadians value
multiculturalism and see Canada as being inherently multicultural. American media and entertainment are popular, if
not dominant, in English Canada; conversely, many Canadian cultural products and entertainers are successful in the
United States and worldwide. The preservation of a distinctly Canadian culture is supported by federal government
programs, laws, and institutions such as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), the National Film Board of
Canada (NFB), and the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC).

The Jack Pine by Tom Thomson. Oil on canvas,


1916, in the collection of the National Gallery of
Canada.

Canadian visual art has been dominated by figures such as Tom


Thomson the country's most famous painter and by the Group of
Seven. Thomson's career painting Canadian landscapes spanned a
decade up to his death in 1917 at age 39. The Group were painters with
a nationalistic and idealistic focus, who first exhibited their distinctive
works in May 1920. Though referred to as having seven members, five
artists Lawren Harris, A. Y. Jackson, Arthur Lismer, J. E. H.
MacDonald, and Frederick Varley were responsible for articulating
the Group's ideas. They were joined briefly by Frank Johnston, and by
commercial artist Franklin Carmichael. A. J. Casson became part of the
Group in 1926. Associated with the Group was another prominent
Canadian artist, Emily Carr, known for her landscapes and portrayals
of the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast. Since the
1950s, works of Inuit art have been given as gifts to foreign dignitaries

by the Canadian government.


The Canadian music industry has produced internationally renowned composers, musicians and ensembles. Music
broadcasting in the country is regulated by the CRTC. The Canadian Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences
presents Canada's music industry awards, the Juno Awards, which were first awarded in 1970. Patriotic music in
Canada dates back over 200 years as a distinct category from British patriotism, preceding the first legal steps to
independence by over 50 years. The earliest, The Bold Canadian, was written in 1812. The national anthem of
Canada, "O Canada", was originally commissioned by the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, the Honourable
Thodore Robitaille, for the 1880 St. Jean-Baptiste Day ceremony, and was officially adopted in 1980. Calixa
Lavalle wrote the music, which was a setting of a patriotic poem composed by the poet and judge Sir
Adolphe-Basile Routhier. The text was originally only in French, before it was translated to English in 1906.
The roots of organized sports in Canada date back to the 1770s.[9]
Canada's official national sports are ice hockey and lacrosse. Seven of
Canada's eight largest metropolitan areas Toronto, Montreal,
Vancouver, Ottawa, Calgary, Edmonton and Winnipeg have
franchises in the National Hockey League (NHL). Other popular
spectator sports in Canada include curling and Canadian football; the
latter is played professionally in the Canadian Football League (CFL).
Golf, tennis, baseball, skiing, cricket, volleyball, rugby union, soccer
Canada's ice hockey victory at the 2010 Winter
and basketball are widely played at youth and amateur levels, but
Olympics in Vancouver
professional leagues and franchises are not widespread. Canada does
have one professional baseball team, the Toronto Blue Jays, and one
professional basketball team, the Toronto Raptors. Canada has participated in almost every Olympic Games since its
Olympic debut in 1900, and has hosted several high-profile international sporting events, including the 1976
Summer Olympics in Montreal, the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary, the 1994 Basketball World Championship,
the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup, and the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver and Whistler, British Columbia.

Canada
Canada's national symbols are influenced by natural, historical, and Aboriginal sources. The use of the maple leaf as
a Canadian symbol dates to the early 18th century. The maple leaf is depicted on Canada's current and previous
flags, on the penny, and on the Arms of Canada. Other prominent symbols include the beaver, Canada Goose,
Common Loon, the Crown, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and more recently, the totem pole and Inuksuk.

References
[1] http:/ / tools. wmflabs. org/ geohack/ geohack. php?pagename=Canada& params=45_24_N_75_40_W_type:country
[2] Kudeba, N. (2014, February 28). Chapter 1 The First Big Steppe Aboriginal Canadian History. Retrieved from The History of Canada:
http:/ / www. thehistoryofcanadapodcast. com/ chapter-1-first-big-steppe/
[3] This is an 1885 photograph of the now-destroyed 1884 painting.
[4] I.e., lakes over in area.
[5] Mineral Trade | Natural Resources Canada (http:/ / www. nrcan. gc. ca/ minerals-metals/ publications-reports/ 3264)
[6] Ancestry in Canada (http:/ / www12. statcan. gc. ca/ nhs-enm/ 2011/ dp-pd/ prof/ details/ page. cfm?Lang=E& Geo1=PR& Code1=01&
Data=Count& SearchText=Canada& SearchType=Begins& SearchPR=01& A1=All& B1=All& Custom=& TABID=1)
[7] Canada OECD Better Life Index. Oecdbetterlifeindex.org. Retrieved on January 1, 2013.
[8] http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ w/ index. php?title=Template:Largest_Metropolitan_Areas_of_Canada& action=edit
[9] Henry Roxborough, "The Beginning of Organized Sport in Canada," Canada (1975) 2#3 pp 3043

20

Canada

21

Further reading
Main article: Bibliography of Canada
History

Economy

Francis, RD; Jones, Richard; Smith, Donald B


(2009). Journeys: A History of Canada (http:/ /
books. google. com/
books?id=GbbZRIOKclsC& pg=PP1). Nelson
Education. ISBN978-0-17-644244-6.
Taylor, Martin Brook; Owram, Doug (1994).
Canadian History. 1 (http:/ / books. google.
com/ books?id=FamJrJEvymIC& pg=PP1) & 2
(http:/ / books. google. com/
books?id=HKmAjZJCJFoC& pg=PP1).
University of Toronto Press. ISBN
978-0-8020-5016-8, ISBN 978-0-8020-2801-3

2012 Economic Survey (http:/ / www. keepeek. com/ Digital-Asset-Management/ oecd/


economics/ oecd-economic-surveys-canada-2012_eco_surveys-can-2012-en#page1)
(PDF). OECD Economic Surveys. 2013. ( List of Economic Surveys (http:/ / www. oecd.
org/ eco/ surveys/ listofeconomicsurveysofcanada. htm))
Council of Canadian Academies (2012). The State of Science and Technology in Canada,
2012 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=p_LBUhAQHTEC& pg=PP1). Council of
Canadian Academies. ISBN978-1-926558-47-9.

Demography and statistics

Geography and climate

Statistics Canada (2008). Canada Year Book (CYB) annual 18671967 (http:/ / www5.
statcan. gc. ca/ bsolc/ olc-cel/ olc-cel?catno=11-402-X& chropg=1& lang=eng). Federal
Publications (Queen of Canada).
Statistics Canada (December 2012). Canada Year Book (http:/ / www. statcan. gc. ca/
pub/ 11-402-x/ 11-402-x2012000-eng. htm). Federal Publications (Queen of Canada).
ISSN 0068-8142 (http:/ / www. worldcat. org/ issn/ 0068-8142). Catalogue no
11-402-XWE (.

Stanford, Quentin H, ed. (2008). Canadian


Oxford World Atlas (6th ed.). Oxford University
Press (Canada). ISBN978-0-19-542928-2.
Culture
Government and law
Andrew Cohen (2007). The Unfinished Canadian: The People We Are (http:/ / books.

Malcolmson, Patrick; Myers, Richard (2009).


The Canadian Regime: An Introduction to
Parliamentary Government in Canada (http:/ /
books. google. com/
books?id=-jpXFH_ZhY8C& pg=PP1) (4th ed.).
University of Toronto Press.
ISBN978-1-4426-0047-8.
Morton, Frederick Lee (2002). Law, politics,
and the judicial process in Canada (http:/ /
books. google. com/
books?id=dj_4_H35nmYC& pg=PP1).
Frederick Lee. ISBN978-1-55238-046-8.

google. com/ books?id=mlqG66wAEfoC& pg=PP1). McClelland & Stewart.


ISBN978-0-7710-2181-7.
Magocsi, Paul R (1999). Encyclopedia of Canada's peoples (http:/ / books. google. com/
books?id=dbUuX0mnvQMC). Society of Ontario, University of Toronto Press.
ISBN978-0-8020-2938-6.

Military

Granatstein, JL (2011). Canada's Army: Waging


War and Keeping the Peace (http:/ / books.
google. com/ books?id=z7E-j1UWuOMC&
pg=PP1) (2nd ed.). University of Toronto Press.
ISBN978-1-4426-1178-8.

External links
Overviews

Canada (http://ucblibraries.colorado.edu/govpubs/for/canada.htm) from UCB Libraries GovPubs


Canada (http://www.dmoz.org/Regional/North_America/Canada) at DMOZ
Canada (http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-16841111) from BBC News
Canada (https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ca.html) from CIA World
Factbook
Canada profile (http://www.oecd.org/canada/) from the OECD
Canadiana: The National Bibliography of Canada (http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/canadiana/index-e.
html)

Canada
Key Development Forecasts for Canada (http://www.ifs.du.edu/ifs/frm_CountryProfile.aspx?Country=CA)
from International Futures
Government
Official website of the Government of Canada (http://www.gc.ca/)
Official website of the Governor General of Canada (http://www.gg.ca/)
Travel
Canada's Official Tourism Website (http://us.canada.travel/)
Studies
A Guide to the Sources (http://www.iccs-ciec.ca/blackwell.html) from International Council for Canadian
Studies

22

Article Sources and Contributors

Article Sources and Contributors


Canada Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=609763462 Contributors: $nn00I-I, $yD!, *hollywood*, -- April, ---adam---, -Edwin-, ...adam..., 01011000 (usurped), 0zymandias,
10qwerty, 11.105, 198.103.96.xxx, 1qazxs, 200.191.188.xxx, 23skidoo, 24.70.30.xxx, 2601andrew, 2812, 2Xtreme21, 3193th, 334a, 411junkie, 420eryday, 4mehwuzn, 790, 7heesub, 8ung3st,
9.253, A State Of Trance, A bit iffy, A the 0th, A. Lafontaine, AA, ABCD, ABarnes94, ACD605, AJP, AJR, AKMask, ARUenergy, ASDFGH, ASOTMKX, Aardvark114, Aaron R, Aaron
Schulz, Aaron w, Aaron1541, Aaronlantz, Abarag, Abdi 909, Abhijitsathe, Abonazzi, AbrahamLincoln, Abraxees, Academic Challenger, Acalamari, Ace ventura, Acerperi, Acetylcholinesterase,
Achmad Fahri, Achmelvic, Acjelen, Adam Bishop, Adam sk, Adam.J.W.C., Adam1213, Adambro, Adamizer0, Adashiel, Addicted04, Adelina and Hannah, Adjusting, Adnan bogi, Adrian
Robson, AdventureGho, Aecis, Aenar, Aesopos, Aftabbanoori, AgarwalSumeet, Ahoerstemeier, Ahuskay, Aim Here, Aiman abmajid, Aiman abmajid@yahoo.com, Aitias, Aivazovsky,
AjaxSmack, Ajshm, Ajtigger, Akamad, Akanemoto, Akifumii, Aksi great, Alan J. Villarruel, Alan.ca, Alanharris3, AlbertR, Albertgenii12, AlbionSection, Ale jrb, AlefZet, Alensha, Alex756,
AlexRampaul, AlexS4444, Alexander Domanda, Alexandre.dussault, Alexandrelaplante, Alexcaban, Alexius08, AlexiusHoratius, Alexpappas01, Alexwcovington, Ali K, Alias Flood,
Allbrowniesarespecial, Alm93, AlonCoret, Alpdpedia, AlphaTwo, Alphaboi867, Alphachimp, Alphox, Alsadius, Amakuru, Amalthea, Amaury, Amberrock, Amcfreely, Amgine, Amiami3,
Aminovich, Analfuckbaggages, Anand Karia, Anativecantonesespeaker, Andareed, Andem, Andonic, Andre Engels, Andrew Gray, Andrew Norman, Andrew Steller, Andrew Yong, Andrew
cardz, AndrewN, Andrewjuren, Andrewman327, Andrewp1986, Andrewpmk, Andrewstark, Andris, Android79, Andrwsc, Andy Marchbanks, Andypandy.UK, Angel2001, Angela, Angelique,
Anger22, Angr, AngryParsley, Angryrectangle, Anomie, Anon1127, Anonymous 57, Anonymous anonymous, Anonymous editor, Anonymousrex, Ans1ning, Antandrus, AntarcticPenguin,
Anthony Appleyard, Anthony717, Anthonyd3ca, Antoshka3032, Aolanonawanabe, Ap, Aranel, Arbor to SJ, Arch26, Archer23, Archer7, Arctic.gnome, Arcuras, Argenti1997, Arichnad,
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File:Flag of Canada.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Canada.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anomie
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